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Sample records for extract activates apical

  1. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Jidigam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient. In this study we have established several in vivo assays of placodal invagination to explore whether the external signal BMP regulates processes connected to epithelial invagination. By inhibiting BMP activity in prospective cranial placodes, we provide evidence that BMP signals are required for RhoA and F-actin rearrangements, apical constriction, cell elongation and epithelial invagination. The failure of placode invagination after BMP inhibition appears to be a direct consequence of disrupted apical accumulation of RhoA and F-actin, rather than changes in cell death or proliferation. In addition, our results show that epithelial invagination and acquisition of placode-specific identities are two distinct and separable developmental processes. In summary, our results provide evidence that BMP signals promote epithelial invagination by acting upstream of the intracellular molecular machinery that drives apical constriction and cell elongation.

  2. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jidigam, Vijay K; Srinivasan, Raghuraman C; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena

    2015-11-30

    Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient. In this study we have established several in vivo assays of placodal invagination to explore whether the external signal BMP regulates processes connected to epithelial invagination. By inhibiting BMP activity in prospective cranial placodes, we provide evidence that BMP signals are required for RhoA and F-actin rearrangements, apical constriction, cell elongation and epithelial invagination. The failure of placode invagination after BMP inhibition appears to be a direct consequence of disrupted apical accumulation of RhoA and F-actin, rather than changes in cell death or proliferation. In addition, our results show that epithelial invagination and acquisition of placode-specific identities are two distinct and separable developmental processes. In summary, our results provide evidence that BMP signals promote epithelial invagination by acting upstream of the intracellular molecular machinery that drives apical constriction and cell elongation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  4. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

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    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  5. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jidigam, Vijay K.; Raghuraman C. Srinivasan; Cedric Patthey; Lena Gunhaga

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient....

  6. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  7. Junctionally restricted RhoA activity is necessary for apical constriction during phase 2 inner ear placode invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Xiaorei; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Ladher, Raj K

    2014-10-15

    After induction, the inner ear is transformed from a superficially located otic placode into an epithelial vesicle embedded in the mesenchyme of the head. Invagination of this epithelium is biphasic: phase 1 involves the expansion of the basal aspect of the otic cells, and phase 2, the constriction of their apices. Apical constriction is important not only for otic invagination, but also the invagination of many other epithelia; however, its molecular basis is still poorly understood. Here we show that phase 2 otic morphogenesis, like phase 1 morphogenesis, results from the activation of myosin-II. However unlike the actin depolymerising activity observed basally, active myosin-II results in actomyosin contractility. Myosin-II activation is triggered by the accumulation of the planar cell polarity (PCP) core protein, Celsr1 in apical junctions (AJ). Apically polarized Celsr1 orients and recruits the Rho Guanine exchange factor (GEF) ArhGEF11 to apical junctions, thus restricting RhoA activity to the junctional membrane where it activates the Rho kinase ROCK. We suggest that myosin-II and RhoA activation results in actomyosin dependent constriction in an apically polarised manner driving otic epithelium invagination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction.

  9. Apical cap

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    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  10. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A; Pierro, Louis J; Upholt, William B; Dealy, Caroline N

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or apical ectodermal ridge (AER), but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dorsal-ventral patterning. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (pactivities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralocorticoids decrease the activity of the apical small-conductance K channel in the cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Babilonia, Elisa; Sterling, Hyacinth; Jin, Yan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2005-11-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of DOCA treatment (2 mg/kg) on the apical small-conductance K (SK) channels, epithelial Na channels (ENaC), and the basolateral 18-pS K channels in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Treatment of rats with DOCA for 6 days significantly decreased the plasma K from 3.8 to 3.1 meq and reduced the activity of the SK channel, defined as NP(o), from 1.3 in the CCD of control rats to 0.6. In contrast, DOCA treatment significantly increased ENaC activity from 0.01 to 0.53 and the basolateral 18-pS K channel activity from 0.67 to 1.63. Moreover, Western blot analysis revealed that DOCA treatment significantly increased the expression of the nonreceptor type of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), cSrc, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. The possibility that decreases in apical SK channel activity induced by DOCA treatment were the result of stimulation of PTK activity was further supported by experiments in which inhibition of PTK with herbimycin A significantly increased NP(o) from 0.6 to 2.1 in the CCD from rats receiving DOCA. Also, when rats were fed a high-K (10%) diet, DOCA treatment did not increase the expression of c-Src and decrease the activity of the SK channel in the CCD. We conclude that DOCA treatment decreased the apical SK channel activity in rats on a normal-K diet and that an increase in PTK expression may be responsible for decreased channel activity in the CCD from DOCA-treated rats.

  13. Qualitative analysis of the removal of the smear layer in the apical third of curved roots: conventional irrigation versus activation systems.

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    Blank-Gonçalves, Luciana Magrin; Nabeshima, Cleber Keiti; Martins, Guilherme Henrique Rosa; Machado, Manoel Eduardo de Lima

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigant agitation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals. Mesiobuccal canals of 62 extracted lower molars with a curvature of 33 degrees were used and instrumented up to ProTaper F2. The samples were divided into 3 experimental groups according to the final irrigation: conventional irrigation, ultrasonic irrigation, and sonic irrigation by using the EndoActivator system. The control group was composed of 2 specimens without any final irrigation. In all of the experimental groups, 5 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used for 1 minute, and 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl was used for 30 seconds. The analysis of the apical region was performed via scanning electron microscopy by 3 examiners. The data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P systems removed significantly more smear layer than did conventional irrigation. Sonic and ultrasonic irrigation resulted in better removal of the smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals than did conventional irrigation. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Golgi sorting regulates organization and activity of GPI-proteins at apical membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivodar, Simona; Formiggini, Fabio; Ossato, Giulia; Gratton, Enrico; Tramier, Marc; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Here, we combined classical biochemistry with novel biophysical approaches to study with high spatial and temporal resolution the organization of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) at the plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We show that in polarized MDCK cells, following sorting in the Golgi, each GPI-AP reaches the apical surface in homo-clusters. Golgi-derived homo-clusters are required for their subsequent plasma membrane organization into cholesterol-dependent hetero-clusters. By contrast, in non-polarized MDCK cells GPI-APs are delivered to the surface as monomers in an unpolarized manner and are not able to form hetero-clusters. We further demonstrate that this GPI-AP organization is regulated by the content of cholesterol in the Golgi apparatus and is required to maintain the functional state of the protein at the apical membrane. Thus, different from fibroblasts, in polarized epithelial cells a selective cholesterol-dependent sorting mechanism in the Golgi regulates both the organization and the function of GPI-APs at the apical surface. PMID:24681536

  15. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  16. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  17. Keratoconus fittings: apical clearance or apical support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relative merits of apical support and apical clearance fitting of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses for keratoconus. After an historic review of fitting approaches for keratoconus, a case report is described in which an adventitious apical clearance fitting for early keratoconus might have been associated with accelerated progress of the ectasia. The hypothesis that apical clearance fittings increase the risk of accelerating ectasia progression in early keratoconus is examined in counterpoint to the hypothesis that apical support fittings increase the risk of apical scarring. Reference is made to the responses of normal corneas to apical clearance fitting and to apical contact fittings used in orthokeratology fittings. The tendency for corneas to mold to contact lens curvature is reviewed. The possibility that reduced corneal thickness or tissue softening and associated changes to the biomechanical properties of the cornea in keratoconus may facilitate molding with apical clearance fitting is examined. Known and putative risk factors for fitting complications that are associated with apical clearance and apical touch contact lens fitting are given as a basis for the reader to draw conclusions about the management of contact lens fitting for keratoconus. The possibility of symptomless adverse responses is a strong indication for frequent routine aftercare reviews.

  18. Hypo-osmotic challenge stimulates transepithelial K+ secretion and activates apical IsK channel in vestibular dark cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangemann, P; Liu, J; Shen, Z; Shipley, A; Marcus, D C

    1995-10-01

    data demonstrate that a hypo-osmotic challenge stimulates transepithelial K+ secretion and activates the apical IsK channel. The hypo-osmotically-induced increase in K+ secretion exceeded the estimated amount of K+ release necessary for the maintenance of constant cell volume, suggesting that the rate of basolateral K+ uptake was upregulated in the presence of the hypo-osmotic challenge and that cross-talk exists between the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane.

  19. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  20. Visualization of removal of trapped air from the apical region in simulated root canals by laser-activated irrigation using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Harry Huiz; De Moor, Roeland J G; Suharto, Djoko

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this visualization study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism by which trapped air is removed from the apical region of simulated root canals by activation of an irrigant using an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser during endodontic procedures. A high-speed imaging system with high temporal and spatial resolution was used to visualize laser-induced shock waves in a resin block model with a curved root canal (inner diameter at the apex 0.08 mm, taper 4 %, crown height 10 mm, overall length 40 mm) and a glass cylinder model with a straight root canal (inner diameter 1 mm, crown height 10 mm, overall length 40 mm). The study utilized MZ3 and RFT3 tips in each model, without water or air spray, and with an average power of 1 W at 35 Hz. Laser-activated irrigation overcame the airlock effect by releasing air trapped in the air column. The mechanism underlying the removal of trapped air from the apical region using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a dry root canal is via the disruption of the surface tension at the solution-air interface. This disruption, caused by bubble implosion (cavitation), displaces air in the form of bubbles from the apical region toward the solution, which allows the solution to travel apically.

  1. Gross, computed tomographic and histological findings in mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis due to apical infection.

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    Casey, M B; Pearson, G R; Perkins, J D; Tremaine, W H

    2015-09-01

    The most prevalent type of equine dental pulpitis due to apical infection is not associated with coronal fractures or periodontal disease. The pathogenesis of this type of pulpitis is not fully understood. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to investigate equine dental disorders. However, gross, tomographic and histopathological changes in equine dental pulpitis have not been compared previously. To compare gross, CT and histological appearances of sectioned mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis without coronal fractures or periodontal disease. To contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of equine dental pulpitis. Descriptive study using diseased and healthy teeth. Mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis (cases), and from cadavers with no history of dental disease (controls), were compared using CT in the transverse plane at 1 mm intervals. Teeth were then sectioned transversely, photographed and processed for histopathological examination. Tomographs were compared with corresponding gross and histological sections. Cement, dentine and bone had similar ranges of attenuation (550-2000 Hounsfield Units, HU) in tomographs but could be differentiated from pulp (-400 to 500 HU) and enamel (> 2500 HU). Twelve discrete dental lesions were identified grossly, 10 of which were characterised histologically. Reactive and reparative dentinogenesis and extensive pulpar mineralisation, previously undescribed, were identified. Pulpar oedema, neutrophilic inflammation, cement and enamel defects, and reactive cemental deposition were also observed. The CT and pathological findings corresponded well where there was mineralised tissue deposited, defects in mineralised tissue, or food material in the pulpar area. Pulpar and dentinal necrosis and cement destruction, evident grossly and histologically, did not correspond to CT changes. Computed tomography is useful for identifying deposition and

  2. A synthetic prostone activates apical chloride channels in A6 epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hui Fang; Liu, Lian; Self, Julie; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Ueno, Ryuji; Eaton, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    The bicyclic fatty acid lubiprostone (formerly known as SPI-0211) activates two types of anion channels in A6 cells. Both channel types are rarely, if ever, observed in untreated cells. The first channel type was activated at low concentrations of lubiprostone (80% of cell-attached patches and had a unit conductance of ∼3–4 pS. The second channel type required higher concentrations (>100 nM) of lubiprostone to activate, was observed in ∼30% of patches, and had a unit conductance of 8–9 pS. The properties of the first type of channel were consistent with ClC-2 and the second with CFTR. ClC-2's unit current strongly inwardly rectified that could be best fit by models of the channel with multiple energy barrier and multiple anion binding sites in the conductance pore. The open probability and mean open time of ClC-2 was voltage dependent, decreasing dramatically as the patches were depolarized. The order of anion selectivity for ClC-2 was Cl > Br > NO3 > I > SCN, where SCN is thiocyanate. ClC-2 was a “double-barreled” channel favoring even numbers of levels over odd numbers as if the channel protein had two conductance pathways that opened independently of one another. The channel could be, at least, partially blocked by glibenclamide. The properties of the channel in A6 cells were indistinguishable from ClC-2 channels stably transfected in HEK293 cells. CFTR in the patches had a selectivity of Cl > Br ≫ NO3 ≅ SCN ≅ I. It outwardly rectified as expected for a single-site anion channel. Because of its properties, ClC-2 is uniquely suitable to promote anion secretion with little anion reabsorption. CFTR, on the other hand, could promote either reabsorption or secretion depending on the anion driving forces. PMID:18511742

  3. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berahou, A; Auhmani, A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Gadhi, C A

    2007-07-25

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts of Quercus ilex bark (Fagaceae) was studied in vitro against seven reference strains of bacteria by using a disc-diffusion method and agar-dilution method. The ethyl acetate extract (QE), n-butanol extract (QB) and final aqueous layer (QA) were effective against all bacterial strains tested at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/ml. The n-hexane extract (QH) and dichloromethane extract (QD) showed no activity.

  5. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Ashoksingh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6, sonic (EndoActivator (Group II, n: 6, and MAF (Group III, n: 6. Four teeth served as positive (n: 2 and negative (n: 2 controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000 at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal.

  6. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  7. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  8. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections.

  9. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  10. Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation to Remove Calcium Hydroxide from Apical Third of Human Root Canal System: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethem Yaylali, Ibrahim; Kececi, Ayse Diljin; Ureyen Kaya, Buglem

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the outcomes of in vitro studies comparing ultrasonically activated irrigation versus other irrigation techniques for removing calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) from the apical third of root canals. The research question was developed according to the PICO strategy. A comprehensive literature search was performed. The Medline, Embase, and TRIP electronic databases were searched. A hand search of the reference lists of identified articles was performed to isolate relevant articles. Two reviewers critically assessed the studies against our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Evaluation of the risk of bias of the studies was performed independently by the 2 reviewers. After study selection, 62 were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Because considerable heterogeneity was found in the methodologies, it was not possible to combine the results of studies in a meta-analysis. Ultrasonically activated irrigation was found to be superior to syringe irrigation and apical negative pressure irrigation, but insufficient evidence was found to indicate its superiority over the other irrigation techniques such as sonically activated irrigation, the Self-Adjusting File, (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel) and the RinsEndo, (Dürr Dental, Bietigheim, Germany). On the basis of available evidence, we determined the effectiveness of ultrasonically activated irrigation compared with syringe and apical negative pressure irrigation. Because of the small sample sizes, low number of included studies, and limitations, further research is needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, P S; Anandharamakrishnan, C; Jayaprakasha, G K

    2003-01-01

    Aristolochia bracteata (Aristolochiaceae) is used in traditional medicines as a gastric stimulant and in the treatment of cancer, lung inflammation, and dysentery and snake bites. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts. Roots of A. bracteata were powdered and successively extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and water for 8 hours each using a Soxhlet extractor. Antibacterial activity of dried extracts was evaluated by the pour-plate method against a few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. All the crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective. This study shows the potential for replacement of synthetic preservatives by the use of natural extracts.

  13. Apical Patency or Apical Plug: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durr-e-Sadaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to undertake a literature review on two different techniques of apical preparation of root canals e.g. apical patency and apical plug. Apical patency is a technique in which apical constriction and apical foramen are kept patent throughout the instrumentation of root canals. This technique prevents packing of debris at the apical area. It also helps to maintain working length. A small patent file 1mm longer than the working length is passed through the apical foramen passively. This technique is thought to ensure complete debridement of root canals. It is associated with less postoperative pain. The objections to this technique are the extrusion of debris, irrigating solutions, sealer and filling materials. It may also cause over instrumentation and foramen transportation. Enlargement of apical constriction or apical foramen through patency files is not supported by literature. Apical plug is the technique in which instrumentation is kept within working length of the root canals without using any patency file. This results in the formation of an apical plug composed of dentinal chips in the apical third of the root canal. Apical plug may be contaminated with micro flora and necrotic tissues leading to inflammatory reactions in the periapical tissues. This technique prevents the extrusion of debris, irrigating solution, sealers and thermoplastic gutta-percha. However, intentional packing with dentinal chips or biological compatible materials at the apical area is required in teeth with immature apices, root resorption, or when apical constriction is violated due to over instrumentation.

  14. Scintigraphic evaluation of regional myocardial sympathetic activity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Comparison between asymmetrical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and apical hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eno, Shin; Takeo, Eiichiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Keiji; Fujii, Hideaki; Kanazawa, Ikuo [Chugoku Rosai General Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Using {sup 123}I-MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) and {sup 201}Tl imagings, an examination concerning the relation between the hypertrophic region and its sympathetic nervous function was done. Subjects were 12 normal adults (4 males and 8 females, mean age 61.3 yr), 13 patients with asymmetrical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (10 males and 3 females, 63.9 yr) and 13 patients with apical hypertrophy (9 males and 4 females, 67.2 yr). The SPECT apparatus was Toshiba two-gated gamma camera GCA 7200A. At 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIBG, myocardial SPECT and planar images were obtained with collimator LEHR under following conditions: photoelectric peak 159 KeV, window width 20%, matrix size 64 x 64 (256 x 256 for the planar image), step angle 6deg, 40 sec/step and 180deg for 1 camera. In another day, {sup 201}Tl SPECT and planar imagings were performed 10 min after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 201}Tl for the photoelectric peak 72 KeV under similar conditions to above. SPECT images were reconstructed using Butterworth filter and Shepp and Logan filter. Images were examined for the defect score, myocardium/mediastinum ratio, whole heart washout rate and regional washout rate. In the asymmetrical hypertrophic myopathy, abnormal sympathetic nerve function was recognized on the regions regardless of their disease severity while in the apical hypertrophy, abnormality was restricted on the apical region. Therefore, the two diseases were found different from each other from the aspect of sympathetic nerve functions. (K.H.)

  15. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

    1994-10-14

    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input.

  16. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Cissus Cornifolia in Mice. ... leaf and root extract respectively at the same dose of 300 mg k-1 bd. wt. in mice. This work further confirms our earlier report on sedative effects of this plant as used traditionally against mental problems.

  17. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  18. Anti- Plasmodium Falciparum Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria drugs. Dendrathema indicum/ Dunkufea plant used in the treatment of malaria in the northern part of Nigeria was evaluated for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The crude ethanol extract of the plant, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl ...

  19. Antinociceptive activity of Eupatorium buniifolium aqueous extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebrahimzadeh

    from aerial parts of Salvia limbata produced a statistically significant inhibition of pain induced by hot ... including analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities .... specific antagonist of opioid receptors. The inhibitory effect of naloxone on the antinociceptive activity of extract suggests a morphine-like activity profile for S. limbata.

  20. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  1. Activation of embryo during rape (Brassica napus L. seed germination II. Transversal organisation of radicle apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of microtome cross sections of the root apical meristem were investigated in the mature embryo and young seedling of rape. The cell patterns are described in 3 layers of promeristem. Radial sectors of the root cap and protoderm, formed by common dermatocalyptrogen initials, and radial sectors of the cortex, produced by periblem initials were identified on all cross sections of the root. Between these sectors 4 segmentation boundaries of proembryo quadrants were distinguished, running across the whole root proper. The boundaries between the 4 sectors of connecting cells arising from the upper hypophysis derivative and the boundaries between the 4 sectors of the columella originating from the lower hypophysis derivative do not follow the same course and are not identical with the boundaries of the proembryo quadrants. Therefore during the whole embryogenesis, the central connecting cells, considered generally as cortex initials (iec, take no part in the development of the cortex but they form the quiescent centre of the radicle. Neither do the columella initial cells participate in the development of the lateral parts of the root cap.

  2. (AJST) INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Science and Engineering Series Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. .... wide range of activities, for example extracts from the the ... processing and application of the product inexpensive. In ... From time immemorial poles of ... the insecticidal activity of the mangrove R. mucronata ... (29) and regression analysis (30) to determine the LC50's of.

  3. Chemopreventive activity of methanol extract of Melastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive activity of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. ... Conclusion: MEMM demonstrated chemoprevention possibly via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the action of flavonoids like quercitrin. Key words: Melastomaceae; skin ...

  4. Immune-Inflammatory Cell Profile and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Expression in Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Retreatment Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Batista, Aline Carvalho; de Souza Lima, Nathália Caroline; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; de Souza, João Antonio Chaves; Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the immune-inflammatory profile and the expression of bone resorption activators receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) in apical periodontitis (n = 20) that persisted after root canal retreatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize lymphocyte populations (CD3+, CD45RO+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ cells), macrophages (CD68+), RANKL+ and OPG+ cells in persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) and primary periapical lesions (PPLs). By using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in PAP and periodontal ligament from healthy teeth was comparatively analyzed. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Pearson χ2, and Wilcoxon tests (5% level). PAP showed an elevated number of FoxP3+ cells compared with PPL (P .05 for all comparisons). No differences in the RANKL, OPG, and immune-inflammatory cells were demonstrated when comparing PAP microscopically classified as cyst with those classified as granulomas (P > .05 for all comparisons). The assessment of mRNA expression revealed higher levels of RANKL and OPG in PAP compared with the periodontal ligament from healthy teeth (control) samples (P < .001). Also, a greater expression of RANKL in comparison with OPG was observed in PAP (P < .001). These findings indicate that PAP consists of biologically active lesions that demonstrate potential of bone resorption (higher expression of RANKL) and is characterized by an immune-inflammatory cell profile that suggests a suppressive and regulatory environment (higher number of FoxP3+ cells and lower number of macrophages) favorable to more chronic clinical behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A yeast mitotic activator sensitises the shoot apical meristem to become floral in day-neutral tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodová, Petra; Mašková, Petra; Francis, Dennis; Lipavská, Helena

    2013-10-01

    True day-neutral (DN) plants flower regardless of day-length and yet they flower at characteristic stages. DN Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, makes about forty nodes before flowering. The question still persists whether flowering starts because leaves become physiologically able to export sufficient floral stimulus or the shoot apical meristem (SAM) acquires developmental competence to interpret its arrival. This question was addressed using tobacco expressing the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle gene, Spcdc25, as a tool. Spcdc25 expression induces early flowering and we tested a hypothesis that this phenotype arises because of premature floral competence of the SAM. Scions of vegetative Spcdc25 plants were grafted onto stocks of vegetative WT together with converse grafts and flowering onset followed (as the time since sowing and number of leaves formed till flowering). Spcdc25 plants flowered significantly earlier with fewer leaves, and, unlike WT, also formed flowers from axillary buds. Scions from vegetative Spcdc25 plants also flowered precociously when grafted to vegetative WT stocks. However, in a WT scion to Spcdc25 stock, the plants flowered at the same time as WT. SAMs from young vegetative Spcdc25 plants were elongated (increase in SAM convexity determined by tracing a circumference of SAM sections) with a pronounced meristem surface cell layers compared with WT. Presumably, Spcdc25 SAMs were competent for flowering earlier than WT and responded to florigenic signal produced even in young vegetative WT plants. Precocious reproductive competence in Spcdc25 SAMs comprised a pronounced mantle, a trait of prefloral SAMs. Hence, we propose that true DN plants export florigenic signal since early developmental stages but the SAM has to acquire competence to respond to the floral stimulus.

  6. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constituents which include alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. However, only the ... the most toxic. These results obtained revealed that the leaves and root bark extracts possess pharmacological activity against diarrhoea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  9. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, in order to observe the anti-inflammatory action of Solanum lycopersicum extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, its inhibitory and inflammation activity was investigated by observing the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production using PGE2 enzyme immunometric assay kit. Results show that ...

  10. Antiprotozoal activity of extracts of Elaeodendron trichotomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiprotozoal activity of extracts of Elaeodendron trichotomum (Celastraceae). Carolina Roca-Mézquita, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Rosa E Moo-Puc, Lorena V Leon-Déniz, Rubí Gamboa-León, Carely Arjona-Ruiz, Juan Tun-Garrido, Gumersindo Mirón-López, Gonzalo J Mena- Rejón ...

  11. Anticholinesterase activities of methanol extract and partitioned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In clinical practice however, anticholinesterases have remained relevant in managing memory and cognition dysfunction associated both with old age and certain neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro anticholinesterase activity of extracts and fractions of A. hispidum was done using Ellman's colorimetric and TLC ...

  12. Detailed analysis of ventricular activation sequences during right ventricular apical pacing and left bundle branch block and the potential implications for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschalier, Romain; Ploux, Sylvain; Lumens, Joost; Whinnett, Zachary; Varma, Niraj; Meillet, Valentin; Ritter, Philippe; Jaïs, Pierre; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Bordachar, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) leads to prolonged left ventricular (LV) total activation time (TAT) and ventricular electrical uncoupling (VEU; mean LV activation time minus mean right ventricular [RV] activation time); both have been shown to be preferential targets for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Whether right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) produces similar ventricular activation patterns has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to compare electrical ventricular activation patterns during RVAP and LBBB. We performed ECG mapping during sinus rhythm, RVAP, and CRT in 24 patients with LBBB. We observed differences in the electrical activation pattern with RVAP compared to LBBB. During LBBB, RV activation occurred rapidly; in contrast, RV activation was prolonged during RVAP (46 ± 21 ms vs 69 ± 17 ms, P <.001). There was no significant difference in LVTAT; however, differences in conduction pattern were observed. During LBBB, LV activation was circumferential, whereas with RVAP, LV activation proceeded from apex to base. Differences in the number, size, and orientation of lines of slow conduction also were observed. With LBBB, VEU was nearly twice as long as during RVAP (73 ± 12 ms vs 38 ± 21 ms, P <.001). CRT resulted in a greater reduction in VEU relative to LBBB activation (P <.001). RVAP produces significant differences in ventricular activation characteristics compared to LBBB. Significantly less VEU occurs with RVAP, and as a result CRT produces a smaller relative reduction in VEU. This may explain the finding that CRT appears to be more effective in patients with LBBB than in those who were upgraded because of high percentages of RV pacing. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-11-07

    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium. This enhanced TLR induction by live F. prausnitzii, which until now has not previously been described, may contribute to maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis. This highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant co-culture systems to decipher the mechanisms of action of live obligate anaerobes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Apical constriction is driven by a pulsatile apical myosin network in delaminating Drosophila neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanru; Xue, Guosheng; Shaobo, Yang; Mingxi, Deng; Zhou, Xiaowei; Yu, Weichuan; Ishibashi, Toyotaka; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yan

    2017-06-15

    Cell delamination is a conserved morphogenetic process important for the generation of cell diversity and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here, we used Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts as a model to study the apical constriction process during cell delamination. We observe dynamic myosin signals both around the cell adherens junctions and underneath the cell apical surface in the neuroectoderm. On the cell apical cortex, the nonjunctional myosin forms flows and pulses, which are termed medial myosin pulses. Quantitative differences in medial myosin pulse intensity and frequency are crucial to distinguish delaminating neuroblasts from their neighbors. Inhibition of medial myosin pulses blocks delamination. The fate of a neuroblast is set apart from that of its neighbors by Notch signaling-mediated lateral inhibition. When we inhibit Notch signaling activity in the embryo, we observe that small clusters of cells undergo apical constriction and display an abnormal apical myosin pattern. Together, these results demonstrate that a contractile actomyosin network across the apical cell surface is organized to drive apical constriction in delaminating neuroblasts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shuaib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae. Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested.

  16. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  17. Bacterial community profiling of cryogenically ground samples from the apical and coronal root segments of teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F; Carmo, Flávia L; Santos, Adriana L; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rôças, Isabela N; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2009-04-01

    Bacteria located at the apical part of infected root canals are arguably directly involved in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. This study was conducted to profile and further compare the bacterial communities established at the apical and middle/coronal segments of infected root canals. Extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned so as to obtain two root fragments representing the apical third and the coronal two thirds. Root fragments were subjected to a cryogenic grinding approach. DNA was extracted from root powder samples and used as a template for bacterial community profiling using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based seminested polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach. The mean number of bands in apical samples from teeth with primary infections was 28, ranging from 18 to 48, whereas in the middle/coronal samples, it was also 28, ranging from 19 to 36. Findings showed that the profile of bacterial community colonizing the apical third of infected root canals is as diverse as that occurring at the middle/coronal thirds. A high variability was observed for both interindividual (samples from the same region but from different patients) and intraindividual (samples from different regions of the same tooth) comparisons. The methodology used to prepare and analyze samples was highly effective in disclosing a previously unanticipated broad diversity of endodontic bacterial communities, especially at the apical part of infected root canals.

  18. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  19. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-07-25

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and vanillic acid (2, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

  1. Calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by regulating the association of MARCKS and the cytoskeleton with the apical membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Abdel A; Bao, Hui-Fang; Liu, Bing-Chen; Yu, Ling; Aldrugh, Summer; Montgomery, Darrice S; Ma, He-Ping; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) open probability. In turn, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein or MARCKS-like protein 1 (MLP-1) at the plasma membrane regulates the delivery of PIP2 to ENaC. MARCKS and MLP-1 are regulated by changes in cytosolic calcium; increasing calcium promotes dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane, but the calcium-regulatory mechanisms are unclear. However, it is known that increased intracellular calcium can activate calmodulin and we show that inhibition of calmodulin with calmidazolium increases ENaC activity presumably by regulating MARCKS and MLP-1. Activated calmodulin can regulate MARCKS and MLP-1 in two ways. Calmodulin can bind to the effector domain of MARCKS or MLP-1, inactivating both proteins by causing their dissociation from the membrane. Mutations in MARCKS that prevent calmodulin association prevent dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane. Calmodulin also activates CaM kinase II (CaMKII). An inhibitor of CaMKII (KN93) increases ENaC activity, MARCKS association with ENaC, and promotes MARCKS movement to a membrane fraction. CaMKII phosphorylates filamin. Filamin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and promotes association of ENaC, MARCKS, and MLP-1. Disruption of the cytoskeleton with cytochalasin E reduces ENaC activity. CaMKII phosphorylation of filamin disrupts the cytoskeleton and the association of MARCKS, MLP-1, and ENaC, thereby reducing ENaC open probability. Taken together, these findings suggest calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by destabilizing the association between the actin cytoskeleton, ENaC, and MARCKS, or MLP-1 at the apical membrane. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  3. Abceso apical agudo

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Ortiz, M.; López, M.; Gómez Viglino, L.; Maydana, N.; Hervit, M.; Bertola, N.

    2015-01-01

    En casos de urgencia, muchas veces debemos poner a prueba distintos elementos de diagnóstico para encontrar la mejor respuesta posible. En este caso se reporta un absceso apical agudo en la zona palatina del sector 1, que, de acuerdo al test de vitalidad pulpar y correcta interpretación radiográfica se localiza la pieza causal N° 1.8.Asistió a la consulta un paciente masculino 30 años de edad, dolor a la masticación, edema y tumefacción, en zona palatina comprendida en piezas 1.5; 1.6; 1.7 y ...

  4. Badanie wpływu naturalnych ekstraktów roślinnych na izolowane wierzchołki wzrostów pedów w hodowli in vitro [Investigation of the influence of natural plant extracts on isolated generative apices cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kuta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper Was to test the value of various plant extracts (yeast barm, mature walnut embryos, coconut meal, young spinach leaves and tomato juice used as the complementary elements of White's mineral nutrient for the culture in vitro of generative apices of winter wheat, rape and wetch. The results showed that the generative apices of investigated planits had various nutritive requirements which point to the necessity of a careful selection of a specific nutrient for particular plant material.

  5. Two cases of apical ballooning syndrome masking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A; Hurst, R Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  6. Colgajo de reposición apical Apically positioned flap

    OpenAIRE

    L. Pérez-Salcedo; A. Bascones Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe la técnica del colgajo de reposición apical desde el primer autor, Nabers en 1954, así como las modificaciones realizadas por Ariaudo y Tyrrel en 1957 y Friedman en 1962. También se presenta un caso clínico donde se describen los diferentes pasos de la cirugía de reposición apical. Por último, se hace una revisión evaluando la eficacia del colgajo de reposición apical en el tratamiento de la periodontitis.This paper describes the technique apically positioned flap since the first ...

  7. Study on extraction process of active ingredients from Akebia stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extraction process of active ingredients from akebia stem and an analysis of their anti-gastric cancer activity. Three different extraction methods were used to obtain extracts, namely the decoction method (group A), reflux extraction method (group B), and maceration method (group C), of which ...

  8. Evidence for active, nonlinear, negative feedback in the vibration response of the apical region of the in-vivo guinea-pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, C; Maier, H; Zenner, H; Gummer, A W

    2000-04-01

    The transverse vibration response of the organ of Corti near the apical end of the guinea-pig cochlea was measured in vivo. For cochleae in good physiological condition, as ascertained with threshold compound action potentials and the endocochlear potential, increasing amounts of attenuation and phase lag were found as the intensity was decreased below 80 dB SPL. These nonlinear phenomena disappeared post mortem. The data suggest that an active, nonlinear damping mechanism exists at low intensities at the apex of the cochlea. The phase nonlinearity, evident at all frequencies except at the best frequency (BF), was limited to a total phase change of 0.25 cycles, implying negative feedback of electromechanical force from the outer hair cells into a compliant organ of Corti. The amplitude nonlinearity was largest above BF, possibly due to interaction with a second vibration mode. The high-frequency flank of the amplitude response curve was shifted to lower frequencies by as much as 0.6 octave (oct) for a 50-dB reduction of sound intensity; the reduction of BF was 0.3 oct, but there was no change of relative bandwidth (Q(10 dB)). Detailed frequency responses measured at 60 dB SPL were consistent with non-dispersive, travelling-wave motion: travel time to the place of BF (400 Hz at 60 dB SPL) was 2.9 ms, Q(10 dB) was 1.0; standing-wave motion occurred above 600 Hz. Based on comparison with neural and mechanical data from the base of the cochlea, amplitudes at the apex appear to be sufficient to yield behavioural thresholds. It is concluded that active negative feedback may be a hallmark of the entire cochlea at low stimulus frequencies and that, in contrast to the base, the apex does not require active amplification.

  9. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extract...

  11. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Acanthopanax senticosus | Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Realizing the fact that, this study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of water extract of Acanthopanax senticosus. Water extract (0.5 g/50 ml) of A. senticosus (ASE) were prepared and total phenol contents (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the extracts was determined for antioxidant activity.

  12. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To compare the preparation time and amount of apically extruded debris after the preparation of root canals in extracted human teeth using the reciprocating files and rotary nickel.titanium systems. Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using ...

  13. Study on extraction process and activity of plant polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogen; Wang, Xiaojing; Fan, Shuangli; Chen, Jiezhong

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant polysaccharides have many pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and tumor inhibition. The pharmacological activities of plant polysaccharides were summarized. The extraction methods of plant polysaccharides were discussed. Finally, the extraction process of Herba Taraxaci polysaccharides was optimized by ultrasonic assisted extraction. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment to optimize the optimum extraction process from dandelion polysaccharide, optimum conditions of dandelion root polysaccharide by ultrasonic assisted extraction method for ultrasonic power 320W, temperature 80°C, extraction time 40min, can get higher dandelion polysaccharide extract.

  14. Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extraction (1.65%), highest total phenolic content (38.60 mg TAE/ 100 g fresh weight) and antioxidant activity (70.60%) using FTC method. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ferric reducing antioxidant power for all methanolic extracts tested. TBA analysis showed that C. caudatus extract had ...

  15. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  16. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Garcinia mangostana extracts on oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samprasit, W; Opanasopit, P; Sukma, M; Kaomongkolgit, R

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts on oral pathogens. The 95% ethanol and 70% acetone extracts of the pericarp of GM was prepared and standardized by determining the amount of α-mangostin, total phenolic compounds and tannins. The antibacterial activity of GM extracts against oral pathogens was investigated by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time kill assay. Bacterial morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the content of α-mangostin, total phenolic compounds and tannins of the both extracts were different. The 95% ethanol extract contained higher α-mangostin and total phenolic compounds. Whereas, the tannins of 70% acetone extract were significantly higher than 95% ethanol extract. The 95% ethanol extract exhibited a potent antibacterial activity with low MIC and MBC values compared to the acetone extract. The morphology of bacteria was significantly changed after treatment with extracts for 24 h. Furthermore, time kill assay revealed that bacterial cells were decreased within 2 h. GM extracts was effective against oral bacteria pathogens. The antibacterial activity was varied by the different extraction solvents and the distinction in the contents of the compounds among extracts. These findings indicated that GM extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against oral pathogens in vitro.

  18. In vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina was studied. The plant leaves were prepared into three extract forms: ethanolic, aqueous, and hydroethanolic (50:50) using standard procedures. The extracts were evaluated in vitro for antiplasmodial activity using a. 3D7 chloroquine sensitive ...

  19. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the ... Key words: Alternanthera sesselis, crude water extract, molluscicidal activity, bioavailability, schistomiasis control. ... (Brown, 1980). Although the snails do not play an active.

  20. Skin depigmentation activity of Crocus sativus extract cream | Aktar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of Crucus sativus extract and its effect on human skin using a non-invasive probe mexameter. Methods: The antioxidant activity of C. sativus extract was determined using DPPH method. Water in oil (w/o) topical cream of C. sativus extract (3 %) was formulated and compared ...

  1. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. was evaluated using alloxan-induced (150mg/kg) hyperglycaemic rats. The activity of the ethanolic leaf extract was compared with that of a reference drug Chlorpropamide. The Blood Glucose Levels were measured using glucometer. The extract ...

  2. Combretum woodii (Combretaceae) leaf extracts have high activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the exception of the water extract, which had no antibacterial activity, the other extracts were bioactive with at least one of them exhibiting minimum inhibitory concentration values of 0.04 mg/ml against Staphylococcus ... These solvents also had higher antibacterial activity than more polar or non-polar extractants.

  3. Antimicrobial activities and toxicity of crude extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P.

  4. antimicrobial activity of extracts of momordica charantia and alstonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    aeruginosa and Klehsiella pneumoniae. The active constituents of the leaves of the medicinal plants were extracted with 953 ethanol using the clad maceration method of extraction. Sterilized filter paper disks, 6mm in diameter, were used in evaluating the activity of the plants extracts against viable and pure cultures of the ...

  5. EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF POPULUS DELTOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Jha, *, Nagalakshmi N.C., Shiva Kumar Swamy , Bishnu Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of P. deltoides. Method: The P. deltoides ethanolic leaves extract was tested for the presence of various phytoconstituents using standard procedure. The leaves extract was tested for its hypoglycaemic property in healthy albino rats and glucose loaded rats. The effect of extract was evaluated for its antidiabetic action in alloxan induced rats. The effect of extract on heart and kidney was determine...

  6. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    ., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other...

  7. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos. 2Nigerian Institute ... preparations used in traditional healthcare systems are popular remedies ... to extract the active ingredients. Water extract.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica | Shaheen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive compounds of fruits of Coccinia indica were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The aqueous extracts did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against the test bacteria. The activity was more ...

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  10. Antimutagenic and antibacterial activities of Peltophorum ferrugineum flower extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Dandapat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antimutagenic properties of the Peltophorum ferrugineum flower extracts. Methods: Dried flowers of P. ferrugineum were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol, and the total phenolic content of extracts were determined spectrophotometrically at 760 nm after reaction with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The extracts were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica by agar dilution method. The antimutagenicity of extracts was studied using the tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium by the standard plate incorporation test. The effect of extracts on nucleic acid leakage (spectrophotometrically at 260 nm, bacterial respiration (total dissolved oxygen and bacterial cell wall (Scanning Electron Microscopy were also determined. Results: The total phenolic content of extracts was in the order of methanol > acetone > hexane > ethyl acetate. All the extracts showed antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranging from 0.1 to 1.25%. However, higher activity was found with acetone and methanol extracts. The acetone and methanol extracts showed strong antimutagenic activity against sodium azide and methyl methane sulfonate induced mutation in Salmonella tester strains. The antibacterial action of extracts was probably due to the ability of these extracts to cause the disintegration of cell wall, leakage of genetic material and inhibition of respiration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the acetone and methanol extracts of P. ferrugineum possess antibacterial and antimutagenic activities, and can find application as food preservatives and nutraceuticals.

  11. Active implant peri-apical lesion: a case report treated via guided bone regeneration with a 5-year clinical and radiographic follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Andreana, Sebastiano; Pompa, Giorgio; Procaccini, Maurizio

    2014-06-01

    Implant peri-apical lesion (IPL) is a periapical lesion, usually asymptomatic, in which the coronal portion of the implant achieves a normal bone to implant interface. A case of IPL following immediate implant placement and treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) principles is described. Five-year clinical and radiographic follow-up with cone-beam assessment showed complete healing of the bone. GBR principles applied to IPL could completely solve the lesion.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against Some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Safithri; Bintang, M; M. Poeloengan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus caus...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic extracts of the dried root bark and stem bark has antiamebic activity against Entamoeba histolytica; antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Escherichia coli; with no antiviral activity against Herpes simplex, Poliovirus and Semlicki-forest. The extract ...

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Peanut Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Nepote, V.; Grosso, N. R.; Guzmán, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of skin from runner peanut was performed on sunflower refined oil. The skin was obtained from industrial blanching process. The oil was oxidized at 60ºC. The methanolic extracts show antioxidant activity in relation to the oil (without additives). However these extracts do not reach the activity level from BHT.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  16. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited high total phenolic content (278.80 mg GAE/g extract) and had low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 μg/ml against Listeria monocytogenes. Salmonella typhimurium strain was found to be resistant against all tested extracts. The antilisterial activity of the ...

  18. Diuretic Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Crude Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... aqueous extract of this plant in normal albino rats. ... diuretic activity and by oral route for acute toxicity. [6]. Phytochemical screening of crude plant extract. Preliminary screening of the crude aqueous extract for a variety of ...

  19. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from Okra flowers. Methods: The phenolic compounds in Okra flowers was obtained by traditional solvent extraction method and determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. The extraction was optimized using response.

  20. Extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To use response surface methodology to optimize the extraction of the phenolic compounds in wheat bran treated by steam explosion, and to determine the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained. Methods: By using response surface methodology, the effects of extraction time, methanol concentration, ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum l. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the methanol extracts of O. basilicum exhibited the ...

  2. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activities of Aqueous extract of Occimum. Gratissimum leaves in rats were evaluated. These studies were carried out to determine the folkoric medicinal values of the plant leaves. Extraction of crude extract was done using standard method. LD50 was determined using the Locke Dietrich Method.

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Bark Extracts of Rhizophora mucronata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata). Shade dried stem bark of R. mucronata was powdered and extracted with 95% ethanol and water by cold extraction method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of water and ethanol extract of ...

  4. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Papaya Leaf Extracts Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Romasi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

  6. Antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract isolated from edible fungi, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon, growing in Algeria, was investigated. Extraction was done by the Soxhlet and the fractions obtained were purified with silica-gel column. Two fractions of ethyl acetate extract were tested against ...

  7. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from Okra flowers. Methods: The phenolic compounds in Okra flowers was obtained by traditional solvent extraction method and determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. The extraction was optimized using response surface ...

  8. Extraction of Jatropha curcas fruits for antifungal activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from seeds and leaves of Jatropha curcas have shown molluscidal, insecticidal and fungicidal properties. J. curcas extracts were found to inhibit the mycelium growth of Colletotrichum musae that causes anthracnose disease in bananas. The antimicrobial activity of crude methanol extracts of J. curcas fruits, pulp ...

  9. In vitro screening of antimicrobial activity of extracts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All pathogenic microorganisms were obtained from Culture Collection of Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University. The best results were obtained by acetone extracts with inhibition activity (36.7%), followed by the methanol extracts (32.9%), and then ethanol extracts (30.2%) for all tested microorganisms.

  10. An in vitro comparision of apical leakage in immediate versus delayed post space preparation using EndoREZ and RoekoSeal root canal sealers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munniswamy Kala; Sourabh Torvi

    2015-01-01

    ... (immediate and delayed) of post space preparation. Settings and Design: An in vitro study using extracted human teeth as study samples and the method of apical dye penetration to determine the apical micro-leakage microscopically...

  11. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur-Galvis LA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  12. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  13. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA BARK EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kishore and Rumana Rahman*

    2012-01-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) is considered a medicinal plant and is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of the aerial bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The extract reduced contractions in isolated ileum induced by spasmogens like ACh, Histamine, KCl and BaCl2 and potentiated the effect of Nifedipine suggesting an antimuscarinic, anti...

  14. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  15. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  16. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    ALAM, BADRUL; MAJUMDER, RAJIB; AKTER, SHAHINA; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor vo...

  17. Antifungal Activities of Garcinia Kola Extracts On purulent Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal Activities of Garcinia Kola Extracts On purulent Human Ocular Discharges in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. ... Studies show that Garcinia Kolanut extracts exhibited significant sensitivity and inhibitory activities against the fungal micro-organisms isolated from patients\\' eyes in this study. The discovery ...

  18. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  19. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. The anticonceptive and abortifacient activity of the extract were investigated, including the Fertility Index or embryo score of control and treated animals. The estrogenic activity was determined using ovariectomized rats. Results:The results ...

  20. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, M. Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, Rasheda Akter, Nazim Uddin Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These results revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These result obtained revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  2. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Tridax procumbens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of human RBCs against P. falciparum damage by the extracts highly correlated with their antiplasmodial activities. None of the extracts, within the concentration range (1.9-500ìg/ml) studied produced any overt toxicity to human RBCs. Conclusion: The results indicate that both PA and TP have activities against ...

  3. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  4. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  5. The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studied for in vitro microbial activities by agar dilution method. ... Accelerated gradient chromatography (AGC) gave fractions of the extract of T. catappa that were more active on Candida albicans and Escherichia coli than the crude ...

  6. Antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from endemic Cyclamen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, solvent extracts were prepared from different parts of Cyclamen mirabile (CM) and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. Other antioxidant properties of all extracts of CM tubers and leaves, including free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total phenolic compound content, were also ...

  7. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of F. thonningii demonstrated inhibitory activity on moulds and yeast but none against the dermatophytes (Trichophyton and Microsporium species). Hexane leaf extract was the most active inhibiting all the strains of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum chrysogenum and Rhizopus nigricans with an ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L . on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) was evaluated against some pathogenic bacterial strains. Chloroform extract of seeds exhibited varying level of antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 2.0 - 5.0 mg/ml, against both Gram-positive and ...

  10. Invivo Antimalarial Activity of Dodonaea Angustifolia Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimalarial activity of Dodonaea angustifolia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. In the present study, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts as well as solvent fractions of the aqueous extract of D. angustifolia seeds were investigated for their antimalarial activity using Peters' 4-day ...

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were extracted with methanol. Immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were ...

  12. Antiproliferative activity of protein extracts from the black clam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain protein extracts from the clam Chione fluctifraga and determine its antiproliferative activity against cervical and breast cancer cells. The extracts were obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4 ...

  13. [Studies on purgative activity of rhubarb extracts by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihua; Zhu, Chenchen; Gui, Shuhua; Lin, Chaozhan

    2002-08-01

    To study on purgative activity of rhubarb extracts by solvent extraction, SFE-CO2 and SFE-CO2 & residue resin purification. The effects of the extracts by the three technologies on creepage of mouse small intestine and rat large intestine were studied by injecting charcoal ink into the intestines. And the volume of the mouse small intestine was observed. The effects of the extracts were also studied on water absorption of mouse small intestine and large intestine by weighing the intestines. The purgative activity of the extracts by the three technologies was SFE-CO2 & residue resin purification > solvent extraction > SFE-CO2. Extracting different polar components separately might get a good result.

  14. Larvicidal activity of (oxiran-2-yl)methylpentanoate extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activity of (oxiran-2-yl)methylpentanoate extracted from mushroom Cyptotrama asprata against mosquito Aedes aegypti. ... from defined laboratory cultures of higher fungi (ascomycete and basidiomycetes), one basidiomycete Cyptotrama asprata showed strong larvicidal activity against mosquito Aedes aegyptii.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differentiating activities of these three extracts encourage developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future. Keywords: Diospyros peregrina, Coccinia grandis, Swietenia macrophylla, Antimicrobial activity, Ciprofloxacin, Griseofulvin > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol.

  16. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus caudatus. The microorganisms assayed for antimicrobial activity were: the grampositive Staphylococcus ...

  17. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-01

    Jul 1, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity of the bark extracts were evaluated in terms of inhibition of free ... Key words: Bauhinia purpurea, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant property. .... weakly positive; (+) = indicates presence of secondary metabolites; (-) = indicates absence of secondary metabolites.

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  19. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-04-23

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martins dos Santos Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract, SE (shell extract and CE (cotyledon extract. Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL–1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL–1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50 was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL–1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts.

  1. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum) . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and t...

  2. Left ventricular apical masses: distinguishing benign tumours from apical thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Bilal H; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Gosney, John R; Pullan, D Mark

    2016-02-01

    Differential diagnoses for cardiac left ventricular apical masses presenting following acute myocardial infarction include thrombi and cardiac tumours. We present two such cases and the multidisciplinary assessment that is required to assist with diagnosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol leaf extracts of Cameroonian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafoua, Yves Marcel; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Tume, Christopher; Kamtchueng, Monique Odette; Kuiate, Jules-Roger

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have been used for centuries and have become part of complementary medicine worldwide because of their health benefits. Some have been successfully used directly in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases or indirectly by stimulating the immune system. In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts of Adenocarpus mannii, Caucalis melanantha, Ocimum gratissimum, Asystasia intrusa and Clematis chinensis leaves was investigated. The extracts were prepared by maceration of dry leaves' powder in methanol. Phytochemical analysis was carried out by chemical reaction methods. The activity of plant extracts was evaluated in in vitro cell cultures by measuring their effect on nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages, the proliferation of lymphocytes and the cytotoxic effect on macrophages. The A. mannii extract was further evaluated at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight in mice for the stimulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and the ability to reverse the myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. All the extract inhibited nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages, the highest activity was achieved with C. chinensis extract. However, these extracts did not significantly affect the viability of macrophages. A. mannii, A. intrusa and C. chinensis extracts exhibited stimulatory activity on peripheral blood lymphocytes, whereas C. melanantha and O. gratissimum extracts displayed inhibitory activity. In vivo, the A. mannii extract significantly increased the DTH reaction in mice from 50 mg/kg. This extract also showed a significant increase in the white blood cells and relative weight of the spleen and liver. These results suggest that the A. mannii, C. melanantha, O. gratissimum, A. intrusa and C. chinensis methanol extracts possess immunomodulatory activity. This constitutes additional data on the well-known biological properties of these plants.

  4. Antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extract of Stereospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... stem bark was investigated in in vivo experimentally-induced diarrhoeal models using mice and rats. .... Overnight mice of either sex (5 per group) were administered with distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o), extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or morphine (10 .... emptied from the stomach during the test period.

  5. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterised with high level of cholesterol in the blood. Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic albino rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Thirty ...

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and T. mentagrophytes at ...

  7. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphaphit Boonsong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractions were performed of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom samples—Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Auricularia auricular—using three different extractants. Among the three different extractants, 50% (volume per volume; v/v ethanol was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction from the mushroom samples. The 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes contained higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than in the other mushroom extract samples. The antioxidant activities of 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay (64.34% compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract showed a lower reducing power of 0.10 compared to BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, the L. edodes ethanolic extract also had the highest chelating ability (66.28% which was lower than for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at 500 μg/mL and showed the strongest superoxide radical-scavenging activity (64.17% compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Therefore, the 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of L. edodes could be used as a potential natural antioxidative source or as an ingredient in the fish and fishery product industries.

  8. Polysaccharides in Sipunculus nudus: Extraction condition optimization and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Dong, Lanfang; Tong, Tong; Wang, Qingchao; Xu, Mingzhu

    2017-02-01

    Marine organisms constitute unlimited resource of bioactive substances due to their high biodiversity and represent a valuable source of new compounds. This study optimized the alkali-extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of soluble polysaccharides from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and alkali concentration on the yield of S. nudus polysaccharides (SNP) were examined, according to which the optimal combination of extraction parameters was obtained by an orthogonal test. The relative influencing importance of different extraction parameters on the yield of SNP followed the order as solid-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > alkali concentration > extraction duration. The highest extraction yield, 1.98%, was achieved under an optimal extraction condition: temperature 60°C, solid-liquid ratio 1:6 g mL-1, duration 5 h, and alkali (NaOH) mass fraction 6%. The in vitro antioxidant activities examination showed that extracted SNP under this optimized condition had strong power in reducing certain hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging abilities. The promising results showed that extracted SNP could be a potent natural antioxidant.

  9. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of selected chewing sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Okeke, Iruka N; Lamikanra, Adebayo; Adesina, Simeon K; Aboderin, Oliadipo

    2005-08-15

    This aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity in extracts obtained from various Nigerian chewing sticks. Aqueous extracts from seventeen chewing sticks and the fruit of C. ferruginea, one fruit used in oral hygiene in Nigeria, were screened for antibacterial activity against type cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of the test extracts showed activity against at least two of these referenced organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these eleven extracts against clinical isolates from orofacial infection were determined. All the extracts demonstrated activity against Staphylococcal and Streptococcal isolates. Over half of the extracts were active against Enterobacteriaceae and obligate anaerobic isolates, including Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas gigivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus prevotii. Extracts of the Vitellaria paradoxa root, Bridellia ferruginea stem and twigs, Garcinia cola stem, Terminalia glaucescens root, Morinda lucida root, and Cnestis ferruginea fruit showed appreciable activity against all classes of bacterial isolates. The extracts of these plants may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of orofacial infections.

  10. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chien Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL. Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safithri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in dairy cows in Indonesia. A filtrate of fresh garlic was used to determine the antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% w/v, whereas, the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts was determined against S. agalactie, E. coli, and S. aureus at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% w/v. Results showed that antibacterial activity of 30% garlic filtrate was equivalent to 10% tetracycline. Meanwhile, antibacterial activity of garlic aqueous extract on mastitis bacteria was better than that of the garlic ethanol extract. Aqueous extract of garlic at 20% had the same antibacterial activity as 0.01% ampicillin on mastitis bacteria. Filtrates of fresh garlic can be used to inhibit growth of S. typhimurium and mastitis bacteria.

  12. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  13. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum). Methods Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenoic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion for seven strains of bacteria. Results Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone) against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone) at 10 mg/ disc. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  15. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx, metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method against seven strains of bacteria. Results: Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone at 10 mg/ disc. The IC 50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  16. Antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of Alpinia katsumadai seed phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovac, Jasna; Gavaric, Neda; Bucar, Franz; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of the phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract of Alpinia katsumadai seeds against Campylobacter jejuni and Staphylococcus aureus...

  17. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Phyllanthus acidus Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianto, D.; Widianti, W.; Bintang, M.

    2017-03-01

    Phyllanthus acidus is an Indonesian plant belonging to the Euphorbiaccae family. Extraction of P. acidus was performed using the maceration method. Four-solvent extraction process by ethanol, 70% ethanol, 30% ethanol, and water was used. The antioxidant activity from this extract was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) and cytotoxicity (biological potency from this extract) using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. We found that the extraction yields of samples ranging from 1.13% to 20.25%. The ethanol extract showed the highest yield, while the lowest yield was reported in the water extract of P. acidus fruit. Among the samples, water extract of P. acidus exhibited high antioxidant activity with IC50 26.06 μg/mL. LC50 values for BSLT ranging from 473.26 to 908.98 μg/mL, with the water extract having the lowest value and therefore the most potent, and the ethanol extract having the highest value

  18. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  19. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-06-15

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  20. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  1. Coronal and apical sealing ability of a new endodontic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Morvarid; Iravani, Maryam; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. RESULTS: No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal. PMID:23864871

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Aegopodium podagraria L. Extracts and Interaction Between Extracts and Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    STEFANOVIC, Olgica; COMIC, Ljiljana; STANOJEVIC, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of aqueous, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of Aegopodium podagraria L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro against 6 bacteria species. Antibacterial properties were determined by disk diffusion and tube dilution method. Based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the ethanol extract showed the highest activity (1.25-5 mg/ml). Among the tested bacteria, the most sensitive species were Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, w...

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Aegopodium podagraria L. Extracts and Interaction Between Extracts and Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    STEFANOVIC, Olgica; COMIC, Ljiljana; STANOJEVIC, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of aqueous, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of Aegopodium podagraria L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro against 6 bacteria species. Antibacterial properties were determined by disk diffusion and tube dilution method. Based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the ethanol extract showed the highest activity (1.25-5 mg/ml). Among the tested bacteria, the most sensitive species were Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, w...

  4. Antibacterial activities of some Indian traditional plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Prasannabalaji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of South Indian traditional medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum gratissimum, Aegle marmelos, and Adhatoda vasica leaves against clinical pathogens of human origin. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of different solvents crude extract of four medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine was tested by disc diffusion method against five bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi and klebsiella pneumoniae.. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was determined for evaluating the potential plant extract. Results: The antibacterial results showed methanol extracts (0.4 g/ml of Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum sanctum showed maximum zone of inhibition (30 mm and 25.5 mm, respectively against Salmonella typhi. MIC was tested at various concentrations from 0.625 mg/ml to 0.039 mg/ml for all the plant extracts. At the lowest concentration (0.039mg/ml tested, methanol extracts of Ocimum gratissimum showed higher MIC against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi where as the methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum showed potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus at 0.078 mg/ml. Methanol extract (0.4 g/ml of Aegle marmelos showed significant inhibitory activity of 22.5mm and MIC value of 0.156.mg/ml against E. coli strain. The Klebsiella spp was the most resistant strain of all and various concentrations Adhatoda vasica extract showed less activity against the tested pathogens. Conclusions: The present screening result demonstrated that the Indian traditional medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum gratissimum, Aegle marmelos methanol leaf extract has potent antibacterial activity and the studied plants may be new source for novel antibacterial compound discovery for treating drugs resistant human pathogens.

  5. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The results of antioxidant activity were compared with control antioxidants: vitamin C and BHT. The higher content of phenols (69.46 mg GAE/g dry extract and flavonoids (33.53 mg CE/g dry extract was found in the ethanolic extract of leek stem. The measured values of IC50 were 98.90 g/ml and 61.05 g/ml for the ethanolic extract of leek leaf and stem, respectively.

  6. GC-MS analysis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Ficus mucoso leaves confirmed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates and fats and oils. The ethyl acetate extract of the leaves had minimal antioxidant activity, ...

  7. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root. LA Alli, MO Nafiu, AA Adesokan, MA Akanji, AY Tijani, QA Salawu. Abstract. This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice.

  8. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  9. Anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activities of extracts of different parts of Lawsonia Inermis, Morus nigra and Ziziphus mauritiana. Methods: The methanol extracts of all three plant materials at concentrations of 10 - 100 μg/mL were tested for their in vitro anti-leishmanial effects on L.

  10. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the Flemingia chappar (ERFC) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract of the roots of F. chappar in doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., was studied in mice for its sedative ...

  11. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of ethyl acetate extracts of fungal isolates from Lake Magadi were evaluated. The extracts were tested against Mycobacterium madagascariense (MM) and M. indicus pranii (MIP), and cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. Fungal strains were identified ...

  12. Fungitoxic activity of extracts of some medicinal plants on Pythium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The in vitro fungitoxic activity of crude extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale), bitter-kola (Garcinia cola), aloe (Aloe vera) and neem (Azadirachta indica) was tested on Pythium ... The results showed that mean percentage inhibition of mycelia growth was highest in plates containing ginger extract; followed by aloe.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of some Medicinal Plant Extracts | El Astal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and phenolic compound extracts from three Palestinian folkloric medicinal plants, in addition to their commercial oils, were evaluated against ten pathogenic microorganisms. The plants used were sage, thyme and parsley. Five concentrations of leaf extract of the ...

  15. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia Bark Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) bark, including aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane extracts, were tested for their antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B, using both agar diffusion and broth dilution methods.

  16. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare whole plant was tested by disc diffusion method. Zones of Inhibition produced by methanolic extract in a dose of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/ml against selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard discs of antibiotic ...

  17. Insecticidal activity of extracts derived from different parts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different parts of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Lam. is reported. The 70% ethanol extracts of leaves, bark, stem wood and pith were tested for toxicity against adults of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal), the 2nd ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida was investigated on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that E. coli displayed the highest susceptibility in water extract (17.4mm–21.2mm) followed by P.

  19. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive activities of methanol extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive activities of methanol stem bark extract of Annoa squamosa L. (Annonaceae) with their respective reversibility in male rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged 100% methanol extract of A. squamosa stem bark at the dose level of 50, 100 and 200 mg/rat/day ...

  20. Antidiarrhea and Antioxidant Activities of Honokiol Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medicine, for treating diseases such as diarrhea and thrombotic stroke. Methods: The antidiarrhea activity of .... 30 - mesh sieve. This powder was extracted with. 60 % ethanol for 2.5 h at room temperature. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation at 40 °C and the residue freeze- dried. The dried extract was ...

  1. Anti-onchocercal and antibacterial Activities of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol (MeOH) extract of Anchomanes difformis(Araceae) was fractionated by column chromatography and some pure compounds were obtained whose structures were determined by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The extract was tested in vitro for anti-onchocercal activity against O. ochengi, a close relative of O.

  2. Antibacterial activity of water-phase extracts from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-phase extract of bamboo shavings (WEBS), by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, was evaluated for its antimicrobial action against the range of food borne and food spoilage pathogens using agar disc diffusion assay in nutrient agar and Czapek Dox Agar media. The WEBS exhibited antimicrobial activity against ...

  3. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  4. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruit Extracts of Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and anthocyanins) of Morus nigra L. fruit (black mulberry) as well as the antioxidant activities of its extracts. Methods: The contents of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the ethanol, ethanol-water (50/50,v/v) and water extracts of black mullbery were ...

  5. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have been reported to contain important preventative and curative compounds. Studies were conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera extracts using in vitro antimicrobial screening methods. The acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves at a concentration of 5 mg/ml showed antibacterial ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Different concentrations of the extracts were subjected to these organisms in which Moringa oleifera showed a higher zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 36 extracts from 18 vegetal species used as soap, insecticides, insect repellent and for the treatment of several diseases likely associated to microorganisms. The vegetal species were collected in Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz States, México. The extracts ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn . stem extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of the water and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. stem bark were evaluated against eight methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The plant material was extracted and phytochemical analyses were performed by standard procedures. The agar diffusion method ...

  9. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Full Length Research Paper. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf ... analysis of crude methanol extract and fractions of D. mannii leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, steroids and cardiac glycosides. ... The present work shows that the crude methanol extract and fractions (n-hexane, ethyl ...

  10. Antifungal activity of different extracts of Ageratum conyzoides for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Arif Javed

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Antifungal activity of different extracts of ... The current study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extracts of A. conyzoides ... alkaloids, flavonoids, chromenes, benzofurans and terpe- noids have been isolated from A.

  11. Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extract and Fractions of Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cola lepidota (CL) K. Schum (sterculiaceae) used in Nigeria folk medicine as febrifuges, pulmonary problems and cancer related ailments. This study evaluated scientifically the in vitro antioxidant activity of extract and fractions with a view to validate its folkloric usage. In vitro antioxidant properties of extract and fractions ...

  12. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts showed ...

  13. [Antimalarial activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Bixa orellana L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calienes Valdés, Aymé; Mendiola Martínez, Judith; Acuña Rodríguez, Deyanira; Scull Lizama, Ramón; Gutiérrez Gaitén, Yamilet

    2011-01-01

    Bixa orellana L. is one species used in traditional herb medicine in several continents. Among the medicinal properties attributed to this plant, the antimalarial action has been included. to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of extract from B. orellana grown in Cuba. the antimalarial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract fro Bija seeds was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and in vivo using a model of murine malaria, that is, Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Citotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 human fibroblasts. Additionally, phytochemical composition of the studied extract was preliminarily informed. the extract exhibited IC50 (medium inhibitory concentration) of 11.6 microg/mL, CC50 (medium citotoxic concentration) of 60.2 microg/mL and SI (selectivity index) of 5.1. Subcutaneous administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose caused parasitemia reduction of 50.3 +/- 5.8 % on infected animals compared with that of the controls. Phytochemical screening was consistent with detection of triterpenoids and/or steroids, alkaloids, lactonic compounds, phenols, tanins and flavonoids. the hydroalcoholic extract from B. orellona seeds grown in Cuba showed in vitro and in vivo moderate antimalarial activity. Bioassay-guided fractioning will allow identifying the molecules responsible for the exhibited extract activity and re-evaluating the potentialities of this extract.

  14. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of Swietenia macrophylla was undertaken through controlled experiments. The results showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, glycosides and saponins are present in all the leaf extracts. The result of the antimicrobial activity obtained from the extracts of the leaf of S.

  15. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate Euphorbia tirucalli extract for probable geographic variations in its antiproliferative activity. Methods: The aerial parts of E. tirucalli were collected in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro, Pará, Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina. The 70 % ethanol extract was obtained according to the ...

  16. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. is often used in traditional medicine by Ibibios of Niger Delta region of Nigeria for the treatment of several diseases including gastrointestinal disorders especially ulcer. The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the crude leaf extract was investigated against indomethacin, ethanol and ...

  17. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-toxic concentrations of the ethanol extract for Vero cells were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) cell proliferation. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii was observed by Giemsa staining. Results: The results showed that significant (p < 0.05) anti-toxoplasma activity of the ethanol extract, though lower than ...

  18. Antiplasmodial Activity of Extracts and Fractions of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica was carried out in a 4-day suppressive and 7-day curative test procedure. Six groups of animals were administered with crude extracts of 80% methanol, dichloromethane, and fractions of petroleum acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol ...

  19. Anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activities of extracts of different parts of Lawsonia Inermis, Morus nigra and Ziziphus mauritiana. Methods: The methanol extracts of all three plant materials at concentrations of 10 - 100 µg/mL were tested for their in vitro anti-leishmanial effects on L.

  20. Wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis root bark in rats. Dried root bark of Newbouldia laevis was extracted by maceration in ethanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and lethality study ...

  1. Anti-yeast activity of extracts and fractions from Uvariodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resistance to available antifungals highlights the urgent need for innovative drugs to treat yeasts infections. This study aimed at evaluating the activity of extracts and fractions from Uvariodendron calophyllum against pathogenic yeasts. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained by maceration were liquidliquid- ...

  2. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don. ... All test organisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans) were found to be sensitive to both extracts. Methanol ...

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picralima nitida commonly called picralima or pile plant is a tree or shrub with widely varied applications in West African folk medicine. The study evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of the crude methanol extract of Picralima nitida root bark and its various fractions. The methanol extract of P. nitida and its fractions ...

  5. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaf of Crassocephalum crepidiodes on some dermatophytes and Candida albicans was investigated using disc diffusion agar technique. The two extracts exhibited antifungal activity at 10mg/ml concentration against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and ...

  6. Antioxidant activities of seed extracts from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heartwood or root of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Antioxidant activities of seed extracts from D. odorifera T. Chen were first investigated in this study. Ethanolic extracts were suspended in distilled water and partitioned successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Bridellia micrantha were investigated for antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri and Enteroheamorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Results showed that the ethanolic extracts of the three plants ...

  8. Phytochemical and in vitro antiplasmodium activities of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemicals, acute toxicity and in vitro antiplasmodium activity of aqueous and chloroform leaf extracts of Cassia nigricans using the basic phytochemical screening, Lorke's and Candle Jar methods. Steroid glycosides, reducing sugars and alkaloids were detected in both extracts, ...

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of Bombax malabaricum flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Gang; He, Qiu-Tong; Yuan, Kun; Xiao, Xing-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Dong-Mei; Wu, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Bombax malabaricum DC. (Bombacaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, diarrhea, fever, chronic inflammation, catarrhal affection, and as a diuretic. However, little information is available about its antioxidative activity. Water, 50% ethanol, and 80% acetone extracts from flowers of B. malabaricum were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant activity in this article for the first time. Then the relationships between antioxidant activity measured by different methods and total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were established. The antioxidant activities of extracts from B. malabaricum flower were investigated including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and inhibition on phosphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation. Results showed that all the extracts possessed remarkable antioxidant capacity compared with ascorbic or gallic acids. Total antioxidant activities evaluated by ORAC assay of different extracts ranged from 700.03 to 1482.46 μmol Trolox equivalents/g. The highest TPC of 130.38 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g was observed in 80% acetone extract, whereas the lowest TPC of 57.09 mg GAE/g was obtained in the water extract. Furthermore, TFC exhibited significant (P activity, ORAC, and reducing power. These findings demonstrate that the flowers of B. malabaricum have excellent antioxidant activities and thus might be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  11. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  12. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lígia de Castilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests' plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA and disk diffusion assay (DDA using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212TM and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 µg/mL, Diclinanona calycina (MIC < 40 µg/mL and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 µg/mL; MBC = 80 µg/mL showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy.

  13. Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; El-Massry, Khaled F; Marx, Friedhelm; Fadel, Hoda M

    2003-02-01

    Leaves from Eucalvptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris trees, planted in the Nile delta in Egypt, were examined for the antioxidant activity of their nonvolatile compounds. The extracts obtained by ethanol digestion and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE; CO2 with 15% ethanol) showed the most promising antioxidative activities. In order to identify the most active compounds, both extracts were subjected to a semipreparative reversed-phase HPLC separation, the main fractions were collected, tested for antioxidative activity and analysed by different chromatographical and spectroscopical methods for identification of the most relevant compounds. Gallic and ellagic acid were found to be the prevailing antioxidants in the ethanolic extract. The main two compounds of the SFE extract with antioxidative activity revealed to be flavones. To a high degree of probability they were identified as 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methyl flavone, respectively. The extracts obtained by ethanoldigestion were dried and administered to rats for toxicity evaluation (up to 3 g/kg body weight). No mortality was observed which indicates a very low lethality of the tested extract.

  14. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  15. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  16. Anibacterial, antibiofilm and antioxidant activity of Potamogeton nodosus Poir. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, antibiofilm and antioxidant activity of acetone, ethanol, ethyl acetate and diethyl ether extracts of P. nodosus Poir. were tested. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 5 to > 5 mg/ml. Antibiofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC values were from 2.03 to > 10 mg/ml. The best results against biofilm formation had ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The total phenolic content was established by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The highest total phenol content was found in the ethyl acetate extract (28.45 mg GA/g while the lowest content in the ethanol extract (22.74 mg GA/g. The concentrations of flavonoids were determined using aluminium chloride method. The concentration of total flavonoid content was 102.09 mg RU/g for the ethyl acetate extract, while the lowest content was noticed in diethyl ether extract (32.93 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH free radicals assay. Antioxidative efficiency was in the range from 641.77 to 8811.63 μg/ml. The tested extracts showed weak antioxidant activity (AAI < 0.5.

  17. Comparative evaluation of canal cleaning ability of various rotary endodontic filesin apical third: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Kulkarni, Anish; Syed, Shibli; Bagul, Ravikiran; Elahi, Saina; Kalra, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the canal cleaning ability of three novel endodontic rotary instruments and compare with ProTaper files as a control in apical third of root canals under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected according to inclusion criteria. Buccal cusp tips were ground to ensure having a flat coronal reference point with a total tooth length of 16 mm for all samples. Teeth were divided equally into four groups: Group I (ProTaper group), Group II (ProTaper next group), Group III (variable taper group), and Group IV (self-adjusting file [SAF] group). Using SEM, the dentinal surfaces were observed and rated at apical thirds with a magnification of ×1000 for the presence/absence of smear layer and debris. Descriptive analysis was performed, and analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was carried out for comparison between the groups, at a significance level of 0.05. There was statistically significant difference between Group II and Group IV for debris (P = 0.047) and smear layer (P = 0.037). In apical third of root canal, SAF showed statistically significant canal cleaning ability due to combined effect of continuous streaming irrigation with effectively replacing the irrigant from the apical portion of the root canal, irrigants activation through the creation of turbulence, and its self-adapting design to root canal anatomy with a scrubbing motion on the canal walls.

  18. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    1999-12-01

    Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Gamma-secretase inhibitor activity of a Pterocarpus erinaceus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Salim; Marinangeli, Claudia; Stanga, Serena; Octave, Jean-Noël; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and its progressive deposition into amyloid plaques are key events in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, AD treatment is symptomatic and consists of drugs treating the cognitive decline. Identifying molecules specifically targeting Aβ production or aggregation represents a huge challenge in the development of specific AD treatments. Several molecules reported as γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators have been evaluated, but so far none of them have proven to be selective or fully efficient. We have previously investigated the potential interest of plant extracts and we reported that Pterocarpus erinaceus stem-bark extract was active on Aβ release. Our aim here was to characterize the mechanisms by which this extract reduces Aβ levels. We tested P. erinaceus extract at non-toxic concentrations on cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP695) or its amyloidogenic β-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99), as well as on neuronal cell lines. P. erinaceus extract was found to inhibit Aβ release. We further showed that this extract inhibited γ-secretase activity in cell-free and in vitro assays, strongly suggesting that P. erinaceus extract is a natural γ-secretase inhibitor. Importantly, this extract did not inhibit γ-secretase-dependent Notch intracellular domain release. P. erinaceus extract appears as a new potent γ-secretase inhibitor selective towards APP processing. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Acaricidal activities of extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal activities of extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt (Burseraceae), Melia volkensii Gürke, Turraea abyssinica Hochst., Turraea floribunda Hochst and Turraea cornucopia Styles & F. White (Meliaceae) against the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus ap.

  1. The optimal extraction parameters and anti-diabetic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic activity of FIBL on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. The optimal extraction parameters of FIBL were obtained by single factor test and orthogonal test, as follows: ethanol concentration 60 %, ratio of solvent to raw material 30 ...

  2. Antibacterial activity of extracts from Myrtus communis L. (Ades) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of extracts from Myrtus communis L. (Ades) and Dodoneae angustifolia L.F. (Kitkita) using bioautography method. Negero Gemeda, Kelbessa Urga, Messay Getachew, Kissi Muddie, Frehiwot Teka, Ashenif Tadele, Hirut Lemma, Mulugeta Guta ...

  3. Anticonvulsant Activity Of Diospyros fischeri Root Extracts | Moshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results provide evidence for the potential of D. fischeri extracts to treat absence seizures, especially given their seemingly innocuous nature. Keywords: Diospyros fischeri; Pentylenetetrazole; Anticonvulsant activity; Brine shrimp toxicity. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines Vol.

  4. In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum dc (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the republic of Congo.

  5. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical analysis of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of edible indigenous medicinal plant Lasienthera africanum (“Editan”) and their antibacterial activities against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results showed that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum possesses antidiarrhoeal activity possibly mediated by interaction with â adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic receptor and nitric oxide pathway. Keywords: Bryophyllum pinnatum; diarrhoea; muscarinic cholinergic; nitrergic ...

  7. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae). NM Hussin, R Muse, S Ahmad, J Ramli, M Mahmood, MR Sulaiman, MYA Shukor, MFA Rahman, KNK Aziz ...

  8. oviposition and ovicidal activities of alkaloidal extract from murraya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  9. Extraction of Active Enzymes from "Hard-to-Break-Cells"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Alessio; Tesauro, Cinzia; Fjelstrup, S

    We present the utilization of a rolling circle amplification (RCA) based assay to investigate the extraction efficiency of active enzymes from a class of “hard-to-break” cells, yeast Saccaramyces cerevisiae. Current analyses of microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria, parasites or particular...... life stages of microorganisms (e.g. spores from bacteria or fungi) is hampered by the lack of efficient lysis protocols that preserve the activity and integrity of the cellular content. Presented herein is a flexible scheme to screen lysis protocols for active enzyme extraction. We also report a gentle...... yet effective approach for extraction of active enzymes by entrapping cells in microdroplets. Combined effort of optimized extraction protocols and effective analytical approaches is expected to generate impact in future disease diagnosis and environmental safety....

  10. Antidiuretic Activity of the Methanol Extract of Aporusa lindleyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , unsaturated terpenes, unsaturated lactones, lucocyanins, tannins and polyphenols and cyanogenic glycosides. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Aporusa lindleyana has moderate and safe oral antidiuretic activity. Keywords: Aporusa ...

  11. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... and antilipoperoxative effects (Emorele et al., 2005). Some other known activities of the seeds of G. kola H are antidiabetic and antihepatotoxic effects (Iwu, 1993; Tita et al., 2001). The plant has been shown to possess even antiviral activity as it halts the replication of the deadly. Ebola virus in its tract in ...

  12. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  13. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  14. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the ...

  15. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Amran, Adel A; Rohela Mahmud; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial eff...

  16. Anti-fatigue Activity of Extracts of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanumathy M; Shivaprasad HN; Manohar D; Nargund LVG

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-fatigue effect of extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethylacetate) of Syzygium cumini leaves was evaluated against swimming endurance followed by post swimming muscle coordination (rota-rod test) and spontaneous motor activity using actophotometer in rats. Animals were treated for 21 days at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg leaves extracts and these activities were tested using Withania somnifera as a standard drug. At the end of the treatment all animals were individu...

  17. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    OpenAIRE

    Dhirendra Prakash; M. C. Bindal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Anil Kumar Gupta; Vedpal

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present in...

  18. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-05

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  19. Improved Antitumoral Activity of Extracts Derived from Cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative activity was assayed in four cancer cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, SiHa, and KB) while cytotoxic activity was evaluated on a normal cell line (MDCK). Results: The 10-day cultivation organic extract exhibited increased antiproliferative activity compared with the control on human carcinoma nasopharynx (KB) and ...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It showed strong antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacterial strains like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative strains like Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanolic extract showed moderate to strong antibacterial activity ...

  1. Antibacterial activity of leaves and pitchers extract of Nepenthes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study was to evaluate the potential of ethanolic extract of leaf and pitcher of Nepenthes gracilis in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity was determined by using agar disk diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The leaf showed inhibitory activity with the zone of inhibition ranging ...

  2. Apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using different root canal irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross P; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Root canal irrigation carries a risk of extrusion of irrigant into the periapical tissues. The objective of this study was to compare different irrigation systems in matched pairs of teeth prepared to an apical size of 35.06 and 50.06 by measuring the frequency and extent of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into a simulated periapical environment. The null hypothesis was tested that there is no difference between systems. Bilaterally matched pairs (n = 10) of single-canal extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented to an apical size of either 35.06 or 50.06. Teeth were embedded in a gel containing the pH-sensitive dye M-cresol purple that changes from yellow at pH 7.4 to purple at pH 9. Root canals were irrigated with 6% NaOCl (pH 11) by using EndoActivator (EA), EndoVac (EV), Rispi-Sonic/MicroMega 1500 (MM), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and syringe irrigation with a slot-tipped needle (SN), so that each tooth underwent all irrigation procedures in a randomized crossover design. Apical extrusion was evaluated by image analyses. The frequency of extrusion was less in teeth with apical preparation size 35.06 (36%) compared with 50.06 (60%) (P = .014) and was dependent on the irrigation system in 35.06 (P = .039) but not 50.06 groups. In the 35.06 group the frequency of extrusion was less for EV than for MM and SN (both P = .029). The extent of extrusion was less for MM compared with PUI (P = .024) and SN (P = .046) in the 35.06 group and greater for SN compared with all other systems in the 50.06 group (P irrigation system and apical preparation size. The extent of extrusion depended on the irrigation system, with syringe and slotted-needle irrigation resulting in the greatest extent of extrusion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiviral and Antitumor Activity of Licorice Root Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Okudaira, Noriyuki; Adachi, Kazunori; Odai-Ide, Reina; Watanabe, Shigeru; Ohno, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Masaji; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Kagaya, Hajime; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    In the search for anti-viral and antitumor substances from natural resources, antiviral and antitumor activities of licorice root extract and purified ingredients were investigated. Viability of cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antiviral activity was quantified by the selectivity index, defined as the ratio of the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) to the 50% effective concentration against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells (EC50). The tumor specificity was calculated by the ratio of CC50 against human normal oral cells to that against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Licorice flavonoids and lower molecular polyphenols were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. Alkaline extract of licorice root had higher anti-HIV activity than did water extracts, confirming our previous reports. On the other hand, water extract, especially the flavonoid-rich fraction, had higher anti-HSV activity than did the alkaline extract. The flavonoid-rich fraction was more cytotoxic against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines compared to normal oral cells, suggesting their tumor-specific cytotoxicity. The present study suggests that water and alkaline extracts of licorice root exert different mechanisms of actions against these two viruses. Physicochemical properties, rather than the category of compounds, may be important in determining their anti-HSV activity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick A. Meneses

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1, (+-agathadiol (2 and epi-13-torulosol (3 were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions.

  5. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  6. Antioxidant activity of insect gall extracts of Pistacia integerrima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakshmikantha, Ramachandra Yarappa; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Surendranath, Austin Richard; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima (P. integerrina) insect galls are widely used in ayurveda and siddha system of medicine as karkatasringi. The use of leaf galls as a rejuvenator may be attributed to antioxidant property, however there is less scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of P. integerrina, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications. The antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. The presences of phenolics, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the ethanolic extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 234 ±2.4 mg of GAE/g d.w. and 95.5 ±3.2 mg of QUE/g d.w., respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated with higher antioxidant activity. This study demonstrates the poetnet antioxidant activities of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts. Further, there was a strong association between the higher antioxidant activities with that of higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of P. integerrima. The results encourage the use of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications, due to their antioxidant properties. Future work will be interesting to learn the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present in the extract for development as a drug for therapeutic application.

  7. MRCK-1 drives apical constriction in C. elegans by linking developmental patterning to force generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Daniel J.; Higgins, Christopher D.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Cupp, Timothy D.; Dickinson, Daniel J.; Pani, Ariel M.; Moore, Regan P.; Cox, Amanda H.; Kiehart, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apical constriction is a change in cell shape that drives key morphogenetic events including gastrulation and neural tube formation. Apical force-producing actomyosin networks drive apical constriction by contracting while connected to cell-cell junctions. The mechanisms by which developmental patterning regulates these actomyosin networks and associated junctions with spatial precision are not fully understood. Here, we identify a myosin light chain kinase MRCK-1 as a key regulator of C. elegans gastrulation that integrates spatial and developmental patterning information. We show that MRCK-1 is required for activation of contractile actomyosin dynamics and elevated cortical tension in the apical cell cortex of endodermal precursor cells. MRCK-1 is apically localized by active Cdc42 at the external, cell-cell contact-free surfaces of apically constricting cells, downstream of cell fate determination mechanisms. We establish that the junctional components α-catenin, β-catenin, and cadherin become highly enriched at the apical junctions of apically-constricting cells, and that MRCK-1 and myosin activity are required in vivo for this enrichment. Taken together, our results define mechanisms that position a myosin activator to a specific cell surface where it both locally increases cortical tension and locally enriches junctional components to facilitate apical constriction. These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. PMID:27451898

  8. Antiprotozoal Activities of Organic Extracts from French Marine Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Vastel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine macrophytes contain a variety of biologically active compounds, some reported to have antiprotozoal activity in vitro. As a part of a screening program to search for new natural antiprotozoals, we screened hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of 20 species of seaweeds from three phyla (Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta and Chlorophyta, sampled along the Normandy (France coast. We tested them in vitro against the protozoa responsible for three major endemic parasitic diseases: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi. The selectivity of the extracts was also evaluated by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells. Ethyl acetate extracts were more active than hydroalcoholic ones. Activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani was non-existent to average, but almost half the extracts showed good activity against P. falciparum. The ethyl acetate extract of Mastocarpus stellatus showed the best antiplasmodial activity as well as the best selectivity index (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL; SI > 30. Interestingly, a red algae species, which shares phylogenetic origins with P. falciparum, showed the best antiplasmodial activity. This study is the first to report comparative antiprotozoal activity of French marine algae. Some of the species studied here have not previously been biologically evaluated.

  9. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. pomace extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot pomace extract (concentration 100 mg/ml was tested against five Gram positive and seven Gram negative bacterial strains (reference cultures and natural isolates. Disc diffusion method with 15 µl of extract and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 µl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control sample. The tested extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, where clear zones (without growth appeared. There was no any activity against other tested Gram-positive bacteria, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a small zone of reduced growth. Growth of all tested Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited usually with 100 µl of extract. The most susceptible were Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhymurium. The tested antibiotic gave clear, usually large zones for all tested strains except for Staphylococcus cohni spp. cohni, where only a zone of reduced growth appeared.

  11. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  12. Antifungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Butsarakamruha, Tassanee; Langlais, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the antifungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in antifungal testing. Antifungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations and for different contact times. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by cultures and an applied broth dilution test. Using cultures, growth of C. albicans was not detected with 50 mg/mL of extract at 30-minute contact time or with 60 mg/mL of extract at 15-minute contact time. By the broth dilution test, the minimum fungicidal concentration of extract against C. albicans was 40 mg/mL at 90-minute contact time or with 50 mg/mL at 15-minute contact time. M. citrifolia fruit extract had an antifungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration and contact time.

  13. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  14. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Durić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT and the international normalized ratio (INR, expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34 and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%.  The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. 

  15. B-lymphocyte activation with an extract of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Oritz, L; Parks, D E; Lopez, J S; Weigle, W O

    1979-08-01

    An extract from the pathogenic actinomycete Nocardia brasiliensis was mitogenic for murine lymphocytes. This deoxyribonucleic acid-synthetic response of whole spleen cells peaked after 48 h in culture at concentrations of Nocardia extract ranging from 10 to 200 micrograms/ml. The extract appeared to be a mitogen for B lymphocytes since cultures of spleen cells from congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice and of antithymocyte serum plus complement-treated spleen cells from conventional (+/+) mice responded as well as untreated spleen cells from normal +/+ mice. Furthermore, thymocytes did not respond mitogenically to the extract. Mitogenic responses were stimulated in spleen cells from H-2(a), H-2(b), H-2(d), and H-2(k) mice, including lipopolysaccharide-nonresponder C3H/HeJ mice. This Nocardia extract also stimulated polyclonal B-cell activation to the hapten trinitrophenyl, serum protein human gamma globulin, and several mammalian erythrocytes in cultures of cells from both euthymic and nude mice. Additionally, the requirement for helper T cells in the primary in vitro immune response to sheep erythrocytes could be circumvented by the addition of this Nocardia extract. These results indicate that an extract from the pathogen N. brasiliensis can nonspecifically activate murine B lymphocytes and raise the possibility that polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of nocardiosis.

  16. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    are applied over the stomach to manage difficulty in child birth.7 In Nigeria, the Edos boil and eat the fruit after storage for a few days.8 The seed decoction is usually made in lime or local gin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cold by traditional healers. Its hypoglycemic activity,8 phytochemical analysis ...

  17. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  18. Rho signaling pathway and apical constriction in the early lens placode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Forti, Fabio Luis; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes Dos; Yan, Chao Yun Irene

    2011-05-01

    Epithelial invagination in many model systems is driven by apical cell constriction, mediated by actin and myosin II contraction regulated by GTPase activity. Here we investigate apical constriction during chick lens placode invagination. Inhibition of actin polymerization and myosin II activity by cytochalasin D or blebbistatin prevents lens invagination. To further verify if lens placode invaginate through apical constriction, we analyzed the role of Rho-ROCK pathway. Rho GTPases expression at the apical portion of the lens placode occurs with the same dynamics as that of the cytoskeleton. Overexpression of the pan-Rho inhibitor C3 exotoxin abolished invagination and had a strong effect on apical myosin II enrichment and a mild effect on apical actin localization. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activity interfered significantly with apical enrichment of both actin and myosin. These results suggest that apical constriction in lens invagination involves ROCK but apical concentration of actin and myosin are regulated through different pathways upstream of ROCK. genesis 49:368-379, 2011. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini-Filho, J; Van-Koiij, A; Mancini, D A; Cozzolino, F F; Torres, R P

    1998-12-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the major changes that can occur during processing, distribution, storage and final preparation of foods. The oxidation could be prevented by adding synthetic or natural antioxidants in spite of safety of synthetic ones has been questioned. This situation promotes increasing demand for food additives of natural origin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of cinnamon extracts. Cinnamon samples were obtained at local market, milled (32 mesh sieve) and submitted to sequential extraction using as solvents: ether, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity in the extracts was measured by the b-carotene/linoleic acid system, at 50 degrees C and absorbances reading at 470 nm every 15 min intervals for 120 min. Two controls were used in this determination: one with synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 100 ppm) and other without antioxidant. The water extract was fraccionated using silica Gel 60 and 60G and through chromatographic processes: thin layer, (T.L.C.) and column, using BAW as mobile phase and ethylacetate, petroleum ether, methanol and water as eluent, respectively. The etheric (0.69 mg), methanolic (0.88 mg) and aqueous (0.44 mg) cinnamon extracts, inhibited the oxidative process in 68%; 95.5% and 87.5% respectively. The BHT control inhibited 80% oxidation. The spray reagents (1) beta-carotene/linoleic acid and (2) Fe Cl3/K3 Fe (CN)4 1% sol, showed spots in T.L.C. with antioxidant activity (1) and blue color (2), indicating the presence of phenolic compounds with Rf values of 0.50. Five fractions were obtained by column partition with antioxidant activity and the presence of phenolic compounds. These results suggest that the cinnamon extracts can be used as food antioxidant together with the improvement of food palatability. Further studies are in processing of analysing the sinergic association of extracts with synthetic antioxidant and to identify compounds with antioxidant activity in cinnamon extracts.

  20. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts form Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A

    1996-12-01

    Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg).

  2. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  3. Enhanced antibacterial activities of leonuri herba extracts containing silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Han, Lina; Kim, E Ray; Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Yeong Shik; Park, Youmie

    2012-08-01

    We report an efficient and powerful green process to enhance the antibacterial activities of the Leonuri herba extract. Plant sources, especially leaves and herbs, are precious for the generation of gold and silver nanoparticles. Various kinds of polyphenols and hydroxyl groups are capable of processing a reduction reaction to generate metals from its corresponding salts. We have prepared gold and silver nanoparticles with 70% ethanol and water extracts. No other toxic chemicals were utilized and the extracts played dual roles as reducing and stabilizing agents. For the generation of nanoparticles, both oven incubation and autoclaving methods were applied and the reaction conditions were optimized. Surface plasmon resonance band indicated that the formation of nanoparticles was successful. Images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 9.9 to 13.0 nm in size. A water extract containing silver nanoparticles exhibited remarkable (approximately 127-fold) enhancement in antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae when compared with the water extract alone. In addition, antibacterial activity towards Gram-negative bacteria was greater than that against Gram-positive bacteria. The process reported here has the potential to be a new approach to improve the antibacterial activities of plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of extracts prepared from Polygonaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Lajter, Ildikó; Hohmann, Judit; Jakab, Gusztáv; Vasas, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of aqueous and organic extracts of 27 selected species belonging in five genera (Fallopia, Oxyria, Persicaria, Polygonum and Rumex) of the family Polygonaceae occurring in the Carpathian Basin were tested in vitro. From different plant parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots), a total of 196 extracts were prepared by subsequent extraction with methanol and hot H2O and solvent-solvent partition of the MeOH extract yielding n-hexane, chloroform and 50% MeOH subextracts. It was found that the chloroform subextracts and/or the remaining 50% MeOH extracts of Fallopia species (F. bohemica, F. japonica and F. sachalinensis), Rumex species (R. acetosa, R. acetosella, R. alpinus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathus, R. pulcher, R. stenophyllus, R. thyrsiflorus, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia) and Polygonum bistorta, Polygonum hydropiper, Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum viviparum demonstrated the highest XO inhibitory activity (>85% inhibition) at 400 µg/mL. The IC50 values of the active extracts were also determined. On the basis of the results, these plants, and especially P. hydropiper and R. acetosella, are considered worthy of activity-guided phytochemical investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana; Karamać, Magdalena; Kancheva, Vessela; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO)-in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v) mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC) method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH) and after hydrolysis (EAH) was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA).

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO—in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH and after hydrolysis (EAH was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA.

  8. Antibacterial Activities of Ginkgo biloba L. Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, chloroform, and hexane extracts of the leaves of Himalayan gymnospermous plant Ginkgo biloba L. was assessed against five animal and plant pathogenic strains (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Xanthomonas phaseoli employing disc-diffusion and broth-dilution assays. The methanol extract showed the highest activity (zone of inhibition of 15–21 mm followed by ethanol (14–19 mm, chloroform (15–20 mm, and hexane (14–19 mm extracts at 250 μg/mL. A minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 7.8 μg/mL was found for the methanol extract against most of the pathogens tested.

  9. Pomegranate extract exhibits in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Sydney M; Summanen, Paula H; Corbett, Karen; Downes, Julia; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-10-01

    To determine the possible utility of pomegranate extract in the management or prevention of Clostridium difficile infections or colonization. The activity of pomegranate was tested against 29 clinical C. difficile isolates using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved agar dilution technique. Total phenolics content of the pomegranate extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and final concentrations of 6.25 to 400 μg/mL gallic acid equivalent were achieved in the agar. All strains had MICs at 12.5 to 25 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent range. Our results suggest antimicrobial in vitro activity for pomegranate extract against toxigenic C. difficile. Pomegranate extract may be a useful contributor to the management and prevention of C. difficile disease or colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Fruit Extracts of Different Water Chestnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ANOWAR RAZVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of three varieties (red, green and wild of water chestnut fruit extracts was studied against a number of fungal species. A strong antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum extract was found against the treated fungi resulting remarkable inhibition zone in comparison to both Dithane-M45 fungicide and control. It has also been evident that wild variety of water chestnut was comparatively more efficient in respect to antifungal activity compared to the red and green variety of the same plant.

  11. Extraction and Categorisation of User Activity from Windows Restore Points

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Kahvedzic; Tahar Kechadi

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of the user activity is one of the main goals in the analysis of digital evidence. In this paper we present a methodology for extracting this activity by comparing multiple Restore Points found in the Windows XP operating system. The registry copies represent a snapshot of the state of the system at a certain point in time. Differences between them can reveal user activity from one instant to another. The algorithms for comparing the hives and interpreting the results are of hi...

  12. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s and their mechanism(s of action.

  13. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  14. seasonal variation in uterotonic activity of rhoicissus tridentata extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rhoicissus tridentata lignotubers are widely used in southern African traditional pregnancy-related remedies. Objectives. To determine the seasonal variation in contractile activity of extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods. Isolated rat uterus tissue was used to compare the contractile activity of crude ...

  15. Improved Antitumoral Activity of Extracts Derived from Cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: Extracts of the green alga, Penicillus dumetosus, have shown antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate if this activity is modified after cultivation. Methods: P. dumetosus was cultured under different light treatments. After 10, 20 and 30 days, alga samples were ...

  16. Anticancer Activity of Extracts from some Endemic Tanzanian Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have shown to be good sources of a variety of drugs for human ailments including cancer. Tanzania is rich in plant species most of which have not been investigated for any biological activity. In the continuing effort to screen Tanzanian plants for anticancer activity, plants were collected from Lindi region and extracts ...

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  18. Fermentation and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of fungus belonging to Genus, Trichoderma. Paul K Tarus, Sumesh C Chhabra, Caroline Lang'at-Thoruwa, Alphonse W Wanyonyi ... and antibacterial activities by agar diffusion technique. The culture broth extracts of T. harzianum produced definite antifungal and antibacterial activities against most of the test organisms.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    disc diffusion assay, seven of the ten pathogenic fungal strains were sensitive to the crude methanol extract (7/10), n-hexane ... addition to the antifungal arsenal to opportunistic fungal yeast pathogens. Key words: Antifungal activity, ..... Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with ...

  20. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Medicinal plants are a promising source of antidiarrheal drugs3. For this reason, international organizations ..... Ocete MA, Jimenez J. Anti-diarrhoeic activity of. Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent. Planta Med, 1993;. 59: 333-336. 23. Pinto A, Autore G, Mascolo N, Sorrentino R, Biondi A,.

  1. In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum dc (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in ... a strong and a moderate inhibitory activity on the growth of Dd2 and 3D7 at 2.8 ìg/ml and 9.2 ìg/ml concentrations respectively with a selectivity index >10.

  2. Piscicidal activity of alcoholic extract of Nerium indicum leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical studies show that after exposure to sub lethal doses of alcoholic extract, pyruvate level and activities of acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase significantly decreased while lactate level and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase were significantly enhanced in both liver ...

  3. IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    antimalarial drugs. In this study, the in vitro antimalarial activities of the aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, a plant used by traditional healers to treat malaria and ... test using standard procedure was utilized for detecting the active .... weakness and refusal of feeds, falling off of hair, coma or even.

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the P. hysterophorus parts tested: leaf, flower, bark and root showed promising inhibitory activities against the tested bacterial strains at all concentration except bark extract at 250mg/ml, root 500mg/ml, root 250mg/ml did not show antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and ...

  5. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Evaluation of Biological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on total flavonoids content to evaluate the quality of the herb F. philippinensis and explore the antitumor activity. In this study, ultrasonic- assisted extraction of total flavonoids and antioxidant and antitumor activity of the flavonoids isolated from F. philippinensis were.

  6. Anticonvulsant Activity of Carissa carandas Linn. Root Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    the present state of knowledge of the chemical constituents of the extract, it is not possible to attribute with certainty its anticonvulsant effect to one or several active principles among those detected in the screening. However, triterpenic steroids and triterpenoidal saponins are reported to possess anticonvulsant activity in ...

  7. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Jatropha zeyheri, zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT

    investigated for antibacterial activity, against 14 human pathogenic bacterial strains, using disc diffusion method ... 2007). Since penicillin and mutation resistant strains are .... 478 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Antibacterial activity of Jatropha zeyheri leaf and root extracts (zones of inhibition in mm and n=3). Bacteria. Leaf. Root.

  8. The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria PALLAG

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to test the antimicrobial effect of the aqueous solutions obtained from the soft extract of Cnicus benedictus L. (Asteraceae family flowers. The test was performed on Mueller - Hinton and blood-agar culture medium, on 8 standardized bacterial strains and microbiological strains obtained from infected secretions, using the diffusimetric method.The antimicrobial action of the plant extracts was confirmed by all bacterial tested strains, which presented inhibition zones, of approximately same values, at solutions with different concentrations. The values we obtained reveal significant differences of the intensity of the antimicrobial activity of the mature and immature flowers extract.

  9. Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... This study investigates the antioxidant activity of Echinacea Purpurea L. (EP) extracts and its impact on cell viability. The polysaccharides content of EP was 159.8 ± 12.4 mg/g dry weight (DW), with extracts obtained by applying 55% ethanol at 55°C containing 11.0 ±1.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW of ...

  10. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Chaabane Fadwa; Boubaker Jihed; Loussaif Amira; Neffati Aicha; Kilani-Jaziri Somaya; Ghedira Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira Leila

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chlorofor...

  11. Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the antioxidant activity of Echinacea Purpurea L. (EP) extracts and its impact on cell viability. The polysaccharides content of EP was 159.8 ± 12.4 mg/g dry weight (DW), with extracts obtained by applying 55% ethanol at 55°C containing 11.0 ±1.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW of total phenolic ...

  12. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi; Darah Ibrahim; Shaida Fariza-Sulaiman; Leila Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial...

  13. Soybean Extract Antioxidant Protective Activity Against Copper-Induced Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour I. Almansour

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of soybean crude extract against induced oxidative damage has been achieved through quails Coturnix coturnix treatment with various copper sulphate concentrations alone or with a protective dose of soybean crude extract. Several parameters of oxidative stress together with liver and kidney function tests in serum and liver tissue homogenate were studied. Hematologic indices and liver copper content were determined. Obtained data showed a significant increase in...

  14. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  15. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts

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    Heisanam Pushparani Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. (zingiberacea are traditionally used in treatment of various ailments and metabolic disorders like leukoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, etc. in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. caesia Roxb. rhizome extract and its fractions were evaluated. The ethanolic fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (86.91% comparable to ascorbic acid (94.77% with IC50 value of 418 μg/ml for EECC followed by MECC (441.90 μg/ml > EAECC(561 μg/ml > AECC(591 μg/ml. Based on the antioxidant activity, three of the rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic properties against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide (CP using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenic activity of the extracts against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was found to be significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05. All the extracts showed similar antimutagenicity in dose dependent manner. The total phenolic content as well as reducing ability of the extracts was also determined.

  16. [Antileishmanial activity of six extracts from marine organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Parra, Marley; Monzote Fidalgo, C Lianet; Castañeda Pasarón, C Olga; García Delgado, Neivys; Pérez Hernández, Aneysi

    2012-01-01

    infections caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania are a global health problem with a high prevalence in underdeveloped countries. There is no vaccine against this disease at present and the treatment used is poor, so the search for more effective and safe medicines is an urgent need. to assess the in vitro antileishmanial activity of six aqueous and hydroalcohol extracts from marine organisms. the activity of six extracts against Leishmania amazonensis promastigots and amastigots as well as their toxicity against peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. in the promastigot assay, the extracts from Bryothamnion Iriquetrum, Bunodosoma granulifera, Halimeda opuntia and Physalia physalis showed growth inhibition at concentrations lower than 100 microg/mL whereas in amastigots, these last two extracts were the most active and least toxic with a selectivity index of 6 and 8 respectively. taking these results into account, it was considered that the H. opuntia and P. physalis extracts showed a promising activity, so it is suggested that further studies on its in vivo activity be conducted.

  17. Antioxidant activity of various parts of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Li, Rong-Xian; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves) of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562-10.090 mg/mL and 0.072-0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were 6.789-58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039-335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031-1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW) and 2.030-3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151-2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313-9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

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    Ronald B. Pegg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2 were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g; the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  20. SCREENING OF PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA

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    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was antimicrobial action of the methanolic extracts of Equisetum arvense L. and Urtica dioica L. against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 were determined by the disc diffusion method and the microbroth dilution method according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most antimicrobial activity showed methanolic plant extract of E. arvense against S. epidermis with disc diffusion method and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and plant extract Urtica dioica with disc diffusion method against P. aeruginosa and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and E. coli.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

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    Hsiu-Man Lien

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL. The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL, while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  2. Wound healing activity of Matricaria recutita L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Raju, S Sivachandra; Rao, A V Chalapathi

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the wound healing activity of M. recutita (chamomile) extract in rats. Wound healing activity was determined using excision, incision and dead space wound models. The animals were divided into two groups of six for each model: animals in the test group were treated with the aqueous extract of M. recutita (120mg/kg/day), which was mixed in their drinking water. Animals in the control group were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, wound-breaking strength, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract against various microorganisms was assessed. On day 15 animals in the test group exhibited a greater reduction in the wound area when compared with the controls (61 % versus 48%), faster epithelialisation and a significantly higher wound-breaking strength (precutita in wound management. However, this needs to be studied further before it can be considered for clinical use.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii

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    Sridhar Nimmakayala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Justicia neesii extract. The maximum activity index (AI values are observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (1.208 and low AI value for Streptococcus faecalis (0.963 compared to other bacterial species. The maximum AI values are observed against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.147 and low AI value for Fusarium axisporum (0.986 compared to other fungal species. The MIC and MBC/MFC values indicated the bacteriostatic/ fungistatic nature of the extract and also having good correlation with the zone of inhibition values. The total activity values indicated that J. neesii extract can show antimicrobial activity even at higher dilutions, except for Gram negative bacteria.

  4. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth.

  5. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

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    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  6. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from common legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Du, Shuang-kui; Wang, Hanxin; Cai, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity of pinto bean, cowpea, baby lima bean, lentil, chickpea, small red bean, red kidney bean, black kidney bean, navy bean, and mung bean extracts were investigated. Significant differences were observed in the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity amongst the legume extracts. Lentils demonstrated the highest phenolic content (47.6 mg/g), total antioxidant activity (720.68 U/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (38.5%), and total reducing power, whereas baby lima beans and navy beans had the lowest. Amongst the extracts, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavenging was higher in black kidney bean (85.68%) and baby lima bean (74.97%) extracts. The total antioxidant activity (r=0.84), DPPH• scavenging activity (r=0.83), and total reducing power (r=0.84) were positively correlated with the total phenolic content. However, •OH scavenging and the phenolic content were not correlated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity of longitudinal sections for determining the apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, S; Judenhofer, M S; Mannheim, J G; Hülber-J, M; Löst, C; Pichler, B J; ElAyouti, A

    2017-07-01

    To validate the use of longitudinal sections against cross sections using micro-CT for disclosing the topography and location of the apical constriction. Seventy extracted human teeth with 117 completely developed roots were micro-CT scanned and reconstructed at a voxel size of 27 μm. The 3DSlicer program was used to navigate the longitudinal sections parallel to the long axis of the canal and also to rotate and tilt the views. Each root canal was evaluated in both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual planes. Constriction topographies were identified as described in the literature. In each canal, the number of different topographies detected was recorded. Further, serial cross-sectional analysis of the apical portion of the canal was performed. Reconstructed plots of canal areas were assessed to locate the constriction and determine its form. A descriptive analysis of both longitudinal and cross section methods was conducted. In each canal, the frequency of constriction forms was calculated in the mesio-distal or bucco-lingual aspects and the 99% confidence interval was computed. When both aspects of the longitudinal sections were pooled, all root canals had two or more topographies and consequently different locations of the apical constriction. In contrast, cross-sectional analysis constantly yielded one constriction form per canal. Compared to cross-sectional analysis, longitudinal sections of the root canal conveyed inconsistent results regarding the topography and the location of the apical constriction. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hair growth promoting activity of discarded biocomposite keratin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Md Rashedunnabi; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Mira; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Keratin biomaterial has been used in regenerative medicine owing to its in-vivo and in-vitro biocompatibility. The present study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of keratin extract and its mechanism of action. Keratin extract was topically applied on the synchronized depilated dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 mice and promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase. The histomorphometric observation indicated significantly increases the number, shaft of hair follicles and deep subcutis area in the keratin extract treated group in contrast to the control group, which was considered an indication of anagen phase induction. Subsequently, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that fibroblast growth factor-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, β-catenin, and Shh were expressed earlier in the keratin extract-treated group than in the control group. Besides, keratin extract has been observed to be biocompatible when analyzed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining using immortalized human keratinocyte cells, showing more than 90% cell viability. Our study demonstrated that keratin extract stimulating hair follicle growth by inducing the growth phase; anagen in telogenic C57BL/6 mice and thus the topical application of keratin extract may represent a promising biomaterial for the management and applications of hair follicle disorder.

  10. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts - Clusiaceae

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    Ivana B Suffredini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC = 70 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 90 µg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 µg/ml and MBC = 270 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

  11. Antioxidant activity of alstonia Angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Zakaria, Noorzafiza; Dzulkarnain, Syarifah Masyitah Habib; Azahar, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-10-01

    In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

  12. [Obtaining active extracts for use in production of soluble thromboplastin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L N; Repniakova, E M; Vladimirova, S G; Savinykh, E Iu

    2004-07-01

    Methods of obtaining (from cadaveric human brain) the highly-active extracts to be used later as raw-materials for thromboplastin manufacturing, which is applied to determine the prothrombin (thromboplastin) time of human plasma or blood, are described in the paper. The study resulted in defining the optimal requirements to choosing the raw-materials, storing regime, centrifuging and extraction. The thus elaborated technology of soluble thromboplastin manufacturing ensures the production of a reagent with a high sensitivity to a changing level of factors VII and X and to a reducing activity of the prothrombin complex, which is achieved through the impact of indirect anticoagulants.

  13. The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryl J V; Tishkina, Alisa; Harris, Tony J C

    2010-05-01

    Apical constriction is a major mechanism underlying tissue internalization during development. This cell constriction typically requires actomyosin contractility. Thus, understanding apical constriction requires characterization of the mechanics and regulation of actomyosin assemblies. We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical constriction at Drosophila dorsal closure. The PAR complex and myosin accumulate at the apical surface domain of amnioserosa cells at dorsal closure, the PAR complex forming a patch of puncta and myosin forming an associated network. Genetic interactions indicate that the PAR complex supports myosin activity during dorsal closure, as well as during other steps of embryogenesis. We find that actomyosin contractility in amnioserosa cells is based on the repeated assembly and disassembly of apical actomyosin networks, with each assembly event driving constriction of the apical domain. As the networks assemble they translocate across the apical patch of PAR proteins, which persist at the apical domain. Through loss- and gain-of-function studies, we find that different PAR complex components regulate distinct phases of the actomyosin assembly/disassembly cycle: Bazooka promotes the duration of actomyosin pulses and Par-6/aPKC promotes the lull time between pulses. These results identify the mechanics of actomyosin contractility that drive amnioserosa apical constriction and how specific steps of the contractile mechanism are regulated by the PAR complex.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of hexane extract and decussatin from stembark extract of Ficus congensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaribe, Chinwendum Stephenie; Shode, Francis; Coker, Herbert A B; Ayoola, Gloria; Sunday, Adesegun; Singh, Nisha; Iwuanyanwu, Silva

    2011-01-01

    Ficus congensis (Moraceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases including infectious diseases, infertility, and gastrointestinal disorders. Investigation of hexane extract of the stem bark using chromatographic techniques led to isolation of a xanthone, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone (Decussatin). The compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry (MS). Decussatin and the hexane extract were screened in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities using broth microdilution (MHB) and disc Agar diffusion (DAD) techniques against Escheichia coli, Bacilus substilis, Klebsiela pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Hexane extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against E. coli and B. subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, respectively, while Decussatin of the highest concentration (8 mg/mL) used in this study showed no appreciable antimicrobial activity. Only hexane extract was active against C. albicans with a MIC of 1 mg/mL.

  15. Antimicrobial Activities of Hexane Extract and Decussatin from Stembark Extract of Ficus congensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Iwuanyanwu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus congensis (Moraceae is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases including infectious diseases, infertility, and gastrointestinal disorders. Investigation of hexane extract of the stem bark using chromatographic techniques led to isolation of a xanthone, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone (Decussatin. The compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectrometry (MS. Decussatin and the hexane extract were screened in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities using broth microdilution (MHB and disc Agar diffusion (DAD techniques against Escheichia coli, Bacilus substilis, Klebsiela pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Hexane extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against E. coli and B. subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 8 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, respectively, while Decussatin of the highest concentration (8 mg/mL used in this study showed no appreciable antimicrobial activity. Only hexane extract was active against C. albicans with a MIC of 1 mg/mL.

  16. GROWTH-REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF THE ALGAE EXTRACT

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    О. V. Кyrychenkо

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth-regulatory activity of the complex algae extract from Spirogira sp. at pre-so wing treatment of soybean seeds was studied in green-house and field experiments. It was shown that phytoextract has stimulated seeds germination on 12%, plants growth on 11–37%, soybean productivity increased on 6–27% as well as activated the development and functional ability of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. The quantity of oligoazotrophes increased in 1,5–6,3 times, nitrogenase activity in 1,5–1,7 times. The possibility aspects of growth-regulatory activity of the algae extract in both plants and rhizospheric microorganisms is under discussion. Our results have confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the biological activity substances from the algae at soybean growing in order to increase plants productivity and improve microbiological indexes of soil.

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (Leaves) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, K; Walia, M; Agnihotri, V K; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, B

    2013-05-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is a well-known herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Although it shows antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, it is most valued for its hepatoprotective effect. The rhizomes are widely used against indigestion problems since ancient times due to improper digestive secretions. Aim of this study was to explore antioxidant study of P. kurroa leaves for a new source of naturally occurring antioxidants. Two pure compounds, luteolin-5-O-glucopyranoside (1) and picein (2) were isolated from butanol extract through column chromatography. Different extracts of P. kurroa leaves (ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol) were quantified for isolated compound (2) by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for its antioxidant activity using two assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. The linear detection range was 1.56-200 μg/ml for picein. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for picein were 2.34 and 7.81 μg/ml, respectively. Butanol and ethyl acetate extract showed greater antioxidant activity as compare to ethanol extract. Compound 1 and ascorbic acid showed nearly similar antioxidant activity where as 2 showed no activity at standard concentration. The IC50 values for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay for ascorbic acid, compound 1, ethanol extract and its different fractions (ethyl acetate and butanol) were found to be 0.81, 1.04, 67.48, 39.58, 37.12 and 2.59, 4.02, 48.36, 33.24, 29.48 μg, respectively.

  18. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  19. Antibacterial activity of medicinal herb extracts against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Youn-Chul; Eo, Seong-Kug; Kang, Ho-Young; Kim, Sam-Woong; Lee, John Hwa

    2006-10-01

    The therapeutic potentials of twenty-two medicinal herb species traditionally used in Korea to treat gastrointestinal infections were evaluated for the treatment of salmonellosis. Candidates were primarily screened using the disk-agar method for antibacterial activity against three different Salmonella serotypes. Of the herbs tested, the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Schizandrae Fructus exhibited antibacterial activity against all three Salmonella. The extracts of this herb were further tested against 13 additional Salmonella strains of 6 different serotypes. All of these strains were also affected by these extracts, though the methanolic extract had slightly higher activity. The MIC values of this extract against the 16 Salmonella strains varied from 15.6 to 125 microg/ml. Nine of the 16 strains tested had MIC values of damages were rarely observed in the treated mice, whereas the untreated controls showed clinical signs, e.g., lethargy, and histological damage in the kidney, liver, intestine, and spleen. We conclude that Schizandrae Fructus has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from genipap, baru and taruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Brandão dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Microbial resistance is a serious public health problem, which has led to the search for alternative treatments to replace antibiotics, including studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of species in Brazil’s Cerrado. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of genipap, baru, and taruma against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion tests and microdilution. Results indicated that all genipap extracts showed inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs ranging between 150μg/mL and 940μg/mL against all microorganisms tested. Baru pulp extracts exhibited larger inhibition zones against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results between 150µg/mL and 1000µg/mL against all microorganisms except P. aeruginosa. The taruma 30% pulp and seed extracts exhibited the largest halos against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results were between 150μg/mL and 1000μg/mL against all microorganisms except C. albicans. All fruits displayed potential for antimicrobial activity, particularly the genipap’s pulp extracts. Further studies should be performed to identify compounds with antimicrobial activity and to test their applicability as preservatives in foods, as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, and as sanitizing agents.

  1. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  2. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  3. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Min Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; 土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì twig extracts (CoTE showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products.

  4. Shoot apical meristem arrest in brassica and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2013-01-01

    A pool of cells known as stem cells located in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are responsible to maintain meristematic activity throughout a plants life in order to produce organs. The maintenance of these stem cells is tightly controlled by a complex genetic and hormonal network. Any

  5. Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts in cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišan, Aleksandra; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Sakač, Marijana; Mandić, Anamarija; Sedej, Ivana; Simurina, Olivera; Tumbas, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of parsley, buckthorn, mint, caraway, and their mixture "Vitalplant" was evaluated, and the potential of "Vitalplant" mixture extract to retard the process of lipid oxidation in cookies was tested. The antioxidant activity was estimated by 2 direct (ESR) and 4 indirect (spectrophotometric) tests and correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. The potential of "Vitalplant" mixture extract to retard the process of lipid oxidation in cookies was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive-substances assay (TBARS) and DPPH˙ (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) test. Significantly different (P total phenolics were found among extracts in the following order: mint > buckthorn > "Vitalplant" > parsley > caraway. Total flavonoid content varied from 0.510% (parsley) to 2.05% ("Vitalplant"). A statistically significant correlation was found between IC(50) values on DPPH˙ and total flavonoid content of the samples (r=- 0.94, P activity (r= 0.89, P activity and total phenolic content was found to be positive and statistically significant (r= 0.94, P antioxidant activity in most of the tests, which can be explained by synergistic effects of the ingredients of which it is composed. Finally, "Vitalplant" extract addition (2%, 4%, and 6%) improved antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of the cookies in dose-dependent manner. Supplementation of cookies with a mixture of Petroselini fructus, Frangulae cortex, Mentha piperitae folium, Carvi fructus can retard the process of lipid oxidation and elevate antioxidant activity of the final product. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Antinociceptive Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Justicia spicigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Castellanos, Luis Manuel Orozco; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative activity of an ethanol extract of Justicia spicigera an evergreen used in Mexican traditional medicine for the relief of pain, wounds, fever and inflammation. At 200 mg/kg po, the maximum dose examined, the ethanol extract of J. spicigera (JSE) had analgesic activity in mice in the acetic acid writhing test, the second phase of the formalin test and the tail flick test that was similar in efficacy to the NSAID, naproxen (150 mg/kg po). JSE was inactive in the hot plate test and and the ketamine-induced sleeping time test; it had no sedative effects. These results show that the ethanol extract from the leaves of J. spicigera has antinociceptive effects in mice without inducing sedation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 180-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  8. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  10. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract. INTRODUCTION. Plants are valuable as sources of medicine. The use of natural products with therapeutic properties is as ancient as human civilization and, for a long time, mineral, plant and animal ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Upe Francisca Babaiwa1, Osayemwenre Erharuyi2, Abiodun Falodun2 and John. O Akerele1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria, 2Department of.

  12. Study on anticancer activity of caulis spatholobi extract on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the total flavonoid content in each sample; vanillin sulphuric acid assay was used to determine the condensed tannin content in each sample; and the varying degrees of inhibitory activities of ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Caulis Spatholobi on human ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 36 extracts from 18 vegetal species used as soap, insecticides, insect repellent and for the treatment of several diseases likely associated to microorganisms. The vegetal species were collected in Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz States, México.

  14. The haematinic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Brillantasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... vitamins B6, C and E, as well as folic acid and iron. The LD50 value of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. These results lend credence to the traditional use of B. nitens leaves in the treatment of anaemia. Key word: Haematinic activity, Brillantaisia nitens, rats, anaemia, phenyhydrazine.

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC root and Bombax buonopozense P. Beauv. leaves against some bacterial and fungal isolates implicated in oro-dental, urogenital and other opportunistic infections were investigated using standard microbiological ...

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of extracts from six Cameroonian plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy remains one of the leading public health problems that affects about 50 million people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new anticonvulsant drug. This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity against Penty lenetetrazole induced–convulsion in mice. Plants were extracted by maceration with ...

  17. antimicrobial activity of natural extracts against different enteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHAMA

    2012-06-11

    Jun 11, 2012 ... infections. The antibacterial activity of four concentrations of natural crude extracts of medicinal plants namely Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek),. Ficus carica (fig), Azadirachta indica (Indian lilac) and honey was determined against a total of ten.

  18. Extraction and antioxidant activities of two species Origanum plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid ...

  19. Anti-inflammatroy activity of the mehanolic extract of Acanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extract did not inhibit egg albumin-induced oedema. On the basis of the study, it may be inferred that Acanthus montanus may be a useful anti-inflammatory agent, which inhibits cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways at the level of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Keywords: Acanthus montanus, anti-inflammatory activity, ...

  20. Antimicrobial Activities Of Methanolic Extracts Of Trema guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts obtained from the leaves, stem-bark and roots of two ethnomedicinal plants: Morinda lucida Benth and Trema guineensis Schumm and Thorn were screened for antimicrobial activities against eleven test organisms (five bacteria and six fungi) namely: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas ...

  1. In-vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Launaea procumbens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacteria viz. Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC8750, Bacillus cereus. ATCC11778, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, ...

  2. Antioxidative and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... methanol extract from A. anomala had great antibacterial activity against all five test bacteria and most ... The presence of phenolic compounds. (phenolic .... subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Proteus vulgaris. Bacterial strains were cultured overnight at 37oC in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). Disc-diffusion assay.

  3. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito. Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F., 04510, México. Accepted 25 April ..... In general, extracts with the highest radical scavenging and antioxidant activity showed the highest ...

  4. Antifungal activities of three supercritical fluid extracted cedar oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianchuan Du; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of three supercritical CO2 (SCC) extracted cedar oils, Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Alaska yellow cedar (AYC) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and Eastern red cedar (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L), were evaluated against two common wood decay fungi, brown-rot fungi (...

  5. Antimicrobial activity analysis of extracts of Acacia modesta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of extracts of certain herbs including Acacia modesta (leaf and stem), Artimisia absinthium (leaf and stem), Nigella sativa (seeds) and i (root) was evaluated against three Gram positive and two Gram negative microorganisms. The Gram positive organisms included Bacillus subtalis (ATCC 6633), ...

  6. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The antifungal activity of methanolic, ethanolic and boiling water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa leaves, sticks and barks ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ..... availability at low cost, and low toxicity to humans give the phenolic acids and ...

  7. Antidiabetic Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Pentas schimperiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pentas schimperiana (A. Rich) Vatke (Rubiaceae) is widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and various other ailments in the traditional medical practices of Ethiopia. This study reports the antidiabetic and free radical scavenging activities of extracts and solvent fractions prepared from the leaves of P.

  8. Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained from Aegle marmelos and. Mucuna pruriens by in vivo experimental models. FA Toppo, RS Pawar. Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Laboratory, VNS Group of Institutions, Faculty of. Pharmacy, Bhopal ...

  9. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, M P; Hopia, A I; Vuorela, H J; Rauha, J P; Pihlaja, K; Kujala, T S; Heinonen, M

    1999-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.

  10. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains ...

  11. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  12. Evaluation of extracts of Coleus species for antibacterial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of 1.95-100 mg/ml; and these are consistent with the time kill observed with the extracts. Results authenticate the folklore medicinal usage of Coleus species for treatment of diseases such as gastroenteritis and skin infections. Key words: Antibacterial activity, Coleus species, ...

  13. Milk Clotting Activity of Protease, Extracted from Rhizome of Taffin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-03-07

    Mar 7, 2017 ... Keywords: Ginger Protease, Milk Clotting Activity, Calf rennet, Characterization, Extraction. INTRODUCTION. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale roscoe), the main source of ginger proteases is grown in many parts of Africa, tropical Asia, southeast Asia,. India and the West Indies (Hou-Pin et al., 2009).

  14. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    yield losses. Generally, synthetic fungicides are used to combat the menace which causes environmental pollution. ... fungicides is considered the most suitable one (Than et al., 2008). .... In general, all the organic solvent fractions of methanolic root extract exhibited antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogen.

  15. the antimicrobial activities of extracts of sidium guajava and citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    store of empirical information concerning the therapeutic values of spices and local plants. Following this, several published reports described the effects of certain bioactive .... infections and fevers arising from the activities of these pathogens. The water extracts of both plants were completely inhibitory to Sal111011ella spp ...

  16. Larvicidal activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cid Aimbire

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Malaria and dengue are the cause of a heavy public health burden in the Amazon region. The present work evaluated the larvicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts from clove, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae), and a chemical component are found in cloves, eugenol, against.

  17. Antioxidant activities in extracts of selected indigenous vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Antioxidant activities and phytochemical compounds of ethanol and hot water extracts of 7 selected indigenous vegetable species from Malawi and Kenya were Spectophotometrically determined and evaluated. Their effectiveness were also evaluated by their EC50 values through interpolation from linear.

  18. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the antidiabetic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens leaf gel (AALGEt) on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 12 h fasted rats by intraperitoneal injection of 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose ...

  19. Spasmolytic Activity of the Aqueous Root Extract of Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The spasmolytic activity of aqueous root extract of S. incanum was assessed on contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine, and compared with the ...

  20. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Akah PA (1989). Purgative potentials of Euphorbia heteropylla. Fitoterapia, 60: 45-48. Couper IM (1987). Opioid action on the intestine: The importance of the intestinal mucosa. Life Sci. 41: 917-925. Dahiru D, Sini JM, John-Africa L (2006). Antidiarrhoeal activity of. Ziziphus mauritiana root extract in rodents.

  1. Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of different extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical proprieties, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different extracts of Pistacia lentiscus on two pathogenic bacteria. The concentration of total phenols was analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. Exracts of plant were evaluated for their antimicrobial ...

  2. Biopesticide activity of crude extracts and fractions of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl acetate fraction (35 ± 0.71 eggs) or a respective rate of reduction of spawning 52.93% and 63.25% compared to the control. After characterization of reactions, it is clear from this study that the bioactivity of extracts of C. procera is likely related to suspected active compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthracene ...

  3. Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves Against Dalton Lymphoma Ascites in Mice. ... haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count, and differential cell count) following MPA treatment of the tumour bearing mice. Results: MPA was found to be cytotoxic in ...

  4. Antioxidant activities of extracts from areca (Areca catectu L.) flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activities of areca ( Areca catectu L.) flower, husk and seed extracts were evaluated using 3 complementary in vitro assays, inhibition of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radicals, inhibition of hydroxyl radicals and reducing power system. The EC50 values were calculated for all the methods in order to ...

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  6. Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts on bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts on bacterial pathogens commonly found to contaminate meat. ... Abstract. Background: Meat is a major source of food and raw materials for a number of industries, yet a lot of meat is wasted each year due to deterioration as a result of spoilage by microorganisms such as ...

  7. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moradabad-244 001, U.P., 2Department of. Pharmaceutical ... Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the ... Flemingia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family ...

  8. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... The phytochemical analysis of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of edible indigenous medicinal plant Lasienthera africanum (“Editan”) and their antibacterial activities against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli .... triplicate with one for the test organism- tetracycline, standard drug. All plates were ...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf, stem, seed and fruit of an Indian medicinal plant, Bryonopsis laciniosa, used traditionally as potent medication in healing several ailments such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against ...

  10. Antifungal activity of selected plant leaves crude extracts against a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activities of the leaves extract of 15 selected medicinal plants; Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alstonia spatulata Blume., Annona muricata L., Blechnum orientale L., Blumea balsamifera L., Centella asiatica L., Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw., Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff ex Hook.f. and Thomson) Martelli, ...

  11. Antioxidant activities in extracts of selected indigenous vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities in extracts of selected indigenous vegetables from Kenya and Malawi. ... intake of these vegetables species in sufficient concentrations should thus be recommended to enhance an optimal antioxidant capacity in the body. Keywords: Antioxidants, free radicals, health benefits, indigenous vegetables

  12. Hepatoprotective Activity Of Leaf- Extract Of Calotropis Procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf-extract of Calotropis procera (CL) was tested for antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective activities (acetaminophen and hepatitis virus induced hepatotoxicity) in albino rats. The antioxidative properties gave total phenolic content (43.79mg/g gallic acid), reducing property (16.67%) and free radical ...

  13. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maesobotrya barteri is a medicinal plant that is used by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria, to treat various ailments including malaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of M. barteri root in Plasmodium berghei berghei infected Swiss albino mice.

  14. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Gongronema latifolium was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of G. latifolium were fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Phytochemical screening of the dried fractions were carried and then acute toxicity ...

  15. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenolic extracts of three wild red wild berry fruit species from Southeast Serbia, viz, European cornel (Cornus mas), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and wild blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using ...

  16. Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated ...

  17. Antiviral activity of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist extracts grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Conyza Canadensis L. Cronquist were investigated for their antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) AD-169 and Cox-B3 viruses by modification of the widely used shell-vial assay. The results showed that butanol and methanol ...

  18. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human liver cancer and breast cancer cell line. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... studies have demonstrated that CVP can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, the different purity level of CVP has a different affect on various cancer cells.

  19. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... plate studies, the extract showed inhibitory effect on the germination of the growth of root and shoot of the seedlings. The inhibition was found ... drugs, contains active ingredients plant materials in the crude state and certain ... harmful effects on the neighboring organism (Stamp,. 2003; Khan et al., 2011c).

  20. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test organisms were also susceptible to hot water extract with zones of inhibition ranging from 5mm - 10mm and minimum inhibitory concentration of range 25 - 70mg/ml. Due to the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum gratisssimum, it is therefore conceivable that it should be used to treat cases of diarrhea caused by the test ...

  1. Antimycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New drugs are highly needed to control mycobacterial infections. This study aimed at screening ethnobotanically selected plants extracted using organic solvents for their antimycobacterial activity. In vitro assays were performed on Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette ...

  2. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were found to be present in the stem bark. Terpenoids only were found in the root bark. It is concluded that stem and root barks of A. digitata contain bioactive constituents which are responsible for antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts.

  3. Extraction and identification of the hepatoprotective bio-active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction and identification of the hepatoprotective bio-active components of the root of Actinidia deliciosa. ... into five fractions using silica gel chromatography, which were investigated for the main chemical constituents by column chromatography techniques, physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Larvicidal activity of clove ( Eugenia caryophyllata ) extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and dengue are the cause of a heavy public health burden in the Amazon region. The present work evaluated the larvicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts from clove, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae), and a chemical component are found in cloves, eugenol, against malaria and dengue ...

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  6. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and eight standard antibiotics were tested in-vitro for comparative activity against 10 isolates of each of six bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas ...

  7. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  8. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective activities and the mechanisms of actions of Musanga cecropioides stem bark aqueous extract (MCW) were investigated on acute hepatocellular injuries induced by intraperitoneal (IP) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20% CCl4/olive oil, 1.5 mL/kg) and 800 mg/kg/IP of acetaminophen (APAP) in normal ...

  9. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, ...

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus leaf extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf of Anogeissus leiocarpus was tested on some bacteria associated with diarrhea which included Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi,Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella aerogens and Yersinia enterocolitica using agar well diffusion method. There was ...

  11. Activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum S. Kurz extracts on respiratory tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of this plant's extracts against the test bacteria coupled with the various phytochemical compounds present in the fractions is a pointer to the plant's potential as a source of drugs that can be used against respiratory tract pathogens. Keywords: Bryophyllum pinnatum, respiratory tract pathogens, phytochemical ...

  12. Hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of the aerial parts of Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the aerial parts of Satureja punctata (Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and various other ailments. This study reports the antidiabetic activity of the total hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts as well as the various solvent fractions of S. punctata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa edulis (Vahl) (Apocynaceae) root bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'u, J; Yaro, A H; Abubakar, M S; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2008-11-20

    To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of root bark extract of Carissa edulis. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis extract was determined using Lork's method (1983). The anticonvulsant activity of the extract was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion in mice and maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, with benzodiazepine and phenytoin as standard drugs, respectively. While mechanistic studies were conducted using both flumazenil, a GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis was 282.8mg/kg and over 5000mg/kg following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively. Carissa edulis produced 40% and 20% protection against convulsion at 5 and 20mg/kg, respectively, compared with 100% protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in Carissa edulis extract-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil and naloxone. Carissa edulis exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the convulsion induced by MEST with 20mg/kg providing 90% protection while phenytoin (20mg/kg) produced 100% protection. These results suggest that Carissa edulis possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  15. Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Jatropha Curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the analgesic activity of the metabolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas (Linn) in vivo using analgesic models viz: Hot plate method in mice, tail flick or immersion method in rat and acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model in mice. In all the models, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as the reference drug.

  16. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the antimicrobial activities of the bark and seed extracts of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya were tested using the Agar well diffusion method on eight bacterial strains - Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhi B; Shigelladysenteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Serratiamarcescens; Pseudomonas ...

  17. Antibacterial activity assessment of different crude extracts obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4.5%), β-ocymene (31.6%), caryphyllene (7.5%) and geraniol (5.9%). The evaluation of antibacterial activity of different organic crude extracts, against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus ...

  18. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Cynara scolymus is a medicinal plant frequently used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver diseases. ... The extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested strains of Listeria innocua CMGB 218, Bacillus cereus CMGB 215 with MIC of 5 mg/ml but showed MIC of 15 mg/ml for the other strains.

  19. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to determine the antifungal attributes of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. The plant species evaluated were the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum, Chromolaena odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, seeds of Eugenia aromatica, Piper guineense, and nuts of Garcinia kola. Antifungal activity was ...

  20. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... Hibiscus. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. 5: 227-229. Chi RA, Zhou F, Huang K, Zhang YF (2011). Adsorption Behaviors of. Puerarin on S-8 Macroporous Resin. Chinese J. Nat. Med. 9(2): 120-. 125. Chua MT, Tung YT, Chang ST (2008). Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of ...

  1. Preliminary study on the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Powdered stem bark sample of V. paradoxa was screened for various classes of secondary metabolites using standard procedure. The wound healing activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark was evaluated using incision wound model in rats. Fifteen rats were divided into three groups of five rats ...

  2. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  3. Antioxidant and anti-neoplastic activities of Picrorhiza kurroa extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, V; Guha, Gunjan; Kumar, R Ashok

    2011-02-01

    Picrorhizakurroa Royle ex Benth., a well-known traditional herb from the Scrophulariaceae family has a remarkable reputation among the indigenous medical practitioners. The antioxidant and anti-neoplastic activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of P. kurroa rhizome were investigated in the present study. The total phenolic content was determined by a spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant efficacies of the extracts were studied employing radical scavenging assays (DPPH· and ·OH), ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay for testing inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested by XTT assay in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma), Hep3B (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) cell lines. The ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis was also investigated. Both extracts exhibited promising antioxidant potentials. The extracts were also observed to be cytotoxic at the tested dosage and were able to target cells towards apoptosis. The study concludes that P. kurroa possess diverse therapeutic potentials which might be useful in development of drugs or their precursors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey on periapical radiography efficacy in detection apical root resorption (a histological study)

    OpenAIRE

    Goodarzipoor D.; Shahrabi Farahani Sh; Vahedi Gashniani H.

    2004-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the dental lesions which is mainly diagnosed by periapical radiography is apical root resorption Diagnosis of the presence and extension of this lesion can put some effects on its treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of periapical radiography on apical root resorption diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted teeth were examined radiographic and histological regarding t...

  5. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P

  6. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg) as an antigen. Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 - 30 mg/ml, 100 µl) was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl) as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml). In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  7. Antihyperglycemic and Insulin Secretagogue Activities of Abrus precatorius Leaf Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Balekari Umamahesh; Ciddi Veeresham

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. Materials and Methods: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-?). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in ...

  8. Ineffective and prolonged apical contraction is associated with chest pain and ischaemia in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Edward; Monney, Pierre; Pugliese, Francesca; Malcolmson, James; Petersen, Steffen E; Knight, Charles; Mills, Peter; Wragg, Andrew; O'Mahony, Constantinos; Sekhri, Neha; Mohiddin, Saidi A

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the hypothesis that persistence of apical contraction into diastole is linked to reduced myocardial perfusion and chest pain. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy predominantly of the apex. Hyperdynamic contractility resulting in obliteration of the apical cavity is often present. Apical HCM can lead to drug-refractory chest pain. We retrospectively studied 126 subjects; 76 with apical HCM and 50 controls (31 with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) and 19 with non-cardiac chest pain and culprit free angiograms and structurally normal hearts). Perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) scans were assessed for myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV volumes (muscle and cavity) and regional contractile persistence (apex, mid and basal LV). In apical HCM, apical MPRi was lower than in normal and ASH controls (p<0.05). In apical HCM, duration of contractile persistence was associated with lower MPRi (p<0.01) and chest pain (p<0.05). In multivariate regression, contractile persistence was independently associated with chest pain (p<0.01) and reduced MPRi (p<0.001). In apical HCM, regional contractile persistence is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and chest pain. As apical myocardium makes limited contributions to stroke volume, apical contractility is also largely ineffective. Interventions to reduce apical contraction and/or muscle mass are potential therapies for improving symptoms without reducing cardiac output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities of extracts from Rutaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available Rutaceae is a taxon with species very well distributed in Brazilian semi-arid area, commonly used in folk medicine. Species from this genus have diverse biological activity described in literature. In this work, immunomodulatory and bactericidal activity are described for chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of three of them (Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., Pilocarpus spicatus A.St.-Hil. and Galipea simplicifolia Schult.. Initially all the samples had their cytotoxicity evaluated, aiming to determine the LC50. The immunomodulatory potential was evaluated in cultures of murine splenocytes stimulated or not with concanavalin A and in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR using splenocytes from BALB/c (H-2d mice immunized with splenocytes from C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice. Four samples had higher values of lymphoproliferation inhibition in concanavalin A-stimulated cultures and were evaluated in MLR. The antibacterial activity of extracts was also evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for two active samples were 1.0 and 5.0 mg/ml for extracts from Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. and Galipea simplicifolia Schult., respectively. Thus, our results reinforce data of literature relating biological activity for many species of the Rutaceae family and encourage studies with these species aiming to discover active compounds, candidates to new medicines.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF Shorea foxworthyi Sym STEAM BARK METHANOL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Hairil Alimuddin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening of antimicrobial activity compound from steam bark of Shorea foxworthyi Sym by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography method have been conducted. The result of this research can be base in elucidation of antimicrobial activity compounds from S. foxworthyi Sym. The first step was done in this research that is maceration of S. foxworthyi steam bark using methanol solvent. Fractination to methanol extract was done using n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate solvent, respectively. Phytochemical screening were done to methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions. Screening of antimicrobial activity compound were done to polar fraction such as methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction. The bacteria were used in this screening such as E. coli, S. aureus, S. thypii, and B. Subtilis. The extract was highest antimicrobial activity choosed to test by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography. The result was showed that chloroform extract was had highest antimicrobial activity and the flavonoide of compaund was considered having antimicrobial activity.   Keywords: antimicrobial, TLC-Bioautography, and Shorea foxworthyi Sym

  11. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activities of tropical marine sponge extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesoo, Rima; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Li, Wen-Wu; Kagansky, Alexander; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has led research to focus on discovering new antimicrobial agents derived from the marine biome. Although ample studies have investigated sponges for their bioactive metabolites with promising prospects in drug discovery, the potentiating effects of sponge extracts on antibiotics still remains to be expounded. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial capacity of seven tropical sponges collected from Mauritian waters and their modulatory effect in association with three conventional antibiotics namely chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of the sponge total crude extracts (CE), hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AF) fractions against nine standard bacterial isolates whereas broth microdilution method was used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and antibiotic potentiating activity of the most active sponge extract. MIC values of the sponge extracts ranged from 0.039 to 1.25mg/mL. Extracts from Neopetrosia exigua rich in beta-sitosterol and cholesterol displayed the widest activity spectrum against the 9 tested bacterial isolates whilst the best antibacterial profile was observed by its EAF particularly against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with MIC and MBC values of 0.039mg/mL and 0.078mg/mL, respectively. The greatest antibiotic potentiating effect was obtained with the EAF of N. exigua (MIC/2) and ampicillin combination against S. aureus. These findings suggest that the antibacterial properties of the tested marine sponge extracts may provide an alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Αntioxidant activity of Cynara scolymus L. and Cynara cardunculus L. extracts obtained by different extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Markaki, Panagiota; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Proestos, Charalampos

    2017-05-01

    Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1.57 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) g-1 fresh weight (fw)), the highest DPPH• scavenging activity (IC50; 0.91 mg ml-1) and the highest ABTS•+ radical scavenging capacity (2.08 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE) g-1 fw) compared to infusions and other extracts studied. Moreover, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction technique proved to be more appropriate and effective for the extraction of antiradical and phenolic compounds.

  13. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

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    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  14. Wound healing activity of Elaeis guineensis leaf extract ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2012-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  15. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

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    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  16. Biological activity of Diaporthe terebinthifolii extracts against Phyllosticta citricarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Sobottka, Andrea M; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2017-03-01

    Citrus black spot disease, caused by the phytopathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa, depreciates the market value of citrus fruits and prevents their exportation to disease-free regions. It may also reduce the productivity of citrus fruit orchards. To identify an alternative to conventional disease control measures, isolates of Diaporthe terebinthifolii, active against P. citricarpa, were selected from an endophytic fungal population of Schinus terebinthifolia leaves. Different culture media were screened to identify the culture medium that afforded the most efficient production of biologically active extracts. A particular fraction (fraction VI) of the extract completely protected orange leaves by inhibiting the germination of P. citricarpa conidia with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.003 μg.mL-1. The active constituents in D. terebinthifolii extract fractions were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry as verbanol, phenylethyl alcohol, verbenyl acetate and methyl hexadecanoate. The results obtained strongly suggest the existence of a synergistic effect among the metabolites produced. Thus, these fungal metabolites could be used to control the CBS disease. As the asexual spores of P. citricarpa play an important role in fruit lesion development and disease dispersion, fungal extracts that inhibit the spore germination can be used as an effective alternative for directional disease control. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Volatile compounds and antioxidative activity of Porophyllum tagetoides extracts.

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    Jimenez, M; Guzman, A P; Azuara, E; Garcia, O; Mendoza, M R; Beristain, C I

    2012-03-01

    Porophyllum tagetoides is an annual warm-weather herb that has an intense typical smell. Its leaves are commonly used in soup preparation and traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its volatile compounds and antioxidant properties were evaluated in crude, aqueous and ethanol leaf extract and an oil emulsion using different antioxidant assays in vitro, such as: DPPH radical scavenging activity, redox potential, polyphenol content, reducing power and optical density. A high antioxidative activity was found when comparing leaves with stems. The crude extract from leaves showed a very high reducing power (2.88 ± 0.20 O.D.) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (54.63 ± 4.80%), in concordance with a major concentration of vitamin C (23.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 g). Instead, the highest polyphenol content (264.54 ± 2.17 mg GAE/g of sample) and redox potential (561.23 ± 0.15 mV) were found by the ethanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Aldehydes and terpenes such as nonanal, decanal, trans-pineno, β-myrcene and D-limonene were the major volatiles found. This study suggests that Porophyllum tagetoides extracts could be used as antioxidants.

  18. Sulfite Reductase Activity in Extracts of Various Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, H. D.; Tedro, S.; Kamen, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Extracts of representative bacterial strains from the various families of photosynthetic prokaryotes are demonstrated to possess significant levels of sulfite reductase [EC 1.8.99.1; hydrogen-sulfide: (acceptor)oxidoreductase] activity with reduced methyl viologen as electron donor, but not NADPH2. The enzyme is localized primarily in the soluble fraction of the extracts, in contrast to adenylysulfate reductase [EC 1.8.99.2; AMP, sulfite: (acceptor) oxidoreductase], which is bound normally in the membrane fractions of those bacteria in which it is found. Assignment of the sulfite reductase activities to the biosynthetic (“assimilatory”) pathway is suggested by levels of specific activity noted and ready solubility. PMID:4526215

  19. In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Taioba Leaf Extract

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    Marina L. C. Caxito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott is a herb of the Araceae family, popularly known as taioba, which is consumed as food in some regions of Brazil, Africa, and Asia. This species has already been evaluated for the antifungal activities. However, based on its potential antitumor activity, the present study further aimed to examine the antitumor, as well as chelation, activity of X. sagittifolium leaf extract. Results showed that hydroethanolic extract of X. sagittifolium leaves (HEXs-L exhibits cytotoxic effects against the immortalized line of human T-lymphocytic (Jurkat and myelogenous (K562 leukemia cells, but not nontumor RAW 264.7 macrophages or NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. HEXs-L inhibited 50.3% of Jurkat cell proliferation, reducing by 20% cells in G2/M phase, but increasing cells in sub-G1 phase, thereby inducing apoptosis by 54%. In addition, HEXs-L inhibited NO production by 59%, as determined by Griess reaction, and chelated 93.8% of free Fe(II, as demonstrated by ferrozine assay. Phytochemical studies were carried out by ESI-MS, identifying apigenin di-C-glycosides as major compounds. Overall, this work revealed that leaf extract of Xanthosoma sagittifolium presented chelating activity and in vitro antitumor activity, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells, thus providing evidence that taioba leaves may have practical application in cancer therapy.

  20. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  1. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Burgos, Ema C; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hernández-García, Francisca; Cárdenas-López, José L; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-02-01

    Some studies have reported that different parts of the pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agents and thus might be proposed as a safe natural alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannin content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compound responsible for such antimicrobial activity. Because the pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with the type of cultivar (sweet, sour-sweet and sour), pomegranates may also differ with respect to their antimicrobial capacity. The extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity, as well as the highest punicalagins (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In the results obtained from both antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour-sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that ellagic acid content has a significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts investigated. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a good source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, and may represent an alternative to antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. In Vitro Screening for Cytotoxic Activity of Herbal Extracts

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    Valter R. M. Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that a variety of chemopreventive plant components affect tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and the main difference, between botanical medicines and synthetic drugs, resides in the presence of complex metabolite mixtures shown by botanical medicine which in turn exert their action on different levels and via different mechanisms. In the present study, we performed an in vitro screening of ethanol extracts from commercial plants in order to investigate potential antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Experimental results obtained through a variety of methods and techniques indicated that extracts of I. verum, G. glabra, R. Frangula, and L. usitatissimum present significant reduction in in vitro tumor cell proliferation, suggesting these extracts as possible chemotherapeutical adjuvants for different cancer treatments.

  4. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-03-06

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG.

  5. Hypoglycaemic activity of Bixa orellana extract in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K R M; Omoruyi, F O; Pascoe, K O; Morrison, E Y St A

    2008-05-01

    In West Indian folklore, a variety of plants are used for medicinal purposes. One such plant, Bixa orellana (annatto), is commonly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Preliminary studies have shown that a crude annatto seed extract exhibited either glucose lowering or hyperglycaemia-inducing activity depending on how it was further manipulated. This present investigation sought to determine the effects of the glucose-lowering extract on C-peptide and streptozotocin-induced diabetic dogs. This annatto extract was found to decrease blood glucose levels in fasting normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic dogs. In addition, in normal dogs, it suppressed the postprandial rise in blood glucose after an oral glucose load. Interestingly, the extract also caused an increase in insulin-to-glucose ratio in normal dogs. Increased insulin levels were not due to increased insulin synthesis as after 1-h residence time and half-hour postprandial, decreased C-peptide levels was observed. It was concluded that Bixa orellana (annatto) lowered blood glucose by stimulating peripheral utilization of glucose, and it is possible that this glucose-lowering extract might be of pharmacological importance. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  7. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  8. Quality assessment and scavenging activity of Siamese neem flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisawangwong, Worarat; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-03-01

    Young leaves and flowers of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. Active antioxidant components in the flowers are rutin and quercetin flavonoids. The aqueous extracts of young flowers collected from 14 different locations in Thailand were quantitatively analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the contents of rutin and quercetin, and were determined for the loss on drying, heavy metals and pesticide residues, microbial contamination, solubility, chromatographic fingerprints and acute toxicity. The extracts contained rutin and quercetin in the ranges from 388 to 1178 mg% dry weight (average 772 mg%), and 1 to 10 mg% dry weight (average 5 mg%), respectively. EC50 of the scavenging activity of all extracts was found in the range of 27-133 µg mL(-1). Loss on drying of the extracts was less than 7% w/w and no sign of toxicity (LD50 > 5 g kg(-1)) was found.

  9. Physalis alkekengi Carotenoidic Extract Inhibitor of Soybean Lipoxygenase-1 Activity

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    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA towards the lipoxygenase (LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car, lutein (Lut, and zeaxanthin (Zea. The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Artemisia absinthium against ovine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2009-03-09

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, drug residues in animal products and high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Tethwen) is used traditionally by people as a vermifuge in addition to its other livestock uses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts (CAE) and crude ethanolic extracts (CEE) of the aerial parts of A. absinthium in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of sheep. To fulfill the objectives, the worm motility inhibition assay was utilized in order to investigate the direct effects of plant extracts on the survival of the adult nematodes under in vitro conditions and faecal egg count reduction assay to investigate the effects on faecal egg output of GI nematodes under in vivo conditions. Significant anthelmintic effects of CAE and CEE on live adult Haemonchus contortus worms (P absinthium. The better activity of CEE can be attributed to the greater concentration of alcohol soluble active anthelmintic principle/s and a more rapid transcuticular absorption of the CEE into the body of the worms when compared with the CAE. The results of the present study suggest that A. absinthium extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics for the treatment of GI nematodes of sheep.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Andiara; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax®), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax®), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil®) or fluoride (Sorriso®, control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso®), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax®) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

  12. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  13. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species

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    Ranjeeta Bhari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to D-ribose, L-fucose, D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannitol, D-galactosamine hydrochloride, D-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  14. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-04-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro comparison of three materials as apical sealants of equine premolar and molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, G; Olivier-Carstens, A; van Heerden, W F P; Crossley, D A; Boy, S C

    2005-03-01

    Surgical endodontic therapy is a conservative dental technique used in horses with some degree of clinical success. Failure of this procedure can partially be explained by inadequate sealing of the root apices with resultant microleakage in the periapical area. To assess and compare in vitro sealing ability of 3 different dental restorative materials used as apical sealants during equine surgical endodontics. Thirty extracted equine cheek teeth were divided randomly into 3 groups and subjected to apicoectomy and apical sealing using 3 materials: reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement; intermediate restorative material (IRM); a resin-modified glass ionomer; and amalgam. After apical sealing, the teeth were submerged in a solution of Procion Brilliant Cresyl Blue stain for a period of 7 days. The teeth were then washed, embedded in resin, sectioned and assessed microscopically for dye leakage around the apical restorations. Although the materials proved effective as apical sealants, some dye leakage was encountered in all 3 groups with no statistical difference (P = 0.114). IRM, a resin-modified glass ionomer and amalgam all showed comparative features as apical sealants when used in vitro in equine teeth. IRM is currently regarded as the superior material in clinical situations due to its ease of handling and lesser sensitivity to environmental moisture during placement compared to the other 2 materials.

  16. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens.Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  17. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts

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    Fuad Al-Rimawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity (AA. Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC, while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner.

  18. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Lulu regulates Shroom-induced apical constriction during neural tube closure.

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    Chih-Wen Chu

    Full Text Available Apical constriction is an essential cell behavior during neural tube closure, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lulu, or EPB4.1l5, is a FERM domain protein that has been implicated in apical constriction and actomyosin contractility in mouse embryos and cultured cells. Interference with the function of Lulu in Xenopus embryos by a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a carboxy-terminal fragment of Lulu impaired apical constriction during neural plate hinge formation. This effect was likely due to lack of actomyosin contractility in superficial neuroectodermal cells. By contrast, overexpression of Lulu RNA in embryonic ectoderm cells triggered ectopic apico-basal elongation and apical constriction, accompanied by the apical recruitment of F-actin. Depletion of endogenous Lulu disrupted the localization and activity of Shroom3, a PDZ-containing actin-binding protein that has also been implicated in apical constriction. Furthermore, Lulu and Shroom3 RNAs cooperated in triggering ectopic apical constriction in embryonic ectoderm. Our findings reveal that Lulu is essential for Shroom3-dependent apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure.

  20. Lulu regulates Shroom-induced apical constriction during neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Gerstenzang, Emma; Ossipova, Olga; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2013-01-01

    Apical constriction is an essential cell behavior during neural tube closure, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lulu, or EPB4.1l5, is a FERM domain protein that has been implicated in apical constriction and actomyosin contractility in mouse embryos and cultured cells. Interference with the function of Lulu in Xenopus embryos by a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a carboxy-terminal fragment of Lulu impaired apical constriction during neural plate hinge formation. This effect was likely due to lack of actomyosin contractility in superficial neuroectodermal cells. By contrast, overexpression of Lulu RNA in embryonic ectoderm cells triggered ectopic apico-basal elongation and apical constriction, accompanied by the apical recruitment of F-actin. Depletion of endogenous Lulu disrupted the localization and activity of Shroom3, a PDZ-containing actin-binding protein that has also been implicated in apical constriction. Furthermore, Lulu and Shroom3 RNAs cooperated in triggering ectopic apical constriction in embryonic ectoderm. Our findings reveal that Lulu is essential for Shroom3-dependent apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure.

  1. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

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    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  2. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

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    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to...

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

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    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

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    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  6. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-02-08

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  7. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

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    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  8. ANTIPROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OFELAEODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM(CELASTRACEAE).

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    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.

  9. Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenols Extracted from Perilla frutescens Varieties

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    Linghua Meng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Various cultivars of Perilla frutescens (L. (var. crispa and var. frutescens Britt. were harvested in China and Japan. They were easily differentiated on the basis of their foliage color, that varied from red to green. Water extracts of dried plants were investigated for their antioxidant activity (AA and their polyphenolic compounds compared. Among them, cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl tartaric acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, flavonoids (apigenin 7-O-caffeoylglucoside, scutellarein 7-O-diglucuronide, luteolin 7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin 7-O-diglucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, and scutellarein 7-O-glucuronide and anthocyanins (mainly cis-shisonin, shisonin, malonylshisonin and cyanidin 3-O-(E-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-malonylglucoside were quantified. AA assays are based on the inhibition of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was calculated as Trolox ® [(±-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid] equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. The mean amount of total phenolics of the water extracts (4-29 µmol/100 mL and the TEAC value calculated (23-167 µmol TE/100 mL confirmed the high antioxidant activity of these leaf water extracts. These results were highly correlated within some o-dihydroxylated polyphenolic compounds and AA.

  10. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

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    Amit Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml. In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  11. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg) as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl) was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl) as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml). In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity. PMID:28748166

  12. A survey on periapical radiography efficacy in detection apical root resorption (a histological study

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    Goodarzipoor D.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the dental lesions which is mainly diagnosed by periapical radiography is apical root resorption Diagnosis of the presence and extension of this lesion can put some effects on its treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of periapical radiography on apical root resorption diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted teeth were examined radiographic and histological regarding the presence and extension of apical root resorption. It should be noted that periapical radiographs were taken before extraction of all mentioned teeth. The results were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The results of this study showed significant differences between radiological and histological examinations (P=0.0003. Significant correlation between these two observations was seen only in 53.33% of cases comprising 23% of teeth with root resouption. Non-correlation was found in 46% of samples. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of apical root resorption between maxillary and mandibular teeth (P=0.233. Sensitivity of periapical radiographs in apical root resorption diagnosis was determined 57.3%. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, it seems that periapical radiography technique does not possess desirable efficacy in diagnosis of apical root resorption and its limitation should be considered by clinicians.

  13. Antitermitic Activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) Heartwood Extractives against two Termite Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar Hassan; Mark Mankowski; Grant T. Kirker; Sohail Ahmed; Muhammad Misbah ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays...

  14. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

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    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  15. The effect of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall. Seventy extracted mandibular premolars were mounted in a resin block with simulated periodontal ligaments and divided into seven groups according to preparation technique and working length: group A, step-back preparation with stainless steel files with working length set at the apical foramen and defined as root canal length (CL); group B, same as for A, except that the working length was CL-1 mm; group C, crown-down preparation with Profile instruments followed by an apical enlargement sequence with CL as working length and group D, same as for C, except that the working length was CL-1 mm. Groups E, F and G served as controls. Groups E and F were prepared only with the crown-down sequence up to CL and CL-1 mm, respectively. Group G was left unprepared. Digital images of the apical root surface (AS) were recorded before preparation, immediately after instrumentation and after removing the apical 1 mm (AS-1 mm) and 2 mm (AS-2 mm) of the root end. Working length significantly affected crack development at AS (P crack development at AS-1 mm (P crack development on the canal wall. Root canal preparation alone, regardless of the technique used, can potentially generate cracks on the apical root canal wall as well as the apical surface. Working 1- mm short of the apical foramen might produce fewer cracks in the apical region.

  16. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Yinusa; Akinsomisoye, Olumide S; Salman, Toyin M

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats. Two groups of rats were treated with 400 mg/(kg .d) of Morinda lucida leaf extract for 4 and 13 weeks, respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels, histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  17. Release of apical dominance in potato tuber is accompanied by programmed cell death in the apical bud meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Lopesco, Yael; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Saad, Inbal; Holdengreber, Vered; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Ori, Naomi; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2012-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, a swollen underground stem, is used as a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting. Natural dormancy release, at room temperature, is initiated by tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem) sprouting characterized by apical dominance (AD). Dormancy is shortened by treatments such as bromoethane (BE), which mimics the phenotype of dormancy release in cold storage by inducing early sprouting of several buds simultaneously. We studied the mechanisms governing TAB-meristem dominance release. TAB-meristem decapitation resulted in the development of increasing numbers of axillary buds with time in storage, suggesting the need for autonomous dormancy release of each bud prior to control by the apical bud. Hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified in the TAB-meristems during normal growth, and these were more extensive when AD was lost following either extended cold storage or BE treatment. Hallmarks included DNA fragmentation, induced gene expression of vacuolar processing enzyme1 (VPE1), and elevated VPE activity. VPE1 protein was semipurified from BE-treated apical buds, and its endogenous activity was fully inhibited by a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1-specific inhibitor N-Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (Ac-YVAD-CHO). Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the TAB-meristem of BE-treated tubers: a knob-like body in the vacuole, development of cytoplasmic vesicles, and budding-like nuclear segmentations. Treatment of tubers with BE and then VPE inhibitor induced faster growth and recovered AD in detached and nondetached apical buds, respectively. We hypothesize that PCD occurrence is associated with the weakening of tuber AD, allowing early sprouting of mature lateral buds.

  18. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

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    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  19. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  1. Extraction and Categorisation of User Activity from Windows Restore Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kahvedzic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the user activity is one of the main goals in the analysis of digital evidence. In this paper we present a methodology for extracting this activity by comparing multiple Restore Points found in the Windows XP operating system. The registry copies represent a snapshot of the state of the system at a certain point in time. Differences between them can reveal user activity from one instant to another. The algorithms for comparing the hives and interpreting the results are of high complexity. We develop an approach that takes into account the nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the hives to reduce the complexity of the comparison and result interpretation processes. The approach concentrates on hives that present higher activity and highlights only those differences that are relevant to the investigation. The approach is implemented as a software tool that is able to compare any set of offline hives and categorise the results according to the user needs. The categorisation of the results, in terms of activity will help the investigator in interpreting the results. In this paper we present a general concept of result categorisation to prove its efficiency on Windows XP, but these can be adapted to any Windows versions including the latest versions.  

  2. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus seedcake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail, N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of kenaf seedcake methanolic extract (CME and fractions obtained from it using ethyl acetate (EAF, hexane (HF and water (WF were investigated. Total phenolic contents were 64.5, 36.1, 31.3 and 14.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight in EAF, CME, WF, and HF, respectively. Kenaf seedcake extract/fractions showed inhibitory activity of β-carotene bleaching and corn oil oxidation. Also, the extract/fractions were scavenged for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The EAF extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity followed by the CME, WF and HF extracts. Therefore, the rich phenolic fractions of kenaf seedcake may represent a potential source of natural antioxidants. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in CME and HF extracts were gallic, (+-catechin, chlorogenic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillin.Se ha investigado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos procedentes de tortas de semillas de kenaf (CME y de las fracciones obtenidas usando acetato de etilo (EAF, hexano (HF y agua (WF. Los contenidos fenólicos totales fueron 64,5, 36,1, 31,3 y 14,6 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g de peso seco, en EAF, CME, WF, y HF, respectivamente. Los extractos/fracciones de semillas de kenaf mostraron actividad inhibitoria de blanqueo del β-caroteno y oxidación del aceite de maíz. Además, los extractos/fracciones fueron captadores de radicales del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil. El extracto EAF mostró la mayor actividad captadora de radicales de DPPH seguido por los extractos de CME, WF y HF. Por lo tanto, las fracciones ricas en fenoles de las tortas de semilla de kenaf pueden representar una fuente potencial de antioxidantes naturales. Los compuestos fenólicos predominantes identificados mediante HPLC-DAD en extractos de CME y HF fueron gálico, (+-catequina, ácido clorogénico, hidroxibenzoico, siríngico, y vainillina.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  4. MRCK-1 Drives Apical Constriction in C. elegans by Linking Developmental Patterning to Force Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Daniel J; Higgins, Christopher D; Peters, Kimberly A; Cupp, Timothy D; Dickinson, Daniel J; Pani, Ariel M; Moore, Regan P; Cox, Amanda H; Kiehart, Daniel P; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-08-22

    Apical constriction is a change in cell shape that drives key morphogenetic events including gastrulation and neural tube formation. Apical force-producing actomyosin networks drive apical constriction by contracting while connected to cell-cell junctions. The mechanisms by which developmental patterning regulates these actomyosin networks and associated junctions with spatial precision are not fully understood. Here we identify a myosin light-chain kinase MRCK-1 as a key regulator of C. elegans gastrulation that integrates spatial and developmental patterning information. We show that MRCK-1 is required for activation of contractile actomyosin dynamics and elevated cortical tension in the apical cell cortex of endoderm precursor cells. MRCK-1 is apically localized by active Cdc42 at the external, cell-cell contact-free surfaces of apically constricting cells, downstream of cell fate determination mechanisms. We establish that the junctional components α-catenin, β-catenin, and cadherin become highly enriched at the apical junctions of apically constricting cells and that MRCK-1 and myosin activity are required in vivo for this enrichment. Taken together, our results define mechanisms that position a myosin activator to a specific cell surface where it both locally increases cortical tension and locally enriches junctional components to facilitate apical constriction. These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  6. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhou, Xianjiao; Zeng, Fuhua; Lu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-24

    Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Melittis melissophyllum L. extracts

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    Grujić Slavica M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol and ethanol (10%, 30%, 50% and 96% extracts of the aerial parts of Melittis melissophyllum L. were determined by DPP H, ABTS and FRAP assays. The content of flavonoids and phenols was also investigated. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay; their amounts ranged between 63.5 and 111.7 mg GAeqv/g, while the concentrations of flavonoids were from 7.33 to 56.00 mg Queqv/g. IC50 values of the DPP H scavenging effect were from 0.109 to 0.664 mg/mL. The DPP H scavenging effect of the extracts was determined and the obtained IC50 values were from 0.109 to 0.664 mg/mL of solution. The values of ABTS radical activity were from 0.45 to 0.89 mg ascorbic acid/g. The FRAP value was within the range 0.160-0.382 mmol Fe/mg. The obtained values were analyzed by means of multivariate analysis, employing a hierarchical cluster analysis and between-groups linkage. The presented results confirmed that M. melissophyllum possesses good antioxidant properties and may serve as a promising source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  8. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  9. Antihyperglycemic and Insulin Secretagogue Activities of Abrus precatorius Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamahesh, Balekari; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2016-01-01

    Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated. In diabetic rats, APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), blood glucose (32.39%), and insulin levels (73.95%) in comparison to diabetic control rats. In MIN6-β cells, APME potentiated insulin secretion in a dependent manner of glucose (3-16.7 mM) and extract (5-500 μg/mL) concentration. Insulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine, glibenclamide, elevated extracellular calcium, and K(+) depolarized media. Insulin release was reduced in the presence of nifedipine, ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (calcium blocking agents), and diazoxide (potassium channel opener). The study suggests that APME antihyperglycemic activity might involve the insulin secretagogue effect by pancreatic beta cells physiological pathways via K(+)-ATP channel dependent and independently, along with an effect on Ca(2+) channels. Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) showed a significant anti hyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Also demonstrated a potent In vitro insulin secretagogue effect in mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β)APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), reduced blood glucose (32.39%) and enhanced circulatory insulin levels (73.95%) in diabetic ratsAPME demonstrated glucose and extract dose dependent insulin secretionInsulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine

  10. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

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    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  11. Extract of acai-berry inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, C; Stavroullakis, A T; Ferreira, A C; Li, K; Oliveira, T; Nogueira-Filho, G; Prakki, A

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is the major cellular event responsible for bone loss and is triggered by inflammation. Acai-berry has proven anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is a lack of evidence for its effects on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether acai-berry extract (ABE) could inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in vitro. The secretion of cytokines by osteoclasts has been also evaluated. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with RANKL (50ng/mL) and treated with various concentrations of ABE (25-100μg/mL) to verify: cell viability (MTT), total protein concentration (BCA), osteoclast differentiation and activity, and cytokine secretion. Cell viability and protein assays showed no toxicity to RAW cells for the tested ABE concentrations (p>0.05). ABE also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and hydroxylapatite resorption assay, respectively (pstudy showed that acai-berry extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity possibly due to the modulation of a vast number of cytokines produced by osteoclast precursor cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extract from Calotropis procera latex activates murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddek, Abdel latif Shaker; Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Iwami, Momoe; Miyazawa, Seiji; Nikami, Hideki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex has long been used in traditional medicines. Extracts from C. procera latex have been reported to have various pharmacological actions, including protection from myocardial infarction, hepatoprotective action, antitumor activity, antinociceptive, and pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. To evaluate the immunomodulatory functions of the water-soluble C. procera extract (CPE), we investigated its ability to activate macrophages-effector cells in inflammatory and immune responses. Intraperitoneal injection of CPE in mice (2 mg/mouse) induced migration of macrophages to the intraperitoneal cavity, confirming the proinflammatory effects of water-soluble CPE. The direct effects of CPE on macrophages were then assessed by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) as an indicator for macrophage activation. Addition of CPE (1-10 microg/ml) to the culture medium of the murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 caused an increase in NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CPE-elicited NO production was blocked by application of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Expression of iNOS mRNA was induced by treatment of cultured macrophages with CPE. Injection of CPE in mice also resulted in an increase in plasma NO level. The results suggest that CPE activates macrophages and facilitates NO production via up-regulation of iNOS gene expression.

  13. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidation system or by an illuminating riboflavin system, hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, and nitrite. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were correlated with the concentrations of the TPEB. In the test concentration range, the maximum inhibition percentage against linoleic acid peroxidation was 98.32 % after one week’s incubation, and the maximum scavenging percentages for the free radicals and nitrite inhibition in the above reactive systems reached 90.48, 96.48, 93.58 and 98.94 %, respectively. The TPEB is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant activities and health benefits and it seems to be applicable in both healthy food and medicine.

  15. Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dhayabaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sapindaceae (ARECH, on the various murine models of epilepsy. The root extract of the plant was administered p.o. to male swiss albino mice at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg before evaluation. The brain monoamine levels were determined after two days administration. ARECH at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly delayed the onset of clonus and tonus in pentylenetetrazol, isoniazid and picrotoxin-induced convulsions. Tonic hind limb extension was also decreased at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg as compared to vehicle control in maximal electroshock model. No significant motor toxicity was observed even at a highest dose administered, i.e. 900 mg/kg. Brain monoamine analysis by HPLC revealed a significant increase in GABAergic activity in C+ (in cerebellum and C- (except cerebellum. These results suggested that ARECH possesses a significant anticonvulsant activity with a low motor toxicity profile. This activity may be attributed to an increase in GABAergic activity.

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dhayabaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sapindaceae (ARECH, on the various murine models of epilepsy. The root extract of the plant was administered p.o. to male swiss albino mice at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg before evaluation. The brain monoamine levels were determined after two days administration. ARECH at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly delayed the onset of clonus and tonus in pentylenetetrazol, isoniazid and picrotoxin-induced convulsions. Tonic hind limb extension was also decreased at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg as compared to vehicle control in maximal electroshock model. No significant motor toxicity was observed even at a highest dose administered, i.e. 900 mg/kg. Brain monoamine analysis by HPLC revealed a significant increase in GABAergic activity in C+ (in cerebellum and C- (except cerebellum. These results suggested that ARECH possesses a significant anticonvulsant activity with a low motor toxicity profile. This activity may be attributed to an increase in GABAergic activity.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  18. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  19. In vitro and in vivo activities of Peganum harmala extract against Leishmania major

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    Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: P harmala seeds extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities. Most biological activity of the extract could be attributed to its beta-carboline content. However, another alkaloid of P harmala seeds extract, peganine, has also been reported to have antileishmanial activity. These beneficial effects can be attributed to the cumulative effects of various biologically active components present in it.

  20. Apical ballooning syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Apical ballooning syndrome mimics acute coronary syndromes and it is characterized by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery stenosis. Case presentation This is a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian male without any health related problems that was submitted to an urgent coronary angiography because of acute chest pain and marked precordial T-wave inversions suggestive of acute myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries. Left ventriculography showed systolic apical ballooning with mild basal hypercontraction. Conclusion Physicians should be aware of the presentation of apical ballooning syndrome, and the chest pain after following acute stress should not be readily attributed to anxiety. PMID:23270409

  1. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex Pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and un­fed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  2. Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Talcott, Stephen T; Safe, Stephen; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2008-05-28

    Polyphenolic extracts from various fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert growth inhibitory effects in cell culture studies. Whereas individual polyphenolic compounds have been extensively evaluated, understanding of the biological activity of polyphenolic extracts from natural sources is limited and critical to the understanding of their potential effects on the human body. This study investigated the absorption and antiproliferative effects of phytochemical extracts from acai pulp and a polyphenolic-enriched acai oil obtained from the fruit pulp of the acai berry ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.). Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and polyphenolic absorption of phytochemical fractions in a Caco-2 monolayer were determined, along with their cytotoxicity in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Standardized extracts were characterized by their predominance of hydroxybenzoic acids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin dimers and trimers. Polyphenolic mixtures (0-12 microg of gallic acid equiv/mL) from both acai pulp and acai oil extracts inhibited cell proliferation by up to 90.7%, which was accompanied by an increase of up to 2.1-fold in reactive oxygen species. Absorption experiments using a Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer demonstrated that phenolic acids such as p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and ferulic acids, in the presence of DMSO, were readily transported from the apical to the basolateral side along with monomeric flavanols such as (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Results from this study provide further evidence for the bioactive properties of acai polyphenolics and offer new insight on their composition and cellular absorption.

  3. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil cake

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    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil meal, extracted using two different methods was evaluated. The extraction was carried out using magnetic stirring of the material in methanol/water (80:20 v/v overnight followed by two ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. (Overnight extract, ONEXT and three ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. only (Ultra-sonic extract, USEXT, respectively. Three fractions were obtained from each extract and the contents of total phenolic compounds were determined in each fraction according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method as 34.6, 54.8, and 58.6 mg/g of dry product in ONEXT and 29.6, 84.8, 143.9 mg/g in USEXT, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated according to the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, where the extracts and their fractions showed significant effect (p<0.05. The antioxidative properties of the extracts obtained from the two extraction methods described were similar. The AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient of these extracts and their fractions increased with an increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of ONEXT and USEXT at the 0.2 and 0.8 % levels on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 70°C was tested in the dark and compared with the commonly used synthetic antioxidant BHA. The oil peroxide values (PVs were significantly (p<0.05 lower with the addition of extract in comparison to a control. In comparison to BHA (0.02% the increase of PVs after the addition of ONEXT (0.2% and 0.8% and USEXT (0.8%, respectively, was reduced. The oxidation of sunflower oil, treated with 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of ONEXT and USEXT, respectively, was tested using the Rancimat test at 120 °C. Both extracts increased the induction time compared to a control and BHA, and the stabilization factor F increased with the concentration.Se ha evaluado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos de torta de aceite de semilla de Sclerocarya birrea

  4. In vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specimen (ESO/VA/08) of the plant deposited in the herbarium of the University of Benin, Benin. City, Nigeria. Extract Preparation: The leaves were air-dried, crushed and extracted into 3 extract types which consisted of ethanolic, aqueous, and hydro- ethanolic (50:50 v/v) extracts using standard extraction procedures ...

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

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    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    Full Text Available The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2 and ethanolic extraction (EtOH, in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown, collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH. However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  6. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  9. Photodynamic activity of plant extracts from Sarawak, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Wan Wui; Tan, Pei Jean; Kamarulzaman, Fadzly Adzhar; Mejin, Michele; Lim, Diana; Ang, Ida; Naming, Margarita; Yeo, Tiong Chia; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2013-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment that involves the irradiation of an administered photosensitizing drug with light of a particular wavelength to activate the photosensitizer to kill abnormal cells. To date, only a small number of photosensitizers have been clinically approved for PDT, and researchers continue to look for new molecules that have more desirable properties for clinical applications. Natural products have long been important sources of pharmaceuticals, and there is a great potential for discovery of novel chemotypes from under-explored biodiversities in the world. The objective of this study is to mine the terrestrial plants in Sarawak, Borneo Island, for new photosensitizers for PDT. In a screening program from 2004 to 2008, we prepared and studied 2,400 extracts from 888 plants for their photosensitizing activities. This report details the bioprospecting process, preparation and testing of extracts, analysis of the active samples, fractionation of four samples, and isolation and characterization of photosensitizers. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Cell Extracts from Microalgae

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    F. Xavier Malcata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing market for novel antioxidants obtained from non-expensive sources justifies educated screening of microalgae for their potential antioxidant features. Characterization of the antioxidant profile of 18 species of cyanobacteria (prokaryotic microalgae and 23 species of (eukaryotic microalgae is accordingly reported in this paper. The total antioxidant capacity, accounted for by both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, was evaluated by the (radical cation ABTS method. For complementary characterization of cell extracts, a deoxyribose assay was carried out, as well as a bacteriophage P22/Salmonella-mediated approach. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus strain M2-1 exhibited the highest (p > 0.05 total antioxidant capacity (149 ± 47 AAU of intracellular extracts. Its scavenger activity correlated well with its protective effects against DNA oxidative damage induced by copper(II-ascorbic acid; and against decay in bacteriophage infection capacity induced by H2O2. Finally, performance of an Ames test revealed no mutagenic effects of the said extract.

  12. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of a Plectranthus saccatus aqueous extract

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    Caldeira F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a disease with high prevalence in developed countries, resulting from the deposition of uric acid crystals in various locations, particularly at the joints. The pharmacotherapeutic approach to chronic gout essentially consists of administration of uric acid-lowering agents. The main mechanism of action of these agents is the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO, the enzyme responsible for the formation of uric acid. The therapeutic alternatives available for this purpose are limited, thus justifying the interest of the discovery of potential new uric acidlowering drugs. In this regard, an aqueous extract of the plant Plectranthus saccatus has been studied for its ability to inhibit XO. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rosmarinic acid was identified as the major constituent. Both the extract and rosmarinic acid have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the production of uric acid by interfering with XO activity. The results obtained herein support the continuation of the study of their uric acid-lowering properties in cell-based and in vivo models to further explore their potential in gout therapy.

  13. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-05-16

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  16. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of extraction methods on yield, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera

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    Tushar Dhanani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Withnaia somnifera (L. is a wonder herb with multiple medicinal properties. Its root is used in the preparation of many Ayurvedic medicines. Withanolides, steroidal lactones, present in the root are active chemical markers, however, phenolics, and flavonoids have also been reported in the root of this plant. In most of the herbal preparations, water extraction is carried out using the infusion or decoction preparation process. In the present study, extract yield, phytochemical constituents such as total phenol and withanolide content of water and water-alcohol extracts prepared using two most commonly used extraction techniques, also known as “Green Extraction” techniques, ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction were compared with the conventional extraction method. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined using DPPH and ABTS methods of antioxidant assay. Extract yield, chemical composition of the extracts (total phenol and withanolide content and antioxidant activity of the extracts varied with the extraction process as well as solvent composition.

  18. Fumigant activity of Elsholtzia stauntonii extract against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Jian-Hua Lü

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The repeated use of phosphine over decades for the control of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, a significant stored-product insect worldwide, has led to serious negative effects, including strong insecticide resistance, disruption of biological control by natural enemies, and environmental and human health concerns. As an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, plant-derived pesticides have been the focus of much research. We investigated the fumigant activity of whole plant extracts of Elsholtzia stauntonii, a Chinese mint shrub, against the adult, larval, pupal and egg stages of L. serricorne. E. stauntonii extracts exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne; larvae and adults were more susceptible to this toxicity than were eggs and pupae. The toxicity significantly increased with increasing dosage. The corrected mortality of larvae, adults, pupae and eggs reached 99.32%, 97.97%, 44.67% and 33.33%, respectively, at a dosage of 40 µL/L air after 48 h of exposure. The declining order of susceptibility of different developmental stages of L. serricorne to E. stauntonii extracts, as indicated by the concentration at which 50% of the insects died (LC50, was as follows: larvae (LC50= 8.82 µL/L air, adults (LC50= 10.99 µL/L air, pupae (LC50= 45.96 µL/L air and eggs (LC50= 84.57 µL/L air. The results suggest that E. stauntonii extracts show promise as a fumigant for the control of L. serricorne.

  19. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Aerva lanata ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-09-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. Pharmacological intervention with plant-derived products alone or in combination to reverse, suppress, or prevent the cancer progression plays a key role in the fight against this terrible disease. Aerva lanata is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine like ayurveda and siddha. Ethanolic extract of whole plant of A. lanata exhibited immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Intraperitoneal administration of five doses of the extract (10 mg/kg body weight) was found to enhance the total WBC count (14,238 cells/mm(3)), bone marrow cellularity (22.33 × 10(6) cells/femur), and number of α-esterase-positive cells (1276 cells/4000 cells). Aerva treatment also showed enhanced proliferation of splenocytes, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells both in the presence and absence of specific mitogens in vitro and in vivo. The number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in spleen (243.33 PFC/10(6) spleen cells) and circulating antibody titer were also increased (P < 0.001). The extract was 100% cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. It was also found to be cytotoxic toward L929 and HELA cells at higher concentrations, whereas the nontoxic concentrations produced a reduction in the rate of proliferation. Simultaneous administration of five doses of A. lanata extract could produce significant inhibition in DLA-induced solid tumor development in mice and increase the life span of mice-bearing EAC tumors by 53.47%.

  20. Neuroelectric Tuning of Cortical Oscillations by Apical Dendrites in Loop Circuits

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    David LaBerge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite. The results of that simulation demonstrated that subthreshold electric pulses in these apical dendrites can be tuned to specific frequencies and also can be fine-tuned to narrow bandwidths of less than one Hertz (1 Hz. Synchronous pulse outputs from the circuit loops containing apical dendrites can tune subthreshold membrane oscillations of neurons they contact. When the pulse outputs are finely tuned, they function as a local “clock,” which enables the contacted neurons to synchronously communicate with each other. Thus, a shared tuning frequency can select neurons for membership in a circuit. Unlike layer 6 apical dendrites, layer 5 apical dendrites can produce burst firing in many of their neurons, which increases the amplitude of signals in the neurons they contact. This difference in amplitude of signals serves as basis of selecting a sub-circuit for specialized processing (e.g., sustained attention within the typically larger layer 6-based circuit. After examining the sustaining of oscillations in loop circuits and the processing of spikes in network circuits, we propose that cortical functioning can be globally viewed as two systems: a loop system and a network system. The loop system oscillations influence the network system’s timing and amplitude of pulse signals, both of which can select circuits that are momentarily dominant in cortical activity.