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Sample records for extract activates apical

  1. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  2. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: a dye extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  3. Bone resorptive activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions of endodontic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Muñoz, M; Garrido-Flores, M; Baeza, M; Huamán-Chipana, P; García-Sesnich, J; Bologna, R; Vernal, R; Hernández, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of bone resorption biomarkers, including TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions and controls. Apical tissues from symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis patients and periodontal ligaments from healthy teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were processed for tissue homogenization and the levels of TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG were determined by multiplex assay. Marker levels were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test, and diagnostic accuracy was analyzed with ROC curves. Higher levels of RANKL, OPG, and RANKL/OPG ratio were determined in both types of apical lesions compared to healthy periodontal ligament, whereas higher TRAP-5 levels were found only in symptomatic apical lesions (p apical lesions versus healthy controls (AUC = 0.69, p asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AUC = 0.71, p Apical lesions showed higher RANKL and OPG levels than healthy tissues. TRAP-5 levels were the highest in symptomatic apical lesions, suggesting that these represent a progressive state, and showed diagnostic potential. Clinically symptomatic apical periodontitis might represent biologically progressive apical lesions based on TRAP5 levels. TRAP5 has diagnostic potential to identify these lesions, representing a candidate prognostic biomarker.

  4. Bone resorptive activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions of endodontic origin

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Muñoz, M.; Garrido-Flores, M.; Baeza, M.; Huamán-Chipana, P.; García-Sesnich, J.; Bologna, R.; Vernal, R.; Hernández, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of bone resorption biomarkers, including TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions and controls. Materials and methods Apical tissues from symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis patients and periodontal ligaments from healthy teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were processed for tissue homogenization and the levels of TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG were determined by m...

  5. Auditory brainstem activity and development evoked by apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K A; Papsin, B C; Harrison, R V

    2007-08-01

    The role of apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation on central auditory development was examined. We hypothesized that, in children with early onset deafness, auditory development evoked by basal electrode stimulation would differ from that evoked more apically. Responses of the auditory nerve and brainstem, evoked by an apical and a basal implant electrode, were measured over the first year of cochlear implant use in 50 children with early onset severe to profound deafness who used hearing aids prior to implantation. Responses at initial stimulation were of larger amplitude and shorter latency when evoked by the apical electrode. No significant effects of residual hearing or age were found on initial response amplitudes or latencies. With implant use, responses evoked by both electrodes showed decreases in wave and interwave latencies reflecting decreased neural conduction time through the brainstem. Apical versus basal differences persisted with implant experience with one exception; eIII-eV interlatency differences decreased with implant use. Acute stimulation shows prolongation of basally versus apically evoked auditory nerve and brainstem responses in children with severe to profound deafness. Interwave latencies reflecting neural conduction along the caudal and rostral portions of the brainstem decreased over the first year of implant use. Differences in neural conduction times evoked by apical versus basal electrode stimulation persisted in the caudal but not rostral brainstem. Activity-dependent changes of the auditory brainstem occur in response to both apical and basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation.

  6. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  7. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7 HIGH -polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium

  8. External apical root resorption in non-extraction cases after clear aligner therapy or fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The application of removable aligner in orthodontic treatment has increased rapidly in recent years, while its effects on root resorption remains unclear. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR in non-extraction patients receiving clear aligner therapy (CAT or fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT. Materials and methods: Eighty non-extraction patients treated with CAT or FOT exclusively were evaluated retrospectively. Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the length of crowns and roots of the incisors before and after treatment. The amount of EARR was determined by the relative change of root-crown ratio and compared between the two groups. The potential predictive factors of EARR were investigated using spearman correlation analysis. Results: The overall EARR in the CAT patients was significantly less than the FOT. Similar results were observed in maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. The duration of treatment positively correlated with the amount of EARR in both modalities. Gender, age, skeletal pattern or degree of malocclusion did not affect the occurrence of EARR. Conclusion: Clear aligner therapy may have a superiority of reducing external apical root resorption compared to fixed orthodontic treatment in non-extraction patients. Keywords: Clear aligner, Fixed orthodontics, Root resorption

  9. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  10. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  11. Prevalence and activity of Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Szalmás, Anita; Mogyorósi, Richárd; Czompa, Levente; Veress, György; Csoma, Eszter; Márton, Ildikó; Kónya, József

    2010-09-01

    Apical periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammation with a dominant flora of opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria; however, a pathogenic role of human herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been implicated recently. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, activity, and disease association of EBV and HCMV in apical periodontitis in an Eastern Hungarian population. Forty samples with apical periodontitis (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp controls were collected. EBV and HCMV prevalences were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the viral DNA and viral activity was tested by reverse-transcription PCR amplification of viral messenger RNA. EBV DNA and EBNA-2 messenger RNA were found in apical periodontitis lesions at significantly (p apical lesions (10%) and controls (0%). The presence of EBV DNA in apical lesions was associated significantly with large (> or = 5 mm) lesion size (p = 0.02) but not with symptoms (p = 0.30). Symptomatic manifestation was significantly associated with the co-occurrence (odds ratio [OR], 8.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-45.76) but not the sole occurrences of EBNA-2 messenger RNA (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.48-11.06) and large lesion size (OR, 4.02; 95% CI, 0.81-19.89). EBV infection is a frequent event in apical periodontitis, whereas the involvement of HCMV still remains to be elucidated. This study showed that symptomatic manifestation was likely to occur if a large-sized apical periodontitis lesion is aggravated with active EBV infection. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem

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    Waldemar Lechowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of 5-FU on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem were investigated during 24-hour incubation in 5-FU and postincubation in water. The incubation in 5-FU caused a reversible inhibition of mitotic activity, and waves of the partially synchronised mitoses were observed during the period of postincubation. The most pronounced synchronisation of mitoses was obtained after incubation in 100 mg/l. 5-FU but the mitotic index of the resumed mitotic activity amounted to only one half of the control value. 5-FU was found to cause some cytological changes in meristematic cells such as enlargement of the nucleoli, change in the interphasic nuclei structure, appearance of subchromatid and chromatid aberrations and micronuclei. The effects of 5-FU on nucleic acids and the cell division cycle ace discussed and compared with the effects of 5-FUdR.

  13. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  14. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tandan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  15. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract AIM: We hypothesized that the serine protease prostasin is necessary for differentiation of a high resistance renal collecting duct epithelium governed by glucocorticoid. METHODS: Postnatal rat kidney and adult human kidney was used to study expression and localization of prostasin......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  17. Cellular Profile and Expression of Immunologic Markers in Chronic Apical Periodontitis from HIV-infected Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Túlio Gustavo Veiga; Pires, Fabio Ramoa; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the inflammatory cell profile (CD3-, CD4-, CD8-, CD20-, and CD68-positive cells) and the expression of immunologic markers (tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-18) in chronic apical periodontitis are the same between non-HIV-infected patients and HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-four surgically excised chronic apical periodontitis lesions were sampled from 34 patients (17 HIV-infected and 17 non-HIV-infected). The lesions were extracted from teeth with no previous endodontic treatment. All HIV-infected patients were undergoing HAART. The specimens were submitted to histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses by using an optical microscope. Immunoexpression was graded into 2 levels, focal to weak and moderate to strong. The χ(2), Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze all significant differences between groups. Periapical cysts represented 70.6% and 52.9% of the lesions in the HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups, respectively; however, no statistically significant difference was observed (P = .481). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the inflammatory cell profile and for any of the immunologic markers (P > .05). There are no statistically significant differences of the cellular profile and expression of immunologic markers in chronic apical periodontitis between non-HIV-infected patients and HIV-infected patients undergoing HAART. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E.; Melendrez A, R.

    2007-01-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of 60 Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene production

  19. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  20. Cdk1 Activates Pre-Mitotic Nuclear Envelope Dynein Recruitment and Apical Nuclear Migration in Neural Stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffet, Alexandre D.; Hu, Daniel J.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope is required for pre-mitotic nucleus-centrosome interactions in nonneuronal cells, and for apical nuclear migration in neural stem cells. In each case, dynein is recruited to the nuclear envelope (NE) specifically during G2, via two nuclear pore-mediated mechanisms involving RanBP2-BicD2 and Nup133-CENP-F. The mechanisms responsible for cell cycle control of this behavior are unknown. We now find that Cdk1 serves as a direct master controller for NE dynein recruitment in neural stem cells and HeLa cells. Cdk1 phosphorylates conserved sites within RanBP2 and activates BicD2 binding and early dynein recruitment. Late recruitment is triggered by a Cdk1-induced export of CENP-F from the nucleus. Forced NE targeting of BicD2 overrides Cdk1 inhibition, fully rescuing dynein recruitment and nuclear migration in neural stem cells. These results reveal how NE dynein recruitment is cell cycle regulated, and identify the trigger mechanism for apical nuclear migration in the brain. PMID:26051540

  1. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  2. Gross, computed tomographic and histological findings in mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis due to apical infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M B; Pearson, G R; Perkins, J D; Tremaine, W H

    2015-09-01

    The most prevalent type of equine dental pulpitis due to apical infection is not associated with coronal fractures or periodontal disease. The pathogenesis of this type of pulpitis is not fully understood. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to investigate equine dental disorders. However, gross, tomographic and histopathological changes in equine dental pulpitis have not been compared previously. To compare gross, CT and histological appearances of sectioned mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis without coronal fractures or periodontal disease. To contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of equine dental pulpitis. Descriptive study using diseased and healthy teeth. Mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis (cases), and from cadavers with no history of dental disease (controls), were compared using CT in the transverse plane at 1 mm intervals. Teeth were then sectioned transversely, photographed and processed for histopathological examination. Tomographs were compared with corresponding gross and histological sections. Cement, dentine and bone had similar ranges of attenuation (550-2000 Hounsfield Units, HU) in tomographs but could be differentiated from pulp (-400 to 500 HU) and enamel (> 2500 HU). Twelve discrete dental lesions were identified grossly, 10 of which were characterised histologically. Reactive and reparative dentinogenesis and extensive pulpar mineralisation, previously undescribed, were identified. Pulpar oedema, neutrophilic inflammation, cement and enamel defects, and reactive cemental deposition were also observed. The CT and pathological findings corresponded well where there was mineralised tissue deposited, defects in mineralised tissue, or food material in the pulpar area. Pulpar and dentinal necrosis and cement destruction, evident grossly and histologically, did not correspond to CT changes. Computed tomography is useful for identifying deposition and

  3. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    sensitivity tests of crude extract fractions of the plant extracts using ethanol, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether, water and ethyl acetate were investigated on nine bacterial isolates. .... These were obtained by punching the filter paper with.

  4. TRPP2 and TRPV4 form an EGF-activated calcium permeable channel at the apical membrane of renal collecting duct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ren Zhang

    Full Text Available Regulation of apical calcium entry is important for the function of principal cells of the collecting duct. However, the molecular identity and the regulators of the transporter/channel, which is responsible for apical calcium entry and what factors regulate the calcium conduction remain unclear.We report that endogenous TRPP2 and TRPV4 assemble to form a 23-pS divalent cation-permeable non-selective ion channel at the apical membrane of renal principal cells of the collecting duct. TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel complex was identified by patch-clamp, immunofluorescence and co-immunprecipitation studies in both principal cells that either possess normal cilia (cilia (+ or in which cilia are absent (cilia (-. This channel has distinct biophysical and pharmacological and regulatory profiles compared to either TRPP2 or TRPV4 channels. The rate of occurrence detected by patch clamp was higher in cilia (- compared to cilia (+ cells. In addition, shRNA knockdown of TRPP2 increased the prevalence of TRPV4 channel activity while knockdown of TRPV4 resulted in TRPP2 activity and knockdown of both proteins vastly decreased the 23-pS channel activity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulated TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel through the EGF receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling. With loss of cilia, apical EGF treatment resulted in 64-fold increase in channel activity in cilia (- but not cilia (+ cells. In addition EGF increased cell proliferation in cilia (- cell that was dependent upon TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel mediated increase in intracellular calcium.We conclude that in the absence of cilia, an EGF activated TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel may play an important role in increased cell proliferation and cystogenesis.

  5. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  7. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, Andrea; Madrid, Sonia; Mundi, Verónica; Valenzuela, María A; Garrido, Mauricio; Paredes, Rodolfo; García-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Ortega, Ana V; Gamonal, Jorge; Hernández, Marcela

    2012-03-21

    Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP)-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic of apical status in GCF.

  8. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Gentiana lutea L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikin, Katarina; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stević, Tatjana; Radanović, Dragoja; Janković, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., together with the isolated compounds mangiferin, isogentisin and gentiopicrin, were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant. A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the yeast Candida albicans has been included in this study. Both extracts and isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.12-0.31 mg/ml. Our study indicated that the synergistic activity of the pure compounds may be responsible for the good antimicrobial effect of the extracts. Quantification of the secondary metabolites was performed using HPLC.

  10. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  11. Immunostimulant activity of standardised extracts of Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulating activity of Mangifera indica. (MI) and Curcuma domestica (CD) extracts in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely, vehicle, untreated, MI and CD groups (n = 6). They were treated with MI (160 mg/kg) or CD (200 mg/kg) extracts, and vehicle for control ...

  12. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  13. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds.

  14. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O

    2004-01-01

    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  15. Exogenous retinoic acid induces digit reduction in opossums (Monodelphis domestica) by disrupting cell death and proliferation, and apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Anna C; Maier, Jennifer A; Schecker, Teresa; Sears, Karen E

    2015-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A derivative. Exposure to exogenous RA generates congenital limb malformations (CLMs) in species from frogs to humans. These CLMs include but are not limited to oligodactyly and long-bone hypoplasia. The processes by which exogenous RA induces CLMs in mammals have been best studied in mouse, but as of yet remain unresolved. We investigated the impact of exogenous RA on the cellular and molecular development of the limbs of a nonrodent model mammal, the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Opossums exposed to exogenous retinoic acid display CLMs including oligodactly, and results are consistent with opossum development being more susceptible to RA-induced disruptions than mouse development. Exposure of developing opossums to exogenous RA leads to an increase in cell death in the limb mesenchyme that is most pronounced in the zone of polarizing activity, and a reduction in cell proliferation throughout the limb mesenchyme. Exogenous RA also disrupts the expression of Shh in the zone of polarizing activity, and Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge, and other genes with roles in the regulation of limb development and cell death. Results are consistent with RA inducing CLMs in opossum limbs by disrupting the functions of the apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity, and driving an increase in cell death and reduction of cell proliferation in the mesenchyme of the developing limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa is used as remedy for diarrhoea in tropical Africa, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark for antidirrhoeal activity, using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice. The effects ...

  18. Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

    2007-06-27

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals.

  19. Antiradical Activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Smejkal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decoratative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substantaces. We identified and quantified acteoside (1 and isoacteoside (2 in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3 and diplacone (4 in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals.

  20. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  1. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  2. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  5. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 l of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 l of 100 ng/ml phorbol ...

  6. Antiproliferative Activities of Bouea Macrophylla Seed Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapoc, D.J.; Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla or commonly known as kundang fruit in Malaysia is a tropical fruit tree native to Southeast Asia. This plant belongs to the family Anacardiaceae which are cultivated for their edible fruits, seeds and medicinal compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti proliferation activities of aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts from the seed of B. macrophylla. The extracts were screened on human squamous cell carcinoma (HTB-43), breast cancer (MCF7) and (MDA-MB-231) cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most effective concentration were screened for apoptosis induction in cells using Hoechst stain. Our present study has shown that aqueous, methanolic, chloroform dan hexane extracts exhibited promising inhibition activity against HTB43 cell lines with the IC50 values were 29.32±5.80, 18.65±2.94, 21.14±6.97 and 34.36±16.50 μg/ mL, respectively. Meanwhile, only hexane extract showed inhibition against MCF7 (59.07±5.76) and MDA-MB-231(123.35±28.65). Besides that, the results also indicate that promising anticancer activity and causes loss in cancer cell viability by activating the apoptotic process. These findings suggest that B. macrophylla may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  8. Anticancer Activity of Extracts from some Endemic Tanzanian Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 52 extracts from 26 plants of different families tested, 5 demonstrated potential activity on the cells. Extract X13 had an exceptionally high activity on both cell lines while extract X29 was highly active on HeLa cells. Fractionation and isolation of constituents from the extracts that have shown anticancer activity in these ...

  9. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  10. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  11. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of an alcoholic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Senna alata leaves were screened for phytochemicals, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Out of the three crude extracts, the methanolic extract showed the highest activity than the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. The unidentified active components purified ...

  12. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  13. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; Roy, Nicole C

    2018-02-01

    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a "tonic" level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium. This enhanced TLR induction by live F. prausnitzii, which until now has not previously been described, may contribute to maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis. This highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant co-culture systems to decipher the mechanisms of action of live obligate anaerobes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Badanie wpływu naturalnych ekstraktów roślinnych na izolowane wierzchołki wzrostów pedów w hodowli in vitro [Investigation of the influence of natural plant extracts on isolated generative apices cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kuta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper Was to test the value of various plant extracts (yeast barm, mature walnut embryos, coconut meal, young spinach leaves and tomato juice used as the complementary elements of White's mineral nutrient for the culture in vitro of generative apices of winter wheat, rape and wetch. The results showed that the generative apices of investigated planits had various nutritive requirements which point to the necessity of a careful selection of a specific nutrient for particular plant material.

  15. Calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by regulating the association of MARCKS and the cytoskeleton with the apical membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Abdel A; Bao, Hui-Fang; Liu, Bing-Chen; Yu, Ling; Aldrugh, Summer; Montgomery, Darrice S; Ma, He-Ping; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) open probability. In turn, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein or MARCKS-like protein 1 (MLP-1) at the plasma membrane regulates the delivery of PIP2 to ENaC. MARCKS and MLP-1 are regulated by changes in cytosolic calcium; increasing calcium promotes dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane, but the calcium-regulatory mechanisms are unclear. However, it is known that increased intracellular calcium can activate calmodulin and we show that inhibition of calmodulin with calmidazolium increases ENaC activity presumably by regulating MARCKS and MLP-1. Activated calmodulin can regulate MARCKS and MLP-1 in two ways. Calmodulin can bind to the effector domain of MARCKS or MLP-1, inactivating both proteins by causing their dissociation from the membrane. Mutations in MARCKS that prevent calmodulin association prevent dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane. Calmodulin also activates CaM kinase II (CaMKII). An inhibitor of CaMKII (KN93) increases ENaC activity, MARCKS association with ENaC, and promotes MARCKS movement to a membrane fraction. CaMKII phosphorylates filamin. Filamin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and promotes association of ENaC, MARCKS, and MLP-1. Disruption of the cytoskeleton with cytochalasin E reduces ENaC activity. CaMKII phosphorylation of filamin disrupts the cytoskeleton and the association of MARCKS, MLP-1, and ENaC, thereby reducing ENaC open probability. Taken together, these findings suggest calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by destabilizing the association between the actin cytoskeleton, ENaC, and MARCKS, or MLP-1 at the apical membrane. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  17. 17beta-estradiol promotes the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Yan, Ming; Wang, Zilu; Zheng, Yangyu; Li, Junjun; Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Yu, Jinhua

    2014-11-17

    Estrogen plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, while stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) can contribute to the formation of dentin/bone-like tissues. To date, the effects of estrogen on the differentiation of SCAP remain unclear. SCAP was isolated and treated with 10⁻⁷ M 17beta-estradiol (E2). The odonto/osteogenic potency and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were subsequently investigated by using methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and other methods. MTT and flow cytometry results demonstrated that E2 treatment had no effect on the proliferation of SCAP in vitro, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and alizarin red staining showed that E2 can significantly promote ALP activity and mineralization ability in SCAP. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay revealed that the odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, DMP1/DMP1, DSPP/DSP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX and OCN/OCN) were significantly upregulated in E2-treated SCAP. In addition, the expression of phosphor-p38 and phosphor-JNK in these stem cells was enhanced by E2 treatment, as was the expression of the nuclear downstream transcription factors including phosphor-Sp1, phosphor-Elk-1, phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-c-Fos, indicating the activation of MAPK signaling pathway during the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of E2-treated SCAP. Conversely, the differentiation of E2-treated SCAP was inhibited in the presence of MAPK specific inhibitors. The ondonto/osteogenic differentiation of SCAP is enhanced by 10⁻⁷ M 17beta-estradiol via the activation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium, pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea. These extracts evaluated include cold water extract (CWE), hot water extract (HWE) and ...

  20. Antioxidant activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Hüsniye; Pabuçcuoğlu, Aysun; Kivçak, Bijen

    2007-11-01

    The ethanol, n-hexane and water extracts of Vitex agnus-castus L. leaves and fruits were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS.+). The water and ethanol extracts showed stronger antioxidant activity than the n-hexane extracts. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Determination of antioxidant activity of milk - vegetable extracts byliquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Rudnichenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of milk-plant extract of natural sweetener yakon has been established. To extract yakon solid tubers for the first time as an extractant used ultrafiltrate of cheese whey - a product of the extraction separation of whey. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured amperometrically yakon on the liquid chromatograph "Colour-Yauza-01-AA."A technique for measuring the content of antioxidant. The equations for calculating antioxidant activityyakon. The total content of natural antioxidants can be recommended extract yakon to create new foods with high antioxidant activity.

  2. Antimicrobial activities and toxicity of crude extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P.

  3. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the Flemingia chappar (ERFC) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The ..... Higher extract doses (400 and.

  4. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    ., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other...

  5. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. ... abortifacient activity of the extract were investigated, including the Fertility Index or embryo score of control and treated animals.

  6. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... extract. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity was mainly a function of their chemical ... determine antibacterial properties of these plants extracts .... vancomycin (30 µg); PEN= penicillin G (10 unit); AMP = ampicillin (5.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  8. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  9. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  10. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  11. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  12. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA (MIQ) LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandaker Amol; Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Ficus arnottiana was used to evaluate the analgesic activity. The above activity was evaluated using the eddy’s hot plate and heat conduction method and acetic acid induced writing in mice. The dose used for the test of activity (100, 200. 400 mg/kg i.p). The extract at all doses tested significantly (P

  13. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  15. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and ...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited high total phenolic content (278.80 mg GAE/g extract) and had low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 μg/ml against Listeria monocytogenes. Salmonella typhimurium strain was found to be resistant against all tested extracts. The antilisterial activity of the ...

  17. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sect...

  18. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Berkheya bergiana leaves extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... in the traditional treatment of various diseases on an ... antibiotics and the high cost of conventional drugs have ..... using water-based agar. This support Freiburghans et al. (1996) that, different solvent system extracts of some.

  20. Immunostimulant activity of standardised extracts of Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely, vehicle, untreated, MI and CD groups (n. = 6). .... phenolics and flavonoids [5]. ... The HPLC analysis of MI and CD extracts basis ... quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were.

  1. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase and antioxidative activity of Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasijević, Branislav; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana; Pašti, Igor; Vujačić, Ana; Joksić, Gordana; Vasić, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Gentiana lutea extracts on the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the antioxidant activity of these extracts and their correlation with the total polyphenol content. Extracts were prepared using methanol (100%), water and ethanol aqueous solutions (96, 75, 50 and 25%v/v) as solvents for extraction. Also, isovitexin, amarogentin and gentiopicroside, pharmacologically active constituents of G. lutea were tested as potential inhibitors of MPO. Antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and also using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among all extracts, the antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanol aqueous extract was the highest, both when measured using the DPPH test, with IC(50)=20.6 μg/ml, and when using CV. Also, 50% ethanol extract, showed the best inhibition of MPO activity in comparison with other extracts. In the group of the selected G. lutea constituents, gentiopicroside has proved to be the strongest inhibitor of MPO, with IC(50)=0.8 μg/ml. Also, the concentration of G. lutea constituents were determined in all extracts, using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  3. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Jasminum mesnyi

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    Vibhuti Dullu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum mesnyi. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was carried out on adult Indian earthworm Eisenia fetida. In this study, 20 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL concentrations of plant extract were tested which involved the time of paralysis and time of death of worm. Albendazole (10 mg/mL was taken as reference standard drug whereas distilled water was used as control. Results: The extract exhibited significant anthelmintic acitivity which was more in higher concentration extract. Conclusions: It was concluded from the present study that the plant exhibited significant anthelmintic activity.

  4. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Sonchus oleraceus L. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jie; Kwon, Gu-Joong; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus L. by extraction solvent, which were examined by reducing power, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity(HRSA) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. 70% MeOH extract had the greatest reducing power while EtOH extract had the greatest HRSA. The antioxidant activity of S. oleraceus extracts was concentration dependent and its IC50 values ranged from 47.1 to 210.5 ?g/ml and IC50 of 70% MeOH, bo...

  5. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  6. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  7. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  8. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Mohamed Nor, Zurainee; Mansor, Marzida; Azhar, Fadzly; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2015-10-24

    The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. In

  9. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  10. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  11. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were extracted with methanol. Immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were ...

  14. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  15. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of four Algerian marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmi

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... and antifungal activities of the extracts of marine algae from southern coast of India. Botanica marina. 40: 507-515. Patra JK, Patra AP, Mahapatra NK, Thatoi HN, Das S, Sahu, RK, Swain. GC (2009). Antimicrobial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae from Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

  16. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... cholera, colic, consumption, convulsions, cough, delirium, fertility, headache, megalospleny, paralysis, phthisis, snake bite. The chloroform extract of B. laciniosa has exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (Gupta et al., 2003). Analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanol extract of B. laciniosa also ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms used in folklore medicine in order to authenticate some of its therapeutic claims. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of ...

  19. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  20. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  2. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and ... in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame ...

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum) . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and t...

  4. Biological activity and safety of Tripterygium extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Peng, Fan; Yi, Tao; Zhang, Cong; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-09-17

    The commercial preparation named “Tripterygium glycosides” prepared by column chromatography has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with significant efficacy but concurrent toxicity. The aim of this study was to reduce the toxicity of Tripterygium extracts, using cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the three principal active components of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF)as guiding parameters. Column chromatography was replaced by sodium carbonate extraction for removing the acidic compounds and enriching epoxyditerpenoids and alkaloids in the extract. Results showed that the therapeutic index (IC50/EC50) on murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and rat mesangial HBZY-1 cells of the extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction was significantly higher than that of Tripterygium glycosides(0.8 and 5.2 vs. 0.3 and 2.6, p sodium carbonate extraction may represent a potentially optimal source of medicine with good therapeutic index.

  5. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterised with high level of cholesterol in the blood. Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic albino rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Thirty ...

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and T. mentagrophytes at ...

  7. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Abstract ... Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in ..... in the pathogenesis of increased membrane rigidity, reduced ... lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use.

  8. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Sonchus oleraceus L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Kwon, Gu-Joong; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus L. by extraction solvent, which were examined by reducing power, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity(HRSA) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. 70% MeOH extract had the greatest reducing power while EtOH extract had the greatest HRSA. The antioxidant activity of S. oleraceus extracts was concentration dependent and its IC(50) values ranged from 47.1 to 210.5 microg/ml and IC(50) of 70% MeOH, boiling water and 70% EtOH extracts were 47.1, 52.7 and 56.5 microg/ml, respectively. 70% MeOH extract of S. oleraceus contained the greatest amount of both phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extracts tested had greater nitrite scavenging effects at lower pH conditions. The cytotoxic activity showed that EtOH extract had the best activity against the growth of stomach cancer cell. These results suggest that S. oleraceus extract could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  9. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphaphit Boonsong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractions were performed of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom samples—Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Auricularia auricular—using three different extractants. Among the three different extractants, 50% (volume per volume; v/v ethanol was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction from the mushroom samples. The 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes contained higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than in the other mushroom extract samples. The antioxidant activities of 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay (64.34% compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract showed a lower reducing power of 0.10 compared to BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, the L. edodes ethanolic extract also had the highest chelating ability (66.28% which was lower than for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at 500 μg/mL and showed the strongest superoxide radical-scavenging activity (64.17% compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Therefore, the 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of L. edodes could be used as a potential natural antioxidative source or as an ingredient in the fish and fishery product industries.

  10. Biological activity and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L. extracts obtained by different extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašković, Pavle Z; Veličković, Vesna; Đurović, Saša; Zeković, Zoran; Radojković, Marija; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Mitić, Milan; Vujić, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Lavatera thuringiaca L. is herbaceous perennial plant from Malvaceae family, which is known for its biological activity and richness in polyphenolic compounds. Despite this, the information regarding the biological activity and chemical profile is still insufficient. Aim of this study was to investigate biological potential and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L., as well as influence of applied extraction technique on them. Two conventional and four non-conventional extraction techniques were applied in order to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compound. Extracts were further tested for total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, gallotannins and anthocyanins contents using spectrophotometric assays. Polyphenolic profile was established using HPLC-DAD analysis. Biological activity was investigated regarding antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Four antioxidant assays were applied as well as three different cell lines for cytotoxic and fifteen bacterial strain for antibacterial activity. Results showed that subcritical water extraction (SCW) dominated over the other extraction techniques, where SCW extract exhibited the highest biological activity. Study indicates that plant Lavatera thuringiaca L. may be used as a potential source of biologically compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safithri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in dairy cows in Indonesia. A filtrate of fresh garlic was used to determine the antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% w/v, whereas, the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts was determined against S. agalactie, E. coli, and S. aureus at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% w/v. Results showed that antibacterial activity of 30% garlic filtrate was equivalent to 10% tetracycline. Meanwhile, antibacterial activity of garlic aqueous extract on mastitis bacteria was better than that of the garlic ethanol extract. Aqueous extract of garlic at 20% had the same antibacterial activity as 0.01% ampicillin on mastitis bacteria. Filtrates of fresh garlic can be used to inhibit growth of S. typhimurium and mastitis bacteria.

  13. Antiradical and cytotoxic activity of different Helichrysum plicatum flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigović, Dubravka; Savikin, Katarina; Janković, Teodora; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stanojković, Tatjana; Djurić, Zorica

    2011-06-01

    Flowers of Helichrysum plicatum were extracted under different experimental conditions, and their antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Extracts obtained with higher concentration of ethyl acetate (90% or 100%) were found to contain the greatest amount of total phenolics (> 250 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dried extract), and high correlation between total phenolic content and antiradical activity was observed (r = -0.79). Based on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity, some extracts were selected for investigation of cytotoxic activity toward PC3, HeLa and K562 human cancer cell lines in vitro. All tested extracts exhibited moderate activity against HeLa cells (41.9-42.1 microg/mL), whereas the extract obtained with 100% ethyl acetate was the most active against K562 and PC3 cell lines (25.9 and 39.2 microg/mL, respectively). Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity against PC3 and K562 cells. HPLC identification of phenolic compounds from the extracts indicated the presence of apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol as free aglycones, and glycosides of apigenin, naringenin, quercetin and kaempferol. Among aglycones, kaempferol displayed moderate cytostatic activity against all cell lines (24.8-64.7 microM).

  14. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  15. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx, metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method against seven strains of bacteria. Results: Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone at 10 mg/ disc. The IC 50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  16. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum). Methods Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenoic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion for seven strains of bacteria. Results Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone) against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone) at 10 mg/ disc. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  17. Academic Activities Transaction Extraction Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting information about academic activity transactions from unstructured documents is a key problem in the analysis of academic behaviors of researchers. The academic activities transaction includes five elements: person, activities, objects, attributes, and time phrases. The traditional method of information extraction is to extract shallow text features and then to recognize advanced features from text with supervision. Since the information processing of different levels is completed in steps, the error generated from various steps will be accumulated and affect the accuracy of final results. However, because Deep Belief Network (DBN model has the ability to automatically unsupervise learning of the advanced features from shallow text features, the model is employed to extract the academic activities transaction. In addition, we use character-based feature to describe the raw features of named entities of academic activity, so as to improve the accuracy of named entity recognition. In this paper, the accuracy of the academic activities extraction is compared by using character-based feature vector and word-based feature vector to express the text features, respectively, and with the traditional text information extraction based on Conditional Random Fields. The results show that DBN model is more effective for the extraction of academic activities transaction information.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    OpenAIRE

    II Ezeigbo; MI Ezeja; KG Madubuike; DC Ifenkwe; IA Ukweni; NE Udeh; SC Akomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods: Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in inte...

  19. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus...

  20. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have been reported to contain important preventative and curative compounds. Studies were conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera extracts using in vitro antimicrobial screening methods. The acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves at a concentration of 5 mg/ml showed antibacterial ...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Different concentrations of the extracts were subjected to these organisms in which Moringa oleifera showed a higher zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus ...

  4. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  5. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  6. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  7. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes and some other pathogenic strains. ... The major components of extracts tested were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The obtained results revealed in vitro anti-Listeria ...

  8. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia Bark Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) bark, including aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane extracts, were tested for their antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B, using both agar diffusion and broth dilution methods.

  9. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  10. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats and on small muscle intestinal transit. At orally administrated doses of 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg of body weight, the two plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) prolonged ...

  11. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum roots was evaluated in rats. Studies were carried out on castor oil induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil induced fluid accumulation. The extract (25 and 50 mg/kg) causes a dose dependent protection against castor oil induced diarrhea ...

  12. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 36 extracts from 18 vegetal species used as soap, insecticides, insect repellent and for the treatment of several diseases likely associated to microorganisms. The vegetal species were collected in Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz States, México. The extracts ...

  14. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Medicine and Health Sciences, Islamic Science University of Malaysia, 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ... Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Piper sarmentosum against ..... plant extracts affect Vero cell performance using the cytotoxicity ... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  15. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  16. Immediate Implant Placement in Sockets with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of granulation tissue in asymptomatic apical periodontitis compromised immediate implant placement. Patients requiring extraction of one tooth (maxillary and mandibular incisive, canine or premolar) with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, were recruited for this prospective study. They were randomly scheduled into two groups: in first group (A) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was debrided before implant placement, and in second group (B) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was left in the apical lesion. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Cone beam computed tomography was performed before tooth extraction and at 1-year follow-up to evaluate the radiolucency around the root apex and the implant, bucco-lingual bone levels were also checked. Sixty patients were included in this study. Sixty implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 1-year follow-up, a survival rate of 100% was reported. After one year both groups showed absence of radiolucent zone at the apical region of implants. All fresh sockets presented a buccal-palatal bone reduction in both groups after one year, even if not statistically significant differences were found between baseline bone levels and within groups. Within the limitations of the present study, the immediate placement of implants into the extraction sockets with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in presence of primary stability, did not lead to an increased rate of complications and rendered an equally favorable type of tissue integration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  18. Inhibitory activity of psidium guajava extracts on some confirmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrum β-lactamases producing escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and proteus vulgaris isolates. ... Both extracts were active against ESBLs producing Proteus isolates with similar zone of inhibition in response to equal concentration of the ...

  19. In vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant were tested for cytotoxicity against four cancer cells, viz, MCF-7 (oestrogen ... Results: The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, half maximal inhibitory .... Total flavonoid content was determined using the.

  20. The optimal extraction parameters and anti-diabetic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic activity of FIBL on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. The optimal extraction parameters of FIBL were obtained by single factor test and orthogonal test, as follows: ethanol concentration 60 %, ratio of solvent to raw material 30 ...

  1. Phytochemical and anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam, Azadirachta indica, Aspilia africana (Pers) C. D. Adams against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saphrophyticus were determined using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...

  2. Immunomodulatory Activity of Alcohol Extract of Terminalia chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-01-02

    Jan 2, 2011 ... Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the alcohol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) ..... indicates a higher secretion of melatonin. (Mol. Wt. 248 ... especially the immune, nervous, and.

  3. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal isolates of Lake Magadi. Keno David Kowanga, Joan John Eliona Munissi, Rose Masalu, Stephen Samwel Nyandoro, Pax Masimba, Erastus Gatebe ...

  4. Antifeedant activity of plant extracts to an insect Helopeltis theivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, M

    2010-09-01

    The different solvent extracts (viz Petroleum ether Ethyl acetate and Methanol) obtained from leaves and flowers of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva were screened for antifeedant activity against Helopeltis theivora. All the six different extracts showed antifeedant activity at four different concentrations. The methanolic extracts of leaves of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva exhibited significant activity at 4% concentration. The numbers of spots produced were only 18.67 and 22.67 respectively which are significantly less than the numberof spots produced in control (104.00 and 93.33 respectively). The treatment with methanolic extracts of flowers of both the plants significantly reduced the number of feeding spots to 22.33 and 23.67 respectively in comparison to the control values of 101.33. All the activities are dose dependent. The mean results with SEM (mean +/- SE) were statistically significant at 1% level (p<0.01) for three observations.

  5. Phytochemical and anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam, Azadirachta indica, Aspilia Africana (Pers) C. D. Adams against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saphrophyticus were determined using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...

  6. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    yielding nutritional supplements with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Keywords: Artichoke ... and a tall stem of up to 1.50 m. The leaves ..... of Cynara scolymus L. extract on cell physiology of ... food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci.

  7. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Chloroform extract of seeds exhibited varying level of antibacterial activity, with minimum ... et al., 1999; Scheck et al.,. 2006). The glycoside and saponins from Quillaja saponaria and Acacia auriculoformis were found to be.

  8. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of Asparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington: Comparison of in vivo and in vitro grown plant bioactivities. Arash Khorasani, Wirakarnain Sani, Koshy Philip, Rosna Mat Taha, Arash Rafat ...

  9. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... (6.25, 12.5 25, 50 and 100 mg/ ml) against S. aureus PHM 002 strain from the skin. ... Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract. ..... Glossary of Indian medicinal.

  10. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... antifungal properties, thus it can be used as a natural alternative approach to synthetic ..... composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven ... Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of African Yam Bean Seeds,.

  11. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of extracts and saponins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Purpose: To evaluate the leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of alcohol and non-alcohol extracts and .... each) in a percolator at room temperature and ..... nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

  12. Extraction of Active Enzymes from "Hard-to-Break-Cells"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Alessio; Tesauro, Cinzia; Fjelstrup, S

    We present the utilization of a rolling circle amplification (RCA) based assay to investigate the extraction efficiency of active enzymes from a class of “hard-to-break” cells, yeast Saccaramyces cerevisiae. Current analyses of microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria, parasites or particular...... life stages of microorganisms (e.g. spores from bacteria or fungi) is hampered by the lack of efficient lysis protocols that preserve the activity and integrity of the cellular content. Presented herein is a flexible scheme to screen lysis protocols for active enzyme extraction. We also report a gentle...... yet effective approach for extraction of active enzymes by entrapping cells in microdroplets. Combined effort of optimized extraction protocols and effective analytical approaches is expected to generate impact in future disease diagnosis and environmental safety....

  13. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2011-10-01

    To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).

  15. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  16. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeigbo, I I; Ezeja, M I; Madubuike, K G; Ifenkwe, D C; Ukweni, I A; Udeh, N E; Akomas, S C

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  17. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Eun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Total antioxidant response (TAR, Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC and total antioxidant response(TAR against potent free radical reactions. TAC and TAR of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5 mg/㎖ were 2.02 and 1.50 mM Trolox equivalents, respectively. Total phenolic content of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5mg/㎖ was 2.29 mM gallic acid equivalent. Concentration of Puerariae Radix extract at which DPPH radical scavenging activity was inhibited by 50% was 5.91 mg/㎖ as compared to 100% by pyrogallol solution as a reference. The inhibitory effect of the extract on lipid peroxidation was examined using rat liver mitochondria induced by FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 1 mg/㎖ slightly but significantly decreased TBARS concentration. The extract further prevented lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of Puerariae Radix extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was examined using cell-free system induced by hydrogen peroxide/FeSO4. Addition of 1 mg/㎖ of Puerariae Radix extract significantly reduced dichloroflurescein (DCF fluorescence. The extract caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the increase in DCF fluorescence, indicating that the extract significantly prevented ROS generation in vitro. Thus antioxidant effects of Puerariae Radix extract seem to be due to, at least in part, the prevention from free radicals-induced oxidation, followed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion : As a result, Puerariae Radix seems to have antioxitative effect and antioxidant compount.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel KAHRAMAN; Refiye YANARDAG

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae) is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and ...

  19. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and ... species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum ... inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities[10] .

  20. Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Sudheep, N; Biswas, Krishna P; Gowtham, K; Pujari, Sudarshan; Singh, Padam

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis usually results from bacterial accumulation and contamination occurring in the root-canal system, and extending beyond the apical foramen to involve the periapical tissues. Literature has a paucity of the studies that stress on the division and analysis of the pulp canal segments. The reason for this disparity might be the technique used for collecting the samples from the pulp canals. Hence, we carried out the present study to evaluate the microbial flora in the apical part of the roots with necrotic pulp canals. The present study included the assessment of 40 freshly extracted teeth that had necrotized pulpal tissue along with the presence of periapical periodontal lesions. Removal of the soft tissue lesions attached to the root portion of the teeth along with apical periodontal lesions was done with the help of scalpel blade, after rinsing them with a sterile solution of saline. Thorough cleaning of the root surfaces was done with hydrogen peroxide followed by rapid disinfection with the help of sodium hypochlorite at varying concentrations. Sectioning of the root portion of all the specimens with the help of a disk was done perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth at a distance of roughly 5 to 6 mm from the teeth's apicalmost point. Cryotubes were used for transferring the specimens of apical portions containing 1 mL of buffer and were subjected to immediate frozen processing at a temperature of -20°C. A 10 K-type file was used for the initial collection of the samples followed by subsequent incubation of the files and paper pints in the incubation cabinet. Subsequent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from the samples was done following the procedure described by Siqueira et al. Paster et al's modification of the reverse-capture checkerboard assay was used in the present study. Semiquantitative data were used for overcoming the difficulties arising due to obtaining the counts of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of

  1. antibacterial activities of the volatile oil and aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oil of Murraya keonigii was active against Staphylococcus epidemidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus specie while the aqueous extract was not active. Key Words: Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae, antibacterial activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 44-45 ...

  2. Improved Antitumoral Activity of Extracts Derived from Cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative activity was assayed in four cancer cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, SiHa, and KB) while cytotoxic activity was evaluated on a normal cell line (MDCK). Results: The 10-day cultivation organic extract exhibited increased antiproliferative activity compared with the control on human carcinoma nasopharynx (KB) and ...

  3. Antioxidant activity of insect gall extracts of Pistacia integerrima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakshmikantha, Ramachandra Yarappa; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Surendranath, Austin Richard; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima (P. integerrina) insect galls are widely used in ayurveda and siddha system of medicine as karkatasringi. The use of leaf galls as a rejuvenator may be attributed to antioxidant property, however there is less scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of P. integerrina, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications. The antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. The presences of phenolics, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the ethanolic extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 234 ±2.4 mg of GAE/g d.w. and 95.5 ±3.2 mg of QUE/g d.w., respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated with higher antioxidant activity. This study demonstrates the poetnet antioxidant activities of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts. Further, there was a strong association between the higher antioxidant activities with that of higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of P. integerrima. The results encourage the use of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications, due to their antioxidant properties. Future work will be interesting to learn the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present in the extract for development as a drug for therapeutic application.

  4. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  5. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  6. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE and the olive cake extracts (OCE. Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90±0.728 g/L versus 0.95±0.017 mg/g. The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS. With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH and emulsion (BCBT systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50=12.1±5.6 μg/mL; EC50=157.7±34.9 μg/mL, resp.. However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  8. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  9. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  10. Neutron activation analysis for the optimal sampling and extraction of extractable organohalogens in human hari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Many persistent organohalogen compounds such as DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls have caused seriously environmental pollution problem that now involves all life. It is know that neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very convenient method for halogen analysis and is also the only method currently available for simultaneously determining organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in one extract. Human hair is a convenient material to evaluate the burden of such compounds in human body and dan be easily collected from people over wide ranges of age, sex, residential areas, eating habits and working environments. To effectively extract organohalogen compounds from human hair, in present work the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of extractable organohalogen (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) from hair of different lengths were studied by NAA. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of EOX and EPOX from human hair was 8-11 h, and the highest EOX and EPOX contents were observed in hair powder extract. The concentrations of both EOX and EPOX in different hair sections were in the order of hair powder ≥ 2 mm > 5 mm, which stated that hair samples milled into hair powder or cut into very short sections were not only for homogeneous. hair sample but for the best hair extraction efficiency.

  11. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  12. Phytochemicals Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Annona muricata Aqueous Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosniza Razali; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Arapoc, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Annona Muricata belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and many other bio activities. Leaves, twig, fruit and seed of A. muricata were collected from Suhan Biotech and dried. Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared for the preliminary screening of phytochemicals and aqueous extracts of A. muricata were evaluated for total phenolic, scavenging assay (DPPH; 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and cytotoxic activities. Phytochemicals screening of leaves extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoid, reducing sugar, carbohydrate and anthocyanins. While for twig extracts it revealed the presence of coumarine. Antra quinones, terpenoid, flavonoid, reducing sugar, lipids and coumarine were found in fruit and seed extracts. The total phenolic content was found to be 2.372±0.922 μg GAE/ g, 85.85±6.23 μg GAE/ g, 53.56±8.39 μg GAE/ g and 54.67±13.33 μg GAE/ g for leaves, twig, fruit and seed respectively. On the other hand, all extract have showed IC_5_0 value more than 500 μg/ mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Cytotoxic evaluation of all extracts against HTB43, MCF-7 and MDAMB231 cell lines showed IC_5_0 value more than 250 μg/ mL. In conclusion, the results showed that aqueous extract of A.muricata was inappropriate as anticancer agen (author)

  13. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  14. Antiprotozoal activity of extracts of Elaeodendron trichotomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem ...

  15. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach. frey acetone extract

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    Zlatanović Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were determined. Acetone extract of U. crustulosa at concentration of 1 and 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN by 10.8 and 16.8 %, respectively, acting more or slightly less than the synthetic protector amifostine (AMF, WR-2721, 11.4 %, at concentration of 1 μg mL-1. The tested extract did not inhibit cholinesterase activity nor did it exhibit activity toward the examined bacteria. The extract reduced the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals by 88.7 and 96.2 %, respectively. Values for total reducing power (TRP and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC were 0.6197±0.0166 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE per mg of dry extract, and 19.7641±1.6546 μg trolox equivalents (TE per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 350.4188 ±14.587 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE per mg of dry extract. The results of the present study showed that U. crustulosa acetone extract is a promising candidate for in vivo experiments considering its antioxidant activity and protective effect on human lymphocytes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  16. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  18. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  20. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

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    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems

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    Adriana Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO—in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH and after hydrolysis (EAH was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA.

  2. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  3. Pomegranate extract exhibits in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Sydney M; Summanen, Paula H; Corbett, Karen; Downes, Julia; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-10-01

    To determine the possible utility of pomegranate extract in the management or prevention of Clostridium difficile infections or colonization. The activity of pomegranate was tested against 29 clinical C. difficile isolates using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved agar dilution technique. Total phenolics content of the pomegranate extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and final concentrations of 6.25 to 400 μg/mL gallic acid equivalent were achieved in the agar. All strains had MICs at 12.5 to 25 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent range. Our results suggest antimicrobial in vitro activity for pomegranate extract against toxigenic C. difficile. Pomegranate extract may be a useful contributor to the management and prevention of C. difficile disease or colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel KAHRAMAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that consumption of R. cristatus DC can be beneficial effects due to its antioxidant properties

  5. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.S.; De Paula, J.E.; Dégallier, Nicolas; Molez, Jean-François; Espindola, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extracts from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 mu g/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (> 65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these, Duguetia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 mu g/ml, respectively. Annon...

  6. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s and their mechanism(s of action.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  8. Antidiarrheal Activity of 80% Methanolic Leaf Extract of Justicia schimperiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Mekonnen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of preventable death in developing countries and mainly affects children and infants. It has been reported that the leaf of Justicia schimperiana is used as an antidiarrheal agent in Libo Kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Method. The 80% methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana was evaluated for its activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Results. Significant reduction (p<0.001 in the total defecation and diarrheal drops was produced by all the test doses of the extract. Percentage inhibition of wet feces was 42.58, 65.07, and 74.96% at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract, respectively. The extract also significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling at all test doses. The percent reduction in mean weight of intestinal contents was 66.96, 67.83, and 76.52% at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced gastrointestinal movement of charcoal meal as well at 200 (p<0.01 and 400 mg/kg (p<0.001 doses. Conclusion. In conclusion, the methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana has an antidiarrheal activity and this supports the use of this plant in the treatment of diarrhea in the traditional settings.

  9. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  10. The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria PALLAG

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to test the antimicrobial effect of the aqueous solutions obtained from the soft extract of Cnicus benedictus L. (Asteraceae family flowers. The test was performed on Mueller - Hinton and blood-agar culture medium, on 8 standardized bacterial strains and microbiological strains obtained from infected secretions, using the diffusimetric method.The antimicrobial action of the plant extracts was confirmed by all bacterial tested strains, which presented inhibition zones, of approximately same values, at solutions with different concentrations. The values we obtained reveal significant differences of the intensity of the antimicrobial activity of the mature and immature flowers extract.

  11. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  12. Activity of vetiver extracts and essential oil against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetiver, a nonhost grass for certain nematodes, was studied for production of compounds active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays studying effects on second-stage juvenile (J2) activity and viability, crude vetiver root and shoot extracts were nematotoxic, res...

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study provides some justifications for the folkloric use of AP seed powder as an antiseptic paste and warrants further studies to determine the structure of the active compound in chromatographic fraction ST 13 -15F. Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract.

  14. In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The possible active compounds responsible for the observed chemosupression may be flavonoids, terpeneoids and anthraquinones which are present in the extract. This is the first report on the in vivo antimalarial activity of E. thorifolium. Keywords: Antimalarial, Eryngium thorifolium, Plasmodium berghei, ...

  15. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  16. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  17. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts

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    Heisanam Pushparani Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. (zingiberacea are traditionally used in treatment of various ailments and metabolic disorders like leukoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, etc. in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. caesia Roxb. rhizome extract and its fractions were evaluated. The ethanolic fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (86.91% comparable to ascorbic acid (94.77% with IC50 value of 418 μg/ml for EECC followed by MECC (441.90 μg/ml > EAECC(561 μg/ml > AECC(591 μg/ml. Based on the antioxidant activity, three of the rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic properties against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide (CP using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenic activity of the extracts against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was found to be significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05. All the extracts showed similar antimutagenicity in dose dependent manner. The total phenolic content as well as reducing ability of the extracts was also determined.

  18. Quantitative assessment of apical debris extrusion and intracanal debris in the apical third, using hand instrumentation and three rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H K, Sowmya; T S, Subhash; Goel, Beena Rani; T N, Nandini; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2014-02-01

    Decreased apical extrusion of debris and apical one third debris have strong implications for decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the apical extrusion of debris and intracanal debris in the apical third during root canal instrumentation using hand and three different types of rotary instruments. Sixty freshly extracted single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Canal preparation was done using step-back with hand instrumentation, crown-down technique with respect to ProTaper and K3, and hybrid technique with LightSpeed LSX. Irrigation was done with NaOCl, EDTA, and normal saline and for final irrigation, EndoVac system was used. The apically extruded debris was collected on the pre-weighed Millipore plastic filter disk and weighed using microbalance. The teeth were submitted to the histological processing. Sections from the apical third were analyzed by a trinocular research microscope that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using image proplus V4.1.0.0 software. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group and intracanal debris in the root canal was statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. The result showed that, hand instrumentation using K files showed the highest amount of debris extrusion apically when compared to ProTaper, K3 and LightSpeed LSX. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third. Based on the results, all instrumentation techniques produced debris extrusion. The engine driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than hand instrumentation. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third.

  19. SCREENING OF PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA

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    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was antimicrobial action of the methanolic extracts of Equisetum arvense L. and Urtica dioica L. against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 were determined by the disc diffusion method and the microbroth dilution method according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most antimicrobial activity showed methanolic plant extract of E. arvense against S. epidermis with disc diffusion method and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and plant extract Urtica dioica with disc diffusion method against P. aeruginosa and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and E. coli.

  20. Effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage, measured with a computerized fluid filtration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Hasan; Garip, Yıldız; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Hatipoğlu, Seda

    2011-03-01

    We determined the effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system and a digital air pressure regulator in 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth. Orthograde endodontic treatment was performed. The root canals were prepared up to a size 50 K-type file with 17% EDTA solution (Roth International, Chicago, IL) and 5% NaOCl solution as the irrigant. Gates Glidden burs (Maillefer Instruments, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used to flare the coronal two thirds of the canal. All canals were dried with paper points and then obturated using cold lateral condensation (except for the positive controls) of gutta-percha points and AH plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). All 40 roots were sectioned 3 mm from the apex. Forty teeth were assigned randomly into 1 of 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: in group 1, the teeth were resected apically (90° angle) and the cavities were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); in group 2, after apical resection (90° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA; in group 3, the teeth were resected apically (∼45° angle) and the cavities were obturated with MTA; and in group 4, after apical resection (∼45° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA. An additional 6 teeth were used as controls (3 each, negative and positive controls). Apical leakage was measured using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system. The mean apical microleakage was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.9 × 10(-4), and 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10(-4) μL/cmH(2)O/min(-1) at 1.2 atm, in groups 1 to 4, respectively. Although the mean apical microleakage was greater in group 1, the differences among the 4 groups were not statistically significant (P > .05). The results of these in vitro studies showed that when an

  1. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  2. Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of extracts of Asclepias subulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón Valenzuela, Luisa Alondra; Jiménez Estrada, Manuel; Velázquez Contreras, Carlos Arturo; Garibay Escobar, Adriana; Medina Juárez, Luis Angel; Gámez Meza, Nohemi; Robles Zepeda, Ramón Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Asclepias subulata Decne. (Apocynaceae) is a shrub used in the Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of methanol extract of aerial parts of A. subulata and its fractions against different cancer cell lines. Additionally, we analyzed the mechanism of action of the active fractions. Methanol extract fractions were prepared by serial extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The antiproliferative activity of methanol extract and its fractions was evaluated, against several murine (M12.C3.F6, RAW 264.7, and L929) and human (HeLa, A549, PC-3, LS 180, and ARPE-19) cell lines by the MTT assay, using concentrations of 0.4-400 µg/mL for 48 h. Ethanol and residual fractions were separated using silica gel column. Apoptosis induction of cancer cells was evaluated by Annexin and JC-1 staining using flow cytometry. Methanol extract and its fractions showed antiproliferative activity against all human cancer cell lines tested. Methanol extract had the highest antiproliferative activity on A549 and HeLa cells (IC50 values < 0.4 and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively). Ethanol and residual fractions exerted significant antiproliferative effect on A549 (IC50 < 0.4 µg/mL) and PC3 cells (IC50 1.4 and 5.1 µg/mL). Apoptotic assays showed that CEF7, CEF9, CRF6, and CRF5 fractions induced mitochondrial depolarization in A549 cells, 70, 73, 77, and 80%, respectively. Those fractions triggered the apoptosis mitochondrial pathway. Our data show that A. subulata extracts have potent antiproliferative properties on human cancer cell lines. This plant should be considered an important source of potent anticancer compounds.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

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    Hsiu-Man Lien

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL. The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL, while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  4. Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Elly Ezlinda Abdul; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohtaruddin, Norhafizah; Rofiee, Mohd Salleh; Hamid, Hasiah Ab; Othman, Fezah

    2012-12-01

    Bauhinia purpurea L. (Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer. In an attempt to establish its pharmacological potential, we studied the antiulcer activity of lipid-soluble extract of B. purpurea obtained via extraction of air-dried leaves using chloroform. The rats were administered the chloroform extract (dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg) orally after 24 h fasting. They were subjected to the absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation assays after 30 min. The acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg extract and the rats were observed for the period of 14 days. omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard control. At 5000 mg/kg, the extract produced no sign of toxicity in rats. The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antiulcer activity for the ethanol-induced model. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric wall mucus production and pH of gastric content, while significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the total volume and total acidity of the gastric content in the pylorus ligation assay. The extract possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities, which could be attributed to its flavonoid and tannin content. These findings provide new information regarding the potential of lipid-soluble compounds of B. purpurea for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers.

  5. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

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    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  6. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  7. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach.) frey acetone extract

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanović Ivana; Stanković Miroslava; Stankov-Jovanović Vesna; Mitić Violeta; Zrnzević Ivana; Đorđević Aleksandra; Stojanović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteri...

  8. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus-castus extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Berger, D; Hoberg, E; Sticher, O; Schaffner, W

    2000-10-01

    The pharmacological effects of ethanolic Vitex agnus-castus fruit-extracts (especially Ze 440) and various extract fractions of different polarities were evaluated both by radioligand binding studies and by superfusion experiments. A relative potent binding inhibition was observed for dopamine D2 and opioid (micro and kappa subtype) receptors with IC50 values of the native extract between 20 and 70 mg/mL. Binding, neither to the histamine H1, benzodiazepine and OFQ receptor, nor to the binding-site of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, was significantly inhibited. The lipophilic fractions contained the diterpenes rotun-difuran and 6beta,7beta-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-labda-8,14-dien . They exhibited inhibitory actions on dopamine D2 receptor binding. While binding inhibition to mu and kappa opioid receptors was most pronounced in lipophilic fractions, binding to delta opioid receptors was inhibited mainly by a aqueous fraction. Standardised Ze 440 extracts of different batches were of constant pharmacological quality according to their potential to inhibit the binding to D2 receptors. In superfusion experiments, the aqueous fraction of a methanolic extract inhibited the release of acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the potent D2 receptor antagonist spiperone antagonised the effect of the extract suggesting a dopaminergic action mediated by D2 receptor activation. Our results indicate a dopaminergic effect of Vitex agnus-castus extracts and suggest additional pharmacological actions via opioid receptors.

  10. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antioxidant activity of alstonia Angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Zakaria, Noorzafiza; Dzulkarnain, Syarifah Masyitah Habib; Azahar, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-10-01

    In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

  12. Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract

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    Farah Nadiah Mohd Fazil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known “belalai gajah” or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg’s model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549. The extraction process was carried out on fresh and dried leaves at 28 to 30°C with liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 mL/g for 72 hrs. The extracts were collected intermittently analysed using mathematical Peleg’s model and RP-HPLC. The highest amount of flavonoids was used to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50 via 2D cell culture of A549. Based on the results obtained, the predicted maximum extract density was observed at 29.20 ± 14.54 hrs of extraction (texhaustive. However, the exhaustive time of extraction to acquire maximum flavonoids content exhibited approximately 10 hrs earlier. Therefore, 18 hrs of extraction time was chosen to acquire high content of flavonoids. The best antiproliferative effect (IC50 on A549 cell line was observed at 138.82 ± 0.60 µg/mL. In conclusion, the flavonoids content in Clinacanthus nutans water extract possesses potential antiproliferative properties against A549, suggesting an alternative approach for cancer treatment.

  13. Leishmanicidal activity of lipophilic extracts of some Hypericum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Ana Paula; Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa de; Ccana-Ccapatinta, Gari Vidal; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Romão, Pedro R T

    2015-01-15

    Leishmaniasis has emerged as the third most prevalent parasite-borne disease worldwide after malaria and filariasis, with about 350 million people at risk of infection. Antileishmanial drugs currently available have various limitations, mainly because of the parasite resistance and side effects. The search of new antileishmanial drugs is ventured throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to assess the leishmanicidal activity of lipophilic extracts of eight Hypericum species against promastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The dried and powered materials of aerial parts of H. andinum Gleason, H. brevistylum Choisy, H. caprifoliatum Cham. & Schltdl., H. carinatum Griseb., H. linoides A. St.-Hil., H. myrianthum Cham. & Schltdl., H. polyanthemum Klotzsch ex Reichardt and H. silenoides Juss. were extracted by static maceration with n-hexane. Extracts were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and stored at -20°C until biological evaluation and HPLC analysis. The metabolites investigated were dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives, benzophenones and benzopyrans. The yields were expressed as mean of three injections in mg of compound per g of extract (mg/g extract). The effect of Hypericum species on the viability of infective forms of L. (L.) amazonensis was determined using a hemocytometer. Amphotericin B was used as a standard drug. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for each extract were determined by linear regression analysis. The cytotoxic effects of extracts were assessed on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice by MTT assay. The concentration that causes 50% of macrophage cytotoxicity (CC50) was determined by linear regression analysis. The selectivity index (SI) of the extracts was determined considering the following equation: CC50 against mammalian cells/IC50 against L. amazonensis. We demonstrated that H. carinatum, H. linoides and H. polyanthemum were able to kill the parasites in a dose dependent manner. These

  14. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  15. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  16. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  17. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  18. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  19. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proliferative and antioxidant activity of Symphytum officinale root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Paduch, Roman; Strzemski, Maciej; Zielińska, Sylwia; Rydzik-Strzemska, Ewelina; Sawicki, Jan; Kocjan, Ryszard; Polkowski, Janusz; Matkowski, Adam; Latalski, Michał; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    The root of Symphytum officinale L. is commonly used in folk medicine to promote the wound healing, reduce the inflammation and in the treatment of broken bones. The objective of our investigation was to analyse the extract from S. officinale in term of its antioxidant activity and the effect on cell viability and proliferation of human skin fibroblast (HSF). Moreover, the quantification of main phenolics and allantoin was conducted using HPLC-DAD method. Five compounds were found: rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acid. DPPH, FRAP and TPC assay showed the high antioxidant activity of the extract. MTT test proved the stimulatory effect on cell metabolism and viability of HSF cells. Moreover, no changes in cytoskeleton structure and cells shape were observed. The obtained results indicate that non-toxic extract from S. officinale root has strong antioxidant potential and a beneficial effect on human skin fibroblasts.

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Phyllanthus niruri Extract, Rutin and Quercetin

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    Djaja Rusmana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal metabolism of oxygen and exogenous factors constantly generate free radicals which could be harmful to the human body. Human need antioxidants to provide protection against free radicals, thus plants are a good source of natural antioxidants. Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri has been known to possess several medicinal properties and contain numerous active phytochemical. In this research, we conducted phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of P. niruri extract along with the compounds rutin and quercetin, which are flavonoids possessing medicinal properties. This study was conducted to determine P. niruri, rutin and quercetin as antioxidant. METHODS: In this study, qualitative phytochemical screening was performed to detect phenol, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid/triterpenoid, terpenoid and alkaloid in P. niruri extract. Antioxidant analysis of P. niruri, rutin and quercetin was conducted using total measured phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. RESULTS:  The study revealed that P. niruri extract contained saponin, phenol, flavonoid and tannin based on phytochemical screening. In DPPH and ABTS assays quercetin possessed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.55 and 1.17 μg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, P. niruri extract showed the highest FRAP activity which was 373.95 μM Fe(II/μg extract. Rutin possessed the lowest antioxidant activity in all antioxidant assays. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that P. niruri extract and quercetin have great potential as a natural antioxidant source. KEYWORDS: asntioxidant, phytochemical, Phyllanthus niruri, quercetin, rutin, free radical

  4. An improved active contour model for glacial lake extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Active contour model is a widely used method in visual tracking and image segmentation. Under the driven of objective function, the initial curve defined in active contour model will evolve to a stable condition - a desired result in given image. As a typical region-based active contour model, C-V model has a good effect on weak boundaries detection and anti noise ability which shows great potential in glacial lake extraction. Glacial lake is a sensitive indicator for reflecting global climate change, therefore accurate delineate glacial lake boundaries is essential to evaluate hydrologic environment and living environment. However, the current method in glacial lake extraction mainly contains water index method and recognition classification method are diffcult to directly applied in large scale glacial lake extraction due to the diversity of glacial lakes and masses impacted factors in the image, such as image noise, shadows, snow and ice, etc. Regarding the abovementioned advantanges of C-V model and diffcults in glacial lake extraction, we introduce the signed pressure force function to improve the C-V model for adapting to processing of glacial lake extraction. To inspect the effect of glacial lake extraction results, three typical glacial lake development sites were selected, include Altai mountains, Centre Himalayas, South-eastern Tibet, and Landsat8 OLI imagery was conducted as experiment data source, Google earth imagery as reference data for varifying the results. The experiment consequence suggests that improved active contour model we proposed can effectively discriminate the glacial lakes from complex backgound with a higher Kappa Coefficient - 0.895, especially in some small glacial lakes which belongs to weak information in the image. Our finding provide a new approach to improved accuracy under the condition of large proportion of small glacial lakes and the possibility for automated glacial lake mapping in large-scale area.

  5. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  6. Variation in activity of pepsin extracted from buffalo stomach mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Javed, A.; Miraj, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Pepsin was extracted from the buffalo's mucosa in an acidic medium by incubating at 40 degree C for 48 h and dried in an air blanket at 50 degree C. Conditions for the maximum yield M pepsin were optimized. Changes in pH, temperature and incubation time affect the yield of pepsin, It has been noted that the time of the year in which extractions were made under optimized conditions was an important factor which affected the yield as well as activity of pepsin. Studies showed that maximum yield 11.5% was in February 2009 and minimum 10.3% in May 2009. It was further studied that the activity of the pepsin extracted in February was higher i.e 110 U/mg as compared to the activity of the enzyme extracted during the month of May which was 102.6 U/mg. The purpose of the study was to consider the conditions of the slaughter houses to attain maximum yield of pepsin with maximum activity. (author)

  7. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. Olufolaji, D. B.1, Adeosun, B.O.1 and Onasanya, R. O.2. 1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704. Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. 2. Department of Agriculture, Federal College ...

  8. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose level in STZ-Nicotinamide induced diabetic rats when compared to standard glibenclamide [21]. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the potential hypoglycaemic activity of different polarity fractions obtained by extracting the aerial part of. Acalypha fruticosa as well as its acute toxicity. To the best of ...

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of extracts from six Cameroonian plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy remains one of the leading public health problems that affects about 50 million people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new anticonvulsant drug. This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity against Penty lenetetrazole induced–convulsion in mice. Plants were extracted by maceration with ...

  10. Anti-bacterial activities and phytochemical screening of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-bacterial activity tests were carried out using disc diffusion assay and tube dilution technique, and phytochemical screening was carried out through Thin Layer Chromatography. The crude extracts showed antibacterial effects on M. vaccae, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. M. vaccae was most sensitive, particularly to the ...

  11. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    fractions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant evaluation using the DPPH free radical scavenging ... The crude extract has IC-50 value for radical scavenging activity of 5μg/mL which was .... effective concentration of the sample that is required.

  12. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... preservative. Almost all the active principles responsible for the pharmacological action are known (Bulletin of the. WHO, 1998, 1993; Khan et al., 2010a, b). ... The plant was extracted and filtered by using Whatman filter paper No 1. The filtrate of the sample was concentrated by using rotary evaporator.

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The disc diffusion method (Chattopadhyay et al., 2001) was employed for the determination of antifungal activities of the crude extract and fractions prepared from D. mannii leaves. Briefly, 0.1 ml of suspension of yeast containing 1.5 × 106 spores/ml was spread on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium in 90 mm Petri dishes.

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parthenium hysterophorus is an aggressive and exotic weed plant traditionally reported to be used as remedy for various diseases. In the present study in vitro antibacterial activities of P. hysterophorus leaf, flower, bark and root crude methanol extracts were evaluated against five reference strains of pathogenic bacterial ...

  16. Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of different extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical proprieties, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different extracts of Pistacia lentiscus on two pathogenic bacteria. The concentration of total phenols was analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. Exracts of plant were evaluated for their antimicrobial ...

  17. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the antidiabetic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens leaf gel (AALGEt) on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 12 h fasted rats by intraperitoneal injection of 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose ...

  18. Extraction and antioxidant activities of two species Origanum plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid ...

  19. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Scoparia dulcis Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M.; Sourivong, P.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the scavenging capabilities of an extract of Scoparia dulcis (a cosmopolitan weed widespread in Laos and Vietnam) for 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and measured hemoglobin-catalyzed linoleic acid peroxidation with an oxygen electrode. Our results demonstrated strong antioxidant activity corresponding to mitigation of the generation of hydroxyl radicals, a possible rationale for the observed therapeutic effects of this weed.

  20. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of extracts and saponins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Two saponins were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate ... 57.7 ± 12.1 µg/mL). Saponin 2 exhibited high activity against intracellular amastigotes ..... implication, and technological consideration. J Food Sci. 2007 ...

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  2. Antibacterial activity of honey and medicinal plant extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity extracts of six South African honeys and medicinal plants against six enteric microorganisms viz- Enterobacter cloacae, Escheriachia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii isolated from geophagia samples and Aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas ...

  3. The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... curcumin, could have important effect on treatment of lung cancer. Curcumin ... study inhibitory effect of C. longa total extract on telomerase in A549 lung cancer cell line as in vitro model of ..... If A > 2× (OD of negative control), then, telomerase activity ... radiation, chemotherapy, laser therapy, photodynamic.

  4. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mogale

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... glucose uptake by fat and muscle cells; 3) altering the activity of some ... aqueous A. arborescens leaf gel extract on fasting blood glucose levels, insulin ..... weight loss of treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated alloxan ...

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Landolphia owariensis ... rats and the nociception induced by Tail immersion in hot water (50.0 ± 1.00C) and ... (acetic acid) MELO produced the highest and comparable analgesic activity to ...

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  7. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenolic extracts of three wild red wild berry fruit species from Southeast Serbia, viz, European cornel (Cornus mas), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and wild blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using ...

  8. 1. Extraction and Demonstration of Uterotonic Activity from the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to demonstrate uterotonic activities using strips of pregnant rat uterus. ... on increase, parallel to this is the demand of services of Traditional ... for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an ... B. Processing and extraction of the roots. Preliminary .... these physiological interactions is in process. In conclusion ...

  9. Extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35:1, temperature: 70 oC, the experimental total phenolic yield was 30.464 ± 0.025, which agreed with ... The phenolic compounds showed strong antioxidant activities. At extract ..... under steam explosion is a suitable approach for obtaining a ...

  10. Phytochemical Analysis And Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko B. T.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD. Collection and identification of .... ition o f h yd rogen p eroxid e rad ical. Concentraion µg / ml. EXTRACT. BHT. 0. 0.2. 0.4. 0.6. 0.8. 1. 0 .... activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected ...

  11. Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated ...

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus leaf extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf of Anogeissus leiocarpus was tested on some bacteria associated with diarrhea which included Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi,Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella aerogens and Yersinia enterocolitica using agar well diffusion method. There was ...

  13. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  14. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diospyros species in folklore medicine are used as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral agents. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the leaves of Diospyros monbuttensis were evaluated against three bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and ...

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  16. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  17. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  18. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P

  19. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  20. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirillini, Bruno; Menghini, Luigi; Leporini, Lidia; Scanu, Nadia; Marino, Stefania; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench (Asteraceae) was investigated for antioxidative properties. The antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (HRPO test), superoxide anion scavenging (S.A.S. test) and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals Trolox-like antioxidative effects.

  1. Antioxidant capacity of Typha angustifolia extracts and two active flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peidong; Cao, Yudan; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2017-12-01

    The pollen of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for improving the microcirculation and promoting wound healing. Flavonoids are the main constituent in the plant, but little is known about the antioxidant activity of the principal constituent of the pollen in detail. To assess the antioxidant activities of ethanol and water extracts and two constituents of the pollen. Plant material (1 g) was extracted by 95% ethanol and water (10 mL × 2, 1 h each), respectively. The extracted activities (0.8-2.6 mg/mL) were measured by DPPH and the reducing activity of ferric chloride (1.7-2.6 mg/mL). Typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (I3ON) (2.8-70 μmol/L) were investigated on the relationship between NO, MDA and SOD in HUVECs treated with 100 μg/mL of LPS for 24 h. Nine compounds were identified by UPLC-MS. Ethanol extract showed IC 50 values in DPPH (39.51 ± 0.72) and Fe 3+ reducing activity (82.76 ± 13.38), higher than the water extract (50.85 ± 0.74) and (106.33 ± 6.35), respectively. Typhaneoside and I3ON promoted cell proliferation at the respective concentration range of 2.8 to 70 μmol/L (p concentration of 70 μmol/L compared with LPS group. The constituents from Typha angustifolia could be a novel therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced inflammation.

  2. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  3. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  4. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

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    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  6. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (PPiper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  7. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  8. Activity of Antarctic fungi extracts against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purić, J; Vieira, G; Cavalca, L B; Sette, L D; Ferreira, H; Vieira, M L C; Sass, D C

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to obtain secondary metabolites extracts from filamentous fungi isolated from soil and marine sediments from Antarctic ecosystems and to assess its potential antibacterial activity on Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae (phytopathogenic bacteria causing diseases in pepper and tomato and passionfruit, respectively). Among the 66 crude intracellular and extracellular extracts obtained from fungi recovered from soil and 79 obtained from marine sediment samples, 25 showed the ability to prevent the growth of X. euvesicatoria in vitro and 28 showed the ability to prevent the growth of X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae in vitro. Intracellular and extracellular extracts from soil fungi inhibited around 97% of X. euvesicatoria and 98% of X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae at 2·1 mg ml -1 . The average inhibition rates against X. euvesicatoria and X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae for intracellular and extracellular extracts from marine sediments fungi were around 96 and 97%, respectively, at 3·0 mg ml -1 . Extracts containing secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity against X. euvesicatoria and X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae were obtained, containing possible substitutes for the products currently used to control these phytopathogens. Micro-organisms from extreme ecosystems, such as the Antarctic ecosystem, need to survive in harsh conditions with low temperatures, low nutrients and high UV radiation. Micro-organisms adapt to these conditions evolving diverse biochemical and physiological adaptations essential for survival. All this makes these micro-organisms a rich source of novel natural products based on unique chemical scaffolds. Discovering novel bioactive compounds is essential because of the rise in antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms and the emergence of new infections. Fungi from Antarctic environments have been proven to produce bioactive secondary metabolites against various micro-organisms, but few studies

  9. Antioxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Mula, Soumyaditya; Gamre, Sunita; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2006-11-29

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the ethanol extracts of three varieties (Bangla, sweet, and Mysore) of Piper betel (pan) revealed the Bangla variety to possess the best antioxidant activity that can be correlated with the total phenolic content and reducing powers of the respective extracts. Column chromatography of the extract of the Bangla variety led to the isolation of chevibetol (CHV), allylpyrocatechol (APC), and their respective glucosides. The HPTLC analyses of the extracts revealed similar chemical profiles in all three P. betel varieties, although the concentrations of CHV and APC were significantly less in the sweet and Mysore varieties. Among the isolated compounds, APC showed the best results in all the in vitro experiments. It could prevent Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liposomes and rat brain homogenates as well as gamma-ray-induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA more efficiently than CHV. The superior anti-LPO and radioprotective activities of APC vis-à-vis those of CHV could not be explained by their respective Fe(II) chelation and .OH radical scavenging capacities. The better ability of APC to scavenge O2-. radicals and H2O2 might account for the results.

  10. Antiulcerogenic Activity and Toxicity of Bauhinia holophylla Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, A. L.; Cesar, D. A. S.; Pieroni, L. G.; Saldanha, L. L.; Dokkedal, A. L.; De-Faria, F. M.; Souza-Brito, A. R. M.; Vilegas, W.; Takahira, R. K.; Pellizzon, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Bauhinia are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, and inflammation, among other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiulcer effect of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of B. holophylla. The chemical profile of the extract was determined by HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS. A dose-effect relation was constructed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses and studies of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were performed in stomach samples. The involvement of SH compounds, NO, K+ ATP channels, and α 2-adrenergic receptors in the gastroprotective effect was evaluated. A toxicity study was performed with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract was composed mainly of cyanoglucoside and flavonol-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. SH compounds, NO release, K+ ATP channel activation, and presynaptic α 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation each proved to be involved in the antiulcer effect. The levels of GSH and activity of GR and GPx were increased, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were modulated. There was an antidiarrheal effect and there were no signs of toxicity. B. holophylla presents antiulcer activity mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the inflammatory response, without inducing side effects. PMID:25954316

  11. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  12. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  14. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Al-Rimawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity (AA. Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC, while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner.

  15. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  16. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joon Eun; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim; Yun-Kyung Song; Hyung-Ho Lim

    2007-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Total antioxidant response (TAR), Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and total antioxidant response(TAR) against potent free r...

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml. In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  19. Gallbladder shape extraction from ultrasound images using active contour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin; Chochołowicz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Gallbladder function is routinely assessed using ultrasonographic (USG) examinations. In clinical practice, doctors very often analyse the gallbladder shape when diagnosing selected disorders, e.g. if there are turns or folds of the gallbladder, so extracting its shape from USG images using supporting software can simplify a diagnosis that is often difficult to make. The paper describes two active contour models: the edge-based model and the region-based model making use of a morphological approach, both designed for extracting the gallbladder shape from USG images. The active contour models were applied to USG images without lesions and to those showing specific disease units, namely, anatomical changes like folds and turns of the gallbladder as well as polyps and gallstones. This paper also presents modifications of the edge-based model, such as the method for removing self-crossings and loops or the method of dampening the inflation force which moves nodes if they approach the edge being determined. The user is also able to add a fragment of the approximated edge beyond which neither active contour model will move if this edge is incomplete in the USG image. The modifications of the edge-based model presented here allow more precise results to be obtained when extracting the shape of the gallbladder from USG images than if the morphological model is used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ANTIPROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF ELAEODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM (CELASTRACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  2. Apical extrusion of debris in four different endodontic instrumentation systems: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, J Sylvia; Dicksit, Daniel Devaprakash

    2017-01-01

    All endodontic instrumentation systems tested so far, promote apical extrusion of debris, which is one of the main causes of postoperative pain, flare ups, and delayed healing. Of this meta-analysis was to collect and analyze in vitro studies quantifying apically extruded debris while using Hand ProTaper (manual), ProTaper Universal (rotary), Wave One (reciprocating), and self-adjusting file (SAF; vibratory) endodontic instrumentation systems and to determine methods which produced lesser extrusion of debris apically. An extensive electronic database search was done in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, and Google Scholar from inception until February 2016 using the key terms "Apical Debris Extrusion, extruded material, and manual/rotary/reciprocating/SAF systems." A systematic search strategy was followed to extract 12 potential articles from a total of 1352 articles. The overall effect size was calculated from the raw mean difference of weight of apically extruded debris. Statistically significant difference was seen in the following comparisons: SAF ProTaper. Apical extrusion of debris was invariably present in all the instrumentation systems analyzed. SAF system seemed to be periapical tissue friendly as it caused reduced apical extrusion compared to Rotary ProTaper and Wave One.

  3. A comparison of apical transportation between FlexMaster and Twisted Files rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; García, Marc; Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Mercadé, Montse; Morelló, Sergio; Roig, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical transportation in root canals after the use of Twisted Files (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and FlexMaster (VDW, Munich, Germany) #40/04 rotary files. A double-digital radiographic technique was used to compare apical transportation between the TF and FlexMaster systems. Each rotary system was used to instrument mesial canals from 80 extracted mandibular molars. The central axes of the file imaged before instrumentation (#15 K-file) and the master apical rotary file (#40/04) were superimposed digitally. AutoCAD 2008 (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the working length (WL). The data were analyzed using the Student's t test, and significance was set at P < .05. The mean amount of apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the WL was 0.17 ± 0.09 mm for the FlexMaster group and 0.19 ± 0.12 mm for the TF group. No statistically significant differences in apical transportation were found between the 2 groups. Under the conditions of the study, no statistically significant differences in apical transportation were observed between FlexMaster and TF rotary files. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antitermitic Activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) Heartwood Extractives against two Termite Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar Hassan; Mark Mankowski; Grant T. Kirker; Sohail Ahmed; Muhammad Misbah ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays...

  5. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Antidepressant activity of standardised extract of Marsilea minuta Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Agrawal, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Paras Nath; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2008-04-17

    Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness test (LHT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in rodents. Standardised extract of Marsilea minuta in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for three consecutive days and evaluated on day 3, 1h after the last dose treatment. Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Neurochemical mechanism of antidepressant activity was elucidated by using radioligand receptor binding assays for 5-HT2A and benzodiazepine receptors in rat frontal cortex. Immobility time in FST and TST was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta treated animals. A decrease in number of escape failures in LHT was also observed in Marsilea minuta treated rats. Head twitch response induced by 5-HTP was significantly attenuated by Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine showing the involvement of serotonergic system. This effect was corroborated with radioligand receptor binding study where Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.05) down regulated 5-HT2A receptor in frontal cortex, whereas, no marked effect was observed for benzodiazepine receptor. The antidepressant effect exhibited by Marsilea minuta extract may be due to its effect on 5-HT2A density in rat frontal cortex.

  7. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  8. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus seedcake.

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    Ismail, N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of kenaf seedcake methanolic extract (CME and fractions obtained from it using ethyl acetate (EAF, hexane (HF and water (WF were investigated. Total phenolic contents were 64.5, 36.1, 31.3 and 14.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight in EAF, CME, WF, and HF, respectively. Kenaf seedcake extract/fractions showed inhibitory activity of β-carotene bleaching and corn oil oxidation. Also, the extract/fractions were scavenged for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The EAF extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity followed by the CME, WF and HF extracts. Therefore, the rich phenolic fractions of kenaf seedcake may represent a potential source of natural antioxidants. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in CME and HF extracts were gallic, (+-catechin, chlorogenic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillin.Se ha investigado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos procedentes de tortas de semillas de kenaf (CME y de las fracciones obtenidas usando acetato de etilo (EAF, hexano (HF y agua (WF. Los contenidos fenólicos totales fueron 64,5, 36,1, 31,3 y 14,6 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g de peso seco, en EAF, CME, WF, y HF, respectivamente. Los extractos/fracciones de semillas de kenaf mostraron actividad inhibitoria de blanqueo del β-caroteno y oxidación del aceite de maíz. Además, los extractos/fracciones fueron captadores de radicales del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil. El extracto EAF mostró la mayor actividad captadora de radicales de DPPH seguido por los extractos de CME, WF y HF. Por lo tanto, las fracciones ricas en fenoles de las tortas de semilla de kenaf pueden representar una fuente potencial de antioxidantes naturales. Los compuestos fenólicos predominantes identificados mediante HPLC-DAD en extractos de CME y HF fueron gálico, (+-catequina, ácido clorogénico, hidroxibenzoico, siríngico, y vainillina.

  9. Extraction and Categorisation of User Activity from Windows Restore Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kahvedzic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the user activity is one of the main goals in the analysis of digital evidence. In this paper we present a methodology for extracting this activity by comparing multiple Restore Points found in the Windows XP operating system. The registry copies represent a snapshot of the state of the system at a certain point in time. Differences between them can reveal user activity from one instant to another. The algorithms for comparing the hives and interpreting the results are of high complexity. We develop an approach that takes into account the nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the hives to reduce the complexity of the comparison and result interpretation processes. The approach concentrates on hives that present higher activity and highlights only those differences that are relevant to the investigation. The approach is implemented as a software tool that is able to compare any set of offline hives and categorise the results according to the user needs. The categorisation of the results, in terms of activity will help the investigator in interpreting the results. In this paper we present a general concept of result categorisation to prove its efficiency on Windows XP, but these can be adapted to any Windows versions including the latest versions.  

  10. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  12. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Melittis melissophyllum L. extracts

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    Grujić Slavica M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol and ethanol (10%, 30%, 50% and 96% extracts of the aerial parts of Melittis melissophyllum L. were determined by DPP H, ABTS and FRAP assays. The content of flavonoids and phenols was also investigated. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay; their amounts ranged between 63.5 and 111.7 mg GAeqv/g, while the concentrations of flavonoids were from 7.33 to 56.00 mg Queqv/g. IC50 values of the DPP H scavenging effect were from 0.109 to 0.664 mg/mL. The DPP H scavenging effect of the extracts was determined and the obtained IC50 values were from 0.109 to 0.664 mg/mL of solution. The values of ABTS radical activity were from 0.45 to 0.89 mg ascorbic acid/g. The FRAP value was within the range 0.160-0.382 mmol Fe/mg. The obtained values were analyzed by means of multivariate analysis, employing a hierarchical cluster analysis and between-groups linkage. The presented results confirmed that M. melissophyllum possesses good antioxidant properties and may serve as a promising source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  16. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

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    Jiechao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidation system or by an illuminating riboflavin system, hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, and nitrite. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were correlated with the concentrations of the TPEB. In the test concentration range, the maximum inhibition percentage against linoleic acid peroxidation was 98.32 % after one week’s incubation, and the maximum scavenging percentages for the free radicals and nitrite inhibition in the above reactive systems reached 90.48, 96.48, 93.58 and 98.94 %, respectively. The TPEB is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant activities and health benefits and it seems to be applicable in both healthy food and medicine.

  17. Andrographis paniculata extract (HMPL-004) for active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo.

  18. Homogenate extraction of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and evaluation of the antioxidant activity

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    Leqin KE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes were extracted using homogenate method. Factors affecting the yield of crude polysaccharides were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The homogenate extraction method was compared with traditional heating extraction method. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes was evaluated. Results showed that, the optimal conditions of homogenate extraction were as follows: solvent pH, 10; liquid-solid ratio, 30: 1 (mL: g, extraction time, 66 s; number of extraction, 1. Under these conditions, the yield of crude polysaccharides was (13.2 ± 0.9%, which was 29.82% higher than that of traditional heating extraction. Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes had good DPPH scavenging activity. Compared with the traditional heating extraction, the homogenate extraction had notable advantages including good extraction yield, short extraction time and low extraction temperature. It is an efficient way to extract crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.

  19. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  20. In vitro and in vivo activities of Peganum harmala extract against Leishmania major

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    Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: P harmala seeds extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities. Most biological activity of the extract could be attributed to its beta-carboline content. However, another alkaloid of P harmala seeds extract, peganine, has also been reported to have antileishmanial activity. These beneficial effects can be attributed to the cumulative effects of various biologically active components present in it.

  1. Preparation of activated Carbons from extracted waste biomass by chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteva, V.; Nickolov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Novel biomass precursors for the production of activated carbons (ACs) were studied. ACs were prepared from extracted coffee husks and extracted spent ground coffee - separately or as mixtures with 10, 20 and 30 mass % Bulgarian lignite coal. Activation by potassium hydroxide was employed for all samples. The results obtained show that the surface and porous parameters of the ACs depend on the nature of the initial materials used. The specific surface areas (BET) and the microporosities of ACs obtained from extracted spent ground coffee mixed with 20 mass % Bulgarian lignite coals, are greater than those of the ACs from extracted coffee husks. It is likely that the reason for this result is the chemical composition of the precursors. The coffee husks have less lignin and more holocellulose. The latter undergoes more significant destructive changes in the process of chemical activation. On the contrary, waste ground coffee precursors contain more lignin and less holocellulose. As a result, after the chemical activation, the carbons prepared from extracted spent ground coffee exhibit better porous parameters and higher specific surface areas. key words: activated carbons, extraction, waste biomass

  2. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

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    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  3. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Cell Extracts from Microalgae

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    F. Xavier Malcata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing market for novel antioxidants obtained from non-expensive sources justifies educated screening of microalgae for their potential antioxidant features. Characterization of the antioxidant profile of 18 species of cyanobacteria (prokaryotic microalgae and 23 species of (eukaryotic microalgae is accordingly reported in this paper. The total antioxidant capacity, accounted for by both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, was evaluated by the (radical cation ABTS method. For complementary characterization of cell extracts, a deoxyribose assay was carried out, as well as a bacteriophage P22/Salmonella-mediated approach. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus strain M2-1 exhibited the highest (p > 0.05 total antioxidant capacity (149 ± 47 AAU of intracellular extracts. Its scavenger activity correlated well with its protective effects against DNA oxidative damage induced by copper(II-ascorbic acid; and against decay in bacteriophage infection capacity induced by H2O2. Finally, performance of an Ames test revealed no mutagenic effects of the said extract.

  4. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of a Plectranthus saccatus aqueous extract

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    Caldeira F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a disease with high prevalence in developed countries, resulting from the deposition of uric acid crystals in various locations, particularly at the joints. The pharmacotherapeutic approach to chronic gout essentially consists of administration of uric acid-lowering agents. The main mechanism of action of these agents is the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO, the enzyme responsible for the formation of uric acid. The therapeutic alternatives available for this purpose are limited, thus justifying the interest of the discovery of potential new uric acidlowering drugs. In this regard, an aqueous extract of the plant Plectranthus saccatus has been studied for its ability to inhibit XO. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rosmarinic acid was identified as the major constituent. Both the extract and rosmarinic acid have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the production of uric acid by interfering with XO activity. The results obtained herein support the continuation of the study of their uric acid-lowering properties in cell-based and in vivo models to further explore their potential in gout therapy.

  5. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

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    Umer Shemsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group: Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80 at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output and weight of faeces. C

  6. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  7. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal activity of different extracts of Ageratum conyzoides for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Arif Javed

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In case of aqueous extracts, the maximum reduction was observed in leaf extract (72%) ... antifungal and insecticidal agents (Hajlaoui et al., 2009). Extracts of many ..... growth reduction of mycelia of phytophthora on neem leaf.

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  12. Floating retained root lesion mimicking apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Pang; Chen, Chih-Ping; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2009-10-01

    A case of a retained root tip simulating apical periodontitis on radiographic examination is described. The retained root tip, originating from the left lower first molar, floated under the left lower second premolar apical region mimicking apical periodontitis. It appeared as an ill-defined periapical radiolucency containing a smaller radiodense mass on radiograph. The differential diagnosis included focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis) and ossifying fibroma. Upon exicisional biopsy, a retained root associated with granulation tissue was found. After 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular lesion was healing. Meanwhile, the associated tooth showed a normal response to stimulation testing.

  13. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  14. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  15. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  17. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  18. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from in vivo and in vitro propagated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of 18 different extracts from in vivo and in vitro grown L. album L. plants was evaluated against clinical bacteria and yeasts using the well diffusion method. All the used extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity, whereas only the water extracts from leaves (in vivo) possessed antifungal activity ...

  20. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  1. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility profile of the dermatophytes tested was T. mentagrophytes. > T. rubrum > M. audouinii. The phytochemical studies of the extracts revealed that the aqueous extract lacked terpenes and anthraquinone while terpenes were absent in ethanolic extract. KEY WORDS: Antifungal, Dermatophytes, Extract, ...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  3. Neuroelectric Tuning of Cortical Oscillations by Apical Dendrites in Loop Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David LaBerge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite. The results of that simulation demonstrated that subthreshold electric pulses in these apical dendrites can be tuned to specific frequencies and also can be fine-tuned to narrow bandwidths of less than one Hertz (1 Hz. Synchronous pulse outputs from the circuit loops containing apical dendrites can tune subthreshold membrane oscillations of neurons they contact. When the pulse outputs are finely tuned, they function as a local “clock,” which enables the contacted neurons to synchronously communicate with each other. Thus, a shared tuning frequency can select neurons for membership in a circuit. Unlike layer 6 apical dendrites, layer 5 apical dendrites can produce burst firing in many of their neurons, which increases the amplitude of signals in the neurons they contact. This difference in amplitude of signals serves as basis of selecting a sub-circuit for specialized processing (e.g., sustained attention within the typically larger layer 6-based circuit. After examining the sustaining of oscillations in loop circuits and the processing of spikes in network circuits, we propose that cortical functioning can be globally viewed as two systems: a loop system and a network system. The loop system oscillations influence the network system’s timing and amplitude of pulse signals, both of which can select circuits that are momentarily dominant in cortical activity.

  4. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  5. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  6. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  7. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Methods Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (pabscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms. PMID:29293651

  8. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-01-01

    Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (p<0.05). None of the target species/phylotypes were associated with abscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms.

  9. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes, E-mail: bruna_paloma@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Heck, Richard John [Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  10. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Heck, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  11. Activated Carbon Textile via Chemistry of Metal Extraction for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Do Van; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2016-12-27

    Carbothermic reduction in the chemistry of metal extraction (MO(s) + C(s) → M(s) + CO(g)) using carbon as a sacrificial agent has been used to smelt metals from diverse oxide ores since ancient times. Here, we paid attention to another aspect of the carbothermic reduction to prepare an activated carbon textile for high-rate-performance supercapacitors. On the basis of thermodynamic reducibility of metal oxides reported by Ellingham, we employed not carbon, but metal oxide as a sacrificial agent in order to prepare an activated carbon textile. We conformally coated ZnO on a bare cotton textile using atomic layer deposition, followed by pyrolysis at high temperature (C(s) + ZnO(s) → C'(s) + Zn(g) + CO(g)). We figured out that it leads to concurrent carbonization and activation in a chemical as well as mechanical way. Particularly, the combined effects of mechanical buckling and fracture that occurred between ZnO and cotton turned out to play an important role in carbonizing and activating the cotton textile, thereby significantly increasing surface area (nearly 10 times) compared with the cotton textile prepared without ZnO. The carbon textiles prepared by carbothermic reduction showed impressive combination properties of high power and energy densities (over 20-fold increase) together with high cyclic stability.

  12. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE, P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  13. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflmmatory activities of Ximenia americana extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kashivishwanath Shettar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ximenia americana extracts. Methods: Herbal extraction was done by Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was done using different biochemical tests. Antioxidant potential of plant extracts were analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdenum and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, and anti-inflammatory activity by using protein denaturation in vitro bioassay. Total phenolic content of each extract was also determined to assess their corresponding effect on antioxidant capacity of plant. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed that each solvent extract contained broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides, whereas compared to other solvent extracts, chloroform extract showed negative result for phenolic compounds whereas aqueous extract exhibited the highest phenolic content and the significant antioxidant capacity based on the test performed. Out of all extracts, methanol extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: The present study revealed that different solvent extracts of Ximenia americana leaves contain broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. Results confirm that aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant activity and methanol extract exhibited high antiinflammatory activity. Further study requires purification, characterization and structural elucidation of phenolic compounds in both extracts that may help in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals.

  14. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  15. ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF COLEUS AMBOINICUS LOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee Prasenjit; Hullatti K.K.; Vijay Kumar M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports anthelmintic activity of alcoholic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Coleus amboinicus against Indian earthworms Pheritima posthuma. The results revealed that all the tested extracts of Coleus amboinicus possessed significant anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The activities were comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate and Albendazole. Among the tested extracts, the leaf extract was found to be more promising in comparison to stem and ro...

  16. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  17. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Pollen Extracts on Pathogenic Microflora from Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru Marghitas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bee-pollen was used for thousands of years as functional food and medicinal plant product. Various beneficial effects were attributed to it and its consumption was increased over the years. The tests have been made on 16 pollen samples of the following families: Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Fabaceae, Tiliaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and two polifloral pollen assortment, using difuzimetric method. Among the tested bacteria, the Onobrychis viciifolia pollen has the highest sensitivity 11.86±1.79 mm while the low antibacterial activity was registered for Brassica sp. pollen  8.65±2.65 mm. As the use of antibiotic substances over a long period of time resulted in larger doses of residues in milk and representing a potential biohazard, the use of ethanol extracts from beepollen is a real alternative in the treatment of cows with various diseases.

  19. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. PMID:21429215

  20. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predes, Fabricia S; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Foglio, Mary A; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-03-23

    Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. © 2011 Predes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho João E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines.

  2. HPLC based activity profiling for 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in Isatis tinctoria leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, C; Jäggi, R; Hamburger, M

    2005-06-01

    In the pursuit of the anti-inflammatory constituents in lipophilic woad extracts, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activity was investigated by HPLC-based activity profiling. In a low-resolution profiling, two time windows with peaks of activity were found. The first coincided with tryptanthrin, a known dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-LOX, whereas the major inhibitory fraction was towards the end of the HPLC run. The active fractions were profiled in a peak-resolved manner, and the compounds analyzed by LC-MS, GC and TLC. The activity in the lipophilic fractions of the Isatis extract could be linked to an unsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid.

  3. Antifungal activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and active principles against skin pathogenic fungal strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Abubakar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Latip, Jalifah; Samah, Othman Abd; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Umar, Abdulrashid; Dogarai, Bashar Bello S

    2012-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant widely cultivated in southern Asia, China, and Europe. It is used in the treatment of skin infections in India, China, and Malaysia by folk medicine practitioners. Antifungal activity of the whole plant extracts and isolation of active principles from A. paniculata were investigated. Dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MEOH) extracts of A. paniculata whole plant were screened for their antifungal potential using broth microdilution method in vitro against seven pathogenic fungal species responsible for skin infections. Active principles were detected through bioguided assays and isolated using chromatography techniques. Structures of compounds were elucidated through spectroscopy techniques and comparisons were made with previously reported data for similar compounds. DCM extract revealed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (100 μg/mL) against Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, whereas MEOH extract revealed lowest MIC (150 µg/mL) against C. tropicalis and Aspergillus niger. DCM extract showed lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value (250 µg/mL) against M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger, whereas MEOH extract showed lowest MFC (250 µg/mL) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger. Bioassay guided isolation from DCM and MEOH extract afforded 3-O-β-d-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographiside, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide as antifungal compounds. The lowest MIC (50 µg/mL) and MFC (50 µg/mL) was exerted by 14-deoxyandrographolide on M. canis. This is first report on the isolation of antifungal substances through bioassay-guided assay from A. paniculata. Our finding justifies the use of A. paniculata in folk medicines for the treatment of fungal skin infections.

  4. Bergenin Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Bergenia Extracts. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrychová, Helena; Martin, Jan; Tůmová, Lenka; Kočevar-Glavač, Nina

    2015-07-01

    Our research was focused on the evaluation of bergenin content and free radical scavenging activity of extracts prepared from three different species of Bergenia - B. crassifolia (L.) Fritsch., B. ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. and B. x ornata Stein. collected during different seasons. Using an HPLC method, the highest total amount of bergenin was revealed in the leaves of B. x ornata and B. crassifolia (4.9 - 5.1 mg x g(-1)). Free radical scavenging power was determined by two methods--FRAP and NADH. The best free radical scavengers were B. crassifolia (FRAP: 6.7 - 15.9 mg GAE. 100g(-1); NADH: 20.3 - 50.9%) and B. ornata (FRAP: 13.7 - 15.2 mg GAE. 100g(-1); NADH: 29.3 - 31.1%). The lowest content of bergenin and the weakest radical scavenger was B. ciliata (bergenin: 3.1 mg x g(-1); FRAP: 5.5 - 11.0 mg GAE.100g(-1); NADH: 23.2 - 25.6%). The presence of a large percentage of bergenin is responsible for the radical scavenging activity, as shown by the results from the FRAP and NADH assays. Significant, positive correlation was found between bergenin content and radical scavenging activity in both methods.

  5. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of Hexane Extracts of Psidium guajava L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , kaempferol, which was identified as a constituent of the extract. Conclusion: The results suggest that further chemical analysis and mechanistic investigations should be conducted on P. guajava and C. alata extracts to validate their potential ...

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of Hexane Extracts of Psidium Guajava L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    , kaempferol, which was identified as a constituent of the extract. Conclusion: The results suggest that further chemical analysis and mechanistic investigations should be conducted on P. guajava and C. alata extracts to validate their potential ...

  8. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... cultivated on liquid medium containing (per liter) 40 g glucose, 10 g yeast extract, 5 g ... extract or control, and sample blank, respectively. Superoxide ..... ease in neurons, hepatopathies, atherosclerosis, and even aging (Pryor ...

  9. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  10. Development of extract library from indonesian biodiversity: exploration of antibacterial activity of mangrove bruguiera cylindrica leaf extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audah, K. A.; Amsyir, J.; Almasyhur, F.; Hapsari, A. M.; Sutanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Antibacterial drugs derived from natural sources play significant roles in the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections since antibiotics have become less effective against many infectious diseases. Mangroves are very potential natural antibacterial sources among great numbers of wild medicinal plants. Bruguiera cylindrica is one of the many mangroves species which spread along Indonesian coastline. The aim of this study was to explore the antibacterial activity of B. cylindrica wet and dried leaf extracts. The wet extracts study was conducted with three different solvents system (water, ethanol, and n-Hexane) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. While, the dried extracts study was conducted with four different solvents system (water, ethanol, chloroform and n-Hexane) against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of phenolic and flavonoid. Antibacterial actitivity was measured by zone of inhibition which obtained from agar-disk diffusion method. The widest area of zone of inhibition was showed by wet extracts with ethanol against S. aureus and E. coli are 14.30 and 13.30 mm, respectively. While, the zone of inhibition dried extracts with ethanol against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. coli are 9.32, 6.59 and 6.20 mm, respectively. In conclusion, both type of extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria as crude extracts.

  11. Feature extraction for face recognition via Active Shape Model (ASM) and Active Appearance Model (AAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqtait, M.; Mohamad, F. S.; Mamat, M.

    2018-03-01

    Biometric is a pattern recognition system which is used for automatic recognition of persons based on characteristics and features of an individual. Face recognition with high recognition rate is still a challenging task and usually accomplished in three phases consisting of face detection, feature extraction, and expression classification. Precise and strong location of trait point is a complicated and difficult issue in face recognition. Cootes proposed a Multi Resolution Active Shape Models (ASM) algorithm, which could extract specified shape accurately and efficiently. Furthermore, as the improvement of ASM, Active Appearance Models algorithm (AAM) is proposed to extracts both shape and texture of specified object simultaneously. In this paper we give more details about the two algorithms and give the results of experiments, testing their performance on one dataset of faces. We found that the ASM is faster and gains more accurate trait point location than the AAM, but the AAM gains a better match to the texture.

  12. Antibacterial activity of root and leaf extracts of Jatropha zeyheri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetone extract of the root exhibited minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.39 mg/ml against Salmonella spp. followed by methanol and acetone extracts of the root (0.78 mg/ml) against Serratia marcescens. Methanol extract of the leaf exhibited MIC of 3.13 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. This study validates the ...

  13. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Physical Characteristics of Sargassum thunbergii Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Song, E.J.; Lee, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (3-20 kGy) on the antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and physical characteristics of Sargassum thunbergii (ST) extracts. When ST powder was treated by gamma irradiation, the yields and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of water extracts were increased, but radical scavenging activities were not changed. When ST extract was irradiated, the TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activities were increased. In addition, gamma irradiation of ST extract decreased viscosity and removed color. These results suggest that gamma irradiation would be a useful method for improving the physical characteristics of ST extract while maintaining native biological activities

  14. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Augusto; Falcão-Bücker, Nádia Cristina; Nunez, Cecília Veronica; Pinheiro, Carlos Cleomir de Souza; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  17. Antioxidant Activity and Bioactive Components of Oxalidaceae Fruit Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asna, N.A.; Noriham, A.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the Antioxidant Activity (AA), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of Oxalidaceae fruit extracts. Two types of Averrhoa carambola L. and two types of bilimbi fruits were used in this study. Bilimbi fruits selected were Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa bilimbi cv. while Averrhoa carambola L. selected were Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) and another type of Averrhoa carambola L. which is known as tart type. The maturity stage for both Averrhoa carambola L. fruits (honey and tart type) were selected at commercial maturity stages which were stage 3 and stage 4. Antioxidant estimation of oxalidaceae fruit extracts were evaluated by using Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC), while antioxidant activity were evaluated using scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. Phytochemical screening of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins and saponins were also performed on all samples. Averrhoa carambola L. indicated positive results for all phytochemical screening conducted and similar results were observed from bilimbi fruits, except for alkaloids. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 possessed higher TPC and TFC followed by Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 also exhibited high scavenging effect (74 %) as determined by DPPH assay with the value of EC 50 72.36 mg/ ml while Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 3 showed significantly lower percentage of scavenging effect. The results also demonstrated that FRAP values of Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4 and Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 were higher than other samples (5.1023 mmol TE/ g and 5.0759 mmol TE/ g) and similar trends were observed for β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) assay, where Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4

  18. Antifatigue and Antioxidant Activity of Alcoholic Extract from Saussurea involucrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Chang Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a noticeable and highly prevalent symptom in tense, industriously, and economically affluent modern society. Therefore, new antifatigue agents to smooth the fatigue feature are an energetic topic. The total ethanol extract (ESI of Saussurea involucrata Kar et Kir., known as Tian-Shan snow lotus, was evaluated for antifatigue activity in ICR mice with mice forced swimming test and the determination of the contents of blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen. ESI (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 g/kg was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. The average swimming times to exhaustion of the ESI-treated ICR mice (0.15, 0.25 g/kg were prolonged by 132% and 180% (p<0.001 with a lessening of fatigue compared with that of the control group. Analysis of biochemical parameters showed that levels of serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid of experimental groups were also decreased significantly (p<0.001 compared with that of the control group. The antioxidant activity of ESI was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and the hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence assay and the results indicated that ESI exerts DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power. These results provide scientific evidence that S. involucrata may have been potential as an antifatigue agent.

  19. Phytochemical analysis and gastroprotective activity of an olive leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA ARSIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Some medicinal features of olive leaf have been known for centuries. It has been traditionally used as an antimicrobial and to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Whether olive leaf, a natural antioxidant, influences the gastric defense mechanism and exhibits gastroprotection against experimentally-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins in olive leaf extract (OLE were determined. Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified (oleuropein, caffeic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, and chryseriol. Furthermore, the protective activity of the OLE in gastric mucosal injury induced by a corrosive concentration of ethanol was investigated. In relation to the control group, pretreatment with OLE (40, 80 and 120 mg kg-1 significantly (p < 0.001 attenuated the gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The protective effect of the OLE was similar to that obtained with a reference drug, ranitidine. The results obtained indicate that OLE possesses significant gastroprotective activity, and that the presence of compounds with antioxidative properties would probably explain this effect.

  20. Antioxidant activities of ginger extract and its constituents toward lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Chen, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jianhao; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-01-15

    Lipid oxidation-a major cause of food product deterioration-necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60°C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180°C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Mittal; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah; R M Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: T wenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the establis...

  2. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Mula, S.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  3. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mula, S [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srinivasan, R [JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund (India)

    2008-01-15

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  4. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  5. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  6. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  7. Antifungal Activity of the Crude Extracts and Extracted Phenols from Gametophytes and Sporophytes of Two Species of Adiantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali Guha (Ghosh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The water extracts and extracted phenols from gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of the two ferns, Adiantum capillus-veneris L. and Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f., used as folkloric medicines in India, China, Tibet, America, Philippines and Italy, were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Both crude extracts and extracted phenols of gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of both fern species were found to be bioactive against the fungal strains. Antifungal activity was found to be higher in gametophytes than different parts of sporophytes. Among the different parts of sporophyte, immature pinnule possesses highest fungistatic property. Adiantum capillus-veneris was found a better antifungal agent than Adiantum lunulatum.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract and clinical efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing this extract and its isolated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda T. Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against oxidative damage. Matricaria chamomilla L. extract has been used in cosmetic formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of chamomile extract as well as the clinical efficacy on skin hydration and mechanical properties of skin. The antioxidant activity of chamomile extract was evaluated by chemiluminescence (IC50 = 0.14 μg/mL. Stable formulations were supplemented with 0,5 cg/g α-bisabolol or cg/gwith 5,0 of Matricaria chamomile glycolic extract or with 0,01 cg/g of apigenin and applied on the volar forearm and face of 25 female subjects. Skin physiology was assessed before and after 2 hours (single application and after a 2- and 4-week period of daily application. After a single application, all formulations increased the stratum corneum water content but only α-bisabolol and chamomile extract formulations reduced TEWL. The formulation with chamomile extract has shown the most pronounced result in the reduction of TEWL (27%. However, after 2- and 4-week application, only the extract formulation increased stratum corneum water content compared with the vehicle. Chamomile extract was effective in neutralizing free radicals and therefore presents an interesting potential in cosmetic formulations for this purpose.

  9. Optimized ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp improves the antioxidant activity of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifen; Su, Dongxiao; Hou, Fangli; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Dong, Lihong; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-08-01

    To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced. LC-MS/MS and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification results for individual phenolic compounds revealed that the yield of procyanidin compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, and procyanidin B2, from lychee pericarp could be significantly improved by the UHP-assisted extraction process. This UHP-assisted extraction process is thus a practical method for the extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp.

  10. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  11. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL. Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoti Ondicho, J.; Mutai, C.; Rukunga, G.; Oketch, P.; Bii, C.

    2009-01-01

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoti Ondicho, J; Mutai, C; Rukunga, G; Oketch, P [Centre for Tradicional Medicine and Drug Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi (Kenya); Bii, C [Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-07-01

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  14. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol López de Dicastillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate, that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials.

  15. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  16. Nematicidal activity of crambe extracts on Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro-Roncato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the control of nematodes, such as the use of plant secondary metabolites, can be explored for integrated pest management systems. The objective of this work was to assess the best solvent for obtaining allyl isothiocyanate from Crambe abyssinica leaves, and the effects of this extract on Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Dry leaves of C. abyssinica at 200 mg L-1 were used to prepare extracts by using water (by infusion and grinding, acetone, water + ethanol (hydroalcoholic extraction, methanol, hexane, and chloroform as solvents. Following the evaporation of the solvents, the residue was resuspended in water for use in the experiments. Distilled water and chemical nematicide were used as control treatments. Once the most effective extracts were defined, the following dosages of dried crambe leaves were used: 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg L-1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify the allyl isothiocyanate present in the extracts. After the solvents evaporated, the residues were eluted with water and used in assays with 200 eggs for the hatching test or 200 second stage juveniles (J2 for mobility and mortality tests. The hydroalcoholic extract was the most effective in reducing the hatching of M. incognita and M. javanica juveniles, by 71.6 and 74.4 percentage points, respectively. The mortality of M. incognita and M. javanica in the hydroalcoholic extract was 93.2 and 64.4%, respectively, followed by the methanol extract (17.6 and 34% and the extract obtained by grinding (9.2 and 28%. The hydroalcoholic extract at 250 mg L-1 showed high nematicidal effect. The HPLC analysis of the extracts revealed that only the methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts had allyl isothiocyanate, indicating that the inhibitory effects on the hatching, mobility, and mortality were not solely attributed to the presence of this compound.

  17. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 (35.15 – 46.47) for the unevaporated crude water while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the unevaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 32.57 (27.15 – 39.08) and evaporated crude ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of garlic and lime on isolates of extracted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) on seven bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Norcadia asteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus and Veillonella alcaligens) isolated from 240 extracted, carious ...

  19. Risk variables of external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Feio Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: External apical root resorption (EARR is an adverse outcome of the orthodontic treatment. So far, no single or associated factor has been identified as responsible for EARR due to tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of risk variables (age, gender, extraction for orthodontic treatment and Angle classification with EARR and orthodontic treatment. METHOD: The sample (n=72 was divided into two groups according to presence (n=32 or absence (n=40 of EARR in maxillary central and lateral incisors after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in EARR according to age, gender, extraction or type of malocclusion (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The risk variables examined were not associated with EARR in the study population.

  20. Ossifying fibroma misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria; Soares, Ulysses Nicida; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias

    2010-03-01

    Ossifying fibroma mimicking chronic apical periodontitis is extremely rare. This report describes a case of ossifying fibroma located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine that was misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis. A 40-year-old woman complained of slight pain in the right anterior mandibular region without mucosal abnormalities or swelling. Radiographically, a well-circumscribed, unilocular, radiolucent lesion was observed that was located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine, which presented an endodontically treated root canal. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was fully excised. Microscopically, there was fibrocellular connective tissue associated with a mineralized component, which consisted of lamellar or trabecular and woven bone, compatible with the diagnosis of ossifying fibroma. Although it is very rare, ossifying fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual or persistent apical radiolucencies. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  3. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver-extract nanoparticles synthesized from Momordica charantia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Mamun Or; Akhter, Kazi Nahid; Chowdhury, Jakir Ahmed; Hossen, Foysal; Hussain, Md Saddam; Hossain, Md Tanvir

    2017-06-26

    Our present study was conducted to characterize the phytoconstituents present in the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-extract nanoparticles (Ag-Extract-NPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reducing AgNO 3; and NaBH 4 served as reducing agent. After screening of phytochemicals; AgNPs and aqueous extract were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. These NPs were characterized by using Visual inspection, UV spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits contain alkaloid, phenol, saponin etc. UV-Vis spectrum showed strong absorption peak around 408 nm. The presence of -CH, -NH, -COOH etc. stretching in FTIR spectrum of Ag-Extract-NPs endorsed that AgNPs were successfully capped by bio-compounds. SEM and TEM result revealed that synthesized NPs had particle size 78.5-220 nm. Ag-Extract-NPs showed 34.6 ± 0.8 mm zone of inhibition against E. coli compared to 25.6 ± 0.5 mm for ciprofloxacin. Maximum zone of inhibition for Ag-Extract-NPs were 24.8 ± 0.7 mm, 26.4 ± 0.4 mm, 7.4 ± 0.4 mm for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. We found that Ag-Extract-NPs have much better antibacterial efficacy than AgNPs and M. charantia extract has individually. It is also noticed that gram negative bacteria (except S. typhi) are more susceptible to Ag-Extract-NPs than gram positive bacteria. Ag-Extract-NPs showed strong antibacterial activity. In order to make a reliable stand for mankind, further study is needed to consider determining the actual biochemical pathway by which AgNPs-extracts exert their antimicrobial effect.

  4. Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Parameters on the Biological Activities and Metabolites Present in Extracts from Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; García-Pérez, J Saúl; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Núñez-Echevarría, Jade E; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; García-García, Rebeca M; Torres, J Antonio; Chen, Wei Ning; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2017-06-12

    Arthrospira platensis was used to obtain functional extracts through supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE-CO₂). Pressure (P), temperature (T), co-solvent (CX), static extraction (SX), dispersant (Di) and dynamic extraction (DX) were evaluated as process parameters through a Plackett-Burman design. The maximum extract yield obtained was 7.48 ± 0.15% w/w. The maximum contents of bioactive metabolites in extracts were 0.69 ± 0.09 µg/g of riboflavin, 5.49 ± 0.10 µg/g of α-tocopherol, 524.46 ± 0.10 µg/g of β-carotene, 1.44 ± 0.10 µg/g of lutein and 32.11 ± 0.12 mg/g of fatty acids with 39.38% of palmitic acid, 20.63% of linoleic acid and 30.27% of γ-linolenic acid. A. platensis extracts had an antioxidant activity of 76.47 ± 0.71 µg GAE/g by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, 0.52 ± 0.02, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 1.47 ± 0.02 µmol TE/g by DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, respectively. These extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Overall, co-solvent was the most significant factor for all measured effects ( p extraction parameters P: 450 bar, CX: 11 g/min, SX: 15 min, DX: 25 min, T: 60 °C and Di: 35 g.

  5. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  6. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro biological activities of different extracts of Cuscuta arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Ufuk; Küpeli-Akkol, Esra; Sekeroglu, Nazim

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the potential effects of extracts from the whole plant of Cuscuta arvensis were studied in mice using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model for antiinflammatory activity and the p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex for the assessment of antinociceptive activity. In order to obtain the extracts, the whole plant of C. arvensis was extracted with different solvents such as n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and water extracts inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema and p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex, whereas the other extracts showed only mild inhibitory antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities in these in vivo models. Additionally, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had higher scavenging ability then the non polar extracts.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum l. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the chloroform and acetone extracts had no effect, the methanol extracts showed inhibition zones against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and two different strains of Escherichia coli. The cells of microorganisms, which were treated and untreated with ...

  8. IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a significant inhibition in schizont maturation relative to control (P = 0.05). Ethanolic extract .... Animals were handled according to local rules and regulation of ... graph of percentage mortality converted to probit against log-dose of the extract ...

  9. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  10. Relaxant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Acanthus Montanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus on guinea pig trachealis muscle. Methods: Guinea pig tracheae were set up in 10 ml organ baths. The effect of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus (0.5 - 8 mg/ml) on the spontaneous tone of the trachea and carbacholprecontracted ...

  11. Antiviral activity of the extracts of Rhodophyceae from Morocco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-five aqueous, methanolic, chloroforme-methanolic and dichloromethanolic extracts derived from sixteen species of marine Rhodophyta from the coast of Morocco have been screened for the presence of inhibitory compounds against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by cell viability method. The aqueous extracts of ...

  12. Bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three dose levels of five candidate extracts sprayed at three pre-infectional time intervals were compared under low and high inoculum pressures of the late blight, Phytophthora infestans, of tomatoes and powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis, of wheat. In general, extracts from B. trilobata and D. albicans showed better ...

  13. Hypolipidemic Activity of Prosopis cineraria L (Druce) Fruit Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic potential of the 70 % ethanol fruit extract of Prosopis cineraria (Fabaceae) (Et. PCF) in triton-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Methods: Et-PCF was obtained by pulverizing whole dried fruits and extracting with 70 % ethanol. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of ...

  14. Antiviral activity of the extracts of Rhodophyceae from Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-11-15

    Nov 15, 2010 ... replication of HSV-1 in vitro at an EC50 (Effective Concentration 50%) ranging from <2.5 to 75.9 µg mL-1. No cytotoxic effect ... Keywords: Antiviral, Aqueous extracts, Organic extracts, Rhodophyceae, Herpes simplex virus. INTRODUCTION ... from a species of Bryopsis as a possible treatment of lung cancer ...

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract and essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The antioxidant potential of extracts and essential oils of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun). P.C.M. Jansen) ... growing interest, both in industry and in scientific research, for ... Due to the complex composition of different plant pro- ducts ..... extracts of Turmeric and ginger (Zingiber officinale). J. Phytol.

  16. GC-MS Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ogundare adebola

    dried and crushed into smaller pieces using mortar and pestle. The plant was weighed and extracted using serial exhaustive extraction method by moving from a non-polar (hexane) solvent to a medium polar solvent (ethyl acetate) and then to a polar solvent. (methanol). Phytochemical screening: Preliminary phytochemical.

  17. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Ziziphus mauritiana root extract in rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dose dependent decrease of gastrointestinal transit was observed with extracts (25 and 50 mg/kg) which also protected mice against castor oil induced dirrhoea and castor oil induced fluid accumulation, respectively. The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the root extract may be responsible for the observed ...

  18. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holarrhena floribunda is a common plant that has traditionally been used in Africa to treat many diseases such as fever, dysentery, sterility and diabetes. This study was set out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda and various fractions of this extract in normal fasted and ...

  19. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    standard drugs. The petri dishes were sealed with a carbon-dioxide permeable tape, left overnight in biosafety hood to allow diffusion of the extract, fractions. It was then incubated at 370C in a carbon- dioxide incubator for 4 weeks. The susceptibility of. M. tuberculosis isolates to the extract and the drugs was determined by ...

  20. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  1. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  2. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. extracts and antifungal activity against Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A H; de Oliveira, G G; Carnevale Neto, F; Portuondo, D F; Batista-Duharte, A; Carlos, I Z

    2017-01-04

    Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. is traditionally used in North and Northeast of Brazil for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Since the strategy associating immunomodulators with antifungal drugs seems to be promissory to improve the treatment efficacy in fungal infections, we aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of V. guianensis ethanolic extract of leaves (VGL) and bark (VGB) against Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 16345 and their antinflammatory activities. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-IT MS/MS for in situ identification of major compounds. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro (microdilution test) and in vivo using a murine model of S. schenckii infection. The production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 by measured by ELISA, as well as measured the production and inhibition of the NO after treatment with the plant extracts or itraconazole (ITR). Two O-glucosyl-flavonoids and 16 prenylated benzophenone derivatives already described for Vismia were detected. Both VGL and VGB showed significant antifungal activity either in in vitro assay of microdilution (MIC=3.9µg/mL) and in vivo model of infection with reduction of S. schenckii load in spleen. It was also observed a predominance of reduction in the production of NO and the proinflammatory cytokines evaluated except TNFα, but with stimulation of IL-10, as evidence of a potential anti-inflammatory effect associated. The results showed that both VGL and VGB have a significant antifungal against S. schenckii and an anti-inflammatory activity. These results can support the use of these extracts for alternative treatment of sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of 34 Indian Medicinal Plants against some Staphylococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-four Indian medicinal plants belonging to 28 different families were screened for potential antibacterial activity against 3 Staphylococcus species, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus subflava. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was performed by agar disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. The alcoholic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for all the plants studied. The most susceptible bacterium ...

  5. Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of 34 Indian Medicinal Plants against some Staphylococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-four Indian medicinal plants belonging to 28 different families were screened for potential antibacterial activity against 3 Staphylococcus species, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus subflava. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was performed by agar disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. The alcoholic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for all the plants studied. The most susceptible bacterium ...

  6. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cordia verbenacea extracts obtained by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Eliane M Z; Salvador, Ana A; Riehl, Carlos A S; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of extracts from Cordia verbenacea DC (Borraginaceae), a traditional medicinal plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The extracts were obtained using different extraction techniques: high-pressure operations and low-pressure methods. The high-pressure technique was applied to obtain C. verbenacea extracts using pure CO(2) and CO(2) with co-solvent at pressures up to 30MPa and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetone and dichloromethane were used to obtain extracts by low-pressure processes. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was also subjected to screening against four strains of bacteria using the agar dilution method. The extraction yields were up to 5.0% w/w and up to 8.6% w/w for supercritical fluid extraction with pure CO(2) and with ethyl acetate as co-solvent, respectively, while the low-pressure extraction indicates yields up to 24.0% w/w in the soxhlet extraction using water and aqueous mixture with 50% ethanol as solvents. The inhibitory activity of the extracts in gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than in gram-negative. The quantification and the identification of the extracts recovered were accomplished using GC/MS analysis. The most important components identified in the extract were artemetin, beta-sitosterol, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, among others.

  8. Nootropic activity of lipid-based extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. compared with traditional preparation and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Paradkar, Anant R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Nootropic activity in rats was evaluated using the two-trial Y-maze test and the anterograde amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) determined by the conditioned avoidance response. The extracts were administered daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally. At the end of the conditioned avoidance response test, brain monoamine levels were estimated by HPLC. The LEBM, MEBM and AGBM contained 3.56%, 4.10% and 0.005% bacoside A, respectively. Significantly greater spatial recognition was observed with LEBM (P nootropic activity to the MEBM.

  9. Assessment of antibacterial activity of crude leaf and root extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... whether crude leaf and root extracts of Cassia alata (Caesalpiniaceae) have antimicrobial activity against clinically resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. To determine and compare the MICs of their ether and methanol extracts. Materials and methods: Ether and methanol extracts were prepared from the plant parts.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Produced for Commercial Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Sathisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of some herbal plant extracts (commercial products was measured using various in vitro assays. Among the extracts from Curcuma longa, Caffea arabica, Tribulus terrestris, Bacopa monnieri and Trigonella foenum- graecum, the Curcuma longa and coffee bean extract (Caffea Arabica showed greater antioxidant activity measured as scavenging of DPPH, superoxide radicals, reducing power and inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation.

  11. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  12. Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf and stem of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared using cold extraction method. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the extracts (20 - 100 μg/ml) was evaluated on leukaemic cancer cell line (K-562) and Mardin-Darby kidney cell line (MDBK) ...

  13. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of extracts from the culinary herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrates anti-herpes simplex virus activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Ocimum sanctum L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum americanum L. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by the dichloromethane extract of O. americanum L. and the methanol extract of O.

  14. Isotropic actomyosin dynamics promote organization of the apical cell cortex in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Christoph; Cherian, Anoop V; Fels, Johannes; Diesinger, Philipp M; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Maghelli, Nicola; Keil, Thomas; Beck, Gisela; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva M; Bathe, Mark; Wedlich-Soldner, Roland

    2014-10-13

    Although cortical actin plays an important role in cellular mechanics and morphogenesis, there is surprisingly little information on cortex organization at the apical surface of cells. In this paper, we characterize organization and dynamics of microvilli (MV) and a previously unappreciated actomyosin network at the apical surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In contrast to short and static MV in confluent cells, the apical surfaces of nonconfluent epithelial cells (ECs) form highly dynamic protrusions, which are often oriented along the plane of the membrane. These dynamic MV exhibit complex and spatially correlated reorganization, which is dependent on myosin II activity. Surprisingly, myosin II is organized into an extensive network of filaments spanning the entire apical membrane in nonconfluent ECs. Dynamic MV, myosin filaments, and their associated actin filaments form an interconnected, prestressed network. Interestingly, this network regulates lateral mobility of apical membrane probes such as integrins or epidermal growth factor receptors, suggesting that coordinated actomyosin dynamics contributes to apical cell membrane organization. © 2014 Klingner et al.

  15. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  16. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram, Selvin Priyagrace, Ramasamy Vijayaraghavan, Ambikapathi Velmurugan, Govindarajan Parameswari, Antonysamy Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  17. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  18. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, De-Liang; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Hai-Zhong; Fan, Chun-Chun; Han, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and evaluate antioxidant activities of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides from A. bisporus was extracted by using methods of ultrasonic-assisted hot water lixiviation, ethanol precipitation, Sevag's deproteination and ethanol precipitation again. Extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to raw material and ultrasonic power were selected in single-factor tests. Based on the single-factor tests, parameters combination for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of A. bisporus polysaccharides was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test. Antioxidant activities (reductive potential, superoxide anion scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity) of A. bisporus polysaccharides were evaluated in vitro. Optimum conditions for the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides were extracting temperature 65 degrees C, extracting time 40 min, ratio of water to raw material 30 mL/g and ultrasonic power 170 w. Practicing this optimal condition, extraction yield of polysaccharides from A. bisporus was 5.6 014%. In crude polysaccharides of A. bisporus, carbohydrates content, determined by applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method, was 75.48%. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus could reduce ferric ion, scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Utrasonic-assisted extraction could be used in the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus, had direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  20. Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiya, Kewalee; Devkota, Lavaraj; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of protein from banana flower was optimized using response surface methodology. The extracted proteins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. The maximum protein yield of 252.25 mg/g was obtained under optimized extraction conditions: temperature 50 °C, 30 min extraction time and 1 M NaOH concentration. The alkaline extraction produced a significantly high protein yield compared to enzymatic extraction of banana flower. Chemical finger printing of proteins showed the presence of tyrosine, tryptophan and amide bonds in extracted protein. Alkaline and pepsin assisted extracted banana flower proteins showed characteristic bands at 40 and 10 kDA, respectively. The extracted proteins showed antibacterial effects against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The high protein content and antimicrobial activity indicate the potential applications of banana flower in the food and feed industry.

  1. Apical extrusion of debris in primary molar root canals using mechanical and manual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, B; Hascizmeci, C; Aksoy, S; Nur Aydin, M; Guvendi, O N

    2018-03-01

    Apical extrusion of debris in primary root canal treatment has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of primary molar root canals using ProTaper, ProTaper Next, Self-adjusting File (SAF) and hand files. One hundred sixty extracted primary mandibular molar teeth were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1: Resorbed (n=80) and Group 2: Non-resorbed (n=80) and randomly to four subgroups (n=20 teeth for each subgroup) according to the instruments used, ProTaper, ProTaper Next, SAF, and hand file. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendof tubes. The dry weight was calculated by subtracting the preoperative weight from the postoperative weight. Data were analysed statistically using the ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc t-test. The amount of apically extruded debris was significantly less for the non-resorbed group compared to the resorbed group (PProTaper Next and SAF extruded significantly less debris than did the ProTaper and hand files (PProTaper Next and SAF (P>0.05). All instruments caused apically extruded debris in primary teeth.

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  3. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SEA CUCUMBER (Stichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Husni

    2014-05-01

    Both SM and CS exhibited their highest antifungal activity when extracted by HRE with 70% ethanol and by HRE with water, respectively, while their highest yields were obtained when extracted by PSE with water. SM has more antifungal than potassium sorbate but weaker than propyl paraben, while CS has more antifungal than the two antifungal agents. Keywords: Antifungal, heat reflux extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, Stichopus japonicus

  4. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  5. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2013-08-01

    To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100% tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O. heterophyllum and ethanolic

  6. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: Cynara scolymus is a medicinal plant frequently used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver diseases. ... The antioxidant effect of the extracts was determined by 2,2- ..... Löhr G, Deters A, Hensel A. In vitro investigations.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of aerial part and root extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) extracts of Schwenckia americana Linn (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was studied. Adult Swiss albino rats of either sex were divided into six groups (n=6). Groups I-IV received MME and RME ...

  8. Novel antibacterial activity of Terfizia claveryi aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... diseases in both humans and animals and can lead to blindness (Olivier ... 4°C. The supernatant was considered as crude aqueous extract of ..... with use of chloramphenicol eye drops in British general practice database.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of water extract of Solanum trilobatum (Linn.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanaceae), a medicinal plant widely used in the traditional Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was evaluated in the alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic model. Graded doses of the water extract were ...

  10. Antibacterial activity of Methanol and Chloroform extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty OF Basic Medical Sciences, University ... crude methanol extracts of S. oleracea flowers produced average zones of inhibition of 28mm and 25mm (in ... aureus could be destroyed by the mold, Penicillium.

  11. free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of standardized extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ledy

    cancer cell line HeLa of five commercial standardized extracts rich in phenolic compounds: red wine ... and used as feedstock in nutritional supplement manu- .... pharmaceutical, food, or cosmetic products, as ..... cancer stem-like cell.

  12. Antihypertensive Activity of Aqueous-Methanol Extract of Berberis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Median lethal dose (LD50) and sub-chronic toxicity of the extract were also determined ... possible mode(s) of action, side effects, toxicity ... medicinal uses. Berberis ... evaluate the possible antihypertensive effect of this plant. EXPERIMENTAL.

  13. Invivo Antimalarial Activity of Dodonaea Angustifolia Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    powdered plant material was weighed by sensitive balance and soaked separately with distilled water and ... positive control) with six mice per group for each extract. ..... haematocrit was parasite-induced fall down to 43–44%, which occurred ...

  14. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yoke Keong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25% achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was

  15. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Özyürek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR, Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN, and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA systems. Materials and Methods The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU, Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. Results New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. Conclusions This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  17. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Tek, Vildan; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN), and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) systems. The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU), Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ 2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  18. Is the use of Gunnera perpensa extracts in endometritis related to antibacterial activ

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    L.J. McGaw

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome extracts of Gunnera perpensa are used in traditional remedies in South Africa to treat endometritis both in humans and animals. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether this plant possesses antibacterial activity, which may explain its efficacy. Gunnera perpensa rhizome extracts were prepared serially with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for antibacterial activity. Test bacteria included the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the extracts resulted, with the best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 2.61 mg ml-1 shown by the acetone extract against S. aureus. The extracts were also submitted to the brine shrimp assay to detect possible toxic or pharmacological effects. All the extracts were lethal to the brine shrimp larvae at a concentration of 5 mg ml-1. The acetone extract was extremely toxic at 1 mg ml-1, with some toxicity evident at 0.1 mg ml-1. The remainder of the extracts generally displayed little activity at concentrations lower than 5 mg ml-1. In summary, the results indicate that although the extracts demonstrated a level of pharmacological activity, the relatively weak antibacterial activity is unlikely to justify the use of G. perpensa rhizomes in the traditional treatment of endometritis. Rather, the slightly antibacterial nature of the rhizomes may contribute to an additive effect, along with their known uterotonic activity, to the overall efficacy of the preparation.

  19. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  1. Phytochemicals Screening and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extracts Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorshilawati Abdul Aziz; Umi Nadhirah Halim; Nur Suraya Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Chloroform and methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis leaves were investigated for in vitro antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Four different concentrations of both extracts consists of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/ ml were prepared for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that chloroform and methonal extract showed high toxicity against all bacterial strain tested. However, both extracts is more effective and exhibit better inhibiting activity against gram positive bacteria, S. aureus compared to gram negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). Methanol extract of Elaeis guineensis leaves shows greater inhibition zone compared to chloroform extract as phyto chemical screening revealed that this extracts contain terpenoids, tannins and saponin. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by 300 mg/ ml methanolic extracts against S. aureus which inhibited 10.67 ± 0.33 mm of the diameter zone. Followed by 200 mg/ ml methanolic extracts and 300 mg/ ml chloroform extracts against S. aureus which inhibited 9.17 ± 0.17 mm and 8.33 ± 1.67 mm respectively. This result revealed the potentials of Elaeis guineensis as antibacterial agent in combating infections from human pathogenic bacteria. However, further studies, including identification and purification of the active compounds, will need to be pursued. (author)

  2. Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. acetone extract: HPLC analysis, genotoxicity, cholinesterase, antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnzevic, Ivana; Stankovic, Miroslava; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Mitic, Violeta; Dordevic, Aleksandra; Zlatanovic, Ivana; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL -1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL -1 exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies.

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  4. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Dilodendron bipinnatum (Sapindaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josiane Cristina dos; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Nastally de; Varella, Larissa; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Terezan, Ana Paula; Leite, Ana Cristina; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pirani, Jose Rubens

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extracts from leaves, branches and stems of D. bipinnatum afforded the steroids β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, sitostenone and sitosterol-3-O- -D-glycopyranoside, along with two cycloartane triterpenes: cycloeucalenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6623), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The extracts of the leaves and branches showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. The extract of the branches was active against Micrococcus luteus. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of D. bipinnatum. (author)

  5. Antinociceptive Activity of Stephanolepis hispidus Skin Aqueous Extract Depends Partly on Opioid System Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Castro-Faria-Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephanolepis hispidus is one of the most common filefish species in Brazil. Its skin is traditionally used as a complementary treatment for inflammatory disorders. However, there are very few studies on chemical and pharmacological properties using the skin of this fish. This study was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of aqueous crude extract of S. hispidus skin (SAE in different nociception models. Here, we report that intraperitoneal administration of SAE inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid in mice. In addition to the effect seen in the abdominal constriction model, SAE was also able to inhibit the hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in mice. This potent antinociceptive effect was observed in the hot plate model too, but not in tail-flick test. Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, was able to block the antinociceptive effect of SAE in the abdominal constriction and hot plate models. In addition, SAE did not present cytotoxic or genotoxic effect in human peripheral blood cells. Our results suggest that aqueous crude extract from S. hispidus skin has antinociceptive activity in close relationship with the partial activation of opioid receptors in the nervous system. Moreover, aqueous crude extract from S. hispidus skin does not present toxicity and is therefore endowed with the potential for pharmacological control of pain.

  6. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-07-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC 50 =14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC 50 =35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC 50 =66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC 50 =73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua , C. epigeus, A. figarianum , A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ling-Li; Wen, Guan; Yuan, Min-Yong; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions we...

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. edible oil and phenolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, F; Aouadhi, C; Khouja, M L; Khaldi, A; Maaroufi, A

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. is known in some Tunisian forest area by its fixed oil used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic product. This investigation is the first to study the antimicrobial activity of P.lentiscus edible oil and its phenolic extract. Oil was extracted from fruits harvested from six provenances located in Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Kbouch and Sidi Zid oils were most efficient (p oil and extract.

  9. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  10. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knasmueller, S.; Szakmary, A.; Domjan, G.; de Martin, R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of γ-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells

  11. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  12. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  13. The Antioxidant and Antihaemolytic Activities and the Polyphenolic Contents of Some Plants Seeds Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrooz, O.; Harb, M.; Al-Qato, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the this study which were carried out on yhe ethanol and acetone extracts of Prunus armeniaca, Cerasus vulgare, Nespole, Opuntia ficus-indica, Cucumis melo, and Vitis vinifera proved that theses extracts contain bioctive substances such as polyohenols and flavonids. The UV-VIS spectropgotometric assays showed that the extracted materials posses strong band in the range between 250-300 nm which confirm the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. The concentration of these materials were different depending on the type pf plant seeds and the solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant and antihaemolytic activities of the extracts were determined by 1, 1-dipheny1-2picry1-hydeazy1 (DPPH) method, and red blood cells (RBCs) haemolysis test. Results of these extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities depending on the origin of plant extracts. (Author's) 23 refs., 4 Tabs., 1fig

  14. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of Cynodon dactylon Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C

    2008-09-01

    Petroleum ether (60 degrees-80 degrees C), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude hot water extracts of the whole plant of C. dactylon and the two fractions of aqueous extract were tested for antihyperglycaemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and in alloxan induced diabetic model at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg (po) respectively. The aqueous extract of C. dactylon and the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycaemic activity and only the non polysaccharide fraction was found to produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of the plant decreased the elevated biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin significantly. Comparatively, the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract was found to be more effective than the aqueous extract.

  15. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, H.; Aydin, C.; Mammadov, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  16. Investigation of antineoplastic activity of chewing tablets based on dry oat extract and quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ярослав Ростиславович Андрійчук

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of domestic pharmaceutical science is development of new medicines. Thus, new tablet drug was created based on dry oat extract and quercetin. Investigation of antineoplastic activity was performed. Antineoplastic activity of investigational drug based on dry oat extract and quercetin was experimentally proved.

  17. Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The antibacterial activities of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were studied.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir Moualek

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  19. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of seed extract from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichaya Chowtivannakul

    2016-09-01

    These results indicated that seed extract from L. leucocephala has antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity is likely due to the phenolic content. An application of this extract should be considered as it can affect renal function by reducing the levels of albumin, ALP and total protein.

  20. Activity of glucocerebrosidase in extracts of different cell types from type 1 Gaucher disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sa Miranda, M. C.; Aerts, J. M.; Pinto, R.; Fontes, A.; de Lacerda, L. W.; van Weely, S.; Barranger, J.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Glucocerebrosidase activity in extracts of leukocytes, Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphocytes and fibroblasts from Portuguese Type 1 Gaucher disease patients was studied. The residual glucocerebrosidase activity in all extracts from patients was less than 25% if measured in the presence of bile

  1. Preliminary assay on the radical scavenging activity of olive wood extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarejos, J.; Salido, S.; Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Beek, van T.A.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Olea europaea wood (picual olive cultivar) were screened for antioxidant activity, determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The ethanol extract displayed potent antioxidant activity. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Aerial Part Crude Extracts from the Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of several crude extracts from the aerial parts of Anabasis aretioides was investigated by the disc diffusion method. The S. aureus, C. albicans and S. cereviceae Bacteria showed good efficiency in bacterial activity with most of the tested extract.

  3. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of fruit and leaf crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia extracts on reference strains and microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens. Method: Petroleum ether and methanolic crude extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on four ...

  4. Radioprotective activity of Gentiana lutea extract and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkovic, Nebojsa; Juranic, Zorica; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Raonic-Stevanovic, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Borojevic, Nenad

    2010-11-01

    Radioprotective/sensitizing actions of Gentiana lutea aqueous-ethanol extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced effects on different types of cells were investigated. The study focused on the decreasing survival of normal human immunocompetent cells, the survival of the malignant cells in vitro, and the survival of ex vivo irradiated cells before and after consumption of the extract by healthy volunteers. The in vitro experiments showed that mangiferin could inhibit cytotoxic action of ionizing irradiation (doses of 6 and 8 Gy) only on normal resting human PBMC, not stimulated for proliferation. Orally consumed G. lutea extract showed the potential to reduce the cytotoxic effect of x-ray irradiation on normal human immunocompetent cells PBMC of some healthy people, without changing the susceptibility of malignant cells to be destroyed by irradiation. Since the radioprotective effect was individually dependent, further clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME EXTRACTS OF FERN GAMETOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature freely offers us many resources for health and beauty. The ferns and their therapeutic properties are less exploit in Romania, except Lycopodium clavatum and Equisetum arvense. Some of the fern properties were demonstrated, like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelmintic properties. Plants are reasonable alternative to synthetic drugs, avoid the side effect and high cost of synthetic drugs production. Also, the drug resistance bacteria can be controlled using plant derived remedies. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts from three fern species were tested. The extracts were gained from gametophytic stage of ferns obtained in vitro. The most obvious effect was observed for Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum extract. The total polyphenols and flavonoids content were established, too.

  6. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Moroccan Opuntia ficus-indica flowers obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Benayad, Z.; Martínez Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, N. E

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenolic extraction efficiency of four extraction procedures, to explore the extract phenolic profile by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of cactus flowers from Morocco. accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 80% acetone in water at 80. °C gave rise to extracts with higher yields of total polyphenols, procyanidins and flavonoids. The qualitative analysis of the phenolic com...

  7. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  9. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhari, S B; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry

    2008-12-15

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  10. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.B.; Bhanger, M.I.; Memon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  12. Screening of medicinal natural extracts for their antibacterial activity against salmonella species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, A.; Latif, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to screen out natural crude extracts exhibiting antibacterial activity against Salmonella causing gastrointestinal problems in humans. Fifteen Salmonella species were isolated from uncooked chicken, polluted water, rotten potatoes, beef, rotten eggs etc. Aqueous plant extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella sativa (kalvanji), Azadirachta indica (neem), Ficus carica (anjeer), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (methi) were checked against Salmonella species by well plate method. In addition to plant extract, Honey was also used for antibacterial activity. Inhibition zones ranging from 2mm to 20mm were obtained with different concentration of plant extracts and honey. The antibacterial sensitivity pattern was in the order of kalvanji > garlic > honey > anjeer > methi > neem. The standard antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin were also used for comparison with natural extract for antibacterial activity. The extracts of Allium sativum, Nigella sativa and Honey were found to be more effective against Salmonella species for which even Ceftriaxone was found ineffective. (author)

  13. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Sosa, Edgar; Mora Gonzalez, Nestor; Morris Quevedo, Humberto J

    2013-01-01

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  14. Screening of medicinal natural extracts for their antibacterial activity against salmonella species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, A.; Latif, Z. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Microbiology

    2014-12-15

    The present study was aimed to screen out natural crude extracts exhibiting antibacterial activity against Salmonella causing gastrointestinal problems in humans. Fifteen Salmonella species were isolated from uncooked chicken, polluted water, rotten potatoes, beef, rotten eggs etc. Aqueous plant extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella sativa (kalvanji), Azadirachta indica (neem), Ficus carica (anjeer), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (methi) were checked against Salmonella species by well plate method. In addition to plant extract, Honey was also used for antibacterial activity. Inhibition zones ranging from 2mm to 20mm were obtained with different concentration of plant extracts and honey. The antibacterial sensitivity pattern was in the order of kalvanji > garlic > honey > anjeer > methi > neem. The standard antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin were also used for comparison with natural extract for antibacterial activity. The extracts of Allium sativum, Nigella sativa and Honey were found to be more effective against Salmonella species for which even Ceftriaxone was found ineffective. (author)

  15. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  16. Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts on Nomophila indistinctalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quesada-Romero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vegetal extracts represent an alternative to control against agricultural pests that have become resistant to pesticides. Using natural products is considered to be more friendly to the environment and safe. Aims: To determine the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts of two differents populations in Chile (Valparaiso and Curico against Nomophila indistinctalis larvae. Methods: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC susceptibility test was used to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the extracts at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L; against first instar larvae of Nomophila indistinctalis. The antifeedant activity was evaluated to determine the percentage of consumption in third instar larvae on treatment. Results: When comparing the control and the treatment groups in the antifeedant activity assay, significant differences (p<0.05 were observed after 90 minutes of exposure. With respect to the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed significant effects at the applied concentrations compared to the negative control. Moreover, the dichloromethane extracts of Curico and Valparaiso at concentrations greater than 500 mg/L showed a similar insecticidal activity as compared to the commercial formulation Neem. Conclusions: This work presents for the first time the results of the anti-feeding and insecticide activity of ethanol, methanol, and dichloromethane extracts from Polygonum persicaria on Nomophila indistinctalis. The results show that the extracts of this species can be used as an alternative for biological control. In addition, the results obtained allow a bioguided fractionation for the identification of secondary metabolites present in these extracts.

  17. Enhanced Antitumoral Activity of Extracts Derived from Cultured Udotea flabellum (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Moo-Puc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of culture conditions on the production or activity of active metabolites in algae. Previous studies suggest that the synthesis of bioactive compounds is strongly influenced by irradiance level. To investigate whether the antiproliferative activity of Udotea flabellum extracts is modified after cultivation, this green alga was cultured under four photon flux densities (PFD for 30 days. After 10, 20, and 30 days, algae were extracted with dichloromethane: methanol and screened for antiproliferative activity against four human cancer cell lines (laryngeal—Hep-2, cervix—HeLa, cervix squamous—SiHa and nasopharynx—KB by SRB assay. Lipid and phenol content were evaluated by standardized methods on algae organic extracts. After 10 days of cultivation, organic U. flabellum extracts showed a significant increase in antiproliferative activity on Hela and SiHa cells when compared to noncultured algae extracts. Extracts obtained after 10 and 20 days of culture were active on KB and Hep-2 cells. Total phenol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in organic extracts changed with cultivation time but not by irradiance treatment. Extracts from U. flabellum obtained after 10 and 20 days of culture have been selected for fractionation and isolation of active compounds.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  19. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Copaifera religiosa

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    Lekana-Douki Jean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions because of the emergence and widespread of antimalarial drug resistance. Traditional medicine represents one potential source of new treatments. Here, we investigated the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of bark extracts from two Fabaceae species (Tetrapleura tertaptera and Copaifera religiosa traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms in Haut-Ogooué province, Gabon. Findings The antiplasmodial activity of dichloromethane and methanolic extracts was tested on P. falciparum strains FCB (chloroquine-resistant and 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive and on fresh clinical isolates, using the DELI method. Host cell toxicity was analyzed on MRC-5 human diploid embryonic lung cells using the MTT test. The dichloromethane extracts of the two plants had interesting activity (IC50 between 8.5 ± 4.7 and 13.4 ± 3.6 μg/ml. The methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera was less active (IC50 around 30 μg/ml and the methanolic extract of Copaifera religiosa was inactive. The selectivity index (toxicity/antiplasmodial activity of the dichloromethane extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera was high (around 7, while the dichloromethane extract of Copaifera religiosa had the lowest selectivity (0.6. The mean IC50 values for field isolates were less than 1.5 μg/ml for dichloromethane extracts of both plants, while methanolic extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera showed interesting activity (IC50 = 13.1 μg/ml. The methanolic extract of Copaifera religiosa was also inactive on field isolates. Conclusions Dichloromethane extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Copaifera religiosa, two plants used to treat malaria in Gabon, had interesting antiplasmodial activity in vitro. These data provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these plants against malaria symptoms. Bioactivity-guided phytochemical analyses are underway to identify the active compounds.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Methanol and Chloroform extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of dental caries including postoperative prophylactic use, has led to widespread bacteria resistance to ... 20mg/ml each of crude methanol and dichloromethane extracts of S. oleracea leaves produced average zones of inhibition ranging between 21mm and 29mm ...

  1. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicellular green algal strains, identified as Cosmarium (Chlorophyta), were isolated from Ain-Echeffa hot spring in north Tunisia. Different extracts (methanol, hexane, acetone, acetone: methanol and water) obtained from both biomass and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated for their antibacterial, ...

  2. Antidiarrhea and Antioxidant Activities of Honokiol Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GSH-Px, 4.49 vs. 5.80). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased by 60 % with 100 mg/kg ... honokiol extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, on charcoal transit rate .... glutathione (GSH) concentration and total antioxidant capacity ...

  3. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  4. Antihyperglycemic activity of the bark methanolic extract of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahul Chandran

    The glucose homeostasis was observed till 180th min in glucose loaded rats treated with the ... formation.1 The pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes is not fully under- stood. .... Becker.15 The results are expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The ..... (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) extracts and certain non-protein amino/imino · acids ...

  5. Antidiuretic Activity of the Methanol Extract of Aporusa lindleyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    several folk medicinal recipes in treatment of eye diseases, loose ... completely dry solid (79.98 g, 8.89 %) and weighed (Libror .... Table 2: Effect of oral administration of the methanol extract (ME) of Aporusa lindleyana (500 mg/kg) on some.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Methanol extracts and alkaloid fractions of different parts of four plant species belonging to Solanaceae family and used in Mexican traditional medicine were investigated for their total phenolic contents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: The total phenolic compounds of each ...

  7. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenocardia acida is a plant used in African folkloric medicine in the treatment of headache, rheumatic pain, sickle cell crisis, malaria, epilepsy and cancer. This study was aimed at investigating the anticonvulsant potential of the methanol leaf extract of H. acida (MLEHA) in chicks and mice. Preliminary phytochemical ...

  8. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... conventionally used to control microbial growth and survival (Nascimento et al., ... The leaves were air-dried to crispiness in the laboratory at room temperature of 25. - 260C. ... and sequentially extracted in cold with 2 × 1L of distilled hexane, ethyl acetate ..... medicinal plants on smooth muscle. AB Abstract ...

  9. Anticancer activity of aqueous myrrh extract alone and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wafaa S. Ramadan, Khalid H. Sait, Nisreen M. Anfinan. Abstract. Purpose: To study the impact of an aqueous myrrh extract on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Methods: First, 100 g of ground ... The effect of combined therapy was more lethal than the effect of either of them alone. Conclusion: Myrrh induces ...

  10. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae), and three phytochemical (HPLC) fractions containing the major phenolic compounds were investigated for their effects on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. The three fractions used contained the major peaks within ...

  11. Comparative pesticidal activity of dichloromethane extracts of Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparative ... the compound in extract of P. nigrum on stored products insects found in maize and ... the viscous brown olive oil produced was allowed to cool in ice cold bath for two minutes ...

  12. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    USTHB, Organic Functional Analysis Laboratory, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ... Keywords: Ahmeur Bouamer, extraction, grape seeds, total polyphenols, ... These compounds are known as good natural antioxidant agents arising from natural ... surface between solid and liquid phases; this is mainly due to the dispersion of ...

  13. Antifungal activity of plant extracts on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Rusin Carine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline and death of the vine has become an obstacle to world wine production. Among the causative agents highlights the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, causal agent of Esca and Petri disease. Plant extracts may become a viable option control considering their fungistatic and/or fungicide substances. The objective of this work was to verify the potential of the aqueous extracts of plants on the control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora comparing to other products. The following treatments were applied: sulfur, mancozeb, difeconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, chitosan, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum,and extracts of india flowers, cinnamon bark, dried leaves of rosemary and lemon grass. The treatments were added in PDA culture medium, previously autoclaved at 120o for 20 min. Disc of 5 mm diameter of P.chlamydosporacolony were transferred to the center of Petri dishes and kept at 20∘C in the dark. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications. It was evaluated the mycelial growth at five, eight and fourteen days after the installation of the experiment, obtaining the area under curve of the mycelial growth (AUCMG. The clove India extracts, cinnamon and rosemary, proved to be a control option considering their effect in the decrease of AUCMG compared to the control.

  14. hypoglycaemic activity of the alcoholic extract of musa sapientum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was studied in alloxamised and fasted rabbits. The results showed that a single dose-level of 5mg/kg of this extract reduced the blood glucose level by 90% after 18 hours of administration per os, in all experimental animals. Key Words: Musa sapientum, Musacaeae, anti-hyperglycaemic, glucosinolate, myrosinnase. Nig.

  15. Antiproliferative activity of protein extracts from the black clam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MB-231 cell lines with IC50 values of 138.035 and 157.19 μg/ml, respectively, and 2F2 showed IC50 values of 67.46 μg/ml on HeLa cells. These results suggest that protein extracts from C. fluctifraga might be potential anticancer agents.

  16. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    ABSTRACT: Conventional and non-conventional extraction methods were applied in the first time for the ... The heating of the matrix internally and externally without thermal gradient gives numerous advantages to microwave ... Once in laboratory, the clusters were washed with distilled and de-ionized water, then dried and ...

  17. Antifungal activities of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 29.27%, respectively) whereas other investigated Fusarium species exhibited much lower sensitivity. The basil extract completely inhibited the growth of investigated Fusarium spp. at the concentration of 1.50% (v/v). Higher concentrations (0.35 and 0.70% (v/v)) reduced growth of aerial mycelium in all tested species.

  18. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of some species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant effects of the methanolic extract of Phlomis bruguieri, P. herba-venti, P. olivieri, Stachys byzantina, S. inflata, S. lavandulifolia and S. laxa were tested in sunflower oil stored at 70ºC, by measuring peroxide values after regular intervals and compared with rosemary-, green tea- and BHAcontaining samples.

  19. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Sambucus ebulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increase in the emergence of drug - resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant. S. aureus have been studied. Material and ...