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Sample records for extracellular polysaccharides epss

  1. Immunological and biochemical characterization of extracellular polysaccharides of mucoralean moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the characterization is described of the antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) from moulds belonging to the order of Mucorales. Detailed knowledge of the structure of these epitopes allows for further development of a new generation of

  2. Quantifying biostabilisation effects of biofilm-secreted and extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on sandy substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lageweg, Wietse I.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Parsons, Daniel R.

    2018-03-01

    Microbial assemblages (biofilms) preferentially develop at water-sediment interfaces and are known to have a considerable influence on sediment stability and erodibility. There is potential for significant impacts on sediment transport and morphodynamics, and hence on the longer-term evolution of coastal and fluvial environments. However, the biostabilisation effects remain poorly understood and quantified due to the inherent complexity of biofilms and the large spatial and temporal (i.e. seasonality) variations involved. Here, we use controlled laboratory tests to systematically quantify the effects of natural biofilm colonisation as well as extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on sediment stability. Extracted EPSs may be useful to simulate biofilm-mediated biostabilisation and potentially provide a method of speeding up timescales of physical modelling experiments investigating biostabilisation effects. We find a mean biostabilisation effect due to natural biofilm colonisation and development of almost 4 times that of the uncolonised sand. The presented cumulative probability distribution of measured critical threshold for erosion of colonised sand reflects the large spatial and temporal variations generally seen in natural biostabilised environments. For identical sand, engineered sediment stability from the addition of extracted EPSs compares well across the measured range of the critical threshold for erosion and behaves in a linear and predictable fashion. Yet, the effectiveness of extracted EPSs to stabilise sediment is sensitive to the preparation procedure, time after application and environmental conditions such as salinity, pH and temperature. These findings are expected to improve biophysical experimental models in fluvial and coastal environments and provide much-needed quantification of biostabilisation to improve predictions of sediment dynamics in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. An in vitro investigation of immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. delbrueckii cells and their extracellular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mana; Nomoto, Ryohei; Mizuno, Masashi; Osawa, Ro

    2017-01-01

    Many probiotic lactobacilli and their extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) have beneficial immunological properties. However, it is unclear how they elicit the host immune response. We thus investigated the immunological properties of UV-killed Lactobacillus delbrueckii TU-1 and L. plantarum KM-9 cells as well as their extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). High-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography analyses showed that their EPSs differ in sugar composition and sugar fractionation. The immunological properties were evaluated in a semi-intestinal model using a Transwell co-culture system that employed human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells on the apical side and murine macrophage (RAW264.7) cells on the basolateral side. The UV-killed cells and EPSs were added to the apical side to allow direct contact with Caco-2 cells and incubated for 6 hr. After incubation, the amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α and several cytokines released by RAW264.7 or Caco-2 cells were quantified by cytotoxic activity on L929 cells (murine fibrosarcoma cell line) and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. We found that the UV-killed cells and their EPSs had immunological effects on RAW264.7 cells via Caco-2 cells. The RAW264.7 cells showed different cytokine production profiles when treated with UV-killed cells and EPSs. The UV-killed cells and EPSs promoted a Th1-type cellular response. Furthermore, we found that the UV-killed cells sent positive signals through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Meanwhile, neither EPS sent a positive signal through TLR4 and TLR2. This evidence suggests that both UV-killed cells of the lactobacillus strains and their EPSs trigger a Th1-type immune response in a human host, with the former triggering the response via the TLRs expressed on its epithelium and the latter employing a mechanism yet to be determined, possibly involving a novel receptor that is designed to recognize specific patterns of repeating sugar in the EPSs.

  4. In vitro evaluation of immunological properties of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mana; Nomoto, Ryohei; Osawa, Ro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in immunological properties of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by different Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains as well as that of their monosaccharide composition. The monosaccharide composition of each EPS produced by L. delbrueckii strains, as determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), showed an appreciable variation in a strain-dependent manner, which could be broadly assigned to 4 TLC groups. Meanwhile, the immunological properties of the EPSs produced by 10 L. delbrueckii strains were evaluated in a semi-intestinal model using a Transwell co-culture system, which employed human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells on the apical side and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells on the basolateral side. Each EPS was added to the apical side to allow direct contact with Caco-2 cells and incubated for 6 hr. After incubation, the amounts of TNF-α and several cytokines that had been released by either RAW264.7 or Caco-2 cells were then quantified by cytotoxic activity on L929 cells or the RT-PCR method. It was found that the EPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells express different profiles of cytokine production via Caco-2 cells but that the profile difference could not be related to the above TLC grouping. The evidence suggests that the EPSs of L. delbrueckii strains are diverse not only in their biochemical structure but also in their immunological properties.

  5. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and virulence by an oxazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lulu; Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, a biofilm-related oral disease, is a result of disruption of the microbial ecological balance in the oral environment. Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, produces glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The EPSs, especially water-insoluble glucans, contribute to the formation of dental plaque, biofilm stability, and structural integrity, by allowing bacteria to adhere to tooth surfaces and supplying the bacteria with protection against noxious stimuli and other environmental attacks. The identification of novel alternatives that selectively inhibit cariogenic organisms without suppressing oral microbial residents is required. The goal of the current study is to investigate the influence of an oxazole derivative on S. mutans biofilm formation and the development of dental caries in rats, given that oxazole and its derivatives often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. Our data shows that one particular oxazole derivative, named 5H6, inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms and prevented synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by antagonizing Gtfs in vitro, without affecting the growth of the bacteria. In addition, topical applications with the inhibitor resulted in diminished incidence and severity of both smooth and sulcal surface caries in vivo with a lower percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque compared to the control group (P mutans.

  6. Roles of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Biofilm Formation in Heavy Metal Resistance of Rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Nocelli; Pablo C. Bogino; Erika Banchio; Walter Giordano

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial surface components and extracellular compounds, particularly flagella, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and exopolysaccharides (EPSs), in combination with environmental signals and quorum-sensing signals, play crucial roles in bacterial autoaggregation, biofilm development, survival, and host colonization. The nitrogen-fixing species Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) produces two symbiosis-promoting EPSs: succinoglycan (or EPS I) and galactoglucan (or EPS II). Studies of the S. melilo...

  7. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  8. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  9. Isolation of the intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides of Ganoderma neojaponicum (Imazeki and characterization of their immunomodulatory properties

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    Nik Hafizah Nik Ubaidillah

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the IPSs and EPSs of G. neojaponicum have the potential to be used as immunomodulating agents to stimulate the innate immune system for fighting infectious diseases. The polysaccharides from G. neojaponicum have to be further commercially explored as an alternative for medicinal Ganoderma variety of G. lucidum production.

  10. Roles of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Biofilm Formation in Heavy Metal Resistance of Rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nocelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface components and extracellular compounds, particularly flagella, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, and exopolysaccharides (EPSs, in combination with environmental signals and quorum-sensing signals, play crucial roles in bacterial autoaggregation, biofilm development, survival, and host colonization. The nitrogen-fixing species Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti produces two symbiosis-promoting EPSs: succinoglycan (or EPS I and galactoglucan (or EPS II. Studies of the S. meliloti/alfalfa symbiosis model system have revealed numerous biological functions of EPSs, including host specificity, participation in early stages of host plant infection, signaling molecule during plant development, and (most importantly protection from environmental stresses. We evaluated functions of EPSs in bacterial resistance to heavy metals and metalloids, which are known to affect various biological processes. Heavy metal resistance, biofilm production, and co-culture were tested in the context of previous studies by our group. A range of mercury (Hg II and arsenic (As III concentrations were applied to S. meliloti wild type strain and to mutant strains defective in EPS I and EPS II. The EPS production mutants were generally most sensitive to the metals. Our findings suggest that EPSs are necessary for the protection of bacteria from either Hg (II or As (III stress. Previous studies have described a pump in S. meliloti that causes efflux of arsenic from cells to surrounding culture medium, thereby protecting them from this type of chemical stress. The presence of heavy metals or metalloids in culture medium had no apparent effect on formation of biofilm, in contrast to previous reports that biofilm formation helps protect various microorganism species from adverse environmental conditions. In co-culture experiments, EPS-producing heavy metal resistant strains exerted a protective effect on AEPS-non-producing, heavy metal-sensitive strains; a phenomenon

  11. Biofilm extracellular polysaccharides degradation during starvation and enamel demineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Emanoele Costa Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate if extracellular polysaccharides (EPS are used by Streptococcus mutans (Sm biofilm during night starvation, contributing to enamel demineralization increasing occurred during daily sugar exposure. Sm biofilms were formed during 5 days on bovine enamel slabs of known surface hardness (SH. The biofilms were exposed to sucrose 10% or glucose + fructose 10.5% (carbohydrates that differ on EPS formation, 8x/day but were maintained in starvation during the night. Biofilm samples were harvested during two moments, on the end of the 4th day and in the morning of the 5th day, conditions of sugar abundance and starvation, respectively. The slabs were also collected to evaluate the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL. The biofilms were analyzed for EPS soluble and insoluble and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS, viable bacteria (CFU, biofilm architecture and biomass. pH, calcium and acid concentration were determined in the culture medium. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test or Student's t-test. The effect of the factor carbohydrate treatment for polysaccharide analysis was significant (p 0.05. Larger amounts of soluble and insoluble EPS and IPS were formed in the sucrose group when compared to glucose + fructose group (p < 0.05, but they were not metabolized during starvation time (S-EPS, p = 0.93; I-EPS, p = 0.11; and IPS = 0.96. Greater enamel %SHL was also found for the sucrose group (p < 0.05 but the demineralization did not increase during starvation (p = 0.09. In conclusion, the findings suggest that EPS metabolization by S. mutans during night starvation do not contribute to increase enamel demineralization occurred during the daily abundance of sugar.

  12. Cyanobacterial crust induction using two non-previously tested cyanobacterial inoculants: crusting capability and role of EPSs

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    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The use of cyanobacteria as soil improvers and bio-conditioners (a technique often referred to as algalization) has been studied for decades. Several studies proved that cyanobacteria are feasible eco-friendly candidates to trigger soil fertilization and enrichment from agricultural to arid and hyper-arid systems. This approach can be successful to achieve stabilization and rehabilitation of degraded environments. Much of the effectiveness of algalization is due to the productivity and the characteristics of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) which, among their features, embed soil particles and promote the development of a first stable organo-mineral layer (cyanobacterial crusts). In natural settings, cyanobacterial crust induction represents a first step of a succession that may lead to the formation of mature biological soil crusts (Lan et al., 2014). The aim of this research was to investigate the crusting capabilities, and the characteristics of excreted EPSs by two newly tested non-heterocystous cyanobacterial inoculants, in microcosm experiments carried out using oligothrophic sand collected from sand dunes in Negev Desert, Israel. The cyanobacteria tested were Schizothrix AMPL1601, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia (China) and Leptolyngbia ohadii, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Negev Desert, Israel. Inoculated microcosms were maintained at 30 °C in a growth chamber under continuous illumination and minimal water availability. Under such stressing conditions, and for a three-months incubation time, the growth and the colonization of the strains in the microcosms were monitored. At the same time, EPSs production and their chemical and macromolecular characteristics were determined by applying a methodology optimized for the purpose. Notably, EPSs were analyzed in two operationally-defined fractions, one more dispersed in the crust matrix (loosely bound EPSs, LB-EPSs) and one more condensed and

  13. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products,

  14. Structural investigation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide EPS159 produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans UA159 was investigated through the main oligosaccharides obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide/methylation analysis, and 1D/2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that EPS159

  15. Extracellular polysaccharides as target compounds for the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food products. More specifically, the immunogenicity, antigenicity, production and structure of the water-soluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of these

  16. Structure of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhaverbeke, C.; Bosso, C.; Colin-Morel, P.; Gey, C.; Heyraud, A. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P.53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Gamar-Nourani, L.; Blondeau, K.; Simonet, J.-M. [Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Bacteries d' Interet Industriel, CNRS URA 2225, Batiment 360, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    1998-12-31

    The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83 was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. The primary structure of the polysaccharide was shown by sugar analysis, methylation analysis, FABMS, partial acid hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to consist of a pentasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:-3)-{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-2)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-6)-{alpha}-d-Galp-(1-6) -{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-3)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Structure of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhaverbeke, C.; Bosso, C.; Colin-Morel, P.; Gey, C.; Heyraud, A.; Gamar-Nourani, L.; Blondeau, K.; Simonet, J.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83 was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. The primary structure of the polysaccharide was shown by sugar analysis, methylation analysis, FABMS, partial acid hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to consist of a pentasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:-3)-α-d-Glcp-(1-2)-β-d-Galf-(1-6)-α-d-Galp-(1-6) -α-d-Glcp-(1-3)-β-d-Galf-(1-. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Jia, Shi-ru; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-lei

    2014-05-25

    The influences of different wavelengths of light (red 660nm, yellow 590nm, green 520nm, blue 460nm, purple 400nm) and white light on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production by Nostoc flagelliforme in liquid culture were demonstrated in this study. The results showed that, compared with white light, red and blue lights significantly increased both EPS and CPS production while yellow light reduced their production; purple and green lights stimulated EPS production but inhibited CPS formation. Nine constituent monosaccharides and one uronic acid were detected in both EPS and CPS, and their ratios showed significant differences among treatment with different light wavelengths. However, the advanced structure of EPS and CPS from various light conditions did not present obvious difference through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization. These findings establish a basis for development of high-yielding polysaccharide production process and understanding their regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans during chalcopyrite bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run-lan; Liu, Jing; Tan, Jian-xi; Zeng, Wei-min; Shi, Li-juan; Gu, Guo-hua; Qin, Wen-qing; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2014-04-01

    The pH value plays an important role in the bioleaching of sulphide minerals. The effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated in different phases of bacterial growth during chalcopyrite bioleaching. It is found that extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the cells attached to chalcopyrite is more efficiently than that of the free cells in the bioleaching solution. Three factors, pH values, the concentration of soluble metal ions, and the bacterial growth and metabolism, affect extracellular polysaccharide secretion in the free cells, and are related to the bacterial growth phase. Extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the attached cells is mainly dependent on the pH value of the bacterial culture.

  20. Protective Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Polysaccharides on Hepatotoxicity by Hericium erinaceus SG-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Jia, Le

    2016-09-01

    The protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury of mice were investigated in this work. By the analysis of GC, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 1:7:14:52, and the composition of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) was rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 3:4:7:14:137. The model of hepatic injury of mice was induced by CCl4 and three tested levels (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of EPS and IPS were set as the experimental group. Results showed that the aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in serum were reduced by the supplement of EPS and IPS, while the blood lipid levels including cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin were improved. In liver tissue, the lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde were largely decreased, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased. The evidence demonstrated that the EPS and IPS of H. erinaceus SG-02 were protective for liver injury. The histopathological observations of mice liver slices indicated that EPS and IPS had obvious effects on liver protection.

  1. Physicochemical properties and membrane biofouling of extra-cellular polysaccharide produced by a Micrococcus luteus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Xiufen; Song, Ping; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of the extra-cellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by a Micrococcus luteus strain, a dominating strain isolated from membrane biofouling layer, were determined in this study. The EPS isolated from this strain was measured to have an average molecular weight of 63,540 Da and some typical polysaccharide absorption peaks in Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Monosaccharide components of the EPS contained rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 0.2074:0.0454:0.0262:0.0446:1.7942:1.2086:0.4578. Pseudo plastic properties were also observed for the EPS through the rheological measurement. The EPS was further characterized for its behavior to cause membrane flux decline. The results showed that both flux declines for polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and polypropylene membranes became more severe as EPS feed concentration increased. A higher irreversible fouling for the PVDF membrane suggested that the EPS had the larger fouling potential to this microfiltration membrane.

  2. Effects of some organic pollutants on the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by some Pseudomonas spp. strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

    2009-01-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa B1, P. fluorescens B5, P. stutzeri B11 and P. putida B15 which had been seen to produce exopolymers of potential interest in biotechnological applications were examined. To initiate the observation of the organic pollutants-polymer interactions, the yield and properties of their extracellular polysaccharide were researched. The exopolysaccharide production by these strains during growth in nutrient broth medium (control) was 41-75 mg L -1 . Also, P. aeruginosa B1, P. fluorescens B5, P. stutzeri B11 and P. putida B15 had exhibited high production of EPSs in presence of various organic pollutants (2,4-D, benzene, BTX and gasoline, respectively) in mineral salt medium (MSM) as a sole carbon source. EPS production by the 4 strains ranged from 40 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 . Monosaccharide composition of EPS produced by these cultures were analyzed by HPLC. Results indicated that EPSs of strains contained neutral sugars and acetylated amino sugars. The neutral sugars in the EPS were mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, glycerol, ribose. The presence of galactronic acid, N-acetyl-D-galactosamin and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine indicated the acidic nature of the polysaccharide. Glycerol was the basic structural unit of EPS produced by the strains except P. stutzeri B11 (MSM with 1% BTX). Strain B1 (in NB medium) was found to be composed of neutral sugars (100%) while strain B1 [in MSM medium with 0.2% (v/v) 2.4-D] contained neutral sugars (70.0%), acetylated amino sugars (30.0%). Also, EPS content of strain B5 (in the NB medium) was neutral sugars (99.8%), acetylated amino sugars (0.2%) while the strain B5 [in MSM medium containing the 1% (v/v) benzene] was found to contain neutral sugars (99.9%), acetylated amino sugars (0.1%). However, EPS monomer composition by strain B11 was detected as neutral sugars (99.77%), acetylated amino sugars (0.23%) in NB medium while the strain B11

  3. Strain-Specific Features of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Their Impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chiao; Caggianiello, Graziano; van Swam, Iris I; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strain-specific probiotic effects that are typically observed. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains, SF2A35B and Lp90, have an obvious ropy phenotype, implying high extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production levels. In this work, we set out to identify the genes involved in EPS production in these L. plantarum strains and to demonstrate their role in EPS production by gene deletion analysis. A model L. plantarum strain, WCFS1, and its previously constructed derivative that produced reduced levels of EPS were included as reference strains. The constructed EPS-reduced derivatives were analyzed for the abundance and sugar compositions of their EPS, revealing cps2-like gene clusters in SF2A35B and Lp90 responsible for major EPS production. Moreover, these mutant strains were tested for phenotypic characteristics that are of relevance for their capacity to interact with the host epithelium in the intestinal tract, including bacterial surface properties as well as survival under the stress conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (acid and bile stress). In addition, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and immunomodulatory capacities of the EPS-negative derivatives and their respective wild-type strains were compared, revealing strain-specific impacts of EPS on the immunomodulatory properties. Taken together, these experiments illustrate the importance of EPS in L. plantarum strains as a strain-specific determinant in host interaction. This study evaluates the role of extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the determination of the cell surface properties of these bacteria and their capacity to interact with their environment, including their

  4. Partial characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas xianhensis SUR308.

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    Biswas, Jhuma; Ganguly, J; Paul, A K

    2015-01-01

    A moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas xianhensis SUR308 (Genbank Accession No. KJ933394) was isolated from a multi-pond solar saltern at Surala, Ganjam district, Odisha, India. The isolate produced a significant amount (7.87 g l(-1)) of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) when grown in malt extract-yeast extract medium supplemented with 2.5% NaCl, 0.5% casein hydrolysate and 3% glucose. The EPS was isolated and purified following the conventional method of precipitation and dialysis. Chromatographic analysis (paper, GC and GC-MS) of the hydrolyzed EPS confirmed its heteropolymeric nature and showed that it is composed mainly of glucose (45.74 mol%), galactose (33.67 mol %) and mannose (17.83 mol%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of methylene and carboxyl groups as characteristic functional groups. In addition, its proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum revealed functional groups specific for extracellular polysaccharides. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the amorphous nature (CIxrd, 0.56) of the EPS. It was thermostable up to 250 °C and displayed pseudoplastic rheology and remarkable stability against pH and salts. These unique properties of the EPS produced by H. xianhensis indicate its potential to act as an agent for detoxification, emulsification and diverse biological activities.

  5. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  6. Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium.

  7. Enhanced active extracellular polysaccharide production from Ganoderma formosanum using computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Di; Wu, Shu-Pei; Lin, Shin-Ping; Lum, Chi-Chin; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-10-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is one of the major bioactive ingredients contributing to the health benefits of Ganoderma spp. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimal culture conditions for EPS production of Ganoderma formosanum. The optimum medium composition was found to be at initial pH 5.3, 49.2 g/L of glucose, and 4.9 g/L of yeast extract by implementing a three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. Under this condition, the predicted yield of EPS was up to 830.2 mg/L, which was 1.4-fold higher than the one from basic medium (604.5 mg/L). Furthermore, validating the experimental value of EPS production depicted a high correlation (100.4%) with the computational prediction response model. In addition, the percentage of β-glucan, a well-recognized bioactive polysaccharide, in EPS was 53±5.5%, which was higher than that from Ganoderma lucidum in a previous study. Moreover, results of monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that glucose was the major component of G. formosanum EPS, supporting a high β-glucan percentage in EPS. Taken together, this is the first study to investigate the influence of medium composition for G. formosanum EPS production as well as its β-glucan composition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Structural characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Yildiz

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS. Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS, which has the following structure: -4-α-GulpNAcAGly3OAc-(1-4-β-D-Glcp-(1-4-α-Glcp-(1-4-α-D-Galp-(1- where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20% replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  9. Biosynthesis of levan, a bacterial extracellular polysaccharide, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A; Tai, Siew L; Bauer, Florian F

    2013-01-01

    Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (Δsuc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both Δsuc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast.

  10. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by Ganoderma formosanum stimulate macrophage activation via multiple pattern-recognition receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungus of Ganoderma is a traditional medicine in Asia with a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-cancer activities. We have purified an extracellular heteropolysaccharide fraction, PS-F2, from the submerged mycelia culture of G. formosanum and shown that PS-F2 exhibits immunostimulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of immunostimulation by PS-F2. Results PS-F2-stimulated TNF-α production in macrophages was significantly reduced in the presence of blocking antibodies for Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 (CR3, laminarin, or piceatannol (a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting that PS-F2 recognition by macrophages is mediated by Dectin-1 and CR3 receptors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of PS-F2 was attenuated in the bone marrow-derived macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. PS-F2 stimulation triggered the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, p38, and ERK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which all played essential roles in activating TNF-α expression. Conclusions Our results indicate that the extracellular polysaccharides produced by G. formosanum stimulate macrophages via the engagement of multiple pattern-recognition receptors including Dectin-1, CR3 and TLR4, resulting in the activation of Syk, JNK, p38, ERK, and NK-κB and the production of TNF-α.

  11. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa O. Elnahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, HPLC and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe2+ chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(PH-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231. The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1. This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  12. Modeling and investigation of submerged fermentation process to produce extracellular polysaccharide using Lactobacillus confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-12-19

    The main objective of the present study is to investigate and optimize the Submerged fermentation (SMF) process parameters such as addition of coconut water, NaCl dose, incubation time and temperature on the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production using Lactobacillus confuses. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors three level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to model the SMF process. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. Three dimentional (3D) response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on SMF process. The optimum process conditions for the maximum production of EPS and biomass were found to be as follows; addition of coconut water of 40%, NaCl dose of 15%, incubation time of 24h and temperature of 35°C. Under these conditions, 10.57 g/L of EPS and 3.9 g/L of biomass were produced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Binding of Hg by bacterial extracellular polysaccharide: a possible role in Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kimberly; Guézennec, Jean; Barkay, Tamar

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption. The data showed that EPS sorbed up to 82% of Hg from solution, that this sorption was dependent on EPS composition, and that sorption was a saturable mechanism. Hg uptake capacities ranged from 0.005 to 0.454 mmol Hg/g for the different EPS. To determine if EPS production could alter bacterial Hg tolerance, Escherichia coli K-12 strains and their EPS defective mutants were tested by the disc inhibition assay. Mercury inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with wild-type strains having smaller (~1 mm), but statistically significant, zones of inhibition than various mutants and this difference was related to a 2-fold decline in the amount of EPS produced by the mutants relative to cell biomass. These experiments identified colanic acid and hexosamine as Hg-binding moieties in EPS. Together these data indicate that binding of Hg to EPS affords a low level of resistance to the producing bacteria.

  14. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Marwa O; Amin, Magdy A; Hussein, Mohamed M D; Shanbhag, Vinit C; Ali, Amal E; Wall, Judy D

    2017-08-24

    A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), HPLC and ¹H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1). This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  15. Effects of lead(II) on the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and colony formation of cultured Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Shu-lin; Dai, Wei; Xing, Ke-zhing; Yang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lead(II) on the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), including bound extracellular polysaccharides (bEPS) and soluble extracellular polysaccharides (sEPS), and the colony formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to four concentrations (5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L) of lead(II) for 10 d under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L lead(II) stimulated M. aeruginosa growth throughout the experiment while 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) inhibited M. aeruginosa growth in the first 2 d exposure and then stimulated it. As compared to the control group, significant increases in the bEPS and sEPS production were observed in 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) treatments (P bEPS production, which conversely promoted colony formation, suggesting that heavy metals might be contributing to the bloom-forming of M. aeruginosa in natural conditions.

  16. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  17. Characterization of Co-Cultivation of Cyanobacteria on Growth, Productions of Polysaccharides and Extracellular Proteins, Nitrogenase Activity, and Photosynthetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Libo; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Shiping; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria as biofertilizers are benefit to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and reestablish the ecological system in soil. In general, several strains of cyanobacteria were involved in the biofertilizers. The co-cultivation of cyanobacteria were characterized on growth profile, production of polysaccharides and extracellular proteins, nitrogenase activity, and photosynthetic activity for three selected N 2 -fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena cylindrica (B1611 and F243) and Nostoc sp. (F280). After eight-day culture, the highest dry weights were obtained in F280 pure culture and co-cultivation of B1611 and F280. Higher production of extracellular proteins and cell-bonding polysaccharides (CPS) were observed in co-cultivations compared with pure culture. The highest released polysaccharides (RPS) contents were obtained in pure culture of F280 and co-cultivation of F280 and F243. Galactose and glucose were major components of CPS and RPS in all samples. Trehalose was a specific component of RPS in F280 pure culture. Based on the monosaccharide contents of CPS and RPS, F280 was the dominant species in the related treatments of co-cultivation. The nitrogenase activities in all treatments exhibited a sharp rise at the late stage while a significant decrease existed when three cyanobacteria strains were mixed. Photosynthetic activities for all treatments were determined with rapid light curve, and the related parameters were estimated.

  18. Lactobacillus delbrueckii TUA4408L and its extracellular polysaccharides attenuate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced inflammatory response in porcine intestinal epitheliocytes via Toll-like receptor-2 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Satoshi; Kanmani, Paulraj; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Yuri, Toshihito; Egusa, Shintaro; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Sugawara, Makoto; Saito, Tadao; Mishima, Takashi; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-10-01

    Immunobiotics are known to modulate intestinal immune responses by regulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, which are responsible for the induction of cytokines and chemokines in response to microbial-associated molecular patterns. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory activity of compounds or molecules from immunobiotics. We evaluated whether Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L (Ld) or its extracellular polysaccharide (EPS): acidic EPS (APS) and neutral EPS (NPS), modulated the response of porcine intestinal epitheliocyte (PIE) cells against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 987P. The roles of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effects were also studied. ETEC-induced inflammatory cytokines were downregulated when PIE cells were prestimulated with both Ld or EPSs. Ld, APS, and NPS inhibited ETEC mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by upregulating TLR negative regulators. The capability of Ld to suppress inflammatory cytokines was diminished when PIE cells were blocked with anti-TLR2 antibody, while APS failed to suppress inflammatory cytokines when cells were treated with anti-TLR4 antibody. Induction of Ca²⁺ fluxes in TLR knockdown cells confirmed that TLR2 plays a principal role in the immunomodulatory action of Ld, while the activity of APS is mediated by TLR4. In addition, NPS activity depends on both TLR4 and TLR2. Ld and its EPS have the potential to be used for the development of anti-inflammatory functional foods to prevent intestinal diseases in both humans and animals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  20. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  1. Effects of light intensity on components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides from the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hongmei; Xia, Ling; Zhou, Xuping; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-02-01

    A study on the effects of light intensity (40 and 80 μE/m(2)/sec) on the components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was carried out in cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.. EPS yield increased with light intensity. However, light intensity did not significantly affect the EPS fractions and monosaccharide composition. Higher light intensity generally resulted in higher protein content of EPS in similar fractions. The topographical structure of EPS, investigated by atomic force microscopy, appeared as spherical lumps, chains and networks. The long chains were observed at higher light intensity. Thus, light intensity affected the yield and nature of EPS.

  2. Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (≥ 100 μg/ml), glycolytic acid production (≥ 300 μg/ml), acid tolerance (≥ 300 μg/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (≥ 300 μg/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.

  3. Strain-specific features of extracellular polysaccharides and their impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I.C.; Caggianiello, Graziano; Swam, van Iris I.; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A.; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strainspecific probiotic effects that are

  4. Extracellular polysaccharides are involved in the attachment of Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium leguminosarum to arbuscular mycorrhizal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Bianciotto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, one of the most important component of the soil microbial community, establish physical interactions with naturally occurring and genetically modified bacterial biofertilizers and biopesticides, commonly referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We have used a genetic approach to investigate the bacterial components possibly involved in the attachment of two PGPR (Azospirillum and Rhizobium to AM roots and AM fungal structures. Mutants affected in extracellular polysaccharides (EPS have been tested in in vitro adhesion assays and shown to be strongly impaired in the attachment to both types of surfaces as well as to quartz fibers. Anchoring of rhizobacteria to AM fungal structures may have special ecological and biotechnological significance because it may facilitate colonisation of new rhizospheres by the bacteria, and may be an essential trait for the development of mixed inocula.

  5. Abiotic factors in colony formation: effects of nutrition and light on extracellular polysaccharide production and cell aggregates of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2013-07-01

    Colony morphology is important for Microcystis to sustain a competitive advantage in eutrophic lakes. The mechanism of colony formation in Microcystis is currently unclear. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) has been reported to play an important role in cell aggregate formation of some phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated under varied abiotic conditions, including different nutrient, light, and temperature conditions, to investigate their effects on EPS production and morphological change. The results show that nutrient concentration and light intensity have great effects on EPS productionin M. aeruginosa. There was a considerable increase in EPS production after M. aeruginosa was cultivated in adjusted culture conditions similar to those present in the field (28.9 mg C/L, 1.98 mg N/L, 0.65 mg P/L, light intensity: 100 μmol/(m2 · s)). These results indicate that abiotic factors might be one of the triggers for colony formation in Microcystis.

  6. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a strain of Pleurotus djamor isolated in the south of Brazil and antitumor activity on Sarcoma 180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Martini Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides with medicinal properties can be obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and culture broth of several fungus species. This work was carried out in batch culture using a stirred tank reactor with two different initial glucose concentrations (40-50 g/L and pH values (3.0-4.0 to enhance extracellular polysaccharides production by Pleurotus djamor UNIVILLE 001 and evaluate antitumor effect of intraperitonial administration of Pleurotus djamor extract on sarcoma 180 animal model. According to factorial design, the low pH value (pH 3.0 led to a gain of 1.6 g/L on the extracellular polysaccharide concentration, while glucose concentration in the tested range had no significant effect on the concentration of polysaccharide. With 40 g/L initial glucose concentration and pH 3.0, it was observed that yield factor of extracellular polysaccharide on substrate (Y P/S = 0.072 and maximum extracellular polysaccharide productivity (Q Pmax = 11.26 mg/L.h were about 188% and 321% respectively higher than those obtained in the experiment performed at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, the highest values of the yield factor of biomass on substrate (Y X/S = 0.24 and maximal biomass productivity (Q Xmax = 32.2 mg/L.h were also reached. In tumor response study, mean tumor volume on the 21th day was 35.3 cm³ in untreated group and 1.6 cm³ in treated group (p = 0.05 with a tumor inhibition rate of 94%. These impressive results suggests an inhibitory effect of P.djamor extract on cancer cells.

  7. Extracellular Polysaccharide Production in a Scytonemin-Deficient Mutant of Nostoc punctiforme Under UVA and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Shipe, Dexter; Lothamer, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Some cyanobacteria can protect themselves from ultraviolet radiation by producing sunscreen pigments. In particular, the sheath pigment scytonemin protects cells against long-wavelength UVA radiation and is only found in cyanobacteria which are capable of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The presence of a putative glycosyltransferase encoded within the scytonemin gene cluster, along with the localization of scytonemin and EPS to the extracellular sheath, prompted us to investigate the relationship between scytonemin and EPS production under UVA stress. In this study, it was hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the biosynthesis of scytonemin and EPS under both UVA and oxidative stress, since the latter is a by-product of UVA radiation. EPS production was measured following exposure of wild-type Nostoc punctiforme and the non-scytonemin-producing strain SCY59 to UVA and oxidative stress. Under UVA, SCY59 produced significantly more EPS than the unstressed controls and the wild type, while both strains produced more EPS under oxidative stress compared to the controls. The results suggest that EPS secretion occurs in response to the oxidative stress by-product of UVA rather than as a direct response to UVA radiation.

  8. Isolation and characterization of extracellular polysaccharides from the epipelic diatoms Cylindrotheca closterium and Navicula salinarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, N.; de Winder, B.; Stal, L.J.; Mur, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    The production and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in axenic batch cultures of the benthic marine epipelic diatoms Navicula salinarum and Cylindrotheca closterium were investigated. EPS was secreted into the medium and the bulk was loosely associated with the cells. Neither

  9. Conversion of cheese whey into a fucose- and glucuronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide by Enterobacter A47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-09-20

    Cheese whey was used as the sole substrate for the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by Enterobacter A47. An EPS concentration of 6.40 g L(-1) was reached within 3.2 days of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 2.00 g L(-1) d(-1). The produced EPS was mainly composed of glucuronic acid (29 mol%) and fucose (29 mol%), with lower contents of glucose and galactose (21 mol% each) and a total acyl groups content of 32 wt.%. The polymer had an average molecular weight of 1.8×10(6) Da, with a polydispersity index of 1.2, and an intrinsic viscosity of 8.0 dL g(-1). EPS aqueous solutions (1.0 wt.% in 0.01 M NaCl, at pH 8.0) presented a shear thinning behavior with a viscosity of the first Newtonian plateau approaching 0.1 Pas. This novel glucuronic acid-rich polymer possesses interesting rheological properties, which, together with its high content of glucuronic acid and fucose, two bioactive sugar monomers, confers it a great potential for use in high-value applications, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro of extracellular polysaccharides purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus on isolated from Hainan mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiviral activity on HSV-1 of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus isolated from mangrove in Hainan province. Methods: The toxicity of the EPS purification on Vero cells and its anti-HSV-1 activity were assessed by cytopathic effect(CPE and MTT assay. The Vero cells survival rates, HSV-1 inhibition rates by the purification and virus titer were calculated. Results: The purification showed little cytotoxic effect on Vero with a CC50 value of 735.49 µg/mL. It could inhibit HSV-1 absorption on Vero cells, and there was a significant difference (P<0.01 compared with control group (virus group, and the highest inhibition ratio was 35.0% at dose of 400 µg/mL; The biosynthesis of HSV-1 could be inhibited by the extract with dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value to the viruses was 387.26 µg/mL, and the highest inhibition ratio was 61.3% at dose of 400 µg/mL; but the purification couldn’t inactivate HSV-1 directly. Conclusion: The EPS purification had certain antiviral effect, it could inhibit HSV-1 absorption and biosynthesis with a dose effect relationship.

  11. Establishment of an isolation method of Nostoc commune cells free from extracellular polysaccharides (EPS using Percoll centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Kosugi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault occurs worldwide, including in Japan and Antarctica. N. commune has a large amount of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS that hold moisture and protect the cells and at the same time accumulate light-blocking substances which is believed to play an important part in adaptation to a severe environment. To evaluate the photoadaptation processes in N. commune and clarify the role(s of EPS under ambient environmental condition at Antarctica, separation of cells from EPS is necessary. High yield is a prerequisite for the use of only small amount of natural N. commune from Antarctica. For this purpose, we developed a separation method by improving the Percoll density gradient centrifugation method using an EPS-coated field-grown Nostoc population. We established the most suitable condition to separate naked cells from EPS at high yield retaining high photosynthetic activity. The method is composed of centrifugation of cell homogenated N. commune in 10% (v/v Percoll to separate cells efficiently from EPS followed by fractionating centrifugation to remove impurities using the gradient of Percoll (80% and 50%, v/v.

  12. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  13. Identification of an Efflux Transporter LmrB Regulating Stress Response and Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium’s ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB in S. mutans through cloning the lmrB gene into Escherichia coli. Introducing lmrB into E. coli conferred a multidrug-resistant phenotype and resulted in higher EtBr efflux activity which could be suppressed by efflux inhibitor. To explore whether LmrB was involved in S. mutans virulence properties regulation, we constructed the lmrB inactivation mutant and examined the phenotypes of the mutant. It was found that LmrB deficiency resulted in increased IPS storage and prolonged acid production. Enhanced biofilm formation characterized by increased extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production and elevated resistance to hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials were also observed in lmrB mutant. To gain a better understanding of the global role of LmrB, a transcriptome analysis was performed using lmrB mutant strain. The expression of 107 genes was up- or down-regulated in the lmrB mutant compared with the wild type. Notably, expression of genes in several genomic islands was differentially modulated, such as stress-related GroELS and scnRK, sugar metabolism associated glg operons and msmREFGK transporter. The results presented here indicate that LmrB plays a vital global role in the regulation of several important virulence properties in S. mutans.

  14. Competitive adsorption of Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Brilliant Blue R on polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite-A novel eco-friendly polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaki, V. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 117577 (Singapore); Ramasamy, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Kui-Jae [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Competitive adsorption of reactive dyes onto polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite have functional groups of both polyaniline and bacterial extracellular polysaccharides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Reactive Brilliant Blue R diminished the uptake of Reactive Orange 16. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrostatic interaction was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Brilliant Blue R and Reactive Orange 16 adsorption was endothermic process. - Abstract: The performance of polyaniline/extracellular polymeric substances (Pn/EPS) composite as an adsorbent to remove the anionic reactive dyes, Reactive Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Reactive Orange 16 (RO), was investigated in single and binary systems. The pH{sub pzc} of Pn/EPS composite was calculated as 3.7 through potentiometric mass titration method. Electrostatic interaction between the dye anion and the nitrogen present in the polymer was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Single component isotherms followed the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 0.5775 mmol g{sup -1} for RBBR and 0.4748 mmol g{sup -1} for RO. In binary system, both the reactive dye anions compete with each other and resulted in lower uptake. Binary adsorption data were interpreted well by the Sheindorf-Rehbun-Sheintuch equation as compared to extended Langmuir model with constant interaction factor. Kinetic analysis of single solute followed pseudo-first order model. Thermodynamic studies computed that RBBR and RO adsorption was endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible process.

  15. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a novel osmotolerant marine strain of Alteromonas macleodii and its application towards biomineralization of silver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mehta

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates exopolysaccharide production by an osmotolerant marine isolate and also describes further application of the purified polysaccharide for production of colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S r RNA gene sequencing revealed close affinity of the isolate to Alteromonas macleodii. Unlike earlier reports, where glucose was used as the carbon source, lactose was found to be the most suitable substrate for polysaccharide production. The strain was capable of producing 23.4 gl(-1 exopolysaccharide with a productivity of 7.8 gl(-1 day(-1 when 15% (w/v lactose was used as carbon source. Furthermore, the purified polysaccharide was able to produce spherical shaped silver nanoparticles of around 70 nm size as characterized by Uv-vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering and Transmission electron microscopy. These observations suggested possible commercial potential of the isolated strain for production of a polysaccharide which has the capability of synthesizing biocompatible metal nanoparticle.

  16. Unexpected features of exponentially growing Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cell suspension culture in relation to excreted extracellular polysaccharides and cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawi, Mohammad; Muhieddine, Mohammad; Girard, Celine; Sol, Vincent; Riou, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a new insight about TBY-2 cells; from extracellular polysaccharides secretion to cell wall composition during cell suspension culture. In the medium of cells taken 2 days after dilution (end of lag phase), a two unit pH decrease from 5.38 to 3.45 was observed and linked to a high uronic acid (UA) amount secretion (47.8%) while, in 4 and 7 day-old spent media, pH increased and UA amounts decreased 35.6 and 42.3% UA, respectively. To attain deeper knowledge of the putative link between extracellular polysaccharide excretion and cell wall composition, we determined cell wall UA and neutral sugar composition of cells from D2 to D12 cultures. While cell walls from D2 and D3 cells contained a large amount of uronic acid (twice as much as the other analysed cell walls), similar amounts of neutral sugar were detected in cells from lag to end of exponential phase cells suggesting an enriched pectin network in young cultures. Indeed, monosaccharide composition analysis leads to an estimated percentage of pectins of 56% for D3 cell wall against 45% D7 cell walls indicating that the cells at the mid-exponential growth phase re-organized their cell wall linked to a decrease in secreted UA that finally led to a stabilization of the spent medium pH to 5.4. In conclusion, TBY-2 cell suspension from lag to stationary phase showed cell wall remodeling that could be of interest in drug interaction and internalization study.

  17. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  18. Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Servet BAYRAM,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples Assoc. Prof. Dr. Servet BAYRAM Computer Education & Instructional Technologies Marmara University , TURKEY ABSTRACT EPSS provides electronic support to learners in achieving a performance objective; a feature which makes it universally and consistently available on demand any time, any place, regardless of situation, without unnecessary intermediaries involved in the process. The aim of this review is to develop a set of theoretical construct that provide descriptive power for explanation of EPSS and its roots and features within the software application examples (i.e., Microsoft SharePoint Server”v2.0” Beta 2, IBM Lotus Notes 6 & Domino 6, Oracle 9i Collaboration Suite, and Mac OS X v10.2. From the educational and training point of view, the paper visualizes a pentagon model for the interrelated domains of the theoretical framework of EPSS. These domains are: learning theories, information processing theories, developmental theories, instructional theories, and acceptance theories. This descriptive framework explains a set of descriptions as to which outcomes occur under given theoretical conditions for a given EPSS model within software examples. It summarizes some of the theoretical concepts supporting to the EPSS’ related features and explains how such concepts sharing same features with the example software programs in education and job training.

  19. Extraction and structural properties of Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyceae extracellular matrix sulfated polysaccharides and their effects on coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyta contains structurally heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides (Am-SPs with pharmacological importance; however, its matrix SPs composition has not been still extensively investigated. This study sequentially extracted and compared the structural features and the in vitro anticoagulant effects of the Am-SPs. Papain-extraction sequence yielded Am.E-1, Am.E-2 and Am.E-3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (26.18-33% and hexoses (42.02-60.67% based on chemical analyses. One- (1H and two-dimensions (1H/13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed very complex Am-SPs composed of alternating 4-linked-α-galactopyranosyl units and 3-linked-β-galactopyranosyl units presenting variable sulfation, CH3 substitutions and3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose units and pyruvated-D-galactose residues, respectively, typical of agarocolloids. Different chromatographic profiles (DEAE-cellulose were observed, with fractions (Am I, Am II and Am III eluted with 0.5, 0.75 and/or 1 M of NaCl, respectively revealing charge density patterns and distinct mobility to heparin by agarose-electrophoresis and, when analyzed by polyacrylamide-electrophoresis, a dispersive migration and similar mobility as chondroitin-6-sulfate for Am I fractions were noted. Regarding the activated partial thromboplastin time test, fractions had no virtually anticoagulation (1.47→3.07 IU mg-1 in comparison with 193 IU mg-1 heparin. Therefore, Am-SPs show significantly lower anticoagulation than heparin.

  20. Characterization of the rcsA Gene from Pantoea sp. Strain PPE7 and Its Influence on Extracellular Polysaccharide Production and Virulence on Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Keun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RcsA is a positive activator of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS synthesis in the Enterobacteriaceae. The rcsA gene of the soft rot pathogen Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in Pleurotus eryngii was cloned by PCR amplification, and its role in EPS synthesis and virulence was investigated. The RcsA protein contains 3 highly conserved domains, and the C-terminal end of the open reading frame shared significant amino acid homology to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of bacterial activator proteins. The inactivation of rcsA by insertional mutagenesis created mutants that had decreased production of EPS compared to the wild-type strain and abolished the virulence of Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in P. eryngii. The Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 rcsA gene was shown to strongly affect the formation of the disease symptoms of a mushroom pathogen and to act as the virulence factor to cause soft rot disease in P. eryngii.

  1. Studies of polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies : structural characterization and effect on the complement system of polysaccharides from Nostoc commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, L.P.; Huang, Z.; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Smestad-Paulsen, B.; Cohen, E.H.; Michaelsen, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher produces quite complex extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterium is nitrogen fixing, and on growing the cyanobacterium in media with and without nitrogen, different types of extracellular polysaccharides were obtained. These were also different from

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSL polysaccharide is a social but noncheatable trait in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled E.L.; Kragh, Kasper N.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been sug...

  3. The novel virulence-related gene nlxA in the lipopolysaccharide cluster of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri is involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide, motility, biofilm formation and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Hu, Xiufang; Wang, Nian

    2012-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence factor of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease. In this research, a novel gene, designated as nlxA (novel LPS cluster gene of X. citri ssp. citri), in the LPS cluster of X. citri ssp. citri 306, was characterized. Our results indicate that nlxA is required for O-polysaccharide biosynthesis by encoding a putative rhamnosyltransferase. This is supported by several lines of evidence: (i) NlxA shares 40.14% identity with WsaF, which acts as a rhamnosyltransferase; (ii) sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that four bands of the O-antigen part of LPS were missing in the LPS production of the nlxA mutant; this is also consistent with a previous report that the O-antigen moiety of LPS of X. citri ssp. citri is composed of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide; (iii) mutation of nlxA resulted in a significant reduction in the resistance of X. citri ssp. citri to different stresses, including sodium dodecylsulphate, polymyxin B, H(2)O(2), phenol, CuSO(4) and ZnSO(4). In addition, our results indicate that nlxA plays an important role in extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, stress resistance, motility on semi-solid plates, virulence and in planta growth in the host plant grapefruit. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  4. Polysaccharides from Probiotics: New Developments as Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Michaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polysaccharides with nutraceutical potential and bioactive properties have been investigated in detail during the last few decades. There is an increasing demand in food industries for live microbes or polysaccharides produced by them which assert health benefits other than dietetic constituents. Although there are a large number of exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing bacteria, the titers are low for commercialization. This manuscript deals with the polysaccharides produced by probiotic strains, with major emphasis on the EPSs, their properties, applications and some of the strategies adopted which would be helpful in better understanding of the process in the near future. Research on the improved EPS biosynthesis is essential for obtaining high yields. Therefore, to reach commercialization, metabolic engineering must be applied.

  5. Non-covalent association of protein and capsular polysaccharide on bacteria-sized latex beads as a model for polysaccharide-specific humoral immunity to intact Gram-positive extracellular bacteria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2013-01-01

    Intact Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressing type 14 capsular polysaccharide (PPS14) and type III Streptococcus agalactiae containing a PPS14 core capsule identical to PPS14, exhibit non-covalent associations of PPS14 and bacterial protein, in contrast to soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. Both bacteria and conjugates induce murine PPS14-specific IgG responses dependent on CD4+ T cells. Further, secondary immunization with conjugate and S. agalactiae, although not S. pneumoniae, results in a boosted response. However, in contrast to conjugate, PPS14-specific IgG responses to bacteria lack affinity maturation, utilize the 44.1-idiotype and are dependent on marginal zone B cells. To better understand the mechanism underlying this dichotomy we developed a minimal model of intact bacteria in which PPS14 and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) were stably attached to 1 μm (bacteria-sized) latex beads, but not directly linked to each other, in contrast to PPS14-PspA conjugate. PPS14+[PspA] beads, similar to conjugate, induced in mice boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary responses, dependent on T cells and ICOS-dependent costimulation, and in which priming could be achieved with PspA alone. In contrast to conjugate, but similar to intact bacteria, the primary PPS14-specific IgG response to PPS14+[PspA] beads peaked rapidly, with the secondary response highly enriched for the 44.1-idiotype and lacking affinity maturation. These results demonstrate that non-covalent association in a particle, of polysaccharide and protein, recapitulates essential immunologic characteristics of intact bacteria that are distinct from soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. PMID:23926322

  6. Sphericity index and E-point-to-septal-separation (EPSS) to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, P J; Wess, G

    2014-01-01

    E-point-to-septal-separation (EPSS) and the sphericity index (SI) are echocardiographic parameters that are recommended in the ESVC-DCM guidelines. However, SI cutoff values to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have never been evaluated. To establish reference ranges, calculate cutoff values, and assess the clinical value of SI and EPSS to diagnose DCM in Doberman Pinschers. One hundred seventy-nine client-owned Doberman Pinschers. Three groups were formed in this prospective longitudinal study according to established Holter and echocardiographic criteria using the Simpson method of disk (SMOD): control group (97 dogs), DCM with echocardiographic changes (75 dogs) and "last normal" group (n = 7), which included dogs that developed DCM within 1.5 years, but were still normal at this time point. In a substudy, dogs with early DCM based upon SMOD values above the reference range but still normal M-Mode measurements were selected, to evaluate if EPSS or SI were abnormal using the established cutoff values. ROC-curve analysis determined 6.5 mm for EPSS (sensitivity 100%; specificity 99.0%) as optimal cutoff values to diagnose DCM. Both parameters were significantly different between the control group and the DCM group (P < 0.001), but were not abnormal in the "last normal" group. In the substudy, EPSS was abnormal in 13/13 dogs and SI in 2/13 dogs. E-point-to-septal-separation is a valuable additional parameter for the diagnosis of DCM, which can enhance diagnostic capabilities of M-Mode and which performs similar as well as SMOD. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Optimization of extracellular polysaccharide production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-26

    Nov 26, 2014 ... Llamas I (2007). Characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by three moderately halophilic bacteria belonging to the family. Alteromonadaceae. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:521-528. Mishra, Jha (2013). Microbial Exopolysaccharides In: Rosenberg, E.,. The Prokaryotes –Applied Bacteriology and ...

  8. Optimization of extracellular polysaccharide production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-26

    Nov 26, 2014 ... textiles, detergents, adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceu- ticals, food additives ... Isolation and identification of EPS producing halophilic bacteria ..... The present study lead to the optimization of key culture conditions with CCD ...

  9. Extracellular polysaccharide production by Thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Tharanathan, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    around groups of cells in stationary cultures. EPS in shake culture filtrates ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 g/L. EPS production, which was studied in greater detail in 2 isolates, SC-1 and CW1, increased with age of cultures, reaching a peak in the stationary...

  10. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the

  11. Draft genome sequence of pectic polysaccharide-degrading moderate thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM 101594

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Petkauskaite

    Full Text Available Abstract Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM 101594 was isolated as a producer of extracellular thermostable pectic polysaccharide degrading enzymes. The completely sequenced genome was 3.6 Mb in length with GC content of 48.86%. A number of genes encoding enzymatic active against the high molecular weight polysaccharides of potential biotechnological importance were identified in the genome.

  12. Bio-inspired materials engineering using polysaccharide based biotemplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials with a controlled microstructure and tailored properties at a scale below 100 nm are of interest for applications in micro-mechanical, sensor and biomedical devices. In contrast to top-down manufacturing processes the formation of solid matter structures in nature is templated and directed by biomacromolecules such as polysaccharides and polypeptides. A promising biomimetic route for the directed deposition of ceramic materials is the application of anisotropically structured biomacromolecules as patterned templates. The polysaccharides exhibit a hierarchical multi scale order as well as self-assembly properties. The bio-inspired deposition and formation of ceramic phases on biomolecular polysaccharide templates was investigated. The polysaccharides were used at various structural levels from the molecular scale up to three-dimensional parts in the millimetre range. The versatility of polysaccharide shaping capabilities was explored using dissolved polysaccharide molecules as well as thin films for the or simultaneous or successive formation of inorganic mineral phases. Microalgae with a spherical appearance of 5 micro-m were applied in mineralisation studies. The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) layers on the microalgae were used as biotemplates for manufacturing of functional ceramics. The obtained results on the mineralisation of inorganic phases on polysaccharides are adapted for novel biomimetic routes used in the fabrication for functional and biomedical ceramics. (author)

  13. extraction of high quality dna from polysaccharides-secreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A DNA extraction method using CTAB was used for the isolation of genomic DNA from ten. Xanthomonas campestris pathovars, ten isolates of Xanthomonas albilineans and one isolate of. Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans. High quality DNA was obtained that was ideal for molecular analy- ses. Extracellular polysaccharides ...

  14. Analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community in the combined Fe-C micro-electrolysis-UBAF process for the elimination of high-level ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longlong; Yue, Qinyan; Yang, Kunlun; Zhao, Pin; Gao, Baoyu

    2018-02-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community in the combined Fe-C micro-electrolysis and up-flow biological aerated filter (UBAF) process for the treatment of high-level ciprofloxacin (CIP) were analyzed. The research demonstrated a great potential of Fe-C micro-electrolysis-UBAF for the elimination of high-level CIP. Above 90% of CIP removal was achieved through the combined process at 100 mg L -1 of CIP loading. In UBAF, the pollutants were mainly removed at 0-70 cm heights. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum (3D-EEM) was used to characterize the chemical structural of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) extracted from biofilm sample in UBAF. The results showed that the protein-like substances in LB-EPS and TB-EPS had no clear change in the study. Nevertheless, an obvious release of polysaccharides in EPSs was observed during long-term exposure to CIP, which was considered as a protective response of microbial to CIP toxic. The high-throughput sequencing results revealed that the biodiversity of bacteria community became increasingly rich with gradual ciprofloxacin biodegradation in UBAF. The ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community was mainly dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Microorganisms from genera Dechloromonas, Brevundimonas, Flavobacterium, Sphingopyxis and Bosea might take a major role in ciprofloxacin degradation. This study provides deep theoretical guidance for real CIP wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  16. Enzymatic modification of bacterial exopolysaccharides : xanthan lyase as a tool for structural and functional modification of xanthan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) can be applied, e.g., in foods, as a thickener or stabilizer. The functional properties that make a polysaccharide suitable for such applications are largely determined by the primary structure, i.e., the sugar composition, the linkage types

  17. Using polysaccharides against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Azarnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nowadays cancer is one of the most important concerns of the society. The adverse effects of common therapeutics and resistance of some cancerous cells to treatment have brought the necessity of new approaches towards the issue. Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates found in natural sources. In the present article, our goal was to show the positive effects of carbohydrates (especially polysaccharides in cancer treatment, based on literature review. Methods: The literature review was carried out between 1990 and 2017 inclusive using the following search terms: cancer, carbohydrate and polysaccharide and was performed with use of Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier and other similar data banks, related to medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Results: Plants like Lyceum barbarum, Astragalus membrannceous, Panax ginseng, and Antrodia camphorate have been studied with promising effects in combating cancerous cells. The polysaccharides from these plants have benefits with numerous mechanisms such as apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-proliferation, immunomodulation, tumor suppression, and increase in macrophage activity. Other studies showed over 200 mushrooms with anticancer effects, especially basidiomycetes (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum. Sulfated polysaccharides found in sea and animals or even a few bacteria like E. coli showed to be useful in cancer. Conclusion: Scientists are realizing the importance of natural drugs and polysaccharide as good and available sources that could give a bright future for prevention, cure and palliative therapy in cancer.

  18. Activity of glycosidases from freshwater heterotrophic microorganisms on the degradation of extracellular polysaccharide produced by Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria Atividade de glicosidases liberadas por microorganismos heterotróficos de água doce na degradação do polissacarídeo extracelular produzido por Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Colombo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific glycosidases during the degradation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS produced by Anabaena spiroides was determined using MUF-substrates (MUF-monosaccharides. Polysaccharide degradation was found to occur in a two-phase process. The first consisted of high enzymatic activity that consumed 41% of the EPS at a relatively high rate, while the second consumed the remaining polysaccharide (59% at a slower rate. A transition phase from the higher to the slower degradation rates was marked by a replacement of bacterial populations from coccoid to bacillus cells. During the degradation process, the bacterial biomass increased with the decrease of EPS, as revealed by bacterial cell counts. The enzymatic activity detected through the substrates MUF-alpha-D- and MUF-beta-D-glucoside was higher than that detected by other substrates tested. The remaining glycosides were MUF-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, MUF-beta-D-galactoside, MUF-alpha-D-mannopyranoside, MUF-beta-D-fucoside, MUF-beta-D-mannopyranoside, MUF-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and MUF-beta-L-fucoside. The fluorescence emitted by each MUF-substrate was proportional to the concentration of the corresponding monosaccharide in A. spiroides EPS. This demonstrates the susceptibility of EPS produced by A. spiroides to enzymatic attack by bacterial populations.A atividade de glicosidases durante a degradação do polissacarídeo extracelular (EPS produzido por Anabaena spiroides foi detectada e quantificada utilizando-se MUF-substratos (MUF-monossacarídeos. O consumo total do polissacarídeo efetuou-se em duas fases, uma primeira de alta atividade enzimática que rapidamente consumiu 41% do polissacarídeo e uma segunda, mais lenta, que consumiu o polissacarídeo restante (59%. A mudança de fase coincidiu com a sucessão de uma população de bactérias cocóides por outra de bacilos. A biomassa bacteriana, quantificada por contagens de células, aumentou com a degradação do

  19. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  20. Characterization of the proton binding sites of extracellular polymeric substances in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Chang, Sheng; Defersha, Fantahun M

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the chemical compositions and acidic constants of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating synthetic brewery wastewater by using chemical analysis, linear programming analysis (LPA) of titration data, and FT-IR analysis. The linear programming analysis of titration data revealed that the EPSs have proton binding sites with pKa values from pKa ≤ 6, between 6 and 7, and approximately 9.8. The strong acidic sites (pKa ≤ 6) and some weak acidic sites (7.5 membrane filtration. In addition, the FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids in the EPS samples. Based on the FT-IR analysis and the main chemical functional groups at the bacterial cell surfaces, the identified proton binding sites were related to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl/amine groups with pKa values of 4.6 ± 0.7, 6.6 ± 0.01, and 9.7 ± 0.1, respectively, with the corresponding respective intensities of 0.31 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.3, and 1.53 ± 0.3 mmole/g-EPS. The pKa values and intensities of the proton binding sites are the fundamental molecular properties of EPSs that affect the EPS charge, molecular interactions, and metal complexation characteristics. Determination of such properties can advance Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO)-based concentration polarization modeling, facilitate the estimation of the osmotic pressure of the EPS concentration polarization layers, and lead to a deeper understanding of the role of metal complexation in membrane fouling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tetracycline removal and effect on the formation and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances and volatile fatty acids in the process of hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangying; Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-07-01

    Many research indicate antibiotics show adverse effect on methane fermentation, while few research focus on their effect on hydrogen fermentation. The present study aimed to gain insight of the effect of antibiotics on hydrogen fermentation with waste sludge and corn straw as substrate. For this purpose, tetracycline, as a model, was investigated with regard to tetracycline removal, hydrogen production, interaction with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of substrate and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on concentration and composition. Results show that tetracycline could be removed efficiently by hydrogen fermentation, and relative low-dose tetracycline (200mg/l) exposure affects little on hydrogen production. While tetracycline exposure could change hydrogen fermentation from butyric acid-type to propionic acid-type depending on tetracycline level. Based upon three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis tetracycline changed the component and content of EPSs, and static quenching was the main mechanism between EPSs with tetracycline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of bacterial polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellwood, D C; Evans, C G.T.; Yeo, R G

    1978-06-01

    A process for the biochemical synthesis of polysaccharides comprises growing polysaccharide-producing bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas in a single stage continuous culture in a chemically-defined medium. The term chemically-defined medium denotes a culture medium wherein nutrients other than carbon are provided as inorganic salts or single organic compounds of known molecular structure rather than as complex naturally-derived mixtures. Normally the only organic component of the chemically-defined medium will be a conventional carbon source such as a carbohydrate, especially glucose, or glycerol. Preferably the medium should contain only one nitrogen source, since the use of multiple nitrogen sources, as present in complex media, appears to promote changes in the nature of the culture resulting in loss of polysaccharide production. 22 claims.

  3. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  4. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  5. Combining polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport in a single enzyme: dual-function cell wall glycan synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kent Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are synthesized by a wide variety of species, from unicellular bacteria and Archaea to the largest multicellular plants and animals in the biosphere. In every case, the biosynthesis of these polymers requires transport across a membrane, from the cytosol to either the lumen of secretory pathway organelles or directly into the extracellular space. Although some polysaccharide biosynthetic substrates are moved across the membrane to sites of polysaccharide synthesis by separate transporter proteins before being incorporated into polymers by glycosyltransferase proteins, many polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes appear to have both transporter and transferase activities. In these cases, the biosynthetic enzymes utilize substrate on one side of the membrane and deposit the polymer product on the other side. This review discusses structural characteristics of plant cell wall glycan synthases that couple synthesis with transport, drawing on what is known about such dual-function enzymes in other species.

  6. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  7. CHANGES IN THE MORPHOLOGY AND POLYSACCHARIDE CONTENT OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA (CYANOBACTERIA) DURING FLAGELLATE GRAZING(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Min; Xing, Peng; Cao, Huansheng

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the changes in the morphology and polysaccharide content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. during flagellate grazing, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to grazing Ochromonas sp. for a period of 9 d under controlled laboratory conditions. M. aeruginosa responded actively to flagellate grazing and formed colonies, most of which were made up of several or dozens of cells, suggesting that flagellate grazing may be one of the biotic factors responsible for colony formation in M. aeruginosa. When colonies were formed, the cell surface ultrastructure changed, and the polysaccharide layer on the surface of the cell wall became thicker. This change indicated that synthesis and secretion of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) of M. aeruginosa cells increased under flagellate grazing pressure. The contents of soluble extracellular polysaccharide (sEPS), bound extracellular polysaccharide (bEPS), and total polysaccharide (TPS) in colonial cells of M. aeruginosa increased significantly compared with those in single cells. This finding suggested that the increased amount of EPS on the cell surface may play a role in keeping M. aeruginosa cells together to form colonies. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  8. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Kalies, Kai Uwe; Hartmann, Enno; Martinetz, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan

  9. Recent Advances in the Study of Marine Microbial Biofilm: From the Involvement of Quorum Sensing in Its Production up to Biotechnological Application of the Polysaccharide Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Donato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review will explore the most relevant findings on marine microbial biofilm, with particular attention towards its polysaccharide fraction, namely exopolysaccharide (EPS. EPSs of microbial origin are ubiquitous in nature, possess unique properties and can be isolated from the bacteria living in a variety of habitats, including fresh water or marine environments, extreme environments or different soil ecosystems. These biopolymers have many application in the field of biotechnology. Several studies showed that the biofilm formation is closely related to quorum sensing (QS systems, which is a mechanism relying on the production of small molecules defined as “autoinducers” that bacteria release in the surrounding environment where they accumulate. In this review, the involvement of microbial chemical communication, by QS mechanism, in the formation of marine biofilm will also be discussed.

  10. Electrospinning of Xanthan Polysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Faralli, Adele; Ndoni, Sokol

    2017-01-01

    .5 to 2.5 wt/vol%). The correlation between the concentration and the rheological properties of xanthan solutions, with the morphology of the nanofibers is investigated. At the polysaccharide concentrations where nanofiber formation is observed, an increase of the elastic modulus and first normal stress...... differences is observed. The typical “weak gel-like” and thixotropic properties known for aqueous xanthan solutions, are not observed for the xanthan solutions in formic acid. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and circular dichroism studies verify that an esterification reaction takes place, where...

  11. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Mikael R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger.

  12. Effect of a pesticide on the extracellular slime production and pathogenicity of a non-target phytopathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India); Nilakantan, Gita [University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    1978-12-01

    Aldicarb (2 methyl thio) propionaldehyde-0-(methyl carbamoyl oxime), a systemic insecticide treatment altered the quantity and the quality of the extracellular polysaccharides (slime) produced by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Although 5 ppm (normal dose) aldicarb treatment reduced the quality of polysaccharides produced by the cells, the incorporation of /sup 14/C (glucose) label and the reducing sugar contents was higher than the other treatments. Chromatographic analysis of the hydrolysed polysaccharides showed that aldicarb treatment altered their qualitative composition also. The extracellular polysaccharides produced by the pathogen treated with 5 ppm aldicarb caused wilting of tomato seedlings earlier than others, indicating thereby, that the wilt inducing factor in the slime was altered by the pesticide treatment. The limited translocation of the /sup 14/C labelled polysaccharides in the wilted seedlings indicated mechanical blocking of the vascular system of the plants.

  13. Effect of a pesticide on the extracellular slime production and pathogenicity of a non-target phytopathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Nilakantan, Gita

    1978-01-01

    Aldicarb (2 methyl thio) propionaldehyde-0-(methyl carbamoyl oxime), a systemic insecticide treatment altered the quantity and the quality of the extracellular polysaccharides (slime) produced by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Although 5 ppm (normal dose) aldicarb treatment reduced the quality of polysaccharides produced by the cells, the incorporation of 14 C (glucose) label and the reducing sugar contents was higher than the other treatments. Chromatographic analysis of the hydrolysed polysaccharides showed that aldicarb treatment altered their qualitative composition also. The extracellular polysaccharides produced by the pathogen treated with 5 ppm aldicarb caused wilting of tomato seedlings earlier than others, indicating thereby, that the wilt inducing factor in the slime was altered by the pesticide treatment. The limited translocation of the 14 C labelled polysaccharides in the wilted seedlings indicated mechanical blocking of the vascular system of the plants. (author)

  14. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  15. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  16. POLYSACCHARIDES AND eDNA AID BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT TO POLYMER BRUSH COATINGS (PLL-g-PEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    measured the adsorption of peptides, polysaccharides and DNA to these coatings, as they represent bacterial adhesins with very different properties. While protein adsorption was minimized, we found considerable adsorption of polysaccharides, and exposure to DNA resulted in complete desorption...... of the conventional coating. These results explain why S. epidermidis, which produces polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, could successfully colonize the conventional PLL-g-PEG coatings. The ability of high-density PLL-g-PEG to resist polysaccharides, DNA, and bacterial adhesion of all strains is thus highly......Polymer brush coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) are considered the gold standard for nonfouling surfaces, but nevertheless, a few bacteria manage to attach and initiate biofilm formation on these coatings. To achieve robust resistance against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, grafting...

  17. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  18. Immunomodulating activities of acidic sulphated polysaccharides obtained from the seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Castro, Rosario; Arranz, Jon A; Lamas, Jesús

    2007-07-01

    Water-soluble acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of Ulva rigida are mainly composed of disaccharides that contain glucuronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. The structure of disaccharides resembles that of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as they both contain glucuronic acid and sulphated sugars. Glycosaminoglycans occur in the extracellular matrix of animal connective tissues but can also be produced by leucocytes at inflammatory sites. Certain types of GAGs can even activate macrophages and therefore the acidic polysaccharides from U. rigida probably modulate macrophage activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of U. rigida polysaccharides on several RAW264.7 murine macrophage activities, including expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. U. rigida acidic polysaccharides induced a more than two-fold increase in the expression of several chemokines (chemokine (C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14)) and in the expression of IL6 signal transducer and IL12 receptor beta 1. Incubation of macrophages with U. rigida polysaccharides also induced an increase in nitrite production, although this effect decreased considerably after desulphation of polysaccharides, suggesting that the sulphate group is important for the stimulatory capacity of these molecules. U. rigida polysaccharides also stimulated macrophage secretion of PGE(2) and induced an increase in COX-2 and NOS-2 expression. The results indicate that U. rigida acid polysaccharide can be used as an experimental immunostimulant for analysing inflammatory responses related to macrophage functions. In addition, these polysaccharides may also be of clinical interest for modifying certain macrophage activities in diseases where macrophage function is impaired or needs

  19. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  20. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  1. Comportamiento del cáncer gástrico en pacientes de la EPS-s provincia de García Rovira (Santander, en el periodo 2007-2014 / Gastric Cancer Behavior in EPS-s (Health Insurance Company in The Province of García Rovira (Santander, during the 2007 – 2014 Period / Comportamento do câncer gástrico nos pacientes da EPS-s da província de Garcia Rovira (Santander no periodo de 2007-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mireya Cuadros- Picón, MD.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer gástrico es en Colombia y Santander, la primera causa de muerte por tumores malignos, a pesar de no ser la primera neoplasia en frecuencia. Objetivo: Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, el cáncer gástrico es un problema de salud pública y en nuestro medio no existen estudios analíticos que permitan caracterizar esta población; lo que se propone es una investigación en la cual se caracterice el comportamiento en la población con cáncer gástrico en la provincia de García Rovira, Santander, en el periodo 2007-2014. Metodología: Estudio analítico con 57 historias clínicas revisadas de pacientes de una empresa promotora de salud del régimen subsidiado (EPS-s con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico confirmado por histopatología. Las variables consideradas fueron: sexo, edad, estadio, patología, localización, tratamiento y sobrevida, se realizó análisis univariado teniendo en cuenta la variable edad categorizada por rangos (hasta 50 años, 51 a 60 años, 61 a 70 años, y más de 70 años; variables cualitativas descritas en tabla de frecuencias, porcentajes e intervalos de confianza; el análisis bivariado se realizó buscando el valor P del test de Fisher, los datos fueron analizados en el paquete estadístico Stata. Resultados y conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que los hombres representan un 77.2% de los casos de cáncer gástrico estudiados; el 68.4% del total de los pacientes tenía más de 60 años. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la localización del tumor por sexo, ya que en las mujeres el cáncer se localizó en el antro pilórico mientras que en los hombres fue predominantemente en el cardias y el cuerpo del estómago (p<0.05; por su parte, las variables estadio clínico y tratamiento recibido se encontraron asociados de manera estadística a mortalidad (p<0.05. [Cuadros-Picón DM, Reyes-Soto Y. Comportamiento del cáncer gástrico en pacientes de la EPS-s provincia de García Rovira

  2. Implications of recovery procedures on structural and rheological properties of schizophyllan produced from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidian, Hajar; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Mohammad Mousavi, Seyed; Reza Soudi, Mohammad; Vilaplana, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of different recovery procedures on high molar mass schizophyllan produced by Schizophyllum commune using low value agricultural residues. Recovered extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) were compared in terms of purity, sugar composition, degree of branching, molecular weight, and rheological properties. Performing different recovery methods, such as re-dissolving in water and re-precipitation with ethanol on produced EPS, provided schizophyllan with purity similar to the commercial grade. Besides, Freeze-thawing cycles allowed the fractionation of schizophyllan based on branching degree and solubility. The EPSs with higher purity and lower degree of branching (less conformational flexibility) showed higher viscosity. This study evidences the possibility of producing EPSs with excellent rheological properties using low value agricultural side products. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of recovery methods for tailoring the purity, molecular structure and macroscopic properties of the produced polysaccharides for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polysaccharides in Human Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are abundant natural polymers found in plants, animals and microorganisms with exceptional properties and essential roles to sustain life. They are well known for their high nutritive value and the positive effects on our immune and digestive functions and detoxification system. The

  4. Can Insoluble Polysaccharide Concentration In Dental Plaque, Sugar Exposure And Cariogenic Microorganisms Predict Early Childhood Caries? A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parisotto; T. M.; Stipp; R.; Rodrigues; L. K. A.; Mattos-Graner; R. O.; Costa; L. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos; M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. Aims: To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Design: Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 ...

  5. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  6. Radiochemistry and radiopolymerization of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on dry state polysaccharides (example: starch) are presented in an overall manner by order of quantitative importance: recombination of radicals to recover the initial macromolecule (cage effect) or smaller molecules which are chemically identical (radiopolymerization) and evolution of radicals to give secondary reactions (formation of radiolysis products). The effect of the botanical origin of the starch studied is briefly discussed, applications and extensions to the case of radiochemically induced modifications to foodstuffs being envisaged [fr

  7. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  8. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  9. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  10. Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    lysis. ECP contents of 41 to 92 mg · g−1 volatile suspended solids of granules were found depending on the type of granular sludge examined. The content of polysaccharides, protein and lipids in the extracted ECP was quantified. Furthermore, the different methyl esters of the lipids were determined...... of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor from a sugar-containing waste-water to a synthetic waste-water containing acetate, propionate and butyrate resulted in a decrease in both the protein and polysaccharide content and an increase in the lipid content of the extracellular material. Furthermore...

  11. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  12. In vitro immunobiological activity of an Antarctic streptomyces polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkova, R.; Yossifova, L.; Gardeva, E.; Zvetkova, E.; Ivanova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010, were obtained from sea water samples (Livingston Island, Antarctica), during the Third Bulgarian Antarctic Scientific Expedition (1994-1995). The ecophysiological methods for isolation and characterization of these active, cold-adapted, Gram-positive microorganisms (psychrophiles) in morphological, phenotypic, genetic and taxonomic aspects, have been earlier reported. In this study, a new extracellular polysaccharide (heteropolysaccharide) has been isolated and purified from cultured broth of the Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010. The monosaccharide content of the Antarctic streptomyces heteropolysaccharide has been examined by TLC and GC/MS. The mitogenic and immuno potential properties of the purified Antarctic Streptomyces polysaccharide (ASMP) have been studied in vitro - in the short-term cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs - lymphocytes and monocytes) and mouse spleen lymphocytes (mouse splenocytes - mSps). The results obtained show that ASMP has a double lectin-like effect on the proliferative activity of hPBMCs: similar to this of Con A on the lymphoid cells (preliminary T-lymphocytes) and to the effect of LPS on the mononuclear from monocyte-macrophage lineage. Expressed as proliferative index (PI), the mitogenic response of mSps to the in vitro influence of ASMP was also higher than PI in the negative, as well as in the positive controls (mSps, cultured in the presence of PHA, Con A and LPS). The new Antarctic Streptomyces' heteropolysaccharide examined could be useful in the future as an immunomodulative biologically active substance and its extracellular production may contribute to the development of thermobiochemistry, immunomodulative drug therapy and immunopharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  13. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  14. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  15. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  16. Membrane fouling related to microbial community and extracellular polymeric substances at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan; Li, Bao; Liang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    An anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor was established to investigate the role of microorganisms and microbial metabolites in membrane fouling at different temperatures. The results showed that the membrane fouling cycle at 303, 293, and 283 K were 30, 29, and 5.5 days, respectively. Polysaccharides dominated the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) at 303 and 293 K, instead, proteins was the predominant composition of metabolites at 283 K. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) was calculated to identify the relationship between temperature (T), filtration resistance (R) and compositions of EPS and SMP. In biocake, the EPS polysaccharides (EPSc) was the most correlative factor to temperature (T) and filtration resistance (R); in mixed liquor, the ratio of SMP polysaccharides to proteins (SMPc/p) was the most correlative factor. The microbial community structure and the dominant species was the major reason causing the change of EPS and SMP composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct roles of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Hu, Yifan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several d...... polysaccharide is more important than Pel polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Our study thus suggests that different EPS materials play distinct roles during bacterial biofilm formation.......Bacteria form surface attached biofilm communities as one of the most important survival strategies in nature. Biofilms consist of water, bacterial cells and a wide range of self‐generated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilm formation is a dynamic self‐assembly process and several...... distinguishable stages are observed during bacterial biofilm development. Biofilm formation is shown to be coordinated by EPS production, cell migration, subpopulation differentiation and interactions. However, the ways these different factors affect each other and contribute to community structural...

  18. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  19. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  20. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  1. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  2. APPLICATION OF A POLYSACCHARIDE DERIVED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Tragacanth was superior to Treculia gum, the latter performed better than sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a sustained release hydrophilic matrix for theophylline hydrate. Key Words: Polysaccharide, Treculia africana, Moreaceae, Hydrophilic matrix, theophylline hydrate and dissolution rate. Nig. J. Nat.

  3. Extracellular Gd-CA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Until recently it was believed that extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents were safe for both the kidneys and all other organs within the dose range up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight. However, in 2006, it was demonstrated that some gadolinium-based contrast agents may trig the development...... gadolinium-based agent (3-7% versus 0-1% per injection) in patients with reduced renal function. Prevalence after exposure to two gadodiamide injections is as high as 36% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. No report of NSF after the most stable agents has been reported in the peer...

  4. Antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Gangliang

    2017-12-07

    Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized. At last, the existing problems of antioxidant polysaccharides were analyzed, and the development prospects were also presented. It is important to study the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides and their derivatives for the development of natural antioxidants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  7. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan Minh; MacIntyre, April; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases) that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease. PMID:27336156

  8. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Minh Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease.

  9. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and increases survival in endotoxemic mice. Acta. Pharmacol Sin ... secretion in hyperthyroid diarrheic rats. Regul Peptides ... effect of Coptis chinensis polysaccharide in high-fat diet ... polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-.

  11. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  12. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially

  13. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  14. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  15. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  16. Physiology and biochemistry of polysaccharide production by Azotobacter vinelandii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annison, G.

    1985-01-01

    The extracellular production and the composition of the acetylated alginates of Azotobacter vinelandii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. A reverse-phase HPLC method to determine D-mannuronate/L-guluronate (M/G) ratios in alginates was developed. Comparison between the HPLC procedure and a /sup 1/H-NMR method was made. Growth and alginate production by A. vinelandii in batch and continuous culture were studied. Polysaccharide production was favored in batch culture by reduced aeration rates by by intermediate aeration rates in continuous culture. The partitioning of Ca/sup 45/ in solution and associated with alginates during the growth cycle of A. vinelandii was studied. The change in the composition of polysaccharide produced during growth of A. vinelandii was related to the level of free Ca/sup + +/ which fell rapidly during initial stages of incubation. The degree of acetylation of the polyuronate was shown to be variable. Production of alginates with high O-acetate contents was observed in cultures maintained at high growth rates and high Ca/sup + +/ levels. The degree of acetylation of the polyuronate was not related to the level of epimerization in vivo although in vitro studies demonstrated that chemical acetylation of the alginate inhibited epimerization. Alginate production by clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be unstable and no polyguluronate was isolated from cultures. It was also noted that Ca/sup + +/ played a less important role in the composition of the polysaccharide.

  17. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  19. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  20. Regulation of Polysaccharide- and Protein- Specific Antibody Responses to Intact Extracellular Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    OVA peptide (amino acids 323-339), presented by MHC-II I-Ad, were purchased from Taconic Farms (Hudson, NY). They were thereafter bred in our...overnight at 4°C and plates were then washed 3x with PBS + 0.1% Tween 20. Alkaline phosphatase-conjugated polyclonal goat anti-mouse IgG Abs 41 | P a g e...phosphatase-conjugated polyclonal goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies (200 ng/ml) in PBS + 1.0% BSA were then added, and plates were incubated at 37°C for

  1. Screening and characterization of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from traditional fermented pulque beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodríguez, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Conca Morales, Rodrigo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2014-01-01

    We report the screening and characterization of EPS produced by LAB identified as Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican fermented, non-distilled alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap extracted from several (Agave) maguey species. EPS-producing LAB constitutes an abundant bacterial group relative to total LAB present in sap and during fermentation, however, only two EPS-producing colony phenotypes (EPSA and EPSB, respectively) were detected and isolated concluding that despite the high number of polymer-producing LAB their phenotypic diversity is low. Scanning electron microcopy analysis during EPS-producing conditions revealed that both types of EPS form a uniform porous structure surrounding the bacterial cells. The structural characterization of the soluble and cell-associated EPS fractions of each polymer by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, as by 1D- and 2D-NMR, showed that polymers produced by the soluble and cell-associated fractions of EPSA strain are dextrans consisting of a linear backbone of linked α-(1→6) Glcp in the main chain with α-(1→2) and α-(1→3)-linked branches. The polymer produced by the soluble fraction of EPSB strain was identified as a class 1 dextran with a linear backbone containing consecutive α-(1→6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with few α-(1→3)-linked branches, whereas the cell-associated EPS is a polymer mixture consisting of a levan composed of linear chains of (2→6)-linked β-D-fructofuranosyl residues with β-(2→6) connections, and a class 1 dextran. According to our knowledge this is the first report of dextrans and a levan including their structural characterization produced by L. kimchii isolated from a traditional fermented source.

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSL Polysaccharide Is a Social but Noncheatable Trait in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled E L; Kragh, Kasper N; Gordon, Vernita D; Hutchison, Jaime; Allen, Rosalind J; Melaugh, Gavin; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; West, Stuart A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2017-06-20

    Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL. Taken together, this suggests that PSL is a social but relatively nonexploitable trait and that growth within biofilms selects for PSL-producing strains, even when multiple strains are on a patch (low relatedness at the patch level). IMPORTANCE Many studies have shown that bacterial traits, such as siderophores and quorum sensing, are social in nature. This has led to an impression that secreted traits act as public goods, which are costly to produce but benefit both the producing cell and its surrounding neighbors. Theories and subsequent experiments have shown that such traits are exploitable by asocial cheats, but we show here that this does not always hold true. We demonstrate that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide PSL provides social benefits to populations but that it is nonexploitable, because most of the fitness benefits accrue to PSL-producing cells. Our work builds on an increasing body of work showing that secreted traits can have both private and public

  3. Polysaccharide charge density regulating protein adsorption to air/water interfaces by protein/polysaccharide complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Kosters, H.; Vliet, T. van; Stuart, M.A.C.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Because the formation of protein/polysaccharide complexes is dominated by electrostatic interaction, polysaccharide charge density is expected to play a major role in the adsorption behavior of the complexes. In this study, pullulan (a non-charged polysaccharide) carboxylated to four different

  4. Polysaccharide coating of human corneal endothelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, H D; Sperling, S

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a 600-1500 A thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface of human corneal endothelial cells. The surface layer was visualized by combined fixation and staining in a mixture of ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide. The coating material was stable for at ...... for at least 39 h post mortem and was retained on disintegrating cells....

  5. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  6. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Neurotransmitters and nitric oxide were significantly increased in the group given GA treatment compared to TMT .... Fractionation was performed by precipitating with ammonium sulfate. ..... deleterious effects of nitrogen reactive species accumula- .... Studies on the production of sulfated polysaccharide by.

  7. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  8. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  9. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  10. Modulation of Porphyridium aerugineum polysaccharide rheology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stock (0.5% w/v) aqueous solution of the polysaccharide of the microalga Porphyridium aerugineum was further diluted using (i) deionized water and (ii) an aqueous (0.2% w/v) solution of a new, garden soil extract. The viscosity of the resultant solution was higher by about 23% (5 samples) where the soil extract was used ...

  11. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  12. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of

  13. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  14. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  15. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  16. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  17. Algal Production of Extra- and Intra-Cellular Polysaccharides as an Adaptive Response to the Toxin Crude Extract of Microcystis Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheekh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigation concerned with studying the possible adaptive response of four different unicellular algae, Anabaena PCC 7120, Oscillatoria angustissima, Scendesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris, to the toxin of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing. Theeffects of four different concentrations, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg mL-1 of microcystins crude extract of M. aeruginosa, on both intra and extra-cellular polysaccharide levels, in log phase,of the four tested algae were studied. The obtained results showed differential increase in the production levels for both intra and extra-cellular polysaccharides by the tested algae,compared with the control. S. obliquus and C. vulgaris showed a resistance to crude toxinhigher than Anabaena PCC 7120 and O. angustissima. The highly production of polysaccharides by green algal species under this toxic stress indicated the involvement of these polysaccharides in protecting the algal cells against toxic species and, reflect thebiological behavior of particular algal species to the environmental stresses.

  18. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichao; Mao, Jianxin; Ding, Kan; Zhou, Yue; Zeng, Xianglu; Yang, Wenjuan; Wang, Peipei; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Jian; Xia, Peng; Pei, Gang

    2017-01-10

    Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture. Further mechanistic study revealed that GLP potentiated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT cascades. Consistently, inhibition of FGFR1 effectively blocked the GLP-promoted NPC proliferation and activation of the downstream cascades. Our findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae extracellular matrix: a top-down solid-state NMR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Fong, Jiunn C N; Yildiz, Fitnat; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacterial cells surrounded by a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae, the human pathogen responsible for cholera, contributes to its environmental survival and infectivity. Important genetic and molecular requirements have been identified for V. cholerae biofilm formation, yet a compositional accounting of these parts in the intact biofilm or extracellular matrix has not been described. As insoluble and non-crystalline assemblies, determinations of biofilm composition pose a challenge to conventional biochemical and biophysical analyses. The V. cholerae extracellular matrix composition is particularly complex with several proteins, complex polysaccharides, and other biomolecules having been identified as matrix parts. We developed a new top-down solid-state NMR approach to spectroscopically assign and quantify the carbon pools of the intact V. cholerae extracellular matrix using ¹³C CPMAS and ¹³C{(¹⁵N}, ¹⁵N{³¹P}, and ¹³C{³¹P}REDOR. General sugar, lipid, and amino acid pools were first profiled and then further annotated and quantified as specific carbon types, including carbonyls, amides, glycyl carbons, and anomerics. In addition, ¹⁵N profiling revealed a large amine pool relative to amide contributions, reflecting the prevalence of molecular modifications with free amine groups. Our top-down approach could be implemented immediately to examine the extracellular matrix from mutant strains that might alter polysaccharide production or lipid release beyond the cell surface; or to monitor changes that may accompany environmental variations and stressors such as altered nutrient composition, oxidative stress or antibiotics. More generally, our analysis has demonstrated that solid-state NMR is a valuable tool to characterize complex biofilm systems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Wetting and dewetting of extracellular matrix and glycocalix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Motomu; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schneider, Matthias F; Mathe, Gerald; Albersdoerfer, Antero; Neumaier, Klaus R; Purrucker, Oliver; Sackmann, Erich

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study wetting and dewetting of hydrated biopolymer layers mediating cell-cell and cell-tissue contacts, called the extracellular matrix and cell surface glycocalix, by the combination of various physical techniques. Here, the sum of the net effects of the various interfacial forces, which is referred to as the disjoining pressure, is used as a semi-quantitative measure to describe the thermodynamics of hydrated interlayers. The disjoining pressure can be measured by applying external forces to maintain the equilibrium distance between two parallel surfaces (in biology, two neighbouring plasma membranes). Using artificial models of the extracellular matrix and glycocalix, we describe stable cell-cell contacts in terms of the wetting (or spreading) of complex fluids on polymer surfaces. In fact, the adjustment of the wetting interaction via thin hydrating layers enables us to transform three-dimensional cell membranes into quasi-two-dimensional films on macroscopically large surfaces. Fine-tuning of local wetting conditions at the interface further allows for the selective wetting of native cell membranes on microstructured polysaccharide films, which has a large potential for individual detection of biological functions in confined geometries

  1. Methylation analysis of polysaccharides: Technical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian M; Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2018-05-15

    Glycosyl linkage (methylation) analysis is used widely for the structural determination of oligo- and poly-saccharides. The procedure involves derivatisation of the individual component sugars of a polysaccharide to partially methylated alditol acetates which are analysed and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linkage positions for each component sugar can be determined by correctly identifying the partially methylated alditol acetates. Although the methods are well established, there are many technical aspects to this procedure and both careful attention to detail and considerable experience are required to achieve a successful methylation analysis and to correctly interpret the data generated. The aim of this article is to provide the technical details and critical procedural steps necessary for a successful methylation analysis and to assist researchers (a) with interpreting data correctly and (b) in providing the comprehensive data required for reviewers to fully assess the work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Revealing the ability of a novel polysaccharide bioflocculant in bioremediation of heavy metals sensed in a Vibrio bioluminescence reporter assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajayan, Arya; Seghal Kiran, G; Priyadharshini, S; Poulose, Navya; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain, designated MSI021, was isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra and demonstrated 94% flocculation activity in a kaolin clay suspension. MSI021 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on phylogenetic affiliation and biochemical characteristics. The purified extra-cellular bioflocculant was chemically elucidated as a polysaccharide molecule. The polysaccharide bioflocculant was stable under both acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 2.0-10.0) and temperatures up to 100 °C. The purified bioflocculant efficiently nucleated the formation of silver nanoparticles which showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity. The ability of the bioflocculant to remediate heavy metal toxicity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition of bioluminescence expression in Vibrio harveyi. Enrichment of heavy metals such as zinc, mercury and copper at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 mM in culture media showed significant reduction of bioluminescence in Vibrio, whereas media enriched with heavy metals and bioflocculant showed dose dependent improvement in the expression of bioluminescence. The assay results demonstrated that the polysaccharide bioflocculant effectively mitigates heavy metal toxicity, thereby improving the expression of bioluminescence in Vibrio. This bioluminescence reporter assay can be developed into a high-throughput format to monitor and evaluate of heavy metal toxicity. The findings of this study revealed that a novel polysaccharide bioflocculant produced by a marine B. cereus demonstrated strong flocculating performance and was effective in nucleating the formation antibacterial silver nanoparticles and removing heavy metals. These results suggest that the MSI021 polysaccharide bioflocculant can be used to develop greener waste water treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradability of polyurethane/polysaccharide blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothe, Cheila G.; Leite, Selma G.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers for use in environmental waste-management has been the subject of much discussion over the last few years. Polyurethane mixtures with polysaccharide (80/20 and 90/10 w/w ) have been prepared and films obtained. These films were inoculated, according to ASTM G22-76 rule and analysed by thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results are discussed in terms of thermal degradation and biodegradability. (author)

  4. Electrospinning of food proteins and polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-microfibrous structures of biopolymers with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and bioactivities could be developed using electrospinning technology. This review focuses on the processing, properties, functionalization and potential applications of electrospun ...... biopolymers. Biopolymers include proteins (gelatin, collagen, elastin, silk, soy zein, gliadin, hordein, amaranth, casein, wheat, whey, marine sources proteins), and polysaccharides (chitosan, starch, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, pullulan, dextran, cyclodextrins)....

  5. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Baomei; Dai Hui; Xu Wen; Lin Zhibin; Gao Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine

  6. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  7. The diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae surface polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, Rainer; Heinz, Eva; Wyres, Kelly L; Ellington, Matthew J; Kowarik, Michael; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an urgent health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains for which vaccination offers a potential remedy. Vaccines based on surface polysaccharides are highly promising but need to address the high diversity of surface-exposed polysaccharides, synthesized as O-antigens (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and K-antigens (capsule polysaccharide, CPS), present in K. pneumoniae . We present a comprehensive and clinically relevant study of the diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters across a global collection of over 500 K. pneumoniae whole-genome sequences and the seroepidemiology of human isolates from different infection types. Our study defines the genetic diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis cluster sequences across this collection, identifying sequences for known serotypes as well as identifying novel LPS and CPS gene clusters found in circulating contemporary isolates. Serotypes O1, O2 and O3 were most prevalent in our sample set, accounting for approximately 80 % of all infections. In contrast, K serotypes showed an order of magnitude higher diversity and differ among infection types. In addition we investigated a potential association of O or K serotypes with phylogenetic lineage, infection type and the presence of known virulence genes. K1 and K2 serotypes, which are associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae , were associated with a higher abundance of virulence genes and more diverse O serotypes compared to other common K serotypes.

  8. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  10. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  11. Identification of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide-Independent Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Blaise R.; Thoendel, Matthew; Roth, Aleeza J.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development. PMID:20418950

  12. Identification of genes involved in polysaccharide-independent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise R Boles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor alpha(2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development.

  13. The Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei Contributes to Survival in Serum by Reducing Complement Factor C3b Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; DeVinney, Rebekah; Woods, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei produces an extracellular polysaccharide capsule -3)-2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-β-d-manno-heptopyranose-(1- which has been shown to be an essential virulence determinant. The addition of purified capsule was shown to increase the virulence of a capsule mutant strain in the Syrian hamster model of acute melioidosis. An increase in the number of wild-type B. pseudomallei cells in the blood was seen by 48 h, while the number of capsule mutant cells in the blood declined by 48 h...

  14. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two...

  16. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Insertional mutation in the AZOBR_p60120 gene is accompanied by defects in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and calcofluor-binding polysaccharides in the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Prilipov, A G

    2015-03-01

    In the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245, extracellular calcofluor-binding polysaccharides (Cal+ phenotype) and two types of lipopolysaccharides, LPSI and LPSII, were previously identified. These lipopolysaccharides share the same repeating O-polysaccharide unit but have different antigenic structures and different charges of their O-polysaccharides and/or core oligosaccharides. Several dozens of predicted genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides have been localized in the AZOBR_p6 plasmid of strain Sp245 (GenBank accession no. HE577333). In the present work, it was demonstrated that an artificial transposon Omegon-Km had inserted into the central region of the AZOBR_p60120 gene in the A. brasilense Sp245 LPSI- Cal- KM252 mutant. In A. brasilense strain Sp245, this plasmid gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase containing conserved domains characteristic of the enzymes participating in the synthesis of O-polysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides (accession no. YP004987664). In mutant KM252, a respective predicted protein is expected to be completely inactivated. As a result of the analysis of the EcoRI fragment of the AZOBR_p6 plasmid, encompassing the AZOBR_p60120 gene and a number of other loci, novel data on the structure of AZOBR_p6 were obtained: an approximately 5-kb gap (GenBank accession no. KM189439) was closed in the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid.

  18. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  19. Extracellular vesicles: Exosomes, microvesicles, and friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raposo, G.; Stoorvogel, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385

    2013-01-01

    Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for

  20. Adsorption of histones on natural polysaccharides: The potential as agent for multiple organ failure in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Kofuji, Kyoko; Okada, Kenji; Fujimori, Junya; Murata, Mikio; Shigeyama, Masato; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Murata, Yoshifumi

    2016-03-01

    Histones are intracellular proteins that are structural elements of nuclear chromatin and regulate gene transcription. However, the extracellular histones released in response to bacterial challenges have been identified as mediators contributing to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure, and death during sepsis. In the present study, the adsorption of histones as well as plasma proteins (α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), albumin, and γ-globulin) on alginic acid, pectin, dextran, and chitosan was examined in order to evaluate the potential of natural polysaccharides as therapeutic agents for multiple organ failure in sepsis. Alginic acid and pectin strongly adsorbed histones, whereas the adsorption abilities of dextran and chitosan toward histones were very low or negligible. Among the natural polysaccharides examined, only alginic acid did not adsorb any of the plasma proteins. These results demonstrated that alginic acid strongly adsorbed histones, but not plasma proteins; therefore, it has potential as a candidate drug for the treatment of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  2. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  3. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  4. Carbon Nanotubes and Algal Polysaccharides To Enhance the Enzymatic Properties of Urease in Lipid Langmuir-Blodgett Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Raul T; Morais, Paulo V; Nordi, Cristina S F; Schöning, Michael J; Siqueira, José R; Caseli, Luciano

    2018-03-06

    Algal polysaccharides (extracellular polysaccharides) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were adsorbed on dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide Langmuir monolayers to serve as a matrix for the incorporation of urease. The physicochemical properties of the supramolecular system as a monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, interfacial shear rheology, vibrational spectroscopy, and Brewster angle microscopy. The floating monolayers were transferred to hydrophilic solid supports, quartz, mica, or capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices, through the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, forming mixed films, which were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme activity was studied with UV-vis spectroscopy, and the feasibility of the thin film as a urea sensor was essayed in an EIS sensor device. The presence of CNT in the enzyme-lipid LB film not only tuned the catalytic activity of urease but also helped to conserve its enzyme activity. Viability as a urease sensor was demonstrated with capacitance-voltage and constant capacitance measurements, exhibiting regular and distinctive output signals over all concentrations used in this work. These results are related to the synergism between the compounds on the active layer, leading to a surface morphology that allowed fast analyte diffusion owing to an adequate molecular accommodation, which also preserved the urease activity. This work demonstrates the feasibility of employing LB films composed of lipids, CNT, algal polysaccharides, and enzymes as EIS devices for biosensing applications.

  5. Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25mg (n=15) and 50 mg (n=15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also measured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  7. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  9. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  10. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of

  11. Modulating surface rheology by electrostatic protein/polysaccharide interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Zinoviadou, K.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a large interest in mixed protein/polysaccharide layers at air-water and oil-water interfaces because of their ability to stabilize foams and emulsions. Mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air-water interfaces can be prepared either by adsorption of soluble protein/

  12. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. Low Concentrations of Vitamin C Reduce the Synthesis of Extracellular Polymers and Destabilize Bacterial Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Pandit, Santosh

    2017-12-26

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by bacteria form a matrix supporting the complex three-dimensional architecture of biofilms. This EPS matrix is primarily composed of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA. In addition to supporting the community structure, the EPS matrix protects bacterial biofilms from the environment. Specifically, it shields the bacterial cells inside the biofilm, by preventing antimicrobial agents from getting in contact with them, thereby reducing their killing effect. New strategies for disrupting the formation of the EPS matrix can therefore lead to a more efficient use of existing antimicrobials. Here we examined the mechanism of the known effect of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) on enhancing the activity of various antibacterial agents. Our quantitative proteomics analysis shows that non-lethal concentrations of vitamin C inhibit bacterial quorum sensing and other regulatory mechanisms underpinning biofilm development. As a result, the EPS biosynthesis in reduced, and especially the polysaccharide component of the matrix is depleted. Once the EPS content is reduced beyond a critical point, bacterial cells get fully exposed to the medium. At this stage, the cells are more susceptible to killing, either by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress as reported here, or by other antimicrobials or treatments.

  14. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  15. Low Concentrations of Vitamin C Reduce the Synthesis of Extracellular Polymers and Destabilize Bacterial Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Pandit, Santosh; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Mokkapati, V. R. S. S.; Sihlbom, Carina; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Gao, Xin; Westerlund, Fredrik; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by bacteria form a matrix supporting the complex three-dimensional architecture of biofilms. This EPS matrix is primarily composed of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA. In addition to supporting the community structure, the EPS matrix protects bacterial biofilms from the environment. Specifically, it shields the bacterial cells inside the biofilm, by preventing antimicrobial agents from getting in contact with them, thereby reducing their killing effect. New strategies for disrupting the formation of the EPS matrix can therefore lead to a more efficient use of existing antimicrobials. Here we examined the mechanism of the known effect of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) on enhancing the activity of various antibacterial agents. Our quantitative proteomics analysis shows that non-lethal concentrations of vitamin C inhibit bacterial quorum sensing and other regulatory mechanisms underpinning biofilm development. As a result, the EPS biosynthesis in reduced, and especially the polysaccharide component of the matrix is depleted. Once the EPS content is reduced beyond a critical point, bacterial cells get fully exposed to the medium. At this stage, the cells are more susceptible to killing, either by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress as reported here, or by other antimicrobials or treatments.

  16. Pharmacological modulation of human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated polysaccharide of marine origin: potential application to cartilage regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Christophe; Portron, Sophie; Vignes-Colombeix, Caroline; Rederstorff, Emilie; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Sourice, Sophie; Sinquin, Corinne; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Weiss, Pierre; Vinatier, Claire; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an attractive source of cells for cartilage engineering due to their availability and capacity for expansion and multipotency. Differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes is crucial to successful cartilage regeneration and can be induced by various biological agents, including polysaccharides that participate in many biological processes through interactions with growth factors. Here, we hypothesize that growth factor-induced differentiation of MSC can be increased by chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharides. To test our hypothesis, human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hATSCs) were cultured in pellets with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-supplemented chondrogenic medium containing either the polysaccharide GY785 DR or its oversulfated isoform GY785 DRS. Chondrogenesis was monitored by the measurement of pellet volume, quantification of DNA, collagens, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and immunohistological staining. Our data revealed an increase in pellet volume, total collagens, and GAG production with GY785 DRS and chondrogenic medium. The enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hATSC was further demonstrated by the increased expression of several chondrogenic markers by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that TGF-β1 bound GY785 DRS with higher affinity compared to GY785 DR. In association with TGF-β1, GY785 DRS was found to upregulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, indicating that oversulfated polysaccharide affects the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling activity. These results demonstrate the upregulation of TGF-β1-dependent stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharide. This polysaccharide of marine origin is easily producible and therefore could be considered a promising additive to drive efficient and reliable MSC chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue

  17. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  18. Visualization of bacterial polysaccharides by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, B S; McAleer, W J; Hilleman, M R

    1983-04-01

    Highly purified capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B, and C have been visualized by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Spheroidal macromolecules approximately 200 A in diameter are characteristic of the Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides whereas filaments that are 400-600 A in length are found in Meningococcus B polysaccharide preparations. Filaments are occasionally found associated with the spheroidal Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides and it is proposed that these structures are composed of a long (1-4 microns) filament or filaments that are arranged in spheroidal molecules or micelles of high molecular weight. The Meningococcus B polysaccharide, by contrast, is a short flexuous filament or strand of relatively low molecular weight. A relationship between morphology and antigenicity is proposed.

  19. Chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-jun; Cheong, Kit-leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from medicinal plants and fungi exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their chemical characteristics. However, characterization of polysaccahrides is a challenge because of their complicated structure and macromolecular mass. In this review, chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides, including physicochemical characterization (purity, molecular mass, and distribution), structural characterization (constituent monosaccharide composition and the ratio, the features of glycosidic linkages), and fingerprint of polysaccharides (acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates), from medicinal plants and fungi were reviewed and discussed according to the publications collected in Web of Science since 2007. The perspective for characterization of polysaccharides has also been described. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-13

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polysaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  1. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  2. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  4. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  5. Nanoengineering of vaccines using natural polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana Sara; Alonso, María José; de la Fuente, María

    2015-11-01

    Currently, there are over 70 licensed vaccines, which prevent the pathogenesis of around 30 viruses and bacteria. Nevertheless, there are still important challenges in this area, which include the development of more active, non-invasive, and thermo-resistant vaccines. Important biotechnological advances have led to safer subunit antigens, such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. However, their limited immunogenicity has demanded potent adjuvants that can strengthen the immune response. Particulate nanocarriers hold a high potential as adjuvants in vaccination. Due to their pathogen-like size and structure, they can enhance immune responses by mimicking the natural infection process. Additionally, they can be tailored for non-invasive mucosal administration (needle-free vaccination), and control the delivery of the associated antigens to a specific location and for prolonged times, opening room for single-dose vaccination. Moreover, they allow co-association of immunostimulatory molecules to improve the overall adjuvant capacity. The natural and ubiquitous character of polysaccharides, together with their intrinsic immunomodulating properties, their biocompatibility, and biodegradability, justify their interest in the engineering of nanovaccines. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art overview regarding the application of nanotechnology in vaccine delivery, with a focus on the most recent advances in the development and application of polysaccharide-based antigen nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  7. Deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica in monovalent and divalent salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingting; Long, Guoyu; Ni, Jinren; Tong, Meiping

    2009-08-01

    The deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent and divalent solutions under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by employing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (DCM-D). Soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from four bacterial strains with different characteristics. Maximum favorable deposition rates (k(fa)) were observed for all EPS at low ionic strengths in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. With the increase of ionic strength, k(fa) decreased due to the simultaneous occurrence of EPS aggregation in solutions. Deposition efficiency (alpha; the ratio of deposition rates obtained under unfavorable versus corresponding favorable conditions) for all EPS increased with increasing ionic strength in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which agreed with the trends of zeta potentials and was consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Comparison of alpha for SEPS and BEPS extracted from the same strain showed that the trends of alpha did not totally agree with trends of zeta potentials, indicating the deposition kinetics of EPS on silica surfaces were not only controlled by DLVO interactions, but also non-DLVO forces. Close comparison of alpha for EPS extracted from different sources showed alpha increased with increasing proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Subsequent experiments for EPS extracted from the same strain but with different proteins to polysaccharides ratios and from activated sludge also showed that alpha were largest for EPS with greatest proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Additional experiments for pure protein and solutions with different pure proteins to pure saccharides ratios further corroborated that larger proteins to polysaccharides ratio resulted in greater EPS deposition.

  8. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  9. High activity and low temperature optima of extracellular enzymes in Arctic sediments: implications for carbon cycling by heterotrophic microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    The rate of the initial step in microbial remineralization of organic carbon, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, was investigated as a function of temperature in permanently cold sediments from 2 fjords on the west coast of Svalbard (Arctic Ocean). We used 4 structurally distinct polysaccharides...... hydrolysis in order to determine the relative temperature responses of the initial and terminal steps in microbial remineralization of carbon. The temperature optimum of sulfate reduction, 21degreesC, was considerably lower than previous reports of sulfate reduction in marine sediments, but is consistent...... with recent studies of psychrophilic sulfate reducers isolated from Svalbard sediments. A calculation of potential carbon flow into the microbial food chain demonstrated that the activity of just one type of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzyme could in theory supply 21 to 100% of the carbon consumed via sulfate...

  10. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  11. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  12. Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Aharon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, comprised of exosomes, microparticles, apoptotic bodies, and other microvesicles, are shed from a variety of cells upon cell activation or apoptosis. EVs promote clot formation, mediate pro-inflammatory processes, transfer proteins and miRNA to cells, and induce cell signaling that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. This paper will review the contribution of EVs in hematological disorders, including hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hematological malignancies (lymphomas, myelomas, and acute and chronic leukemias.

  13. Blood extracellular DNA after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Tishchenko, L.I.; Surkova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that blood extracellular DNA of irradiated rats largely consists of the low-molecular DNA and its oligomers. Molecular masses of oligomers are multiple to molecular mass of monomer fragment with nucleosome size. The low-molecular DNA has linear form. The average content of GC-pairs in low-molecular DNA is higher than in total rat's DNA (48.5% against 41.5%). The low-molecular DNA is a part of complex containing RNA, acidic proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the formation of low-molecular DNA is a result of Ca/Mg - dependent nuclear endonuclease action

  14. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  15. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  17. Kefiran antagonizes cytopathic effects of Bacillus cereus extracellular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Micaela; Pérez, Pablo Fernando; Abraham, Analía Graciela

    2008-02-29

    Kefiran, the polysaccharide produced by microorganisms present in kefir grains, is a water-soluble branched glucogalactan containing equal amounts of D-glucose and D-galactose. In this study, the effect of kefiran on the biological activity of Bacillus cereus strain B10502 extracellular factors was assessed by using cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and human erythrocytes. In the presence of kefiran concentrations ranging from 300 to 1000 mg/L, the ability of B. cereus B10502 spent culture supernatants to detach and damage cultured human enterocytes was significantly abrogated. In addition, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was higher when kefiran was present during the cell toxicity assays. Protection was also demonstrated in hemolysis and apoptosis/necrosis assays. Scanning electron microscopy showed the protective effect of kefiran against structural cell damages produced by factors synthesized by B. cereus strain B10502. Protective effect of kefiran depended on strain of B. cereus. Our findings demonstrate the ability of kefiran to antagonize key events of B. cereus B10502 virulence. This property, although strain-specific, gives new perspectives for the role of bacterial exopolysaccharides in functional foods.

  18. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  19. Unusual monosaccharides: components of O-antigenic polysaccharides of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Nikolai K.

    1996-09-01

    The data on new monosaccharides detected in O-antigenic polysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria have been surveyed. The results of isolation and structure determination of these unusual monosaccharides have been arranged and described systematically. The NMR spectroscopy techniques are shown to be promising for the O-antigenic polysaccharides structure determination. The information about fine structure of monosaccharides which constitute the base of important class of microbial polysaccharides, is of great significance for applied studies, first of all, the design and synthesis of biologically active substances. The bibliography includes 216 references.

  20. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  1. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  2. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  3. Extracellular nucleotide signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Gary [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Over the life of this funded project, our research group identified and characterized two key receptor proteins in plants; one mediating the innate immunity response to chitin and the other elucidating the key receptor for extracellular ATP. In the case of chitin recognition, we recently described the quaternary structure of this receptor, shedding light on how the receptor functions. Perhaps more importantly, we demonstrated that all plants have the ability to recognize both chitin oligomers and lipochitooligosacchardes, fundamentally changing how the community views the evolution of these systems and strategies that might be used, for example, to extend symbiotic nitrogen fixation to non-legumes. Our discovery of DORN1 opens a new chapter in plant physiology documenting conclusively that eATP is an important extracellular signal in plants, as it is in animals. At this point, we cannot predict just how far reaching this discovery may prove to be but we are convinced that eATP signaling is fundamental to plant growth and development and, hence, we believe that the future will be very exciting for the study of DORN1 and its overall function in plants.

  4. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of extracellular RNA by digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eTakahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of extracellular RNA is emerging as an important mechanism for intracellular communication. The ability for the transfer of functionally active RNA molecules from one cell to another within vesicles such as exosomes enables a cell to modulate cellular signaling and biological processes within recipient cells. The study of extracellular RNA requires sensitive methods for the detection of these molecules. In this methods article, we will describe protocols for the detection of such extracellular RNA using sensitive detection technologies such as digital PCR. These protocols should be valuable to researchers interested in the role and contribution of extracellular RNA to tumor cell biology.

  6. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion

  7. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  8. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.219, year: 2015

  9. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  10. STUDY OF POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEX OF SORBARIA SORBIFOLIA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Guschina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated polysaccharides and identified monosaccharides after hydrolysis during the work. Gravimetric analysis identifies the prevalence of pectin substances (PS and hemicelluloses A (HC A.

  11. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Polysaccharides, Colorectal cancer, Verbena officinalis, SW480 cell lines, Cell invasion,. Metastasis ..... receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is found to be abnormal in many ... invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-.

  12. Nitroxide-catalyzed selective oxidation of alcohols and polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponedel'kina, I Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, E A; Odinokov, Viktor N

    2010-01-01

    The use of nitroxide radicals in the selective oxidation of alcohols is considered. Attention is focused on the oxidation of polysaccharides as a method of preparation of polyuronic acids, aldehydes and hemiacetals.

  13. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  14. Structural Characterization and Enzymatic Modification of Soybean Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper

    % galacturonic acid, 8% xylose, 3% rhamnose, and 3% fucose. Currently, the majority of this material is disposed of as waste, increasing production costs. Opportunities exist for the develop-ment of novel functional ingredients from this abundant and underutilized ma-terial; however, efforts in this area......The work in this thesis explores the structure of soybean polysaccharides, and examines approaches for the chemical and enzymatic degradation and solu-bilization of this material. Soybean polysaccharides are produced in large quantities globally as a by-product of various soy production processes...... are currently limited by the material’s insol-ubility. A central hypothesis of this work was that by obtaining a more complete understanding of the structure of this material, chemical and enzymatic ap-proaches could be developed to modify the polysaccharides, creating soluble polysaccharide fractions...

  15. Anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchen; Zhang Huijuan; Luo Chuanhuan; Wang Bingji

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on irradiated mice. Methods: 520 female mice were randomized to several groups and exposed to 6.25-8.5 Gy whole-body γ-rays. The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was injected i.p before or after irradiation. The 30-day survival rate of mice was determined, and DNA content of bone marrow was observed as well at seventh day after irradiation. Results: It was showed that the 30-day survival rate and DNA content of bone marrow were all significantly higher in 30 mg or 15 mg hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-treated groups than those in the corresponding irradiated controls (P < 0.01). The 30-day survival rate increased from 35% to 97.5%. Conclusion: The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide has marked anti-radiation effect. Further investigation is worthwhile

  16. Radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The studies concerning the radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose, its ethers and some polysaccharides (xylan, starch, decstrans, chitin, chitosan and geparin) are discussed. Ionising irradiation causes the destruction of these compounds with the decay of pyranose ring, accompanied by the formation of compounds containing carbonyl or carboxyl groups, as well as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon oxide. The efficiency of radiation degradation increases with increasing the temperature and depends on the structure of polysaccharides and the nature of substituents. The mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and others polysaccharides is proposed. Prospects of the application of radiation-chemical methods of treatment of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture considered [ru

  17. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China ... Keywords: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Splenic lymphocytes, ROS, Caspase-3, Bax, Nrf2. Tropical Journal of .... and 5′- TCC ACT GTC TGC TTC AAT ACC -3′.

  18. Structure of polysaccharide and structural analysis by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides occur in plants and the living body in the solid, gel, or liquid. They have a highly structural diversity and possess the potential to be used for development of new materials and energy sources. So it is very important to understand their molecular structure under various conditions. This review introduces the structural characteristics of polysaccharides and the examples of their analysis by the X-ray scattering method. (author)

  19. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides at carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), s. 1763-1766 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * Os(VI)L-polysaccharide adducts * pyrolytic graphite electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  20. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  1. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: A promising natural excipient for pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Joshny Joseph; S N Kanchalochana; G Rajalakshmi; Vedha Hari; Ramya Devi Durai

    2012-01-01

    The natural polymers always have exceptional properties which make them distinct from the synthetic polymers and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for a wide range of applications. TSP is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Tamarindus indica, recently gaining a wide potential in the field of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Its isolation and characterisation involve simple techniques ...

  2. Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the Synthesis of Mannan Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Zeng, Songjun; Yu, Zhenming; Zhang, Xinghua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Deng, Rufang; Tan, Jianwen; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a ...

  3. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  4. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  5. [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The identification test for thickening polysaccharides containing neutral saccharides and uronic acids was investigated by GC analysis of constituent monosaccharides. The reported method, in which monosaccharides were converted to diethyldithioacetal derivatives with ethanethiol followed by trimethylsilylation, was improved in terms of operability and reproducibility of GC/MS analysis. The suitability of the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method was determined for seven thickening polysaccharides, i.e., carob bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, gum arabic, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum and peach gum. The samples were acid-hydrolyzed to form monosaccharides. The hydrolysates were derivatized and analyzed with GC/FID. Each sugar derivative was detected as a single peak and was well separated from others on the chromatograms. The amounts of constituent monosaccharides in thickening polysaccharides were successfully estimated. Seven polysaccharides were distinguished from each other on the basis of constituent monosaccharides. Further examination of the time period of hydrolysis of polysaccharides using peach gum showed that the optimal times were not the same for all monosaccharides. A longer time was needed to hydrolyze glucuronic acid than neutral saccharides. The findings suggest that hydrolysis time may sometimes affect the analytical results on composition of constituent monosaccharides in polysaccharides.

  6. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiwan, C.; Yitao, W.; Yanfang, Z.; Xinsheng, P.; Jingjing, H.; Ping, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  7. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol; Ryu, Kwang Won

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  8. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  9. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    L?sser, Cecilia; Th?ry, Clotilde; Buz?s, Edit I.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; L?tvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field co...

  10. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, [ 35 S]-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall

  11. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000.

  12. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  14. Characterization of yeast extracellular vesicles: evidence for the participation of different pathways of cellular traffic in vesicle biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora L Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles in yeast cells are involved in the molecular traffic across the cell wall. In yeast pathogens, these vesicles have been implicated in the transport of proteins, lipids, polysaccharide and pigments to the extracellular space. Cellular pathways required for the biogenesis of yeast extracellular vesicles are largely unknown.We characterized extracellular vesicle production in wild type (WT and mutant strains of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis, lipid extraction and proteomics. WT cells and mutants with defective expression of Sec4p, a secretory vesicle-associated Rab GTPase essential for Golgi-derived exocytosis, or Snf7p, which is involved in multivesicular body (MVB formation, were analyzed in parallel. Bilayered vesicles with diameters at the 100-300 nm range were found in extracellular fractions from yeast cultures. Proteomic analysis of vesicular fractions from the cells aforementioned and additional mutants with defects in conventional secretion pathways (sec1-1, fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane; bos1-1, vesicle targeting to the Golgi complex or MVB functionality (vps23, late endosomal trafficking revealed a complex and interrelated protein collection. Semi-quantitative analysis of protein abundance revealed that mutations in both MVB- and Golgi-derived pathways affected the composition of yeast extracellular vesicles, but none abrogated vesicle production. Lipid analysis revealed that mutants with defects in Golgi-related components of the secretory pathway had slower vesicle release kinetics, as inferred from intracellular accumulation of sterols and reduced detection of these lipids in vesicle fractions in comparison with WT cells.Our results suggest that both conventional and unconventional pathways of secretion are required for biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, which demonstrate the

  15. High activity and low temperature optima of extracellular enzymes in Arctic sediments: implications for carbon cycling by heterotrophic microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    (chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, xylan and pullulan) to determine the temperature-activity responses of hydrolysis of a related class of compounds. All 4 enzyme activities showed similarly low temperature optima in the range of 15 to 18degreesC. These temperature optima are considerably lower than most previous......The rate of the initial step in microbial remineralization of organic carbon, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, was investigated as a function of temperature in permanently cold sediments from 2 fjords on the west coast of Svalbard (Arctic Ocean). We used 4 structurally distinct polysaccharides...... reports of temperature optima for enzyme activities in marine sediments. At 0degreesC, close to the in situ temperature, these enzyme activities achieved 13 to 38% of their rates at optimum temperatures. In one experiment, sulfate reduction rates were measured in parallel with extracellular enzymatic...

  16. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  17. Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide from Chlorophytum borivilianum Roots

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    Mayank Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae is an ayurvedic Rasayana herb with immunostimulating properties. The polysaccharide fraction (CBP derived from hot water extraction of C. borivilianum (CB, comprising of ~31% inulin-type fructans and ~25% acetylated mannans (of hot water-soluble extract, was evaluated for its effect on natural killer (NK cell activity (in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, isolated from whole blood on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient, were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each C. borivilianum fraction for modulation of NK cell cytotoxic activity toward K562 cells. Preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation against P388 cells was performed to establish non-cytotoxic concentrations of the different fractions. Testing showed the observed significant stimulation of NK cell activity to be due to the CBP of C. borivilianum. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation carried out on Wistar strain albino rats for humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs and immunoglobulin-level determination using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, exhibited an effectiveness of C. borivilianum aqueous extract in improving immune function. Present results provide useful information for understanding the role of CBP in modulating immune function.

  18. PVA/Polysaccharides Blended Films: Mechanical Properties

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    Fábio E. F. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and angico gum (AG and/or cashew gum (CG were used to produce films by casting method. Morphological and mechanical properties of these films were studied and compared to the properties of a commercial collagen membrane of bovine origin (MBO. The films presented thickness varying from 70 to 140 μm (PVA/AG and 140 to 200 μm (PVA/CG. Macroscopic analysis showed that a PVA/CG film was very similar to MBO regarding the color and transparency. The higher values of tensile strength (TS and elastic modulus (EM were observed in the film. On the other hand, PVA/CG and PVA/CG-AG presented the highest value of percentage of elongation (E%. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis revealed a positive correlation between TS and EM and a negative correlation between E% and EM. The PVA/CG film presented mechanical properties very similar to MBO, with the advantage of a higher E% (11.96 than MBO (2.94. The properties of the PVA blended films depended on the polysaccharide added in the blend, as well as the acid used as a catalyst. However, all produced films presented interesting mechanical characteristics which enables several biotechnological applications.

  19. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

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    Sondus Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA.

  20. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

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    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  1. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influences of extracellular polymeric substances on the dewaterability of sewage sludge during bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhang, Xueying; Zhou, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play important roles in regulating the dewaterability of sludge. This study sought to elucidate the influence of EPS on the dewaterability of sludge during bioleaching process. Results showed that, in bioleaching system with the co-inoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 (A. t+A. f system), the capillary suction time (CST) of sludge reduced from 255.9 s to 25.45 s within 48 h, which was obviously better than the controls. The correlation analysis between sludge CST and sludge EPS revealed that the sludge EPS significantly impacted the dewaterability of sludge. Sludge CST had correlation with protein content in slime and both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers, and the decrease of protein content in slime and decreases of both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers improved sludge dewaterability during sludge bioleaching process. Moreover, the low sludge pH (2.92) and the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase were another two factors responsible for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during bioleaching. This study suggested that during sludge bioleaching the growth of Acidithiobacillus species resulted in the decrease of sludge pH, the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase, and the decrease of EPS content (mainly including protein and/or polysaccharide) in the slime, TB-EPS, and Slime+LB+TB layers, all of which are helpful for sludge dewaterability enhancement.

  3. Extracellular DNA facilitates the formation of functional amyloids in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly; Ganesan, Mahesh; Payne, David E; Solomon, Michael J; Boles, Blaise R

    2016-01-01

    Persistent staphylococcal infections often involve surface-associated communities called biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development is mediated by the co-ordinated production of the biofilm matrix, which can be composed of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins including amyloid fibers. The nature of the interactions between matrix components, and how these interactions contribute to the formation of matrix, remain unclear. Here we show that the presence of eDNA in S. aureus biofilms promotes the formation of amyloid fibers. Conditions or mutants that do not generate eDNA result in lack of amyloids during biofilm growth despite the amyloidogeneic subunits, phenol soluble modulin peptides, being produced. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of DNA promotes amyloid formation by PSM peptides. Thus, this work exposes a previously unacknowledged interaction between biofilm matrix components that furthers our understanding of functional amyloid formation and S. aureus biofilm biology. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Competitive adsorption of heavy metal by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qing; Li, Ming-Ming; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was investigated. Chemical analysis showed that different EPS compositions had different capacities for the adsorption of heavy metals which was investigated using Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Batch adsorption tests indicated that EPS had a higher combined ability with Zn(2+) than Cu(2+). This was confirmed and explained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR analysis showed that both polysaccharides and protein combined with Zn(2+) while only protein combined with Cu(2+). EEM spectra further revealed that tryptophan-like substances were the main compositions reacted with the heavy metals. Moreover, Zn(2+) had a higher fluorescence quenching ability than Cu(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular DNA metabolism in Haloferax volcanii

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    Scott eChimileski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA is found in all environments and is a dynamic component of the micro-bial ecosystem. Microbial cells produce and interact with extracellular DNA through many endogenous mechanisms. Extracellular DNA is processed and internalized for use as genetic information and as a major source of macronutrients, and plays several key roles within prokaryotic biofilms. Hypersaline sites contain some of the highest extracellular DNA con-centrations measured in nature–a potential rich source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for halophilic microorganisms. We conducted DNA growth studies for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii DS2 and show that this model Halobacteriales strain is capable of using exogenous double-stranded DNA as a nutrient. Further experiments with varying medium composition, DNA concentration and DNA types revealed that DNA is utilized primarily as a phosphorus source, that growth on DNA is concentration-dependent and that DNA isolated from different sources is metabolized selectively, with a bias against highly divergent methylated DNA sources. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that labeled DNA colocalized with Haloferax volcanii cells. The gene Hvo_1477 was also identified using a comparative genomic approach as a factor likely to be involved in extracellular DNA processing at the cell surface, and deletion of Hvo_1477 created an H. volcanii strain deficient in its ability to grow on extracellular DNA. Widespread distribution of Hvo_1477 homologs in archaea suggests metabolism of extracellular DNA may be of broad ecological and physiological relevance in this domain of life.

  6. Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 modulate innate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Komatsu, Ryoya; Humayun Kober, A K M; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Makino, Seiya; Kano, Hiroshi; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect. We showed that innate immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in porcine IECs was differentially modulated by EPS from LDR-1. EPSs treatment induced an increment in the expression of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β in PIE cells after the stimulation with poly(I:C) as well as the expression of the antiviral factors MxA and RNase L. Those effects were related to the reduced expression of A20 in EPS-treated PIE cells. EPS from LDR-1 was also able to reduce the expression of IL-6 and proinflammatory chemokines. Although further in vivo studies are needed, our results suggest that these EPSs or a yogurt fermented with LDR-1 have potential to improve intestinal innate antiviral response and protect against intestinal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

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    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  8. Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Puga, Ana M; Concheiro, Angel

    2013-08-01

    Polysaccharides are gaining increasing attention as components of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, particularly since they can be obtained in a well characterized and reproducible way from the natural sources. Ionic polysaccharides can be readily crosslinked to render hydrogel networks sensitive to a variety of internal and external variables, and thus suitable for switching drug release on-off through diverse mechanisms. Hybrids, composites and grafted polymers can reinforce the responsiveness and widen the range of stimuli to which polysaccharide-based systems can respond. This review analyzes the state of the art of crosslinked ionic polysaccharides as components of delivery systems that can regulate drug release as a function of changes in pH, ion nature and concentration, electric and magnetic field intensity, light wavelength, temperature, redox potential, and certain molecules (enzymes, illness markers, and so on). Examples of specific applications are provided. The information compiled demonstrates that crosslinked networks of ionic polysaccharides are suitable building blocks for developing advanced externally activated and feed-back modulated drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

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    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  10. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Presence of a Linear Polysaccharide

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    Humberto A. Monreal Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles compounds were synthesized. Natural hydroxyapatite and a linear polysaccharide (1–3 linked   β-D galactopyranose and 1,4 linked 3,6 anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose were used as a precursor in its formation. Our purpose was to produce nanoparticles in the presence of a linear polysaccharide with the use of a gelification method. The powder sample was evaluated by scanning tunneling microscope (STM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analysis, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, infrared (IR analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. According to the results, it was found that these nanoparticles can successfully be synthesized using a polysaccharide in a solution. On the other hand, the XRD peak intensity corresponds to hydroxyapatite structure in the range of temperature of 810°C. The influence of the polysaccharide on the evolution of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated. This observation opens up new routes for the fabrication of nanoparticles using polysaccharides network. The synthesized nanoparticles have diameters ranging from 10 nm to 11 nm approximately. The elaboration conditions such as pH and concentration were optimized in this solution.

  11. Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-11-04

    A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3 Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4 Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Purification and composition analysis of polysaccharide RCPS from Rhodiola crenulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue-Wei; Ren, Lei; Han, Yong-Ping; Cui, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Jia-Kun

    2008-03-01

    Hot water extracting and ethanol precipitating method was employed to isolate polysaccharides. RCP (Rhodiola crenulata polysaccharide) was fractionally precipitated with EtOH. RCP3 (Rhodiola crenulata polysaccharide 3) was one of the three fractions. RCPS was obtained after RCP3 was purified by deproteination; decolourization and gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The homogeneity and molecular masses of RCPS were proved by HLGPC. The amount of total carbohydrates of RCPS was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. IR spectrometry and UV-spectrophotometer were used to determine the characteristic absorption of RCPS. The monosaccharides contained in the RCPS were analyzed by GC. The amount of total carbohydrates in RCPS is 99.11%. The molecular weight was 27 876. IR spectrometry analysis indicated that RCPS showed typical signals of acid polysaccharide, including signals at 3 424.83, 2 934.10, 1 742.11, 1 438.96, 1 261.40, 1 103.54 and 832.86 cm(-1); UV-spectrophotometer analysis indicated that RCPS showed a signal of polysaccharide at 195 nm and no signals of protein, nucleic acid at 260 and 280 nm. The monosaccharide constituents of RCPS were Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glu, Gal and GalA, and their molar proportions were 1 : 2.96 : 0.21 : 0.26 : 0.08 : 0.58 and 0.15, respectively.

  14. Evolution of glycosaminoglycans and their glycosyltransferases: Implications for the extracellular matrices of animals and the capsules of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Paul L

    2002-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (linear polysaccharides with a repeating disaccharide backbone containing an amino sugar) are essential components of extracellular matrices of animals. These complex molecules play important structural, adhesion, and signaling roles in mammals. Direct detection of glycosaminoglycans has been reported in a variety of organisms, but perhaps more definitive tests for the glycosyltransferase genes should be utilized to clarify the distribution of glycosaminoglycans in metazoans. Recently, glycosyltransferases that form the hyaluronan, heparin/heparan, or chondroitin backbone were identified at the molecular level. The three types of glycosyltransferases appear to have evolved independently based on sequence comparisons and other characteristics. All metazoans appear to possess heparin/heparan. Chondroitin is found in some worms, arthropods, and higher animals. Hyaluronan is found only in two of the three main branches of chordates. The presence of several types of glycosaminoglycans in the body allows multiple communication channels and adhesion systems to operate simultaneously. Certain pathogenic bacteria produce extracellular coatings, called capsules, which are composed of glycosaminoglycans that increase their virulence during infection. The capsule helps shield the microbe from the host defenses and/or modulates host physiology. The bacterial and animal polysaccharides are chemically identical or at least very similar. Therefore, no immune response is generated, in contrast to the vast majority of capsular polymers from other bacteria. In microbial systems, it appears that in most cases functional convergent evolution of glycosaminoglycan glycosyltransferases occurred, rather than direct horizontal gene transfer from their vertebrate hosts. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  16. Bacterial binding to extracellular proteins - in vitro adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, C.; Fiehn, N.-E.

    1999-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis......Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis...

  17. [Comparison on polysaccharide content and PMP-HPLC fingerprints of polysaccharide in stems and leaves of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gui-Fen; Pang, Min-Xia; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu

    2014-03-01

    In order to provide scientific basics for exploitation and sufficient application of Dendrobium officinale leaves resources, the phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content. The monosaccharides were derivated by PMP and the derivatives were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and the contents of mannose and glucose were determined simultaneously. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2004A) was employed to generate the mean chromatogram and similarity analysis of the samples was carried out. The results demonstrated that polysaccharide content, monosaccharide compositions and composition ratio had an obvious difference between stems and leaves. The polysaccharide content of stems was higher than that of leaves. Monosaccharide composition in leaf was significantly different from that in stem. The polysaccharide from stems was composed of mannose and glucose, however the polysaccharide of leaves was acid heteropolysaccharide and was mainly composed of five monosaccharides, including mannose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The similarity value of the 14 batches was above 0.9, indicating that similarity of fingerprints among different samples was high. The study can provide evidence for expanding the medicinal parts of D. officinale.

  18. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. V. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications.

  19. Analyses of Aloe polysaccharides using carbohydrate microarray profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isager Ahl, Louise; Grace, Olwen M; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity of Aloe vera extracts continues to rise, a desire to fully understand the individual polymer components of the leaf mesophyll, their relation to one another and the effects they have on the human body are increasing. Polysaccharides present in the leaf mesophyll have been...... identified as the components responsible for the biological activities of Aloe vera, and they have been widely studied in the past decades. However, the commonly used methods do not provide the desired platform to conduct large comparative studies of polysaccharide compositions as most of them require...... a complete or near-complete fractionation of the polymers. The objective for this study was to assess whether carbohydrate microarrays could be used for the high-throughput analysis of cell wall polysaccharides in Aloe leaf mesophyll. The method we chose is known as Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling...

  20. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  1. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required....... For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...

  2. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana R. V.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  4. Frothy feedlot bloat in cattle: production of extracellular polysaccharides and development of viscosity in cultures of Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Jones, G A; Nicas, T; Costerton, J W

    1976-04-01

    Streptococcus bovis was cultured in a synthetic medium with three concentrations of sucrose. Initial viscosity of the media was 1.5 centipoise (cp). After incubation for 8 h, the viscosity of the medium with 0.5% sucrose was unchanged, that with 3% sucrose had increased to 8 cp, and that with 6% sucrose to 112 cp. Similar results were found with a rumen fluid medium. A slimy material, responsible for increased viscosity of these cultures, was digested by dextranase. The material appeared as a complex system of intercellular fibers when viewed under the electron microscope after freeze-etching. With proteins and other polymers released from lysed bacteria, this slimy material may contribute directly to increased viscosity and foam formation. In addition to these intercellular fibers, each cell was surrounded by a fibrous capsule that was not digested by dextranase. This capsule stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate, but not with ruthenium red. The amount of capsular material produced was similar whether the media contained 0.5, 3.0, or 6% sucrose.

  5. N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Affects Growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Solid Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-01-01

    N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Usi...

  6. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  7. Purification and characterization of extracellular amylolytic enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOSS

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... characterization of extracellular amylases from four ... Somogyi-Nelson's method (Nelson, 1944; Somogyi, 1952). ... The mycelia dry weight of currently studied four.

  8. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 5711 different proteins with proteomics. The abundance of the proteins calprotectin and lactotransferrin in the tissue correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation as determined by histology. However, fecal calprotectin did...... not correlate. Forty-six proteins were measured with a statistically significant differences in abundances between the UC colon tissue and controls. Eleven of the proteins with increased abundances in the UC biopsies were associated with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps. The findings were...... validated by microscopy, where an increased abundance of neutrophils and the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps by extracellular DNA present in the UC colon tissue were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils, induced neutrophil extracellular traps, and several proteins that play a part in innate...

  9. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... be partially separated by gel chromatography. The structures of the two polysaccharides were determined by chemical methods and by NMR spectroscopy. The teichoic acid-like polymer has a heptasaccharide phosphate repeating unit with the following structure: The structure neither contains ribitol nor glycerol...... phosphate as classical teichoic acids do, thus we have used the expression teichoic acid-like for this polysaccharide. The following structure of the C-polysaccharide repeating unit was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4, 6-trideoxy-D-galactose. It has a carbohydrate backbone identical...

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  11. [Antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Shi, Y; Guan, X; Zhang, S; Tian, T

    1998-03-01

    The antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast from yeast mud on 13 kinds of viruses including DNA and RNA virus along with their mechanisms were studied. The result showed that this effect was remarkable on the infections with poliovirus III, adenovirus III, ECHO6 virus, enterovirus 71, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpesvirus I, II, coxsackie A16 virus and coxsackie B3 virus. The polysaccharides of brewer yeast could also inhibit the development of cytopathic effect(CPE) and protect cultural cells from being infected with the above viruses.

  12. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

  13. [Extraction and content determination of polysaccharides in Viscum coloratum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Yi-fan

    2007-11-01

    To establish a method for extraction and content determination of polysaccharide in Viscum coloratum. Polysaccharide was extracted by hot water, separated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The content determination was performed at wavelength 490 nm with phenol-sulfuric acid as a chtomo-genic agent. The content of polyaccharide in V. coloratum, CVPS-III, and CVPS-III-C were respectively 4.93% (RSD 1.04%, n = 3), 43.28% (RSD 1.39%, n =3), 69.55% (RSD 1.62%, n = 3), and the average recovery was 96.07% (RSD 2.54%, n = 5). The method was simple, rapid, and accurate.

  14. Extraction and purification of pumpkin polysaccharides and their hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Lu, Aoxue; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Meng; Xu, Tian; Zhan, Wangyang; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Weimin

    2017-05-01

    The anti-diabetic activity of the polysaccharides (PPs) obtained from the dried pumpkin pulp was studied in this paper. The PPs were administered by intraperitoneal injection to the alloxan-induced diabetic male ICR mice. The PPs hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose level, fasting serum insulin and hepatic glycogen. After 7h administration, the PPs showed a significantly hypoglycemic effect (ppumpkin polysaccharides in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and for the treatment of diabetic mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sources of extracellular tau and its signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesús; Simón, Diana; Díaz-Hernández, Miguel; Pintor, Jesús; Hernández, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The pathology associated with tau protein, tauopathy, has been recently analyzed in different disorders, leading to the suggestion that intracellular and extracellular tau may itself be the principal agent in the transmission and spreading of tauopathies. Tau pathology is based on an increase in the amount of tau, an increase in phosphorylated tau, and/or an increase in aggregated tau. Indeed, phosphorylated tau protein is the main component of tau aggregates, such as the neurofibrillary tangles present in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been suggested that intracellular tau could be toxic to neurons in its phosphorylated and/or aggregated form. However, extracellular tau could also damage neurons and since neuronal death is widespread in Alzheimer's disease, mainly among cholinergic neurons, these cells may represent a possible source of extracellular tau. However, other sources of extracellular tau have been proposed that are independent of cell death. In addition, several ways have been proposed for cells to interact with, transmit, and spread extracellular tau, and to transduce signals mediated by this tau. In this work, we will discuss the role of extracellular tau in the spreading of the tau pathology.

  16. Transcriptome of extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Royo

    Full Text Available The discovery that the cells communicate through emission of vesicles has opened new opportunities for better understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms. This discovery also provides a novel source for non-invasive disease biomarker research. Our group has previously reported that hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles with protein content reflecting the cell-type of origin. Here, we show that the extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes also carry RNA. We report the messenger RNA composition of extracellular vesicles released in two non-tumoral hepatic models: primary culture of rat hepatocytes and a progenitor cell line obtained from a mouse foetal liver. We describe different subpopulations of extracellular vesicles with different densities and protein and RNA content. We also show that the RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles released by primary hepatocytes can be transferred to rat liver stellate-like cells and promote their activation. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that liver-damaging drugs galactosamine, acetaminophen, and diclofenac modify the RNA content of these vesicles. To summarize, we show that the extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes contain various RNAs. These vesicles, likely to be involved in the activation of stellate cells, might become a new source for non-invasive identification of the liver toxicity markers.

  17. Polysaccharide microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Narayanan; DeShazer, David; England, Marilyn; Waag, David M

    2006-11-01

    A polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides. This polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed.

  18. Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide(s) from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-10-18

    Lipopolysaccharide was obtained by phenol-water extraction from dried bacterial cells of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in a polysaccharide mixture, which was studied by composition and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following polysaccharide structures were established, where italics indicate a non-stoichiometric (∼40%) 2-O-methylation of l-rhamnose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and characterization of polysaccharides/PVA blend nanofibrous membranes by electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla; Silva, Carla J; Büttel, Zsófia; Guimarães, Rodrigo; Pereira, Sara B; Tamagnini, Paula; Zille, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA/chitosan (CS) and PVA/cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) blended nanofibrous membranes were produced by electrospinning using a microfiltration poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) basal membrane, for potential applications in water filtration. Nanofibres were obtained from solutions of 20% (w/w) PVA with 1% (w/w) CS or EPS, using a weight ratio of 60/40. Blended nanofibres have shown a smooth morphology, no beads formation and diameters between 50 and 130 nm. Thermo-mechanical analysis demonstrated that there were inter and/or intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the molecules of PVA/CS and PVA/EPS in the blends. The electrospun blended PVA/EPS membrane showed better tensile mechanical properties when compared with PVA and PVA/CS, and resisted more against disintegration in the temperature range between 10 and 50 °C. Finally, the blended membranes have shown an increase in chromium binding capacity of 5%. This is the first successful report of a blended membrane of electrospinned cyanobacterial polysaccharide with PVA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae yfiRNB operon affects biofilm formation, polysaccharide production and drug susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Mónica G; Zárate, Lina; Acosta, Iván C; Posada, Leonardo; Cruz, Diana P; Lozano, Marcela; Zambrano, María M

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen important in hospital-acquired infections, which are complicated by the rise of drug-resistant strains and the capacity of cells to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms. In this work, we carried out an analysis of the genes in the K. pneumoniae yfiRNB operon, previously implicated in biofilm formation. The results indicated that in addition to the previously reported effect on type 3 fimbriae expression, this operon also affected biofilm formation due to changes in cellulose as part of the extracellular matrix. Deletion of yfiR resulted in enhanced biofilm formation and an altered colony phenotype indicative of cellulose overproduction when grown on solid indicator media. Extraction of polysaccharides and treatment with cellulase were consistent with the presence of cellulose in biofilms. The enhanced cellulose production did not, however, correlate with virulence as assessed using a Caenorhabditis elegans assay. In addition, cells bearing mutations in genes of the yfiRNB operon varied with respect to the WT control in terms of susceptibility to the antibiotics amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. These results indicated that the yfiRNB operon is implicated in the production of exopolysaccharides that alter cell surface characteristics and the capacity to form biofilms--a phenotype that does not necessarily correlate with properties related with survival, such as resistance to antibiotics. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Protein/polysaccharide complexes at air/water interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    KEYWORDS:protein, polysaccharide,The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  2. The Specific Nature of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Donald J.; English, Patricia D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Polysaccharide compositions of cell walls were assessed by quantitative analyses of the component sugars. Cell walls were hydrolyzed in 2 n trifluoroacetic acid and the liberated sugars reduced to their respective alditols. The alditols were acetylated and the resulting alditol acetates separated by gas chromatography. Quantitative assay of the alditol acetates was accomplished by electronically integrating the detector output of the gas chromatograph. Myo-inositol, introduced into the sample prior to hydrolysis, served as an internal standard. The cell wall polysaccharide compositions of plant varieties within a given species are essentially identical. However, differences in the sugar composition were observed in cell walls prepared from different species of the same as well as of different genera. The fact that the wall compositions of different varieties of the same species are the same indicates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides is genetically regulated. The cell walls of various morphological parts (roots, hypocotyls, first internodes and primary leaves) of bean plants were each found to have a characteristic sugar composition. It was found that the cell wall sugar composition of suspension-cultured sycamore cells could be altered by growing the cells on different carbon sources. This demonstrates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides can be manipulated without fatal consequences. PMID:16656594

  3. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  4. Influence of non starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... A total of 195 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 5 treatment groups ... by reducing the anti-nutritional effects of non-starch polysaccharides ..... mineral density and weights of the head, neck and back.

  5. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  6. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, M.R.; Giese, M.; De Vries, R.P.; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For

  7. Afzelia africana , A Novel Non Starch Polysaccharide, Raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects o vegetable flour prepared from indigenous plant Afzelia africana, a legume, on the fasting plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of rats were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that Afzelia flour contained significant amount of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The flour of Afzelia was incorporated ...

  8. Production and characterization of the polysaccharide ''xanthan gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... microbial polysaccharide (Paul et al., 1986) is produced by microbial ... production basic medium composed of the following (g/l), K2HPo4, .... Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Roberts PA, Smith F (1956). ... John Wiley and.

  9. Structure and immunological activity of a novel polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water-soluble polysaccharide (GLP) was obtained from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction and gel chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 143 KD determined by using HPGPC. Structure features of GLP were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental ...

  10. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Polysaccharides into Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Strohmenger, Timm; Goycoolea, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the anionic polysaccharide Xanthan gum (X) was mixed with positively charged Chitosan oligomers (ChO), and used as building blocks, to generate novel nanofibers by electrostatic self-assembly in aqueous conditions. Different concentrations, ionic strength and order of mixing of both...

  12. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  13. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on apoptosis in Mycoplasma-infected splenic lymphocytes (SLs), and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: SLs isolated from C57BL/6J mice were infected with Mycoplasma. The infected SLs were administered at different concentrations of LBP for ...

  14. Thermal decomposition of natural polysaccharides: Chitin and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchina Yu.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the thermal analysis of shrimp’s chitin and chitosan have been presented (samples of polysaccharide differed by the deacetylation degree have been studied. The thermal analysis has been carried out by differential thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation energy of process of chitin and chitosan thermal destruction has been calculated

  15. Interfaces study of all-polysaccharide composite films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Kelnar, Ivan; Mendichi, R.; Tracz, A.; Filip, J.; Bertók, T.; Kasák, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2018), s. 711-718 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : all-polysaccharide composites * elemental analysis * film properties study Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Polysaccharides from Scutellaria barbata D. Don ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Scutellaria barbata (PSB) on invasion and metastasis of lung cancer, and study the possible mechanism. Methods: PSB was extracted with water and by alcohol precipitation, and purified by DEAE-52 column chromatography. A highly invasive and ...

  17. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate polysaccharides (PEV) extracted from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L. and their inhibitory effects on the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: PEV was extracted by water and the optimization of extraction conditions was performed using a Box-Benhnken design ...

  18. Antitumor effect and mechanism of action of polysaccharides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from ... surface plots and variance analysis, it predicted that the optimum conditions for PSDP ..... Mean. C.V.%. Press. R2. R2. Adj. R2. Pred. Adequate precision. 0.15. 4.69.

  19. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  1. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  2. Electrochemical writing on edible polysaccharide films for intelligent food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Wang, Wenqi; Yan, Kun; Ding, Fuyuan; Shi, Xiaowen; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin

    2018-04-15

    Polysaccharide films used as intelligent food packaging possess the advantages of renewability, safety and biodegradability. Printing on the polysaccharidic food packaging is challenging due to the high demand for edible-ink and the need for a suitable printing technique. In this work, we propose an electrochemical method for writing on polysaccharide film. Unlike conventional printing, this electrochemical writing process relies on the pH responsive color change of anthocyanin embedded in the chitosan/agarose hydrogel. By biasing a negative potential to a stainless wire (used as a pen) contacting the surface of the chitosan/agarose/ATH hydrogel, the locally generated pH change induced the color change of ATH and wrote programmed information on the hydrogel. We demonstrate the writing can be temporary in the hydrogel but stable when the hydrogel is dried. We further demonstrate that the written film is applicable for the detection of the spoilage of crucian fish. The reported electrochemical writing process provides a novel method for printing information on polysaccharide film and great potential for intelligent food packaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative high throughput analytics to support polysaccharide production process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Aaron; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2014-05-19

    The rapid development of purification processes for polysaccharide vaccines is constrained by a lack of analytical tools current technologies for the measurement of polysaccharide recovery and process-related impurity clearance are complex, time-consuming, and generally not amenable to high throughput process development (HTPD). HTPD is envisioned to be central to the improvement of existing polysaccharide manufacturing processes through the identification of critical process parameters that potentially impact the quality attributes of the vaccine and to the development of de novo processes for clinical candidates, across the spectrum of downstream processing. The availability of a fast and automated analytics platform will expand the scope, robustness, and evolution of Design of Experiment (DOE) studies. This paper details recent advances in improving the speed, throughput, and success of in-process analytics at the micro-scale. Two methods, based on modifications of existing procedures, are described for the rapid measurement of polysaccharide titre in microplates without the need for heating steps. A simplification of a commercial endotoxin assay is also described that features a single measurement at room temperature. These assays, along with existing assays for protein and nucleic acids are qualified for deployment in the high throughput screening of polysaccharide feedstreams. Assay accuracy, precision, robustness, interference, and ease of use are assessed and described. In combination, these assays are capable of measuring the product concentration and impurity profile of a microplate of 96 samples in less than one day. This body of work relies on the evaluation of a combination of commercially available and clinically relevant polysaccharides to ensure maximum versatility and reactivity of the final assay suite. Together, these advancements reduce overall process time by up to 30-fold and significantly reduce sample volume over current practices. The

  4. Size resolved airborne particulate polysaccharides in summer high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-04-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent determination of polysaccharides (monosaccharides in combined form) were collected in air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active period between the late summer melt season and into the transition to autumn freeze-up. The analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in all sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides containing deoxysugars showed a bimodal structure with about 60% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) showed a weaker bimodal character and were largely found in the coarse mode in addition to a minor fraction apportioned in the sub-micrometer size range. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over 3 orders of magnitude (1 to 692 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 88 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than 5 days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% (by mass) of the total mass of polysaccharides were found in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer polysaccharides was closely related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The ambient aerosol particles collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary source of particulate polysaccharides from open leads by bubble bursting at the air-sea interface. We speculate that

  5. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal ( 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  6. Extracellular histones in tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin's histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other forms of regulated necrosis including pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cyclophilin D-mediated regulated necrosis. Beyond these toxic effects, extracellular histones also trigger thrombus formation and innate immunity by activating Toll-like receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thereby, extracellular histones contribute to the microvascular complications of sepsis, major trauma, small vessel vasculitis as well as acute liver, kidney, brain, and lung injury. Finally, histones prevent the degradation of extracellular DNA, which promotes autoimmunization, anti-nuclear antibody formation, and autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Here, we review the current evidence on the pathogenic role of extracellular histones in disease and discuss how to target extracellular histones to improve disease outcomes.

  7. La relation extraction-structure-propriétés des polysaccharides : cas des galactomannanes et des alginates

    OpenAIRE

    Gillet, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are usually composed of various monosaccharides linked with different glucosidic bonds. Some polysaccharides have hyperbranched structures. Moreover, polysaccharides often have high molecular weights, and tend to form aggregates in solution that can mask the behavior of individual macromolecules. In consequence, to characterize the chemical structures, chain conformations and physical properties of polysaccharides is not an easy task.

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, De-Liang; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Hai-Zhong; Fan, Chun-Chun; Han, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and evaluate antioxidant activities of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides from A. bisporus was extracted by using methods of ultrasonic-assisted hot water lixiviation, ethanol precipitation, Sevag's deproteination and ethanol precipitation again. Extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to raw material and ultrasonic power were selected in single-factor tests. Based on the single-factor tests, parameters combination for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of A. bisporus polysaccharides was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test. Antioxidant activities (reductive potential, superoxide anion scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity) of A. bisporus polysaccharides were evaluated in vitro. Optimum conditions for the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides were extracting temperature 65 degrees C, extracting time 40 min, ratio of water to raw material 30 mL/g and ultrasonic power 170 w. Practicing this optimal condition, extraction yield of polysaccharides from A. bisporus was 5.6 014%. In crude polysaccharides of A. bisporus, carbohydrates content, determined by applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method, was 75.48%. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus could reduce ferric ion, scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Utrasonic-assisted extraction could be used in the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus, had direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  9. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  10. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides from cotton fibre are differently impacted by textile processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    -cellulosic cotton fibre polysaccharides during different steps of cotton textile processing using GC-MS, HPLC and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling to obtain monosaccharide and polysaccharide amounts and linkage compositions. Additionally, in situ detection was used to obtain information on polysaccharide......Cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose, although non-cellulosic polysaccharides play key roles during fibre development and are still present in the harvested fibre. This study aimed at determining the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during cotton textile processing. We analyzed non...... localization and accessibility. We show that pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharide levels decrease during cotton textile processing and that some processing steps have more impact than others. Pectins and arabinose-containing polysaccharides are strongly impacted by the chemical treatments, with most being...

  12. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  13. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of fluorescently labelled lectins for the study of polysaccharides in biofilms with a focus on biofouling of nanofiltration membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Di Martino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biofilm state is the dominant microbial lifestyle in nature. A biofilm can be defined as cells organised as microcolonies embedded in an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin living at an interface between two different liquids, air and liquid, or solid and liquid. The biofilm matrix is made of extracellular polymeric substances, polysaccharides being considered as the major structural components of the matrix. Fluorescently labelled lectins have been widely used to stain microbial extracellular glycoconjugates in natural and artificial environments, and to study specific bacterial species or highly complex environments. Biofilm development at the membrane surface conducting to biofouling is one of the major problems encountered during drinking water production by filtration. Biofouling affects the durability and effectiveness of filtration membranes. Biofouling can be reduced by pretreatments in order to control two key parameters of water, the bioavailable organic matter concentration and the concentration of live bacteria. Nanofiltration (NF is a high technology process particularly suited to the treatment of surface waters to produce drinking water that is highly sensitive to biofouling. The development of strategies for fouling prevention and control requires characterizing the fouling material composition and organisation before and after NF membrane cleaning. The aim of this review is to present basics of biofilm analyses after staining with fluorescently labelled lectins and to focus on the use of fluorescent lectins and confocal laser scanning microscopy to analyse NF membrane biofouling.

  15. Shaping Synapses by the Neural Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ferrer-Ferrer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data support the importance of interactions between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal elements with astroglial processes and extracellular matrix (ECM for formation and plasticity of chemical synapses, and thus validate the concept of a tetrapartite synapse. Here we outline the major mechanisms driving: (i synaptogenesis by secreted extracellular scaffolding molecules, like thrombospondins (TSPs, neuronal pentraxins (NPs and cerebellins, which respectively promote presynaptic, postsynaptic differentiation or both; (ii maturation of synapses via reelin and integrin ligands-mediated signaling; and (iii regulation of synaptic plasticity by ECM-dependent control of induction and consolidation of new synaptic configurations. Particularly, we focused on potential importance of activity-dependent concerted activation of multiple extracellular proteases, such as ADAMTS4/5/15, MMP9 and neurotrypsin, for permissive and instructive events in synaptic remodeling through localized degradation of perisynaptic ECM and generation of proteolytic fragments as inducers of synaptic plasticity.

  16. Extracellular enzyme kinetics scale with resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Findlay, Stuart G.; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J.; Hill, Brian H.; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Kuske, Cheryl; Litvak, Marcy E.; Martinez, Noelle G.; Moorhead, Daryl L.; Warnock, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the kinetics of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimilation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus by diverse aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities (1160 cases). Regression analyses were conducted by habitat (aquatic and terrestrial), enzyme class (hydrolases and oxidoreductases) and assay methodology (low affinity and high affinity substrates) to relate potential reaction rates to substrate availability. Across enzyme classes and habitats, the scaling relationships between apparent Vmax and apparent Km followed similar power laws with exponents of 0.44 to 0.67. These exponents, called elasticities, were not statistically distinct from a central value of 0.50, which occurs when the Km of an enzyme equals substrate concentration, a condition optimal for maintenance of steady state. We also conducted an ecosystem scale analysis of ten extracellular hydrolase activities in relation to soil and sediment organic carbon (2,000–5,000 cases/enzyme) that yielded elasticities near 1.0 (0.9 ± 0.2, n = 36). At the metabolomic scale, the elasticity of extracellular enzymatic reactions is the proportionality constant that connects the C:N:P stoichiometries of organic matter and ecoenzymatic activities. At the ecosystem scale, the elasticity of extracellular enzymatic reactions shows that organic matter ultimately limits effective enzyme binding sites. Our findings suggest that one mechanism by which microbial communities maintain homeostasis is regulating extracellular enzyme expression to optimize the short-term responsiveness of substrate acquisition. The analyses also show that, like elemental stoichiometry, the fundamental attributes of enzymatic reactions can be extrapolated from biochemical to community and ecosystem scales.

  17. MR imaging of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janick, P.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Asakura, T.

    1989-01-01

    MR imaging was performed on varying concentrations of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin as well as varying proportions of deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in vitro at 1.5T with use of standard spin-echo and gradient-refocused spin sequences. This study indicates that susceptibility-induced T2 shortening occurs over a broad range of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (maximal at hematocrits between 20% and 45%), reflecting diffusional effects at the cellular level. T2* gradient-echo imaging enhances the observed hypointensity in images of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin. The characteristic MR appearance of acute hemotomas can be modeled by the behavior of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

  18. Do cultural conditions induce differential protein expression: Profiling of extracellular proteome of Aspergillus terreus CM20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Saritha; Singh, Surender; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Goel, Renu; Nain, Lata

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the diversity in extracellular proteins expressed by the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus terreus CM20 with respect to differential hydrolytic enzyme production profiles in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, and analysis of the extracellular proteome. The SSF method was superior in terms of increase in enzyme activities resulting in 1.5-3 fold enhancement as compared to SmF, which was explained by the difference in growth pattern of the fungus under the two culture conditions. As revealed by zymography, multiple isoforms of endo-β-glucanase, β-glucosidase and xylanase were expressed in SSF, but not in SmF. Extracellular proteome profiling of A. terreus CM20 under SSF condition using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 63 proteins. Functional classification revealed the hydrolytic system to be composed of glycoside hydrolases (56%), proteases (16%), oxidases and dehydrogenases (6%), decarboxylases (3%), esterases (3%) and other proteins (16%). Twenty families of glycoside hydrolases (GH) (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 28, 30, 32, 35, 43, 54, 62, 67, 72, 74 and 125), and one family each of auxiliary activities (AA7) and carbohydrate esterase (CE1) were detected, unveiling the vast diversity of synergistically acting biomass-cleaving enzymes expressed by the fungus. Saccharification of alkali-pretreated paddy straw with A. terreus CM20 proteins released high amounts of glucose (439.63±1.50mg/gds), xylose (121.04±1.25mg/gds) and arabinose (56.13±0.56mg/gds), thereby confirming the potential of the enzyme cocktail in bringing about considerable conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to sugar monomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Knocking out Bcsas1 in Botrytis cinerea impacts growth, development, and secretion of extracellular proteins, which decreases virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2014-06-01

    Pathogenic fungi usually secrete a series of virulence factors to the extracellular environment to facilitate infection. Rab GTPases play a central role in the secretory pathway. To explore the function of Rab/GTPase in filamentous fungi, we knocked out a Rab/GTPase family gene, Bcsas1, in Botrytis cinerea, an aggressive fungal pathogen that infects more than 200 plant species. A detailed analysis was conducted on the virulence and the secretory capability of the mutants. The results indicated that knockout of Bcsas1 inhibited hyphal development and reduced sporulation of B. cinerea on potato dextrose agar plates resulting in reduced virulence on various fruit hosts. Knocking out the Bcsas1 gene led to an accumulation of transport vesicles at the hyphal tip, significantly reduced extracellular protein content, and lowered the activity of polygalacturonase and xylanase in the extracellular medium. However, mutation of Bcsas1 did not affect the expression of genes encoding polygalacturonase and xylanase, suggesting the secretion of these two family enzymes was suppressed in the mutant. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the secretome provided further evidence that the disruption of Bcsas1 in mutant strains significantly depressed the secretion of polysaccharide hydrolases and proteases. The results indicate that Bcsas1, the Rab8/SEC4-like gene, plays a crucial role in development, protein secretion, and virulence of B. cinerea.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Cellular and Extracellular Carbohydrates of a Biofilm-Forming Strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Charlène; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Filloux, Alain; Sadovskaya, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen, which causes persisting life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Biofilm mode of growth facilitates its survival in a variety of environments. Most P. aeruginosa isolates, including the non-mucoid laboratory strain PA14, are able to form a thick pellicle, which results in a surface-associated biofilm at the air-liquid (A–L) interface in standing liquid cultures. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are considered as key components in the formation of this biofilm pellicle. In the non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strain PA14, the “scaffolding” polysaccharides of the biofilm matrix, and the molecules responsible for the structural integrity of rigid A–L biofilm have not been identified. Moreover, the role of LPS in this process is unclear, and the chemical structure of the LPS O-antigen of PA14 has not yet been elucidated. Principal Findings In the present work we carried out a systematic analysis of cellular and extracellular (EC) carbohydrates of P. aeruginosa PA14. We also elucidated the chemical structure of the LPS O-antigen by chemical methods and 2-D NMR spectroscopy. Our results showed that it is composed of linear trisaccharide repeating units, identical to those described for P. aeruginosa Lanýi type O:2a,c (Lanýi-Bergman O-serogroup 10a, 10c; IATS serotype 19) and having the following structure: -4)-α-L-GalNAcA-(1–3)-α-D-QuiNAc-(1–3)- α-L-Rha-(1-. Furthermore, an EC O-antigen polysaccharide (EC O-PS) and the glycerol-phosphorylated cyclic β-(1,3)-glucans were identified in the culture supernatant of PA14, grown statically in minimal medium. Finally, the extracellular matrix of the thick biofilm formed at the A-L interface contained, in addition to eDNA, important quantities (at least ∼20% of dry weight) of LPS-like material. Conclusions We characterized the chemical structure of the LPS O-antigen and showed that the O-antigen polysaccharide is

  1. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time.

  2. Optimization of extracellular catalase production from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies of the effect of each variable and the establishment of a correlation between the response of enzyme activity and variables revealed that the link is a multiple linear regression form. The optimization was carried out through a simplex algorithm. The amount of extracellular catalase produced by the strain in the ...

  3. Managing Brain Extracellular K(+) during Neuronal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K(+) from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform combinations in K(+) management in the central nervous system might...... understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease....

  4. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  5. Extracellular space diffusion and extrasynaptic transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S89-S99 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Diffusion * Extracellular volume * Tortuosity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  6. Integrins and extracellular matrix in mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay RamageQueen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Integrins are a family of cell surface receptors which mediate cell–matrix and cell–cell adhesions. Among other functions they provide an important mechanical link between the cells external and intracellular environments while the adhesions that they form also have critical roles in cellular signal-transduction. Cell–matrix contacts occur at zones in the cell surface where adhesion receptors cluster and when activated the receptors bind to ligands in the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix surrounds the cells of tissues and forms the structural support of tissue which is particularly important in connective tissues. Cells attach to the extracellular matrix through specific cell-surface receptors and molecules including integrins and transmembrane proteoglycans. Integrins work alongside other proteins such as cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, selectins, and syndecans to mediate cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions and communication. Activation of adhesion receptors triggers the formation of matrix contacts in which bound matrix components, adhesion receptors, and associated intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules form large functional, localized multiprotein complexes. Cell–matrix contacts are important in a variety of different cell and tissue properties including embryonic development, inflammatory responses, wound healing, and adult tissue homeostasis. This review summarizes the roles and functions of integrins and extracellular matrix proteins in mechanotransduction.Keywords: ligand binding, α subunit, ß subunit, focal adhesion, cell differentiation, mechanical loading, cell–matrix interaction

  7. Interaction of acetamiprid with extracellular polymeric substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important components of activated sludge and it plays an important role in removing pollutants. The interaction between EPS and organic pollutants is still little known. In the present study, the interaction of soluble/bound EPS with acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was ...

  8. Optimization of extracellular catalase production from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    extracellular catalase produced by the strain in the optimized medium was about four times higher than ... celial and unicellular fungi in synthetic media (Kurakov et .... covering the appropriate range and the broad calibration kit ... This optimization allowed us to define new cultural con- ..... Ann. New York Academy Sci.

  9. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h ...

  10. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to

  11. Development of drilling fluids based on polysaccharides and natural minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Nurakhmetova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of oil well drilling in complex geological conditions by applying the drilling muds based on the polysaccharides – gellan, xanthan and their mixture which potentially possess a good flocculation properties and the ability to reversible sol-gel transition in dependence of temperature and concentration of low molecular weight cations in water has been justified in this work. For the preparation of drilling muds, gellan and xanthan were used, these polymers were obtained from biomass by an aerobic fermentation using microorganisms Sphingomonas elodea and Xanthomonas campestris. Bentonite was used as a natural mineral. Physical and chemical characteristics of aqueous and aqueous-salt solutions of natural polysaccharide gellan including: density, intrinsic and effective viscosity, static shear stress, dynamic shear stress, sedimentation stability and other parameters were determined while varying polymer compositions and concentrations, ionic strength of the solution, nature of low molecular weight salts, concentration of dispersion phase, pH of the medium and temperature.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (GLPP for the Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Rasjidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum mushroom (also known as Ling Zhi in China, Mannetake /Reishi in Japan has been widely used for thousands of years to prevent and treat various diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, viral infection, and cancer. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum has been extensively investigated for free radical scavenging activity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that G. lucidum have anti-tumor effects, which mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, and cytotoxic effects. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP which extracted from Ganoderma lucidum mycelium tissue culture, give the best quality of β-D-Glucans bioactive compounds. These biologically active glucans interact with receptors on the surface of immune cells such as macrophage and natural killer cell (NK cell to induce immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects. However, many studies still need to answer those mechanisms.

  13. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  14. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  15. Advances in Research of Polysaccharides in Cordyceps Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. is one of the well-described fungi that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 700 years. Fungal mycelia contain some polysaccharides that are responsible for their biological activity. C. sinensis has traditionally been cultivated on the high Tibetan plateau as a parasitic fungus growing on caterpillars. However, currently it is being cultivated on some insects and in artificial media. This article deals with the advances in the production, isolation and purification of Cordyceps polysaccharide (CP in recent years, as well as the structure elucidation and pharmacological action. The article also aims to provide some references for further application and exploitation in the future.

  16. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  17. Photoluminescent polysaccharide-coated germanium(IV) oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobaz, Volodymyr; Rabyk, Mariia; Pánek, Jiří; Doris, E.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 7 (2016), s. 1225-1235 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR027; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : germanium oxide nanoparticles * polysaccharide coating * photoluminescent label Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  18. Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Cross, A S; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important virulence factor that confers resistance to phagocytosis. The treatment of encapsulated bacteria with salicylate to inhibit capsule expression was found to enhance the phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria by human neutrophils only in the presence of cell surface-specific antibodies. Both type-specific rabbit antisera and anticapsular human hyperimmune globulin were employed as opsonins. Salicylate significantly enhanced phag...

  19. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum?s (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of aceta...

  20. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W.; Konowalchuk, Jack

    2017-07-18

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods of inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further includes methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  1. Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A.; Cisar, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J22, although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. sanguis J22 which is composed of a heptasaccharide subunit linked by phosphodiester bonds. The repeating subunit, which contains α-GalNAc, α-rhamnose, β-rhamnose, β-glucose, and β-galactose all in the pyranoside form and β-galactofuranose, is compared with the previously published structure of the polysaccharide from strain 34. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from both strains 34 and J22 have been completely assigned. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J H-H values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide 1 H with the sugar ring protons. The 13 C spectra were assigned by 1 H-detected multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) spectra, and the assignments were confirmed by 1 H-detected multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectra. The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond 1 H- 13 C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the 13 C resonances due to 31 P coupling and also by 1 H-detected 31 P correlation spectroscopy

  2. Suppression of umami aftertaste by polysaccharides in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Miho; Matsushima, Kenichiro

    2013-08-01

    Umami is one of 5 basic tastes that make foods savory and palatable. The umami aftertaste is a long-lasting taste sensation that is important for Japanese broth (dashi) utilized for various Japanese foods. Soy sauce is usually added when making dashi-based dishes; however, different soy sauces produce distinct effects on the umami aftertaste. In this study, we attempted to identify the substances that cause the suppression of the umami aftertaste in soy sauce by combining sensory analysis, size fractionation, chemical analysis, and enzymatic treatment. The suppressive substance was revealed to be polysaccharides with molecular weights between 44900 and 49700. The results of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment suggested that the polysaccharides were cellulose. These results indicate that a type of water-soluble cellulose derived from soybean, wheat, or microorganisms has a suppressive effect on the umami aftertaste of soy sauce. Future studies should focus on developing a strategy that regulates the amount of these polysaccharides generated during soy sauce production, to maintain or enhance the umami aftertaste. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  5. Structural analysis of a homogeneous polysaccharide from Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Feineng; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-05-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ( 1 H, 13 C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-1 is composed of glucose (Glc) and its average molecular weight is 1710kDa. Structural analysis suggested that AF-1 is mainly consisted of a linear repeating backbone of (1→4) linked α-d-Glc p residues with one branch, α-d-Glc p, attached to the main chain by (1→6) glycosidic bonds at every five main-chain units. Further studies on biological activities of the polysaccharide are currently in progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  7. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  8. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2014-10-13

    Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 → 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-08-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  12. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  13. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks.

  14. Marine Polysaccharides: A Source of Bioactive Molecules for Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Fischer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.

  15. Homogenate extraction of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and evaluation of the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leqin KE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes were extracted using homogenate method. Factors affecting the yield of crude polysaccharides were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The homogenate extraction method was compared with traditional heating extraction method. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes was evaluated. Results showed that, the optimal conditions of homogenate extraction were as follows: solvent pH, 10; liquid-solid ratio, 30: 1 (mL: g, extraction time, 66 s; number of extraction, 1. Under these conditions, the yield of crude polysaccharides was (13.2 ± 0.9%, which was 29.82% higher than that of traditional heating extraction. Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes had good DPPH scavenging activity. Compared with the traditional heating extraction, the homogenate extraction had notable advantages including good extraction yield, short extraction time and low extraction temperature. It is an efficient way to extract crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.

  16. Extracellular nucleotide derivatives protect cardiomyctes against hypoxic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golan, O; Issan, Y; Isak, A

    2011-01-01

    assures cardioprotection. Treatment with extracellular nucleotides, or with tri/di-phosphate, administered under normoxic conditions or during hypoxic conditions, led to a decrease in reactive oxygen species production. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular tri/di-phosphates are apparently the molecule responsible...

  17. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  18. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3)(1,4)-D-g...

  19. Determination of polysaccharide yield from the fruiting bodies and mycelium of selected mushroom species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Azuar Mohamad; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharides-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The mycelium of Pleurotus sajor caju, Pleurotus tuber-regium, black ganoderma, and the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus florida were used to determine the percentage of polysaccharides obtained from the mushroom raw material. Hot water extraction method was used followed by refrigerated centrifuge and lyophilization. The yield from the various species will be compared. (Author)

  20. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  2. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  3. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Elizabeth Anne; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain-level and species-level. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  5. Methods to isolate extracellular vesicles for diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, Jaesung

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound bodies that are released into extracellular space by diverse cells, and are found in body fluids like blood, urine and saliva. EVs contain RNA, DNA and proteins, which can be biomarkers for diagnosis. EVs can be obtained by minimally-invasive biopsy, so they are useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to precise diagnosis of disease, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause confu sed results. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Furthermore, the isolation method that is most suitable to maximize EV recovery efficiency depends on the experimental conditions. This review focuses on merits and demerits of several types of EV isolation methods, and provides examples of how to diagnose disease by exploiting information obtained by analysis of EVs.

  6. Stem cell extracellular vesicles and kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, Cristina; Iampietro, Corinne; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear as a new promising cell-free therapy for acute and chronic renal diseases. EVs retain characteristics of the cell of origin and those derived from stem cells may mimic their regenerative properties per se. In fact, EVs contain many active molecules such as proteins and RNA species that act on target cells through different mechanisms, stimulating proliferation and angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis and inflammation. There are several reports that demonstra...

  7. Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, L J; Chapple, I L C; Wright, H J; Roberts, A; Cooper, P R

    2012-08-01

    Whilst certain bacteria have long been known to secrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease (DNase), the purpose in microbial physiology was unclear. Recently, however, this enzyme has been demonstrated to confer enhanced virulence, enabling bacteria to evade the host's immune defence of extruded DNA/chromatin filaments, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). As NETs have recently been identified in infected periodontal tissue, the aim of this study was to screen periodontal bacteria for extracellular DNase activity. To determine whether DNase activity was membrane bound or secreted, 34 periodontal bacteria were cultured in broth and on agar plates. Pelleted bacteria and supernatants from broth cultures were analysed for their ability to degrade DNA, with relative activity levels determined using an agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Following culture on DNA-supplemented agar, expression was determined by the presence of a zone of hydrolysis and DNase activity related to colony size. Twenty-seven bacteria, including red and orange complex members Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus constellatus, Campylobacter rectus and Prevotella nigrescens, were observed to express extracellular DNase activity. Differences in DNase activity were noted, however, when bacteria were assayed in different culture states. Analysis of the activity of secreted DNase from bacterial broth cultures confirmed their ability to degrade NETs. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that DNase activity is a relatively common property of bacteria associated with advanced periodontal disease. Further work is required to determine the importance of this bacterial DNase activity in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motil...... as well as matrix constitution and protein crosslinking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. [on SciFinder(R)]...

  9. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-01-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand–receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers

  10. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  11. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  12. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-03-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand-receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers.

  13. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  15. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  16. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pdental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongjun; Ye, Jiaming; Zhao, Yuejun; Su, Weike

    2014-04-01

    Four polysaccharides (PBP60-A, PBP60-B, PBP60-C and PBP60-D) were purified from slug (Philomycusbilineatus) by ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activities were studied by ABTS, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. In vitro antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay. Results demonstrated that PBP60-A was mainly composed of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 6.13:3.08:8.97:5.22:2.46:1.13. PBP60-B was composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 0.90:0.31:1.15:0.37:0.24:1.02:3.84:0.93:1.99. PBP60-C and PBP60-D were composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl, Fuc and an unknown monosaccharide. Antioxidant tests indicated that four polysaccharides exhibited significant antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. PBP60-D presented relative stronger antioxidant activity. PBP60-C showed higher antitumor activity against A549 and MCF-7 cells in vitro. At concentration of500 μg/mL, the antitumor activities of PBP60-C on theA549 and MCF-7 cells were 65.30% and 42.45%, respectively. These results indicated that polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus could be explored as potential natural antioxidants and cancer prevention agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  19. Conformational analysis of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates usually have a large number of rotatable bonds and consequently a large number of theoretically possible conformations can be generated (combinatorial explosion). The application of systematic search methods for conformational analysis of carbohydrates is therefore limited to disaccharides and trisaccharides in a routine analysis. An alternative approach is to use Monte-Carlo methods or (high-temperature) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the conformational space of complex carbohydrates. This chapter describes how to use MD simulation data to perform a conformational analysis (conformational maps, hydrogen bonds) of oligosaccharides and how to build realistic 3D structures of large polysaccharides using Conformational Analysis Tools (CAT).

  20. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Yadav, Shikha; Ahuja, Munish; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2012-11-06

    In the present study, thiol-functionalization of tamarind seed polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with thioglycolic acid. Thiol-functionalization was confirmed by SH stretch in Fourier-transformed infra-red spectra at 2586 cm(-1). It was found to possess 104.5 mM of thiol groups per gram. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction study indicate increase in crystallinity. Polymer compacts of thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide required 6.85-fold greater force to detach from the mucin coated membrane than that of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Comparative evaluation of Carbopol-based metronidazole gels containing thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide with gels containing tamarind seed polysaccharide for mucoadhesive strength using chicken ileum by modified balance method revealed higher mucoadhesion of gels containing thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide. Further, the gels containing tamarind seed polysaccharide and thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide released the drug by Fickian-diffusion following the first-order and Higuchi's-square root release kinetics, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted and non-targeted effects in cell wall polysaccharides from transgenetically modified potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a chemically complex network composed mainly of polysaccharides. Cell wall polysaccharides surround and protect plant cells and are responsible for the stability and rigidity of plant tissue. Pectin is a major component of primary cell wall and the middle lamella of plants.

  4. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based radiation processed hydrogel dressing (HDR) are now produced in India. Natural polysaccharides have been observed to bring desirable characteristics to the HDR. Presence of polysaccharides like Agar and Carrageenan in formulations significantly affect mechanical properties and water absorption properties of HDR. These changes have been explained due to variation in degree of crosslinking and network structure during irradiation. (author)

  5. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remus, D.M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Swam, van I.I.; Taverne, N.; Bongers, R.S.; Wels, M.; Wells, J.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well

  6. Discovery and characterization of surface binding sites in polysaccharide converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper

    Enzymes that act on various polysaccharides are widespread in any domain of life and they play a role in degradation, modification, and synthesis of carbohydrates. These carbohydrate active enzymes interact with their substrate (the polysaccharide) at the active site and often at so called subsites...

  7. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharides extracted from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of hot water extract (HWE), hot water extracted polysaccharides (HWP) and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides (HWAE) were obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. All extracts contained both a- and ß-glucans as determined by Megazyme

  8. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. PMID:28398585

  9. Recombinant Plants Provide a New Approach to the Production of Bacterial Polysaccharide for Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire M.; Fry, Stephen C.; Gough, Kevin C.; Patel, Alexandra J. F.; Glenn, Sarah; Goldrick, Marie; Roberts, Ian S.; Andrew, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides have numerous clinical or industrial uses. Recombinant plants could offer the possibility of producing bacterial polysaccharides on a large scale and free of contaminating bacterial toxins and antigens. We investigated the feasibility of this proposal by cloning and expressing the gene for the type 3 synthase (cps3S) of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nicotinia tabacum, using the pCambia2301 vector and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. In planta the recombinant synthase polymerised plant-derived UDP-glucose and UDP-glucuronic acid to form type 3 polysaccharide. Expression of the cps3S gene was detected by RT-PCR and production of the pneumococcal polysaccharide was detected in tobacco leaf extracts by double immunodiffusion, Western blotting and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Because it is used a component of anti-pneumococcal vaccines, the immunogenicity of the plant-derived type 3 polysaccharide was tested. Mice immunised with extracts from recombinant plants were protected from challenge with a lethal dose of pneumococci in a model of pneumonia and the immunised mice had significantly elevated levels of serum anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies. This study provides the proof of the principle that bacterial polysaccharide can be successfully synthesised in plants and that these recombinant polysaccharides could be used as vaccines to protect against life-threatening infections. PMID:24498433

  10. Polysaccharides isolated from Açaí fruit induce innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Holderness

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Açaí (Acai fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized γδ T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate γδ T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust γδ T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and γδ T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease.

  11. Fermentation characteristics of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the cell walls of maize endosperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schols, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cell walls were extracted from maize endosperm and separated into different polysaccharide fractions by sequential extraction with solutions of saturated Ba(OH)2, demineralised water and 1 and 4 M KOH. Solubilised polysaccharides were collected after each extraction. Residues were collected

  12. Flocculation of colloidal clay by bacterial polysaccharides: effect of macromolecule charge and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labille, J; Thomas, F; Milas, M; Vanhaverbeke, C

    2005-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of montmorillonite flocculation by bacterial polysaccharides was investigated, with special emphasis on the effect of carboxylic charges in the macromolecules on the mechanisms of interaction with the clay surface. An indirect way to quantify the energy of interaction was used, by comparing the flocculation ability of variously acidic polysaccharides. Data on tensile strength of aggregates in diluted suspension were collected by timed size measurements in the domain 0.1-600 microm, using laser diffraction. The flow behavior of settled aggregates was studied by rheology measurements. Flocculation of colloidal clay suspension by polysaccharides requires cancelling of the electrostatic repulsions by salts, which allows approach of clay surfaces close enough to be bridged by adsorbing macromolecules. The amount of acidic charges of the polysaccharides, and especially their location in the molecular structure, governs the bridging mechanism and the resulting tensile strength of the aggregates. The exposure of carboxylate groups located on side chains strongly promotes flocculation. In turn, charges located on the backbone of the polysaccharide are less accessible to interaction, and the flocculation ability of such polysaccharides is lowered. Measurements at different pH indicate that adsorption of acidic polysaccharides occurs via electrostatic interactions on the amphoteric edge surface of clay platelets, whereas neutral polysaccharides rather adsorb via weak interactions. Increased tensile strength in diluted aggregates due to strong surface interactions results in proportionally increased viscosity of the concentrated aggregates.

  13. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (Prenal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  14. Development and evaluation of orodispersible tablets using a natural polysaccharide isolated from Cassia tora seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Pawar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The present work revealed that C. tora seed polysaccharide has a good potential as a disintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets. Because C. tora polysaccharide is inexpensive as compared to synthetic superdisintegrants, nontoxic, compatible, and easy to manufacture, it can be used in place of currently marketed superdisintegrants.

  15. Analyzing Activities of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjørge; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases perform oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in various polysaccharides. The majority of LMPOs studied so far possess activity on either cellulose or chitin and analysis of these activities is therefore the main focus of this review. Notably, however, the num...

  16. Extracellular Signatures as Indicators of Processing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-01-09

    As described in other chapters within this volume, many aspects of microbial cells vary with culture conditions and therefore can potentially be analyzed as forensic signatures of growth conditions. In addition to changes or variations in components of the microbes themselves, extracellular materials indicative of production processes may remain associated with the final bacterial product. It is well recognized that even with considerable effort to make pure products such as fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals, trace impurities from components or synthesis steps associated with production processes can be detected in the final product. These impurities can be used as indicators of production source or methods, such as to help connect drugs of abuse to supply chains. Extracellular residue associated with microbial cells could similarly help to characterize production processes. For successful growth of microorganisms on culture media there must be an available source of carbon, nitrogen, inorganic phosphate and sulfur, trace metals, water and vitamins. The pH, temperature, and a supply of oxygen or other gases must also be appropriate for a given organism for successful culture. The sources of these components and the range in temperature, pH and other variables has adapted over the years with currently a wide range of possible combinations of media components, recipes and parameters to choose from for a given organism. Because of this wide variability in components, mixtures of components, and other parameters, there is the potential for differentiation of cultured organisms based on changes in culture conditions. The challenge remains how to narrow the field of potential combinations and be able to attribute variations in the final bacterial product and extracellular signatures associated with the final product to information about the culture conditions or recipe used in the production of that product.

  17. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 14. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa O12 (Lanyi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirel', Y.A.; Shashkov, A.S.; Dmitriev, B.A.; Kochetkov, N.K.; Stanislavskii, E.S.; Mashilova, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The mild-alkaline hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O12 (Lanyi classification) has given the O-specific polysaccharide, which is constructed of D-ribose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues. The disaccharide structure for the repeating unit of this polysaccharide has been established by a nondestructive method as the result of the complete deciphering of its 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra using homonuclear and selective heteronuclear 13 C { 1 H} double resonance

  19. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of wine polysaccharides on salivary protein-tannin interaction: A molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda Santos; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Williams, Pascale; Mateus, Nuno; Doco, Thierry; de Freitas, Victor; Soares, Susana

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharides are described to inhibit aggregation between food polyphenols and salivary proteins (SP) and may hence lead to astringency modulation. In this work, the effect of two wine polysaccharides (arabinogalactan proteins-AGPs and rhamnogalacturonan II- RGII) on SP-polyphenol interaction was evaluated. In general, both polysaccharides were effective to inhibit or reduce SP-polyphenol interaction and aggregation. They can act by two different mechanisms (ternary or competitive) depending on the SP-tannin pair. In the case of salivary P-B peptide, AGPs and RGII seem to act by a ternary mechanism, in which they surround this complex, enhancing its solubility. Concerning acidic proline-rich proteins (aPRPs), it was possible to observe both mechanisms, depending on the tannin and the polysaccharide involved. Overall, this work point out for a specific property of wine polysaccharides important to modulate this and other beverages and food astringency perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Monosaccharide composition analysis and its content determination of polysaccharides from Rhaponticum uniforum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Xu, Heng-Gui; Yan, Xiao-Mei; Li, Ming-Yang; Liu, Hui

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the monosaccharide composition in the polysaccharides from Rhaponticum uniforum, determine the content of monosaccharide, and provide some references for further research. The monosaccharide composition was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Phenol-sulfuric acid method was used for the determination of the content of polysaccharide. The monosaccharides composition in polysaccharides from R. uniforum are glucose, arabonose and fructose. Their molar ratios are 1 : 1.61 : 2.21. The content of polysaccharide is 95.78%, taking the mixture of monosaccharide compositions as reference substances. HPAEC-PAD can be used to analyze the monosaccharide composition in the polysaccharide with high precision, and the method of phenol-sulfuric acid is simple, convenient and reliable.

  3. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations.

  4. Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Heleno, Sandrina A; Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovic, Dejan; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been also reported as important sources of bioactive compounds. Polysaccharides are important contributors to the medicinal properties reported for Ganoderma species, as demonstrated by the numerous publications, including reviews, on this matter. Yet, what are the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides that have bioactivity? In the present manuscript, the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with reported antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities (the most studied worldwide) are analyzed in detail. The composition of sugars (homo- versus hetero-glucans and other polysaccharides), type of glycosidic linkages, branching patterns, and linkage to proteins are discussed. Methods for extraction, isolation and identification are evaluated and, finally, the bioactivity of polysaccharidic extracts and purified compounds are discussed. The integration of data allows deduction of structure-activity relationships and gives clues to the chemical aspects involved in Ganoderma bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathogenicity of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Actinomyces oris Isolated from an Apical Abscess Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    sugars with man- nose constituting 77.5% of the polysaccharides . Strain K20 induced persistent abscesses in mice lasting at least 5 days at a... polysaccharides (EPSs) could contribute to their survival and the development of persistent infections in the human body (Costerton et al. 1999). For example...High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EPSs Neutral monosaccharides were released from purified EPS (5 mg) by hydrolysis in a

  6. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  7. Changes in Cell Wall Polysaccharides Associated With Growth 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Donald J.; English, Patricia D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1968-01-01

    Changes in the polysaccharide composition of Phaseolus vulgaris, P. aureus, and Zea mays cell walls were studied during the first 28 days of seedling development using a gas chromatographic method for the analysis of neutral sugars. Acid hydrolysis of cell wall material from young tissues liberates rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose which collectively can account for as much as 70% of the dry weight of the wall. Mature walls in fully expanded tissues of these same plants contain less of these constituents (10%-20% of dry wt). Gross differences are observed between developmental patterns of the cell wall in the various parts of a seedling, such as root, stem, and leaf. The general patterns of wall polysaccharide composition change, however, are similar for analogous organs among the varieties of a species. Small but significant differences in the rates of change in sugar composition were detected between varieties of the same species which exhibited different growth patterns. The cell walls of species which are further removed phylogenetically exhibit even more dissimilar developmental patterns. The results demonstrate the dynamic nature of the cell wall during growth as well as the quantitative and qualitative exactness with which the biosynthesis of plant cell walls is regulated. PMID:16656862

  8. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  9. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  12. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  13. Scleroglucan: A Versatile Polysaccharide for Modified Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alhaique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide, produced by fungi of the genus Sclerotium, that has been extensively studied for various commercial applications (secondary oil recovery, ceramic glazes, food, paints, etc. and also shows several interesting pharmacological properties. This review focuses its attention on the use of scleroglucan, and some derivatives, in the field of pharmaceutics and in particular for the formulation of modified-release dosage forms. The reported investigations refer mainly to the following topics: natural scleroglucan suitable for the preparation of sustained release tablets and ocular formulations; oxidized and crosslinked scleroglucan used as a matrix for dosage forms sensitive to environmental conditions; co-crosslinked scleroglucan/gellan whose delivery rate can be affected by calcium ions. Furthermore, a novel hydrogel obtained with this polysaccharide and borate ions is described, and the particular structure of this hydrogel network has been interpreted in terms of conformational analysis and molecular dynamics. Profound attention is devoted to the mechanisms involved in drug release from the tested dosage forms that depend, according to the specific preparation, on swelling and/or diffusion. Experimental data are also discussed on the basis of a mathematical approach that allows a better understanding of the behavior of the tested polymeric materials.

  14. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. [GPC Fingerprint Chromatograms of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Polysaccharides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-e; Xie, Dan; Qian, Jie; Dong, Yin-mao

    2015-10-01

    To establish the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) fingerprint chromatograms of polysaccharides in Aloe vera leaf gel from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats for evaluating the quality of Aloe vera leaf gel products commercially available and testing common adulterated substances. The samples were prepared by water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method. GPC separation was performed on a Shodex SUGAR KS-805 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 7 μm) column and a Shodex SUGAR KS-803 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 6 μm) column at the temperature of 60 degrees C by eluting with 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 (containing 0.2 per thousand NaN) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the chromatographic effluent was detected by refractive index detector (RID) at the temperature of 50 degrees C. The common pattern of GPC fingerprint chromatograms was established and four common peaks were demarcated. The similarities of samples from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats were over 0.9. Taking the GPC fingerprint chromatograms for the qualified model, three commercially available aloe products were evaluated to be made of Aloe vera by the different manufacturing processes and four common adulterated substances of aloe polysaccharides were identified effectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and it can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel products.

  16. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  17. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M.; Kerwin, James; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24 hr biofilms, two were found only in 96 hr biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or were cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation. PMID:24942343

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-06

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  19. Contribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms to U(VI) Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, B.; Kennedy, David W.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-06-05

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells without EPS, we showed that i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contributed significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; ii) bEPS could be considered as a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at initial U(VI) concentrations; and iii) U(VI) reduction efficiency was found to be dependent upon initial U(VI) concentration and the efficiency decreased at lower concentrations. To quantify relative contribution of sorption and reduction in U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(V). We found that, when in reduced form, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated reactivity of laEPS while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, might facilitate U(VI) reduction.

  20. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A

    2017-03-21

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  1. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Lai, C.-H.; Cheng, Y.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test

  2. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A.; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Dramas, Laure; Garces, Daniel; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  3. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xia Siqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: siqingxia@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier [Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery.

  4. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Xia Siqing; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery

  5. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, Bulbul; Kennedy, David W; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, Jim K; Isern, Nancy G; Majors, Paul D; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells with minimal EPS, we show that (i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contribute significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; (ii) bEPS can be considered a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at lower initial U(VI) concentrations; and (iii) the U(VI) reduction efficiency is dependent upon the initial U(VI) concentration and decreases at lower concentrations. To quantify the relative contributions of sorption and reduction to U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(VI). We found that, when reduced, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction.

  6. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, Dorothea; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhaeusser, Andreas [CNI Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology and Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems 2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrophysiological activity of electrogenic cells is currently recorded with planar bioelectronic interfaces such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel concept of biocompatible nanostructured gold MEAs for extracellular signal recording is presented. MEAs were fabricated using clean room technologies, e.g. photolithography and metallization. Subsequently, they were modified with gold nanopillars of approximately 300 to 400 nm in height and 60 nm width. The nanostructuring process was carried out with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminium oxide. Impedance spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures showed higher capacitances compared to planar gold. This confirmed the expected increase of the surface area via nanostructuring. We used the nanostructured microelectrodes to record extracellular potentials from heart muscle cells (HL1), which were plated onto the chips. Good coupling between the HL1 cells and the nanostructured electrodes was observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio of nanopillar-MEAs was increased by a factor of 2 compared to planar MEAs. In future applications this nanopillar concept can be adopted for distinct interface materials and coupling to cellular and molecular sensing components.

  7. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium

  8. Extracellular histones induce erythrocyte fragility and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, Farzaneh; O'Meara, Connor H; Coupland, Lucy A; Lelliott, Patrick M; Parish, Christopher R

    2017-12-28

    Extracellular histones have been shown to play an important pathogenic role in many diseases, primarily through their cytotoxicity toward nucleated cells and their ability to promote platelet activation with resultant thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. In contrast, little is known about the effect of extracellular histones on erythrocyte function. We demonstrate in this study that histones promote erythrocyte aggregation, sedimentation, and using a novel in vitro shear stress model, we show that histones induce erythrocyte fragility and lysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, histones impair erythrocyte deformability based on reduced passage of erythrocytes through an artificial spleen. These in vitro results were mirrored in vivo with the injection of histones inducing anemia within minutes of administration, with a concomitant increase in splenic hemoglobin content. Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also observed. These findings suggest that histones binding to erythrocytes may contribute to the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates observed in inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, histone-induced increases in red blood cell lysis and splenic clearance may be a significant factor in the unexplained anemias seen in critically ill patients. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, "Basics of Extracellular Vesicles," uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform "Coursera" and is free of charge.

  10. Extracellular matrix in canine mammary tumors with special focus on versican, a versatile extracellular proteoglycan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdélyi, Ildikó

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) research has become fundamental to understand cancer. This thesis focuses on the exploration of ECM composition and organization in canine mammary tumors, with a special interest in the large chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG), versican. Chapter 1 gives an

  11. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lässer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs. This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge.

  12. The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Kernien, John F; Wang, Steven X; Beebe, David J; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ansari, Hamayail; Nett, Jeniel E

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm. NET inhibition depended on an intact extracellular biofilm matrix as physical or genetic disruption of this component resulted in NET release. Biofilm inhibition of NETosis could not be overcome by protein kinase C activation via phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and was associated with suppression of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The degree of impaired NET release correlated with resistance to neutrophil attack. The clinical relevance of the role for extracellular matrix in diminishing NET production was corroborated in vivo using a rat catheter model. The C. albicans pmr1Δ/Δ, defective in production of matrix mannan, appeared to elicit a greater abundance of NETs by scanning electron microscopy imaging, which correlated with a decreased fungal burden. Together, these findings show that C. albicans biofilms impair neutrophil response through an inhibitory pathway induced by the extracellular matrix.

  13. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Acute Responses of Microorganisms from Membrane Bioreactors in the Presence of NaOCl: Protective Mechanisms of Extracellular Polymeric Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Mei; Zhang, Xingran; Tang, Chuyang Y; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-03-21

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are key foulants in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, their positive functions of protecting microorganisms from environmental stresses, e.g., during in situ hypochlorite chemical cleaning of membranes, have not been adequately elucidated. In this work, we investigated the response of microorganisms in an MBR to various dosages of NaOCl, with a particular emphasis on the mechanistic roles of EPS. Results showed that functional groups in EPS such as the hydroxyl and amino groups were attacked by NaOCl, causing the oxidation of polysaccharides, denaturation of amino acids, damage to protein secondary structure, and transformation of tryptophan protein-like substances to condensed aromatic ring substances. The presence of EPS alleviated the negative impacts on catalase and superoxide dismutase, which in turn reduced the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial cells. The direct extracellular reaction and the mitigated intracellular oxidative responses facilitated the maintenance of microbial metabolism, as indicated by the quantity of adenosine triphosphate and the activity of dehydrogenase. The reaction with NaOCl also led to the changes of cell integrity and adhesion properties of EPS, which promoted the release of organic matter into bulk solution. Our results systematically demonstrate the protective roles of EPS and the underlying mechanisms in resisting the environmental stress caused by NaOCl, which provides important implications for in situ chemical cleaning in MBRs.

  15. Proteomic profiling of Bacillus licheniformis reveals a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of extracellular polymeric flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wencheng; Chen, Zhen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Yan, Shan; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; He, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Some bioflocculants composed of extracellular polymeric substances are produced under peculiar conditions. Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC2876 is a microorganism that secretes both extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) under stress conditions. In this work, SWATH acquisition LC-MS/MS method was adopted for differential proteomic analysis of B. licheniformis, aiming at determining the bacterial stress mechanism. Compared with LB culture, 190 differentially expressed proteins were identified in B. licheniformis CGMCC2876 cultivated in EPS culture, including 117 up-regulated and 73 down-regulated proteins. In γ-PGA culture, 151 differentially expressed proteins, 89 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated, were found in the cells. Up-regulated proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis were found to account for 43% and 41% of the proteomes in EPS and γ-PGA cultivated cells, respectively. Additionally, a series of proteins associated with amino acid degradation were found to be repressed under EPS and γ-PGA culture conditions. Transcriptional profiling via the qPCR detection of selected genes verified the proteomic analysis. Analysis of free amino acids in the bacterial cells further suggested the presence of amino acid starvation conditions. EPS or γ-PGA was synthesized to alleviate the effect of amino acid limitation in B. licheniformis. This study identified a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of macromolecules in B. licheniformis, providing potential culture strategies to improve the production of two promising bioflocculants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Transitory Cell Wall Components and Their Impact on the Interaction of Fungi with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Souza, Marcio M; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Joffe, Luna; Tavares, Patricia de M; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2016-01-01

    Classic cell wall components of fungi comprise the polysaccharides glucans and chitin, in association with glycoproteins and pigments. During the last decade, however, system biology approaches clearly demonstrated that the composition of fungal cell walls include atypical molecules historically associated with intracellular or membrane locations. Elucidation of mechanisms by which many fungal molecules are exported to the extracellular space suggested that these atypical components are transitorily located to the cell wall. The presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) at the fungal cell wall and in culture supernatants of distinct pathogenic species suggested a highly functional mechanism of molecular export in these organisms. Thus, the passage of EVs through fungal cell walls suggests remarkable molecular diversity and, consequently, a potentially variable influence on the host antifungal response. On the basis of information derived from the proteomic characterization of fungal EVs from the yeasts Cryptoccocus neoformans and Candida albicans and the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, our manuscript is focused on the clear view that the fungal cell wall is much more complex than previously thought.

  17. Natural antigenic differences in the functionally equivalent extracellular DNABII proteins of bacterial biofilms provide a means for targeted biofilm therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Christopher J.; Davey, Mary Ellen; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria that persist in the oral cavity exist within complex biofilm communities. A hallmark of biofilms is the presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which consists of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA), and proteins, including the DNABII family of proteins. The removal of DNABII proteins from a biofilm results in the loss of structural integrity of the eDNA and the collapse of the biofilm structure. We examined the role of DNABII proteins in the biofilm structure of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Co-aggregation with oral streptococci is thought to facilitate the establishment of P. gingivalis within the biofilm community. We demonstrate that DNABII proteins are present in the EPS of both S. gordonii and P. gingivalis biofilms, and that these biofilms can be disrupted through the addition of antisera derived against their respective DNABII proteins. We provide evidence that both eDNA and DNABII proteins are limiting in S. gordonii but not in P. gingivalis biofilms. In addition, these proteins are capable of complementing one another functionally. We also found that while antisera derived against most DNABII proteins are capable of binding a wide variety of DNABII proteins, the P. gingivalis DNABII proteins are antigenically distinct. The presence of DNABII proteins in the EPS of these biofilms and the antigenic uniqueness of the P. gingivalis proteins provide an opportunity to develop therapies that are targeted to remove P. gingivalis and biofilms that contain P. gingivalis from the oral cavity. PMID:26988714

  18. Extracellular DNA is essential for maintaining Bordetella biofilm integrity on abiotic surfaces and in the upper respiratory tract of mice.

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    Matt S Conover

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria form complex and highly elaborate surface adherent communities known as biofilms which are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that by adopting a biofilm mode of existence in vivo, the gram negative bacterial pathogens Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis are able to efficiently colonize and persist in the mammalian respiratory tract. In general, the bacterial biofilm matrix includes polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA. In this report, we investigated the function of DNA in Bordetella biofilm development. We show that DNA is a significant component of Bordetella biofilm matrix. Addition of DNase I at the initiation of biofilm growth inhibited biofilm formation. Treatment of pre-established mature biofilms formed under both static and flow conditions with DNase I led to a disruption of the biofilm biomass. We next investigated whether eDNA played a role in biofilms formed in the mouse respiratory tract. DNase I treatment of nasal biofilms caused considerable dissolution of the biofilm biomass. In conclusion, these results suggest that eDNA is a crucial structural matrix component of both in vitro and in vivo formed Bordetella biofilms. This is the first evidence for the ability of DNase I to disrupt bacterial biofilms formed on host organs.

  19. Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses Skeletal Muscle Myostatin Expression in Diabetes: Involvement of ROS-ERK and NF-κB Pathways

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    Min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The antidiabetes drug astragalus polysaccharide (APS is capable of increasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body glucose homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle secreted growth factor myostatin plays an important role in regulating insulin signaling and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that regulation of skeletal muscle myostatin expression may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity by APS. Methods. APS was administered to 13-week-old diabetic KKAy and nondiabetic C57BL/6J mice for 8 weeks. Complementary studies examined APS effects on the saturated acid palmitate-induced insulin resistance and myostatin expression in C2C12 cells. Results. APS treatment ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance and decreased the elevation of myostatin expression and malondialdehyde production in skeletal muscle of noninsulin-dependent diabetic KKAy mice. In C2C12 cells in vitro, saturated acid palmitate-induced impaired glucose uptake, overproduction of ROS, activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK, and NF-κB were partially restored by APS treatment. The protective effects of APS were mimicked by ERK and NF-κB inhibitors, respectively. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates elevated myostatin expression in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice and in cultured C2C12 cells exposed to palmitate. APS is capable of improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing myostatin expression in skeletal muscle through downregulating ROS-ERK-NF-κB pathway.

  20. Extracellular RNAs: development as biomarkers of human disease

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    Joseph F. Quinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten ongoing studies designed to test the possibility that extracellular RNAs may serve as biomarkers in human disease are described. These studies, funded by the NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Program, examine diverse extracellular body fluids, including plasma, serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. The disorders studied include hepatic and gastric cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative disease, brain tumours, intracranial haemorrhage, multiple sclerosis and placental disorders. Progress to date and the plans for future studies are outlined.

  1. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

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    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  2. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

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    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  3. Optimization of cellulase-assisted extraction process and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Tricholoma mongolicum Imai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Ming; Song, Jin-Hui; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jian-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Bao; Liu, Ying-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Tricholoma mongolicum Imai is a well-known edible and medicinal mushroom which in recent years has attracted increasing attention because of its bioactivities. In this study, water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from T. mongolicum Imai by cellulase-assisted extraction and their antioxidant activities were investigated. In order to improve the yield of polysaccharides, four variables, cellulase amount (X1 ), pH (X2 ), temperature (X3 ) and extraction time (X4 ), were investigated with a Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were predicted to be cellulase amount of 20 g kg(-1) , pH of 4.0, temperature of 50 °C and extraction time of 127 min, with a predicted polysaccharide yield of 190.1 g kg(-1) . The actual yield of polysaccharides under these conditions was 189.6 g kg(-1) , which matched the predicted value well. The crude polysaccharides were purified to obtain four fractions, and characterization of each was carried out. In addition, antioxidant properties of four polysaccharides assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays indicated that polysaccharides from T. mongolicum Imai (TMIPs) possessed antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. TMIPs show moderate antioxidant activities in vitro. Therefore it is suggested that TMIPs are potential natural antioxidants for use in functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Capturing single cell genomes of active polysaccharide degraders: an unexpected contribution of Verrucomicrobia.

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    Manuel Martinez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Microbial hydrolysis of polysaccharides is critical to ecosystem functioning and is of great interest in diverse biotechnological applications, such as biofuel production and bioremediation. Here we demonstrate the use of a new, efficient approach to recover genomes of active polysaccharide degraders from natural, complex microbial assemblages, using a combination of fluorescently labeled substrates, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and single cell genomics. We employed this approach to analyze freshwater and coastal bacterioplankton for degraders of laminarin and xylan, two of the most abundant storage and structural polysaccharides in nature. Our results suggest that a few phylotypes of Verrucomicrobia make a considerable contribution to polysaccharide degradation, although they constituted only a minor fraction of the total microbial community. Genomic sequencing of five cells, representing the most predominant, polysaccharide-active Verrucomicrobia phylotype, revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding a wide spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, sulfatases, peptidases, carbohydrate lyases and esterases, confirming that these organisms were well equipped for the hydrolysis of diverse polysaccharides. Remarkably, this enrichment was on average higher than in the sequenced representatives of Bacteroidetes, which are frequently regarded as highly efficient biopolymer degraders. These findings shed light on the ecological roles of uncultured Verrucomicrobia and suggest specific taxa as promising bioprospecting targets. The employed method offers a powerful tool to rapidly identify and recover discrete genomes of active players in polysaccharide degradation, without the need for cultivation.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

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    Pu Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine.

  6. Chemical characteristics and anti-proliferation activities of Ganoderma tsugae polysaccharides.

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    Chien, Rao-Chi; Yen, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yu-Hsiu; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-09-05

    Polysaccharides were extracted by hot-water and hot-alkali from four forms of Ganoderma tsugae including mature and baby Ling chih, mycelium and filtrate. Different profiles of proximate composition and monosaccharide constituents, and element contents were found in the extracted polysaccharides from different extractions and different forms. The molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides were 2.8×10(4)-6.5×10(5)Da and their infrared spectra were comparable. The hot-alkali extracted polysaccharides exhibited better anti-proliferation on IMR32 cells than the hot-water extracted polysaccharides, which were in turn more effective than the hot-water extracts. Besides, most hot-water extracts and both extracted polysaccharides exhibited an anti-proliferation effect on Hep G2 cells. However, the hot-water extracts showed less effective in anti-proliferation of IMR32 and Hep G2 cells. Based on the anti-tumor effects, both polysaccharides could be prepared for use in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of Se-enriched tea polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Li, Yongfu; Liu, Yangyang; Chen, Xueqing; Wei, Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    Se-polysaccharides from Se-enriched tea leaves were purified by DEAE-sepharose fast flow gel column (2.5×60cm) and three polysaccharide fractions (Se-TPS1, Se-TPS2, and Se-TPS3) were isolated and purified with yields of 6.5, 37.14, and 8.57%, respectively. The average sizes of Se-TPS1 and Se-TPS2 were determined by HPGPC system, with molecular weights of 1.1×10(5) and 2.4×10(5)Da, respectively. Se-TPS3 was a polysaccharide polymer with two peaks with molecular weights of 9.2×10(5) and 2.5×10(5)Da. Monosaccharide components analysis by ion chromatography revealed Se-polysaccharides were acidic polysaccharoses and different from each other in monosaccharide kinds and molar ratio. Elements of Se, C, H, N, S, and 14 kinds of mineral elements were analyzed by AFS, EA, and ICP-AES, respectively. Spectral analysis (IR and UV) indicated Se-polysaccharides were typical glycoproteins. Morphological analyses of the samples were determined by SEM and AFM. In addition, the DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activities were also discussed to assess antioxidant activities of the samples, and Se-polysaccharides showed higher antioxidant activities compared to the ordinary polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Matrix polyelectrolyte capsules based on polysaccharide/MnCO₃ hybrid microparticle templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingrong; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-06-15

    An efficient strategy for biomacromolecule encapsulation based on spontaneous deposition into polysaccharide matrix-containing capsules is introduced in this study. First, hybrid microparticles composed of manganese carbonate and ionic polysaccharides including sodium hyaluronate (HA), sodium alginate (SA) and dextran sulfate sodium (DS) with narrow size distribution were synthesized to provide monodisperse templates. Incorporation of polysaccharide into the hybrid templates was successful as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Matrix polyelectrolyte microcapsules were fabricated through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) onto the hybrid particles, followed by removal of the inorganic part of the cores, leaving polysaccharide matrix inside the capsules. The loading and release properties of the matrix microcapsules were investigated using myoglobin as a model biomacromolecule. Compared to matrix-free capsules, the matrix capsules had a much higher loading capacity up to four times; the driving force is mostly due to electrostatic interactions between myoglobin and the polysaccharide matrix. From our observations, for the same kind of polysaccharide, a higher amount of polysaccharide inside the capsules usually led to better loading capacity. The release behavior of the loaded myoglobin could be readily controlled by altering the environmental pH. These matrix microcapsules may be used as efficient delivery systems for various charged water-soluble macromolecules with applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  10. Application of Box-Behnken design for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Wani, Tanveer A; Raish, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the ultrasonic assisted extraction and optimization of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory response. Specifically, the optimization of polysaccharides was carried out using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) of three factors (extraction temperature, extraction time and liquid solid ratio) was employed to optimize the percentage yield of the polysaccharides. The experimental data were fitted to quadratic response surface models using multiple regression analysis with high coefficient of determination value (R) of 0.9906. The highest polysaccharide yield (8.69%) as per the Derringer's desirability prediction tool was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 47.03 °C, extraction time 15.68 min, and liquid solid ratio 1.29 ml/g) with a desirability value of 0.98. These optimized values of tested parameters were validated under similar conditions (n = 6), an average of 8.13 ± 2.08% of polysaccharide yield was obtained in an optimized extraction conditions with 93.55% validity. The anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides of P. emodi were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. In vivo results showed that the P. emodi 200mg/kg of polysaccharide extract exhibited strong potential against inflammatory response induced by 1% suspension of carrageenean in normal saline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  12. [Correlation analysis of major agronomic characters and the polysaccharide contents in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Qiu, Dao-Shou; Cai, Shi-Ke; Luo, Huan-Ming; Deng, Rui-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jin

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide theoretical and technological basis for the germplasm innovation and variety breeding in Dendrobium officinale, a study of the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was conducted. Based on the polysaccharide content determination and the agronomic characters investigation of 30 copies (110 individual plants) of Dendrobium officinale germplasm resources, the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was analyzed via path and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between average spacing and polysaccharide content, the correlation coefficient was -0.695. And the blade thickness was positively correlated with the polysaccharide content, but the correlation was not significant. The path analysis results showed that the stem length was the maximum influence factor to the polysaccharide, and it was positive effect, the direct path coefficient was 1.568. According to thess results, the polysaccharide content can be easily and intuitively estimated by the agronomic characters investigating data in the germpalsm resources screening and variety breeding. Therefore, it is a visual and practical technology guidance in quality variety breeding of Dendrobium officinale.

  13. Polysaccharide hydrogel combined with mesenchymal stem cells promotes the healing of corneal alkali burn in rats.

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    Yifeng Ke

    Full Text Available Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β, antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1 and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α, chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1 and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2. This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder.

  14. Polysaccharide Hydrogel Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes the Healing of Corneal Alkali Burn in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Yu, Min; Yang, Chunbo; Li, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β), antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1) and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α), chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2). This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder. PMID:25789487

  15. A perspective on extracellular vesicles proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Fernandes, Livia; Rocha, Victória Bombarda; Carregari, Victor Corasolla; Urbani, Andrea; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Increasing attention has been given to secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the past decades, especially in the portrayal of their molecular cargo and role as messengers in both homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. This review presents the state-of-the-art proteomic technologies to identify and quantify EVs proteins along with their PTMs, interacting partners and structural details. The rapid growth of mass spectrometry-based analytical strategies for protein sequencing, PTMs and structural characterization has improved the level of molecular details that can be achieve from limited amount of EVs isolated from different biological sources. Here we will provide a perspective view on the achievements and challenges on EVs proteome characterization using mass spectrometry. A detailed bioinformatics approach will help us to picture the molecular fingerprint of EVs and understand better their pathophysiological function.

  16. Why regenerative medicine needs an extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Glenn D; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is now coming of age. Many attempts at cell therapy have failed to show significant efficacy, and the umbrella term 'stem cell therapy' is perceived in some quarters as hype or just expensive and unnecessary medical tourism. Here we present a short editorial in three parts. First, we examine the importance of using a semisynthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) mimetic, or sECM, to deliver and retain therapeutic cells at the site of administration. Second, we describe one approach in which biophysical and biochemical properties are tailored to each tissue type, which we call "design for optimal functionality." Third, we describe an alternative approach to sECM design and implementation, called "design for simplicity," in which a deconstructed, minimalist sECM is employed and biology is allowed to perform the customization in situ. We opine that an sECM, whether minimal or instructive, is an essential contributor to improve the outcomes of cell-based therapies.

  17. Extracellular matrix fluctuations during early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, A; Rupp, P A; Rongish, B J; Little, C D; Czirók, A

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) movements and rearrangements were studied in avian embryos during early stages of development. We show that the ECM moves as a composite material, whereby distinct molecular components as well as spatially separated layers exhibit similar displacements. Using scanning wide field and confocal microscopy we show that the velocity field of ECM displacement is smooth in space and that ECM movements are correlated even at locations separated by several hundred micrometers. Velocity vectors, however, strongly fluctuate in time. The autocorrelation time of the velocity fluctuations is less than a minute. Suppression of the fluctuations yields a persistent movement pattern that is shared among embryos at equivalent stages of development. The high resolution of the velocity fields allows a detailed spatio-temporal characterization of important morphogenetic processes, especially tissue dynamics surrounding the embryonic organizer (Hensen's node)

  18. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

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    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  19. Identification of a receptor for extracellular renalase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    Full Text Available An increased risk for developing essential hypertension, stroke and diabetes is associated with single nucleotide gene polymorphisms in renalase, a newly described secreted flavoprotein with oxidoreductase activity. Gene deletion causes hypertension, and aggravates acute ischemic kidney (AKI and cardiac injury. Independent of its intrinsic enzymatic activities, extracellular renalase activates MAPK signaling and prevents acute kidney injury (AKI in wild type (WT mice. Therefore, we sought to identity the receptor for extracellular renalase.RP-220 is a previously identified, 20 amino acids long renalase peptide that is devoid of any intrinsic enzymatic activity, but it is equally effective as full-length recombinant renalase at protecting against toxic and ischemic injury. Using biotin transfer studies with RP-220 in the human proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we identified PMCA4b as a renalase binding protein. This previously characterized plasma membrane ATPase is involved in cell signaling and cardiac hypertrophy. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunolocalization confirmed protein-protein interaction between endogenous renalase and PMCA4b. Down-regulation of endogenous PMCA4b expression by siRNA transfection, or inhibition of its enzymatic activity by the specific peptide inhibitor caloxin1b each abrogated RP-220 dependent MAPK signaling and cytoprotection. In control studies, these maneuvers had no effect on epidermal growth factor mediated signaling, confirming specificity of the interaction between PMCA4b and renalase.PMCA4b functions as a renalase receptor, and a key mediator of renalase dependent MAPK signaling.

  20. The immunomodulatory activities of licorice polysaccharides (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) in CT 26 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeka, Peter Amwoga; Bian, YuHong; Githaiga, Peter Mwitari; Zhao, Ying

    2017-12-15

    The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has kindled the need for scientific evaluation of the mechanism of action of CAMs. Although, licorice, a common ingredient in many Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has attracted great attention for its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities, the mechanism of action of its polysaccharides is still unclear. Here we report the immunomodulatory activity of licorice polysaccharides in vivo. The differential anticancer activities of licorice polysaccharides by tumorigenesis and immunomodulation was evaluated in vivo. Six weeks old, 120 CT-26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice, weighing 20 ± 2 g were used. They were randomly divided into six groups, three groups receiving high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) polysaccharides and crude extract (fraction C); positive, negative and normal groups receiving cytoxin, saline and normal diet respectively. Weight of mice and tumors was determined and tumorigenicity assay calculated to determine the anticancer effects. Immunomodulatory potential was determined by immune organ indices, immune cell population and serum cytokine levels using immune organ weight and index, flow cytometry and cytokine/chemokine bead panel kit respectively. Licorice polysaccharides exhibited immunomodulatory activities in CT 26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice. The polysaccharides significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased immune organ index. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory effect was evident with activation of CD4 + and CD8 + immune cells population. The polysaccharides also affected the production of various cytokines, by increasing IL 2, IL 6, IL 7 levels and a decreasing TNFα levels. In summary, licorice polysaccharide especially of low molecular weight exhibit anticancer and immunomodulatory activities by suppressing tumor growth and improving general health of mice. They also augment the thymus/spleen index and population of T lymphocytes

  1. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff, Iteku Bekomo; Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups' mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides.

  2. High field nuclear magnetic resonance application to polysaccharide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincendon, Marc

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to polysaccharide chemistry using time averaging technique and high fields (100 and 250 MHz). The three methyl signals of methyl cellulose and cellulose triacetate are separated, and the C-6 substituent has been identified. Biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose has been performed using deuterium labelled D-glucose and Acetobacter xylinum. Per-acetylated derivative of bacterial cellulose has been studied by NMR; this study permitted us to determine the quantity of deuterium on each position of the anhydro-glucose unit in the polymer. NMR has also been used to see the anomeric end chain of cellulose and amylose derivatives and to show the fixation of bromine and t-butyl group on the free anomeric end chain of cellulose triacetate. (author) [fr

  3. Fixation of soil surface contamination using natural polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Natural polysaccharides were evaluated as alternatives to commercially available dust-control agents for application in buried-waste and contaminated-soil remediation situations. Materials were identified and evaluated with specific criteria in mind: the materials must be environmentally benign and must not introduce any additional hazardous materials; they must be effective for at least 2 or 3 days, but they do not necessarily have to be effective for more than 2 to 3 weeks; they should be relatively resistant to light traffic; they must not interfere with subsequent soil treatment techniques, especially soil washing; and they must be relatively inexpensive. Two products, a pregelled potato starch and a mixture of carbohydrates derived from sugar beets, were selected for evaluation. Testing included small- and large-scale field demonstrations, laboratory physical property analyses, and wind-tunnel evaluations

  4. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  5. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  6. Study on REE bound water-soluble polysaccharides in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuqi; Guo Fanqing; Xu Lei; Chen Hongmin; Sun Jingxin; Cao Guoyin

    1999-01-01

    The binding of REE with water-soluble polysaccharides (PSs) in leaves of fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis. The cold-water-soluble and hot-water-soluble PSs in leaves of DD were obtained by using biochemical separation techniques. The PSs of non-deproteinization and deproteinization, were separated on Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography. The absorption curves of elution for the PSs were obtained by colorimetry, and the proteins were detected using Coomassic brilliant G-250. Eight REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in these PSs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained show that the REEs are bound firmly with the water-soluble PSs in the plant. A measurement demonstrates that the PSs bound with REEs are mainly of smaller molecular weight (10,000 to 20,000 Dalton)

  7. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  8. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  9. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  10. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Fragments of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakharova, Alexandra

    in products such as jams, yoghurts and jellies. Rhamnogalacturonan I is one of the structural classes of pectic polysaccharides, along with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan II. The chemical structure of rhamnogalacturonan I is complex having a backbone consisting of alternating -linked L......-rhamnose and D-galacturonic acid units with numerous branches of arabinans, galactans or arabinogalactans positioned at C-4 of the rhamnose residues. The structural complexity of pectin together with the wide range of its practical applications and a desire to understand its structure and functions in details...... have inspired many researches to pursuit chemical syntheses of pectic oligosaccharides. Herein, the strategies for chemical synthesis of linear and branched oligosaccharide fragments of rhamnogalacturonan I are presented.The first successful synthesis of a fully unprotected linear hexasaccharide...

  12. Structural and conformational study of polysaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossennec, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    As some natural polysaccharides are involved in important biological processes, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance appears to be an adapted mean to determine their structure-activity relationship and is therefore the object of this research thesis. By using bi-dimensional proton-based NMR techniques, it is possible to identify minority saccharide units, to determine their conformation, and to identify units which they are bound to. The author reports the application of these methods to swine mucosa heparin, and to heparins displaying a high and low anticoagulant activity. The dermatan sulphate has also been studied, and the NMR analysis allowed some polymer structure irregularities to be identified. A molecular modelling of dermatan sulphate has been performed [fr

  13. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J.

    1990-01-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14 C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs

  14. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J. (Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated {sup 14}C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides as An Anti-cancer Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohretoglu, Didem; Huang, Shile

    2017-11-13

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been used for centuries in Asian countries to treat various diseases and to promote health and longevity. Clinical studies have shown beneficial effects of G. lucidum as an alternative adjuvant therapy in cancer patients without obvious toxicity. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) is the main bioactive component in the water soluble extracts of this mushroom. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies has demonstrated that GLP possesses potential anticancer activity through immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects. Here, we briefly summarize these anticancer effects of GLP and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Promotion of myelopoiesis in myelosuppressed mice by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling Zhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS exhibit potent immunomodulating effects. Immunomodulation plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To investigate the mechanism by which Gl-PS promote myelopoiesis during myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide, mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. once daily with 2.5 mg/kg of Gl-PS or with vehicle (i.e. sterile physiological saline as negative controls for 10 days and were treated i.p. once daily with cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg on days 2 through 4. In the present study, we demonstrated that Gl-PS selectively bind to bone marrow stromal cells, stimulate the secretion of hematopoietic growth factors and enhance the clonogenic activities of hematopoietic and stromal cells to promote hematopoiesis.

  17. Coptis chinensis Polysaccharides Inhibit Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Li, Yun; Yin, Dengke; Chen, Song; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch (Huanglian) is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. In this study, the effects of the C. chinensis Franch polysaccharides (CCP) on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were investigated. CCP significantly inhibited all the three periods of nonenzymatic protein glycation in vitro, including Amadori product, dicarbonyl compound, and AGE formation (P < .01). In diabetic mice, the administration of CCP not only improved both bodyweight and serum insulin and decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated serum protein concentrations but also decreased the AGE accumulations and morphological abnormalities in pancreas and liver. The inhibitory effects of CCP on AGE formation afford a potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  18. Polysaccharide-based biomaterials with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Coma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is one of the responses to the recent food-borne microbial outbreaks and to the consumer’s demand for high quality food and for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Moreover, with the recent increase in ecological awareness associated with the dramatic decrease in fossil resources, research has turned towards the elaboration of more natural materials. This paper provides a short review of biomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for applications in food preservation. The two main concepts of active biopackaging materials are briefly introduced. The different polysaccharides potentially used in packaging materials are then presented associated with a brief overview of research works related to biopackaging, exhibiting notably antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. Finally, future trends such as the release-on-demand of bioactive agents are discussed.

  19. Phospholipids Polysaccharide and Its Application as Inhibitive Drilling Fluid Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Fan; Hu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Fan; Du, Wei-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    For the improvement of solubility and the performance of the sample that derived plant polysaccharide(SJ) in drilling fluid based on water, which was improved by phosphoric esterification with phospholipids reagent. The conditions of the reaction were discussed by orthogonal ways in four factors and three levels, and the optimization of handling approaches were found out: With pH=12 at the temperature of 80°C, the mass ratio between phospholipids agent and SJ is 0.1g/1g. The viscosity about the system added by sulfonated SJ (SJP) was extremely increased and below 120°, rheological properties had a slight change. The inhibitive ability of SJP is assessed by the mud ball immersing tests and clay-swelling experiments, that is apparently better than SJ and even 4wt% KCl in free water.

  20. A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami, cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents.