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Sample records for extracellular atp released

  1. Extracellular ATP in the Exocrine Pancreas – ATP Release, Signalling and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena

    release. So far, the contribution of duct cells in purinergic signalling has never been studied. This work presents that both acinar and duct cells are sources of extracellular ATP in the exocrine pancreas. Here we show that duct cells release ATP in response to several physiological......ATP plays an important role as an autocrine/paracrine signalling molecule, being released from a number of tissues, in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. Released ATP induces Ca2+ - and/or cAMP - dependent cellular responses via activation of ubiquitously expressed P2X and P2......, particularly during Ca2+ stress conditions. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate a complex regulation of purinergic signalling in exocrine pancreas. A crucial role for duct cells in mediating extracellular nucleotides homeostasis, involving ATP release, subsequent hydrolysis and conversion via...

  2. ATP Modifies the Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Microglia and Influences Their Action on Astrocytes

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    Francesco Drago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP is among molecules promoting microglia activation and inducing the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are potent mediators of intercellular communication between microglia and the microenvironment. We previously showed that EVs produced under ATP stimulation (ATP-EVs propagate a robust inflammatory reaction among astrocytes and microglia in vitro and in mice with subclinical neuroinflammation (Verderio et al., 2012. However, the proteome of EVs released upon ATP stimulation has not yet been elucidated. In this study we applied a label free proteomic approach to characterize the proteome of EVs released constitutively and during microglia activation with ATP. We show that ATP drives sorting in EVs of a set of proteins implicated in cell adhesion/extracellular matrix organization, autophagy-lysosomal pathway and cellular metabolism, that may influence the response of recipient astrocytes to EVs. These data provide new clues to molecular mechanisms involved in microglia response to ATP and in microglia signaling to the environment via EVs.

  3. ATP Release Channels

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    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  4. Release of ATP from Marginal Cells in the Cochlea of Neonatal Rats Can Be Induced by Changes in Extracellular and Intracellular Ion Concentrations

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    Peng, Yating; Chen, Jie; He, Shan; Yang, Jun; Wu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role in the cochlea. However, the source of ATP and the mechanism by which it is released remain unclear. This study investigates the presence and release mechanism of ATP in vitro cultured marginal cells isolated from the stria vascularis of the cochlea in neonatal rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats aged 1–3 days old were used for isolation, in vitro culture, and purification of marginal cells. Cultured marginal cells were verified by flow cytometry. Vesicles containing ATP in these cells were identified by fluorescence staining. The bioluminescence assay was used for determination of ATP concentration in the extracellular fluid released by marginal cells. Assays for ATP concentration were performed when the ATP metabolism of cells was influenced, and ionic concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluid were found to change. Results Evaluation of cultured marginal cells with flow cytometry revealed the percentage of fluorescently-labeled cells as 92.9% and 81.9%, for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Quinacrine staining under fluorescence microscopy revealed numerous green, star-like spots in the cytoplasm of these cells. The release of ATP from marginal cells was influenced by changes in the concentration of intracellular and extracellular ions, namely extracellular K+ and intra- and extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, changes in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ induced by the inhibition of the phospholipase signaling pathway also influence the release of ATP from marginal cells. Conclusion We confirmed the presence and release of ATP from marginal cells of the stria vascularis. This is the first study to demonstrate that the release of ATP from such cells is associated with the state of the calcium pump, K+ channel, and activity of enzymes related to the phosphoinositide signaling pathway, such as adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C, and phospholipase A2. PMID:23071731

  5. Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Associated with Amphibian Erythrocytes: Inhibition of ATP Release by Anion Channel Blockers.

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    1986-01-01

    Paddle and Burnstock (326), Williams and Forrester (463), Forrester and Williams (151) and Clemens and Forrester (82) provide evidence that hypoxia may...an ATp4 - receptor. Fed. Proc. 45:208, 1986. (abstr) 99. Dahlen , S.E. and Hedqvist, P. ATP, B,y-methylene ATP andN adenosine inhibit non-cholinergic...regulation of skeletal muscle blood low. Circ Res. 29:375-384, 1971. 117. Dodd, J., Jahr, C.E., Hamilton, P.N., Heath, M.J., Matthew , W.P., and Jessell, T.M

  6. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

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    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, ou...... may be important in pancreas physiology and potentially in pancreas pathophysiology....... aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan...

  7. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU.

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    Ronglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs, T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  8. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

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    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  9. Excessive extracellular ATP desensitizes P2Y2 and P2X4 ATP receptors provoking surfactant impairment ending in ventilation-induced lung injury

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    D. Hasan (Djo); Satalin, J. (Joshua); van der Zee, P. (Philip); Kollisch-Singule, M. (Michaela); P. Blankman (Paul); Shono, A. (Atsuko); P. Somhorst (Peter); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); H.J. Meeder (Han); Kotani, T. (Toru); G.F. Nieman (Gary F.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractStretching the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells controls the intercellular signaling for the exocytosis of surfactant by the AT II cells through the extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (purinergic signaling). Extracellular ATP is cleared by extracellular ATPases,

  10. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  11. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

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    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  12. Extracellular ATP acts as a damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP signal in plants

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    Kiwamu eTanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have evolved effective mechanisms to protect themselves from environmental stresses. Damaged (i.e., wounded plants recognize a variety of endogenous molecules as danger signals, referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. ATP is among the molecules that are released by cell damage, and recent evidence suggests that ATP can serve as a DAMP. Although little studied in plants, extracellular ATP is well known for its signaling role in animals, including acting as a DAMP during the inflammatory response and wound healing. If ATP acts outside the cell, then it is reasonable to expect that it is recognized by a plasma membrane-localized receptor. Recently, DORN1, a lectin receptor kinase, was shown to recognize extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis. DORN1 is the founding member of a new purinoceptor subfamily, P2K (P2 receptor Kinase, which is plant-specific. P2K1 (DORN1 is required for ATP-induced cellular responses (e.g., cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression. Genetic analysis of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines showed that P2K1 participates in the plant wound response, consistent with the role of ATP as a DAMP. In this review, we summarize past research on the roles and mechanisms of extracellular ATP signaling in plants, and discuss the direction of the future research of extracellular ATP as a DAMP signal.

  13. Increased level of extracellular ATP at tumor sites: in vivo imaging with plasma membrane luciferase.

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    Patrizia Pellegatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing awareness that tumour cells build up a "self-advantageous" microenvironment that reduces effectiveness of anti-tumour immune response. While many different immunosuppressive mechanisms are likely to come into play, recent evidence suggests that extracellular adenosine acting at A2A receptors may have a major role in down-modulating the immune response as cancerous tissues contain elevated levels of adenosine and adenosine break-down products. While there is no doubt that all cells possess plasma membrane adenosine transporters that mediate adenosine uptake and may also allow its release, it is now clear that most of extracellularly-generated adenosine originates from the catabolism of extracellular ATP.Measurement of extracellular ATP is generally performed in cell supernatants by HPLC or soluble luciferin-luciferase assay, thus it generally turns out to be laborious and inaccurate. We have engineered a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase that allows in vivo real-time imaging of extracellular ATP. With this novel probe we have measured the ATP concentration within the tumour microenvironment of several experimentally-induced tumours.Our results show that ATP in the tumour interstitium is in the hundreds micromolar range, while it is basically undetectable in healthy tissues. Here we show that a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase allows in vivo detection of high extracellular ATP concentration at tumour sites. On the contrary, tumour-free tissues show undetectable extracellular ATP levels. Extracellular ATP may be crucial for the tumour not only as a stimulus for growth but also as a source of an immunosuppressive agent such as adenosine. Our approach offers a new tool for the investigation of the biochemical composition of tumour milieu and for development of novel therapies based on the modulation of extracellular purine-based signalling.

  14. Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs.

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    Cinar, Eyup; Zhou, Sitong; DeCourcey, James; Wang, Yixuan; Waugh, Richard E; Wan, Jiandi

    2015-09-22

    Piezo proteins (Piezo1 and Piezo2) are recently identified mechanically activated cation channels in eukaryotic cells and associated with physiological responses to touch, pressure, and stretch. In particular, human RBCs express Piezo1 on their membranes, and mutations of Piezo1 have been linked to hereditary xerocytosis. To date, however, physiological functions of Piezo1 on normal RBCs remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs by controlling the shear-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx. We find that, in human RBCs treated with Piezo1 inhibitors or having mutant Piezo1 channels, the amounts of shear-induced ATP release and Ca(2+) influx decrease significantly. Remarkably, a critical extracellular Ca(2+) concentration is required to trigger significant ATP release, but membrane-associated ATP pools in RBCs also contribute to the release of ATP. Our results show how Piezo1 channels are likely to function in normal RBCs and suggest a previously unidentified mechanotransductive pathway in ATP release. Thus, we anticipate that the study will impact broadly on the research of red cells, cellular mechanosensing, and clinical studies related to red cell disorders and vascular disease.

  15. Excessive Extracellular ATP Desensitizes P2Y2 and P2X4 ATP Receptors Provoking Surfactant Impairment Ending in Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury

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    Djo Hasan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stretching the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I cells controls the intercellular signaling for the exocytosis of surfactant by the AT II cells through the extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP (purinergic signaling. Extracellular ATP is cleared by extracellular ATPases, maintaining its homeostasis and enabling the lung to adapt the exocytosis of surfactant to the demand. Vigorous deformation of the AT I cells by high mechanical power ventilation causes a massive release of extracellular ATP beyond the clearance capacity of the extracellular ATPases. When extracellular ATP reaches levels >100 μM, the ATP receptors of the AT II cells become desensitized and surfactant impairment is initiated. The resulting alteration in viscoelastic properties and in alveolar opening and collapse time-constants leads to alveolar collapse and the redistribution of inspired air from the alveoli to the alveolar ducts, which become pathologically dilated. The collapsed alveoli connected to these dilated alveolar ducts are subject to a massive strain, exacerbating the ATP release. After reaching concentrations >300 μM extracellular ATP acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern, causing capillary leakage, alveolar space edema, and further deactivation of surfactant by serum proteins. Decreasing the tidal volume to 6 mL/kg or less at this stage cannot prevent further lung injury.

  16. Quantal release of ATP from clusters of PC12 cells.

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    Fabbro, Alessandra; Skorinkin, Andrei; Grandolfo, Micaela; Nistri, Andrea; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2004-10-15

    Although ATP is important for intercellular communication, little is known about the mechanism of endogenous ATP release due to a dearth of suitable models. Using PC12 cells known to express the P2X2 subtype of ATP receptors and to store ATP with catecholamines inside dense-core vesicles, we found that clusters of PC12 cells cultured for 3-7 days generated small transient inward currents (STICs) after an inward current elicited by exogenous ATP. The amplitude of STICs in individual cells correlated with the peak amplitude of ATP-induced currents. STICs appeared as asynchronous responses (approximately 20 pA average amplitude) for 1-20 s and were investigated with a combination of patch clamping, Ca2+ imaging, biochemistry and electron microscopy. Comparable STICs were produced by focal KCl pulses and were dependent on extracellular Ca2+. STICs were abolished by the P2X antagonist PPADS and potentiated by Zn2+, suggesting they were mediated by P2X2 receptor activation. The highest probability of observing STICs was after the peak of intracellular Ca2+ increase caused by KCl. Biochemical measurements indicated that KCl application induced a significant release of ATP from PC12 cells. Electron microscopy studies showed narrow clefts without 'synaptic-like' densities between clustered cells. Our data suggest that STICs were caused by quantal release of endogenous ATP by depolarized PC12 cells in close juxtaposition to the recorded cell. Thus, STICs may be a new experimental model to characterize the physiology of vesicular release of ATP and to study the kinetics and pharmacology of P2X2 receptor-mediated quantal currents.

  17. Extracellular ATP reduces HIV-1 transfer from immature dendritic cells to CD4+ T lymphocytes

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    Barat Corinne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are considered as key mediators of the early events in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection at mucosal sites. Previous studies have shown that surface-bound virions and/or internalized viruses found in endocytic vacuoles of DCs are efficiently transferred to CD4+ T cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP either secreted or released from necrotic cells induces a distorted maturation of DCs, transiently increases their endocytic capacity and affects their migratory capacity. Knowing that high extracellular ATP concentrations are present in situations of tissue injury and inflammation, we investigated the effect of ATP on HIV-1 transmission from DCs to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Results In this study, we show that extracellular ATP reduces HIV-1 transfer from immature monocyte-derived DCs (iDCs to autologous CD4+ T cells. This observed decrease in viral replication was related to a lower proportion of infected CD4+ T cells following transfer, and was seen with both X4- and R5-tropic isolates of HIV-1. Extracellular ATP had no effect on direct CD4+ T cell infection as well as on productive HIV-1 infection of iDCs. These observations indicate that extracellular ATP affects HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells in trans with no effect on de novo virus production by iDCs. Additional experiments suggest that extracellular ATP might modulate the trafficking pathway of internalized virions within iDCs leading to an increased lysosomal degradation, which could be partly responsible for the decreased HIV-1 transmission. Conclusion These results suggest that extracellular ATP can act as a factor controlling HIV-1 propagation.

  18. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

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    Romina Baaske

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L, which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin.

  19. Role of connexin 32 hemichannels in the release of ATP from peripheral nerves.

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    Nualart-Marti, Anna; del Molino, Ezequiel Mas; Grandes, Xènia; Bahima, Laia; Martin-Satué, Mireia; Puchal, Rafel; Fasciani, Ilaria; González-Nieto, Daniel; Ziganshin, Bulat; Llobet, Artur; Barrio, Luis C; Solsona, Carles

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular purines elicit strong signals in the nervous system. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) does not spontaneously cross the plasma membrane, and nervous cells secrete ATP by exocytosis or through plasma membrane proteins such as connexin hemichannels. Using a combination of imaging, luminescence and electrophysiological techniques, we explored the possibility that Connexin 32 (Cx32), expressed in Schwann cells (SCs) myelinating the peripheral nervous system could be an important source of ATP in peripheral nerves. We triggered the release of ATP in vivo from mice sciatic nerves by electrical stimulation and from cultured SCs by high extracellular potassium concentration-evoked depolarization. No ATP was detected in the extracellular media after treatment of the sciatic nerve with Octanol or Carbenoxolone, and ATP release was significantly inhibited after silencing Cx32 from SCs cultures. We investigated the permeability of Cx32 to ATP by expressing Cx32 hemichannels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that ATP release is coupled to the inward tail current generated after the activation of Cx32 hemichannels by depolarization pulses, and it is sensitive to low extracellular calcium concentrations. Moreover, we found altered ATP release in mutated Cx32 hemichannels related to the X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, suggesting that purinergic-mediated signaling in peripheral nerves could underlie the physiopathology of this neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The danger signal extracellular ATP is an inducer of Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm dispersal

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    Qinfeng Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plaque biofilm is the primary etiological agent of periodontal disease. Biofilm formation progresses through multiple developmental stages beginning with bacterial attachment to a surface, followed by development of microcolonies and finally detachment and dispersal from a mature biofilm as free planktonic bacteria. Tissue damage arising from inflammatory response to biofilm is one of the hallmark features of periodontal disease. A consequence of tissue damage is the release of ATP from within the cell into the extracellular space. Extracellular ATP (eATP is an example of a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP employed by mammalian cells to elicit inflammatory and damage healing responses. Although the roles of eATP as a signaling molecule in multi-cellular organisms have been relatively well studied, exogenous ATP also influences bacteria biofilm formation. Since plaque biofilms are continuously exposed to various stresses including exposure to the host damage factors eATP, we hypothesized that eATP, in addition to eliciting inflammation could potentially influence the biofilm lifecycle of periodontal associated bacteria. We found that eATP rather than nutritional factors or oxidative stress induced dispersal of Fusobacterium nucleatum, an organism associated with periodontal disease. eATP induced biofilm dispersal through chelating metal ions present in biofilm. Dispersed F. nucleatum biofilm, regardless of natural or induced dispersal by exogenous ATP, were significantly more adhesive and invasive compared to planktonic or biofilm counterparts, and correspondingly activated significantly more pro-inflammatory cytokine production in infected periodontal fibroblasts. Dispersed F. nucleatum also exhibited significantly higher expression of fadA, a virulence factor implicated in adhesion and invasion, compared to planktonic or biofilm bacteria. This study revealed for the first time that periodontal bacterium is capable of co-opting eATP, a

  1. An autocrine ATP release mechanism regulates basal ciliary activity in airway epithelium.

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    Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Navarrete, Camilo; Fuentes, Christian; Villalón, Manuel; Barrera, Nelson P

    2017-07-15

    Extracellular ATP, in association with [Ca 2+ ] i regulation, is required to maintain basal ciliary beat frequency. Increasing extracellular ATP levels increases ciliary beating in airway epithelial cells, maintaining a sustained response by inducing the release of additional ATP. Extracellular ATP levels in the millimolar range, previously associated with pathophysiological conditions of the airway epithelium, produce a transient arrest of ciliary activity. The regulation of ciliary beat frequency is dependent on ATP release by hemichannels (connexin/pannexin) and P2X receptor activation, the blockage of which may even stop ciliary movement. The force exerted by cilia, measured by atomic force microscopy, is reduced following extracellular ATP hydrolysis. This result complements the current understanding of the ciliary beating regulatory mechanism, with special relevance to inflammatory diseases of the airway epithelium that affect mucociliary clearance. Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are locally released by the airway epithelium and stimulate ciliary activity in a [Ca 2+ ] i -dependent manner after mechanical stimulation of ciliated cells. However, it is unclear whether the ATP released is involved in regulating basal ciliary activity and mediating changes in ciliary activity in response to chemical stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ciliary beating forces in primary cultures from mouse tracheal epithelium, using videomicroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Extracellular ATP levels and [Ca 2+ ] i were measured by luminometric and fluorimetric assays, respectively. Uptake of ethidium bromide was measured to evaluate hemichannel functionality. We show that hydrolysis of constitutive extracellular ATP levels with apyrase (50 U ml -1 ) reduced basal CBF by 45% and ciliary force by 67%. The apyrase effect on CBF was potentiated by carbenoxolone, a hemichannel inhibitor, and oxidized ATP, an

  2. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

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    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

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    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  4. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

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    Pankratov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS. PMID:28845311

  5. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

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    Eric Boué-Grabot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS.

  6. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

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    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  7. Dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from red blood cells.

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    Wan, Jiandi; Ristenpart, William D; Stone, Howard A

    2008-10-28

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a regulatory molecule for many cell functions, both for intracellular and, perhaps less well known, extracellular functions. An important example of the latter involves red blood cells (RBCs), which help regulate blood pressure by releasing ATP as a vasodilatory signaling molecule in response to the increased shear stress inside arterial constrictions. Although shear-induced ATP release has been observed widely and is believed to be triggered by deformation of the cell membrane, the underlying mechanosensing mechanism inside RBCs is still controversial. Here, we use an in vitro microfluidic approach to investigate the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from human RBCs with millisecond resolution. We demonstrate that there is a sizable delay time between the onset of increased shear stress and the release of ATP. This response time decreases with shear stress, but surprisingly does not depend significantly on membrane rigidity. Furthermore, we show that even though the RBCs deform significantly in short constrictions (duration of increased stress <3 ms), no measurable ATP is released. This critical timescale is commensurate with a characteristic membrane relaxation time determined from observations of the cell deformation by using high-speed video. Taken together our results suggest a model wherein the retraction of the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton network triggers the mechanosensitive ATP release and a shear-dependent membrane viscosity controls the rate of release.

  8. Extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in an ex vivo model of Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Youn Ho; Lee, Seo Jin; Jung, Junyang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ATP-treated sciatic explants shows the decreased expression of p75NGFR. ► Extracellular ATP inhibits the expression of phospho-ERK1/2. ► Lysosomal exocytosis is involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation. ► Extracellular ATP blocks Schwann cell proliferation in sciatic explants. -- Abstract: After nerve injury, Schwann cells proliferate and revert to a phenotype that supports nerve regeneration. This phenotype-changing process can be viewed as Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Here, we investigated the role of extracellular ATP in Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Using several markers of Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in sciatic explants, we found that extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Furthermore, the blockage of lysosomal exocytosis in ATP-treated sciatic explants is sufficient to induce Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-induced lysosomal exocytosis may be involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation.

  9. Activation of retinal glial (Müller cells by extracellular ATP induces pronounced increases in extracellular H+ flux.

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    Boriana K Tchernookova

    Full Text Available Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport. ADP, UTP and the non-hydrolyzable analog ATPγs at micromolar concentrations were also potent stimulators of extracellular H+ fluxes, but adenosine was not. The extracellular H+ fluxes induced by ATP were mimicked by the P2Y1 agonist MRS 2365 and were significantly reduced by the P2 receptor blockers suramin and PPADS, suggesting activation of P2Y receptors. Bath-applied ATP induced an intracellular rise in calcium in Müller cells; both the calcium rise and the extracellular H+ fluxes were significantly attenuated when calcium re-loading into the endoplasmic reticulum was inhibited by thapsigargin and when the PLC-IP3 signaling pathway was disrupted with 2-APB and U73122. The anion transport inhibitor DIDS also markedly reduced the ATP-induced increase in H+ flux while SITS had no effect. ATP-induced H+ fluxes were also observed from Müller cells isolated from human, rat, monkey, skate and lamprey retinae, suggesting a highly evolutionarily conserved mechanism of potential general importance. Extracellular ATP also induced significant increases in extracellular H+ flux at the level of both the outer and inner plexiform layers in retinal slices of tiger salamander which was significantly reduced by suramin and PPADS. We suggest that the novel H+ flux mediated by ATP-activation of Müller cells and of other glia as well may be a key mechanism modulating neuronal signaling in the vertebrate retina and throughout the brain.

  10. Transcriptome of extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes.

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    Felix Royo

    Full Text Available The discovery that the cells communicate through emission of vesicles has opened new opportunities for better understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms. This discovery also provides a novel source for non-invasive disease biomarker research. Our group has previously reported that hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles with protein content reflecting the cell-type of origin. Here, we show that the extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes also carry RNA. We report the messenger RNA composition of extracellular vesicles released in two non-tumoral hepatic models: primary culture of rat hepatocytes and a progenitor cell line obtained from a mouse foetal liver. We describe different subpopulations of extracellular vesicles with different densities and protein and RNA content. We also show that the RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles released by primary hepatocytes can be transferred to rat liver stellate-like cells and promote their activation. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that liver-damaging drugs galactosamine, acetaminophen, and diclofenac modify the RNA content of these vesicles. To summarize, we show that the extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes contain various RNAs. These vesicles, likely to be involved in the activation of stellate cells, might become a new source for non-invasive identification of the liver toxicity markers.

  11. Real time imaging of live cell ATP leaking or release events by chemiluminescence microscopy

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    Zhang, Yun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-12-18

    mainly used a fluorescence method; CL detection is limited because of the difficulty to introduce enough D-luciferin molecules. Since dehydration could easily cause proper size holes in bacterial cell membranes and facilitate D-luciferin diffusion, we used this method and recorded CL from individual cells each hour after induction. The CL light intensity from each individual cell was integrated and gene expression levels of two strain types were compared. Based on our calculation, the overall sensitivity of our system is already approaching the single enzyme level. The median enzyme number inside a single bacterium from the higher expression strain after 2 hours induction was quantified to be about 550 molecules. Finally we imaged ATP release from astrocyte cells. Upon mechanical stimulation, astrocyte cells respond by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ level and releasing ATP to extracellular spaces as signaling molecules. The ATP release imaged by direct CL imaging using free firefly luciferase and D-luciferin outside cells reflects the transient release as well as rapid ATP diffusion. Therefore ATP release detection at the cell surface is critical to study the ATP release mechanism and signaling propagation pathway. We realized this cell surface localized ATP release imaging detection by immobilizing firefly luciferase to streptavidin beads that attached to the cell surface via streptavidin-biotin interactions. Both intracellular Ca2+ propagation wave and extracellular ATP propagation wave at the cell surface were recorded with fluorescence and CL respectively. The results imply that at close distances from the stimulation center (<120 μm) extracellular ATP pathway is faster, while at long distances (>120 μm) intracellular Ca2+ signaling through gap junctions seems more effective.

  12. Extracellular ATP4- promotes cation fluxes in the J774 mouse macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, T.H.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular ATP stimulates transmembrane ion fluxes in the mouse macrophage cell line J774. In the presence of Mg2+, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs and other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides do not elicit this response, suggesting the presence of a specific receptor for ATP on the macrophage plasma membrane. One candidate for such a receptor is the ecto-ATPase expressed on these cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of this enzyme in ATP-induced 86 Rb+ efflux in J774 cells. The ecto-ATPase had a broad nucleotide specificity and did not hydrolyze extracellular ATP in the absence of divalent cations. 86 Rb+ efflux was not blocked by inhibition of the ecto-ATPase and did not require Ca2+ or Mg2+. In fact, ATP-stimulated 86 Rb+ efflux was inhibited by Mg2+ and correlated with the availability of ATP4- in the medium. In the absence of divalent cations, the slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogs adenosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP-gamma-S) also stimulated 86 Rb+ efflux, albeit at higher concentrations than that required for ATP4-. Exposure of J774 cells to 10 mM ATP for 45 min caused death of 95% of cells. By this means we selected variant J774 cells that did not exhibit 86 Rb+ efflux in the presence of extracellular ATP but retained ecto-ATPase activity. These results show that the ecto-ATPase of J774 cells does not mediate the effects of ATP on these cells; that ATP4- and not MgATP2- promotes 86 Rb+ efflux from these cells; and that hydrolysis of ATP is not required to effect this change in membrane permeability. These findings suggest that J774 cells possess a plasma membrane receptor which binds ATP4-, AMP-PNP, and ATP-gamma-S, and that the ecto-ATPase limits the effects of ATP on these cells by hydrolyzing Mg-ATP2-

  13. Connexin hemichannel-mediated CO2-dependent release of ATP in the medulla oblongata contributes to central respiratory chemosensitivity

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    Huckstepp, Robert T R; id Bihi, Rachid; Eason, Robert; Spyer, K Michael; Dicke, Nikolai; Willecke, Klaus; Marina, Nephtali; Gourine, Alexander V; Dale, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Arterial , a major determinant of breathing, is detected by chemosensors located in the brainstem. These are important for maintaining physiological levels of in the blood and brain, yet the mechanisms by which the brain senses CO2 remain controversial. As ATP release at the ventral surface of the brainstem has been causally linked to the adaptive changes in ventilation in response to hypercapnia, we have studied the mechanisms of CO2-dependent ATP release in slices containing the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. We found that CO2-dependent ATP release occurs in the absence of extracellular acidification and correlates directly with the level of . ATP release is independent of extracellular Ca2+ and may occur via the opening of a gap junction hemichannel. As agents that act on connexin channels block this release, but compounds selective for pannexin-1 have no effect, we conclude that a connexin hemichannel is involved in CO2-dependent ATP release. We have used molecular, genetic and immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate that in the medulla oblongata connexin 26 (Cx26) is preferentially expressed near the ventral surface. The leptomeninges, subpial astrocytes and astrocytes ensheathing penetrating blood vessels at the ventral surface of the medulla can be loaded with dye in a CO2-dependent manner, suggesting that gating of a hemichannel is involved in ATP release. This distribution of CO2-dependent dye loading closely mirrors that of Cx26 expression and colocalizes to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells. In vivo, blockers with selectivity for Cx26 reduce hypercapnia-evoked ATP release and the consequent adaptive enhancement of breathing. We therefore propose that Cx26-mediated release of ATP in response to changes in is an important mechanism contributing to central respiratory chemosensitivity. PMID:20736421

  14. The ATP required for potentiation of skeletal muscle contraction is released via pannexin hemichannels.

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    Riquelme, Manuel A; Cea, Luis A; Vega, José L; Boric, Mauricio P; Monyer, Hannah; Bennett, Michael V L; Frank, Marina; Willecke, Klaus; Sáez, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    During repetitive stimulation of skeletal muscle, extracellular ATP levels raise, activating purinergic receptors, increasing Ca2+ influx, and enhancing contractile force, a response called potentiation. We found that ATP appears to be released through pannexin1 hemichannels (Panx1 HCs). Immunocytochemical analyses and function were consistent with pannexin1 localization to T-tubules intercalated with dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors in slow (soleus) and fast (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) muscles. Isolated myofibers took up ethidium (Etd+) and released small molecules (as ATP) during electrical stimulation. Consistent with two glucose uptake pathways, induced uptake of 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose derivative, was decreased by inhibition of HCs or glucose transporter (GLUT4), and blocked by dual blockade. Adult skeletal muscles apparently do not express connexins, making it unlikely that connexin hemichannels contribute to the uptake and release of small molecules. ATP release, Etd+ uptake, and potentiation induced by repetitive electrical stimulation were blocked by HC blockers and did not occur in muscles of pannexin1 knockout mice. MRS2179, a P2Y1R blocker, prevented potentiation in EDL, but not soleus muscles, suggesting that in fast muscles ATP activates P2Y1 but not P2X receptors. Phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues of pannexin1 was increased during potentiation, possibly mediating HC opening. Opening of Panx1 HCs during repetitive activation allows efflux of ATP, influx of glucose and possibly Ca2+ too, which are required for potentiation of contraction. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Current Pharmacology of Gap Junction Channels and Hemichannels'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stretch-induced Ca2+ independent ATP release in hippocampal astrocytes.

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    Xiong, Yingfei; Teng, Sasa; Zheng, Lianghong; Sun, Suhua; Li, Jie; Guo, Ning; Li, Mingli; Wang, Li; Zhu, Feipeng; Wang, Changhe; Rao, Zhiren; Zhou, Zhuan

    2018-02-28

    Similar to neurons, astrocytes actively participate in synaptic transmission via releasing gliotransmitters. The Ca 2+ -dependent release of gliotransmitters includes glutamate and ATP. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus to a single astrocyte, Ca 2+ independent single, large, non-quantal, ATP release occurs. Astrocytic ATP release is inhibited by either selective antagonist treatment or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Our work suggests that ATP can be released from astrocytes via two independent pathways in hippocampal astrocytes; in addition to the known Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels following mechanical stretch. Astrocytic ATP release is essential for brain functions such as synaptic long-term potentiation for learning and memory. However, whether and how ATP is released via exocytosis remains hotly debated. All previous studies of non-vesicular ATP release have used indirect assays. By contrast, two recent studies report vesicular ATP release using more direct assays. In the present study, using patch clamped 'ATP-sniffer cells', we re-investigated astrocytic ATP release at single-vesicle resolution in hippocampal astrocytes. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus of a single astrocyte, a Ca 2+ independent single large non-quantal ATP release occurred, in contrast to the Ca 2+ -dependent multiple small quantal ATP release in a chromaffin cell. The mechanical stimulation-induced ATP release from an astrocyte was inhibited by either exposure to a selective antagonist or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Functional P2X7 channels were expressed in astrocytes in hippocampal brain slices. Thus, in addition to small quantal ATP release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels in astrocytes. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  16. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies.

  17. Air-Stimulated ATP Release from Keratinocytes Occurs through Connexin Hemichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Travis P.; Albrecht, Phillip J.; Hou, Quanzhi; Mongin, Alexander A.; Strichartz, Gary R.; Rice, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil). These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease. PMID:23457608

  18. Autocrine Regulation of UVA-Induced IL-6 Production via Release of ATP and Activation of P2Y Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ayumi; Kadomatsu, Remi; Ono, Miyu; Kojima, Shuji; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, are released from cells in response to various stimuli and act as intercellular signaling molecules through activation of P2 receptors. Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation A (UVA) component of sunlight causes molecular and cellular damage, and in this study, we investigated the involvement of extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors in the UVA-induced cellular response. Human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells were irradiated with a single dose of UVA (2.5 J/cm2), and ATP release and interleukin (IL)-6 production were measured. ATP was released from cells in response to UVA irradiation, and the release was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of gap junction hemichannels or P2X7 receptor antagonist. IL-6 production was increased after UVA irradiation, and this increase was inhibited by ecto-nucleotidase or by antagonists of P2Y11 or P2Y13 receptor. These results suggest that UVA-induced IL-6 production is mediated by release of ATP through hemichannels and P2X7 receptor, followed by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. Interestingly, P2Y11 and P2Y13 were associated with the same pattern of IL-6 production, though they trigger different intracellular signaling cascades: Ca2+-dependent and PI3K-dependent, respectively. Thus, IL-6 production in response to UVA-induced ATP release involves at least two distinct pathways, mediated by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. PMID:26030257

  19. Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) deformation under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. Deformation-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC deformation and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC deformation and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC deformation, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in deformation-induced ATP release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. Enhancement of Muscle T Regulatory Cells and Improvement of Muscular Dystrophic Process in mdx Mice by Blockade of Extracellular ATP/P2X Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Baldassari, Simona; Assereto, Stefania; Fruscione, Floriana; Pistorio, Angela; Panicucci, Chiara; Volpi, Stefano; Perruzza, Lisa; Fiorillo, Chiara; Minetti, Carlo; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Grassi, Fabio; Bruno, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration of immune cells and chronic inflammation substantially affect skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In the immune system, extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released by dying cells is sensed as a danger associated molecular pattern through P2 purinergic receptors. Specifically, the P2X7 subtype has a prominent role in regulating immune system physiology and contributes to inflammasome activation also in muscle cells. Here, we show that in vivo blockade of the extracellular ATP/P2X purinergic signaling pathway by periodate-oxidized ATP delayed the progression of the dystrophic phenotype and dampened the local inflammatory response in mdx mice, a spontaneous mouse model of dystrophin deficiency. Reduced infiltration of leukocytes and macrophages and decreased expression of IL-6 were revealed in the muscles of periodate-oxidized ATP-treated mdx mice. Concomitantly, an increase in Foxp3(+) immunosuppressive regulatory T cells was observed and correlated with enhanced myofiber regeneration. Moreover, we detected reduced concentrations of profibrotic cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and connective tissue growth factor, in muscles of periodate-oxidized ATP-treated mdx mice. The improvement of inflammatory features was associated with increased strength and reduced necrosis, thus suggesting that pharmacologic purinergic antagonism altering the adaptive immune component in the muscle infiltrates might represent a promising therapeutic approach in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A

    2011-07-05

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold.

  2. Expression and roles of pannexins in ATP release in the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Yan, Zonghe; Kucka, Marek; Tomic, Melanija; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2011-06-01

    Pannexins are a newly discovered three-member family of proteins expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues that belong to the superfamily of gap junction proteins. However, in mammals pannexins do not form gap junctions, and their expression and function in the pituitary gland have not been studied. Here we show that the rat pituitary gland expresses mRNA and protein transcripts of pannexins 1 and 2 but not pannexin 3. Pannexin 1 was more abundantly expressed in the anterior lobe, whereas pannexin 2 was more abundantly expressed in the intermediate and posterior pituitary. Pannexin 1 was identified in corticotrophs and a fraction of somatotrophs, the S100-positive pituicytes of the posterior pituitary and AtT-20 (mouse pituitary adrenocorticotropin-secreting cells) and rat immortalized pituitary cells secreting prolactin, whereas pannexin 2 was detected in the S100-positive folliculostellate cells of the anterior pituitary, melanotrophs of the intermediate lobe, and vasopressin-containing axons and nerve endings in the posterior lobe. Overexpression of pannexins 1 and 2 in AtT-20 pituitary cells enhanced the release of ATP in the extracellular medium, which was blocked by the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. Basal ATP release in At-T20 cells was also suppressed by down-regulating the expression of endogenous pannexin 1 but not pannexin 2 with their short interfering RNAs. These results indicate that pannexins may provide a pathway for delivery of ATP, which is a native agonist for numerous P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors endogenously expressed in the pituitary gland.

  3. The effects of membrane cholesterol and simvastatin on red blood cell deformability and ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Braunmüller, Susanne; Wan, Jiandi; Franke, Thomas; Stone, Howard A

    2012-05-01

    It is known that deformation of red blood cells (RBCs) is linked to ATP release from the cells. Further, membrane cholesterol has been shown to alter properties of the cell membrane such as fluidity and bending stiffness. Membrane cholesterol content is increased in some cardiovascular diseases, for example, in individuals with acute coronary syndromes and chronic stable angina, and therefore, because of the potential clinical relevance, we investigated the influence of altered RBC membrane cholesterol levels on ATP release. Because of the correlation between statins and reduced membrane cholesterol in vivo, we also investigated the effects of simvastatin on RBC deformation and ATP release. We found that reducing membrane cholesterol increases cell deformability and ATP release. We also found that simvastatin increases deformability by acting directly on the membrane in the absence of the liver, and that ATP release was increased for cells with enriched cholesterol after treatment with simvastatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Contribution of Red Blood Cell Dynamics to Intrinsic Viscosity and Functional ATP Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison; Abkarian, Manouk; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    In shear flow, red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit a variety of behaviors such as rouleaux formation, tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. The physiological consequences of these dynamic behaviors are not understood. In vivo, ATP is known to signal vasodilation; however, to our knowledge, no one has deciphered the relevance of RBC microrheology to the functional release of ATP. Previously, we correlated RBC deformation and ATP release in microfluidic constrictions (Wan et al., 2008). In this work, a cone-plate rheometer is used to shear a low hematocrit solution of RBCs at varying viscosity ratios (λ) between the inner cytoplasmic hemoglobin and the outer medium, to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension. Further, using a luciferin-luciferase enzymatic reaction, we report the relative ATP release at varying shear rates. Results indicate that for λ = 1.6, 3.8 and 11.1, ATP release is constant up to 500 s-1, which suggests that the tumbling-tanktreading transition does not alter ATP release in pure shear. For lower viscosity ratios, λ = 1.6 and 3.8, at 500 s-1 a change in slope occurs in the intrinsic viscosity data and is marked by an increase in ATP release. Based on microfluidic observations, this simultaneous change in viscosity and ATP release occurs within the tank-treading regime.

  5. Ca2+ Entry is Required for Mechanical Stimulation-induced ATP Release from Astrocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekwang; Chun, Ye-Eun; Han, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Jungmoo; Woo, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes and neurons are inseparable partners in the brain. Neurotransmitters released from neurons activate corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed in astrocytes, resulting in release of gliotransmitters such as glutamate, D-serine, and ATP. These gliotransmitters in turn influence neuronal excitability and synaptic activities. Among these gliotransmitters, ATP regulates the level of network excitability and is critically involved in sleep homeostasis and astrocytic Ca2+ oscillations. ATP is known to be released from astrocytes by Ca2+-dependent manner. However, the precise source of Ca2+, whether it is Ca2+ entry from outside of cell or from the intracellular store, is still not clear yet. Here, we performed sniffer patch to detect ATP release from astrocyte by using various stimulation. We found that ATP was not released from astrocyte when Ca2+ was released from intracellular stores by activation of Gαq-coupled GPCR including PAR1, P2YR, and B2R. More importantly, mechanical stimulation (MS)-induced ATP release from astrocyte was eliminated when external Ca2+ was omitted. Our results suggest that Ca2+ entry, but not release from intracellular Ca2+ store, is critical for MS-induced ATP release from astrocyte. PMID:25792866

  6. Gravity loading induces adenosine triphosphate release and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mai; Arakawa, Toshiya; Okayama, Miki; Shitara, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2014-11-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) receives mechanical stress (MS) from dental occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. Mechanical stress is thought to be a trigger for remodeling of the PDL and alveolar bone, although its signaling mechanism is still unclear. So we investigated the effect of MS on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in PDL cells. Mechanical stress was applied to human PDL cells as centrifugation-mediated gravity loading. Apyrase, Ca(2+)-free medium and purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists were utilized to analyze the contribution of purinergic receptors to ERK phosphorylation. Gravity loading and ATP increased ERK phosphorylation by 5 and 2.5 times, respectively. Gravity loading induced ATP release from PDL cells by tenfold. Apyrase and suramin diminished ERK phosphorylation induced by both gravity loading and ATP. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions the phosphorylation by gravity loading was partially decreased, whereas ATP-induced phosphorylation was unaffected. Receptors P2Y4 and P2Y6 were prominently expressed in the PDL cells. Gravity loading induced ATP release and ERK phosphorylation in PDL fibroblasts, and ATP signaling via P2Y receptors was partially involved in this phosphorylation, which in turn would enhance gene expression for the remodeling of PDL tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The scaffold protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase controls ATP release in sensory ganglia upon P2X3 receptor activation and is part of an ATP keeper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Tanja; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2016-08-01

    P2X3 receptors, gated by extracellular ATP, are expressed by sensory neurons and are involved in peripheral nociception and pain sensitization. The ability of P2X3 receptors to transduce extracellular stimuli into neuronal signals critically depends on the dynamic molecular partnership with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). The present work used trigeminal sensory neurons to study the impact that activation of P2X3 receptors (evoked by the agonist α,β-meATP) has on the release of endogenous ATP and how CASK modulates this phenomenon. P2X3 receptor function was followed by ATP efflux via Pannexin1 (Panx1) hemichannels, a mechanism that was blocked by the P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491, and by P2X3 silencing. ATP efflux was enhanced by nerve growth factor, a treatment known to potentiate P2X3 receptor function. Basal ATP efflux was not controlled by CASK, and carbenoxolone or Pannexin silencing reduced ATP release upon P2X3 receptor function. CASK-controlled ATP efflux followed P2X3 receptor activity, but not depolarization-evoked ATP release. Molecular biology experiments showed that CASK was essential for the transactivation of Panx1 upon P2X3 receptor activation. These data suggest that P2X3 receptor function controls a new type of feed-forward purinergic signaling on surrounding cells, with consequences at peripheral and spinal cord level. Thus, P2X3 receptor-mediated ATP efflux may be considered for the future development of pharmacological strategies aimed at containing neuronal sensitization. P2X3 receptors are involved in sensory transduction and associate to CASK. We have studied in primary sensory neurons the molecular mechanisms downstream P2X3 receptor activation, namely ATP release and partnership with CASK or Panx1. Our data suggest that CASK and P2X3 receptors are part of an ATP keeper complex, with important feed-forward consequences at peripheral and central level. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Up-regulated Ectonucleotidases in Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein- and Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1-Deficient Jurkat Leukemia Cells Counteract Extracellular ATP/AMP Accumulation via Pannexin-1 Channels during Chemotherapeutic Drug-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Tressler, Andrea M; Lane, Graham S; Dubyak, George R

    2017-07-01

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels mediate the efflux of ATP and AMP from cancer cells in response to induction of extrinsic apoptosis by death receptors or intrinsic apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents. We previously described the accumulation of extracellular ATP /AMP during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells. In this study, we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat lines that lack the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) cell death regulatory proteins. Tumor necrosis factor- α induced extrinsic apoptosis in control Jurkat cells and necroptosis in FADD-deficient cells; treatment of both lines with chemotherapeutic drugs elicited similar intrinsic apoptosis. Robust extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation was observed in the FADD-deficient cells during necroptosis, but not during apoptotic activation of Panx1 channels. Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to chemotherapeutic agents. Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. The differences in extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation correlated with cell-line-specific expression of ectonucleotidases that metabolized the released ATP/AMP. CD73 mRNA, and α β -methylene-ADP-inhibitable ecto-AMPase activity were elevated in the FADD-deficient cells. In contrast, the RIP1-deficient cells were defined by increased expression of tartrate-sensitive prostatic acid phosphatase as a broadly acting ectonucleotidase. Thus, extracellular nucleotide accumulation during regulated tumor cell death involves interplay between ATP/AMP efflux pathways and different cell-autonomous ectonucleotidases. Differential expression of particular ectonucleotidases in tumor cell variants will determine whether chemotherapy-induced activation of Panx1 channels

  9. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Novel phosphate-activated macrophages prevent ectopic calcification by increasing extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R.; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues. Methods and results High-throughput transcriptomic analysis and functional studies demonstrated that Pi induces unpolarized macrophages to adopt a phenotype closely resembling that of alternatively-activated M2 macrophages, as revealed by arginine hydrolysis and energetic and antioxidant profiles. Pi-induced macrophages showed an anti-calcifying action mediated by increased availability of extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate. Conclusion We conclude that the ability of Pi-activated macrophages to prevent calcium-phosphate deposition is a compensatory mechanism protecting tissues from hyperphosphatemia-induced pathologic calcification. PMID:28362852

  11. Dependence of Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination in B Cells on Vesicular Release of ATP and CD73 Ectonucleotidase Activity

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    Francesca Schena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig isotype diversification by class switch recombination (CSR is an essential process for mounting a protective humoral immune response. Ig CSR deficiencies in humans can result from an intrinsic B cell defect; however, most of these deficiencies are still molecularly undefined and diagnosed as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID. Here, we show that extracellular adenosine critically contributes to CSR in human naive and IgM memory B cells. In these cells, coordinate stimulation of B cell receptor and toll-like receptors results in the release of ATP stored in Ca2+-sensitive secretory vesicles. Plasma membrane ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 CD39 and ecto-5′-nucleotidase CD73 hydrolyze ATP to adenosine, which induces CSR in B cells in an autonomous fashion. Notably, CVID patients with impaired class-switched antibody responses are selectively deficient in CD73 expression in B cells, suggesting that CD73-dependent adenosine generation contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  12. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  13. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

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    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  14. Bile acid effects are mediated by ATP release and purinergic signalling in exocrine pancreatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Christensen, Nynne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many cells, bile acids (BAs) have a multitude of effects, some of which may be mediated by specific receptors such the TGR5 or FXR receptors. In pancreas systemic BAs, as well as intra-ductal BAs from bile reflux, can affect pancreatic secretion. Extracellular ATP and purinergic...

  15. Removal of urothelium affects bladder contractility and release of ATP but not release of NO in rat urinary bladder

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    Boone Timothy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our work was to investigate both the contractile function and the release of ATP and NO from strips of bladder tissue after removal of the urothelium. Methods The method of removal was a gentle swabbing motion rather than a sharp surgical cutting to separate the urothelium from the smooth muscle. The contractile response and ATP and NO release were measured in intact as well as on swabbed preparations. The removal of the urothelial layer was affirmed microscopically. Results After the swabbing, the smaller contractions were evoked by electrical as well as by chemical stimulation (50 μM carbachol or 50 μM α, β meATP. Electrical stimulation, carbachol and substance P (5 μM evoked lower release of ATP in the swabbed strips than in intact strips. Although release of NO evoked by electrical stimulation or substance P was not changed, release of NO evoked by carbachol was significantly less in the swabbed preparations. Conclusion Since swabbing removes only the urothelium, the presence of the suburothelial layer may explain the difference between our findings and those of others who found an increase in contractility. Evoked release of ATP is reduced in swabbed strips, indicating that ATP derives solely from the urothelium. On the other hand, electrical stimulation and substance P evoke identical degrees of NO release in both intact and swabbed preparations, suggesting that NO can be released from the suburothelium. Conversely, carbachol-induced release of NO is lower in swabbed strips, implying that the cholinergic receptors (muscarinic or nicotinic are located in the upper layer of the urothelium.

  16. Towards a multiscale description of microvascular flow regulation: O2-dependent release of ATP from human erythrocytes and the distribution of ATP in capillary networks

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    Daniel eGoldman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the numerous mechanisms that have been suggested to contribute to optimization of O2 supply to meet O2 need in skeletal muscle requires a systems biology approach which permits quantification of these physiological processes over a wide range of length scales. Here we describe two individual computational models based on in vivo and in vitro studies which, when incorporated into a single robust multiscale model, will provide information on the role of erythrocyte-released ATP in perfusion distribution in skeletal muscle under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Healthy human erythrocytes exposed to low O2 tension release ATP via a well characterized signaling pathway requiring activation of the G-protein, Gi, and adenylyl cyclase leading to increases in cAMP. This cAMP then activates PKA and subsequently CFTR culminating in ATP release via pannexin 1. A critical control point in this pathway is the level of cAMP which is regulated by pathway-specific phosphodiesterases. Using time constants (~100ms that are consistent with measured erythrocyte ATP release, we have constructed a dynamic model of this pathway. The model predicts levels of ATP release consistent with measurements obtained over a wide range of hemoglobin O2 saturations (sO2. The model further predicts how insulin, at concentrations found in prediabetes, enhances the activity of PDE3 and reduces intracellular cAMP levels leading to decreased low O2-induced ATP release from erythrocytes. The second model, which couples O2 and ATP transport in capillary networks, shows how intravascular ATP and the resulting conducted vasodilation are affected by local sO2, convection and ATP degradation. This model also predicts network-level effects of decreased ATP release resulting from elevated insulin levels. Taken together, these models lay the groundwork for investigating the systems biology of the regulation of microvascular perfusion distribution by

  17. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  18. Extracellular ATP drives breast cancer cell migration and metastasis via S100A4 production by cancer cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Geng, Yue-Hang; Yang, Hui; Yang, Han; Zhou, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2018-05-04

    Our previous work has demonstrated that extracellular ATP is an important pro-invasive factor, and in this study, we tapped into a possible mechanism involved. We discovered that ATP could upregulate both the intracellular expression and secretion of S100A4 in breast cancer cells and fibroblasts. Apart from stimulating breast cancer cell motility via intracellular S100A4, ATP enhanced the ability of breast cancer cells to transform fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells, which in turn secreted S100A4 to further promote cancer cell motility. Both apyrase and niclosamide treatments could inhibit metastasis of inoculated tumors to lung, liver and kidney in mice model, and CAFs from these treated tumors exhibited weakened migration-stimulating capacity for breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data indicate that extracellular ATP promotes the interactions between breast cancer cells and fibroblasts, which work collaboratively via production of S100A4 to exacerbate breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Local release of ATP into the arterial inflow and venous drainage of human skeletal muscle: insight from ATP determination with the intravascular microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Thaning, Pia; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2011-01-01

    is released into plasma, we measured plasma [ATP] with the intravascular microdialysis technique at rest and during dynamic exercise (normoxia and hypoxia), passive exercise, thigh compressions and arterial ATP, tyramine and ACh infusion in a total of 16 healthy young men. Femoral arterial and venous...

  20. An ATP sensitive light addressable biosensor for extracellular monitoring of single taste receptor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is considered as the key neurotransmitter in taste buds for taste signal transmission and processing. Measurements of ATP secreted from single taste receptor cell (TRC) with high sensitivity and specificity are essential for investigating mechanisms underlying taste cell-to-cell communications. In this study, we presented an aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of ATP locally secreted from single TRC. ATP sensitive DNA aptamer was used as recognition element and its DNA competitor was served as signal transduction element that was covalently immobilized on the surface of light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). Due to the light addressable capability of LAPS, local ATP secretion from single TRC can be detected by monitoring the working potential shifts of LAPS. The results show this biosensor can detect ATP with high sensitivity and specificity. It is demonstrated this biosensor can effectively detect the local ATP secretion from single TRC responding to tastant mixture. This biosensor could provide a promising new tool for the research of taste cell-to-cell communications as well as for the detection of local ATP secretion from other types of ATP secreting individual cells.

  1. Visualization of ATP release in pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic stimulus. Use of fluorescent probes and confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Novak, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    of this reaction in confocal microscopy, we monitored luciferin fluorescence as a sign of ATP release by single acini. In addition we used quinacrine to mark ATP stores, which were similar to those marked with fluorescent ATP, 2'-(or-3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate, but only partially...

  2. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naohiko; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Takahara, Norihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca 2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca 2+ elevation is mainly via Ca 2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca 2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca 2+ ] i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i . The stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was attenuated in Ca 2+ -free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd 3+ , ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca 2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  3. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  4. T Follicular Helper Cells Promote a Beneficial Gut Ecosystem for Host Metabolic Homeostasis by Sensing Microbiota-Derived Extracellular ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruzza, Lisa; Gargari, Giorgio; Proietti, Michele; Fosso, Bruno; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Faliti, Caterina Elisa; Rezzonico-Jost, Tanja; Scribano, Daniela; Mauri, Laura; Colombo, Diego; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Moregola, Annalisa; Mooser, Catherine; Pesole, Graziano; Nicoletti, Mauro; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D; Guglielmetti, Simone; Grassi, Fabio

    2017-03-14

    The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T follicular helper (Tfh) cell abundance in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem for metabolic homeostasis. The results of this study indicate that Tfh cells play a role in host-microbiota mutualism beyond protecting the intestinal mucosa by induction of affinity-matured IgA and suggest that extracellular ATP constitutes an inter-kingdom signaling molecule important for selecting a beneficial microbial community for the host via P2X7-mediated regulation of B cell help. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. T Follicular Helper Cells Promote a Beneficial Gut Ecosystem for Host Metabolic Homeostasis by Sensing Microbiota-Derived Extracellular ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Perruzza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T follicular helper (Tfh cell abundance in the Peyer’s patches (PPs of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem for metabolic homeostasis. The results of this study indicate that Tfh cells play a role in host-microbiota mutualism beyond protecting the intestinal mucosa by induction of affinity-matured IgA and suggest that extracellular ATP constitutes an inter-kingdom signaling molecule important for selecting a beneficial microbial community for the host via P2X7-mediated regulation of B cell help.

  6. Microbubbles-Assisted Ultrasound Triggers the Release of Extracellular Vesicles

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    Yuana Yuana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbubbles-assisted ultrasound (USMB has shown promise in improving local drug delivery. The formation of transient membrane pores and endocytosis are reported to be enhanced by USMB, and they contribute to cellular drug uptake. Exocytosis also seems to be linked to endocytosis upon USMB treatment. Based on this rationale, we investigated whether USMB triggers exocytosis resulting in the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. USMB was performed on a monolayer of head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu with clinically approved microbubbles and commonly used ultrasound parameters. At 2, 4, and 24 h, cells and EV-containing conditioned media from USMB and control conditions (untreated cells, cells treated with microbubbles and ultrasound only were harvested. EVs were measured using flow cytometric immuno-magnetic bead capture assay, immunogold electron microscopy, and western blotting. After USMB, levels of CD9 exposing-EVs significantly increased at 2 and 4 h, whereas levels of CD63 exposing-EVs increased at 2 h. At 24 h, EV levels were comparable to control levels. EVs released after USMB displayed a heterogeneous size distribution profile (30–1200 nm. Typical EV markers CD9, CD63, and alix were enriched in EVs released from USMB-treated FaDu cells. In conclusion, USMB treatment triggers exocytosis leading to the release of EVs from FaDu cells.

  7. Impact of lysosome status on extracellular vesicle content and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Erez; Suire, Caitlin; Zhang, Shi; Mattson, Mark P

    2016-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale size bubble-like membranous structures released from cells. EVs contain RNA, lipids and proteins and are thought to serve various roles including intercellular communication and removal of misfolded proteins. The secretion of misfolded and aggregated proteins in EVs may be a cargo disposal alternative to the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. In this review we will discuss the importance of lysosome functionality for the regulation of EV secretion and content. Exosomes are a subtype of EVs that are released by the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. MVBs can also fuse with lysosomes, and the trafficking pathway of MVBs can therefore determine whether or not exosomes are released from cells. Here we summarize data from studies of the effects of lysosome inhibition on the secretion of EVs and on the possibility that cells compensate for lysosome malfunction by disposal of potentially toxic cargos in EVs. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate trafficking of MVBs to lysosomes and the plasma membrane may advance an understanding of diseases in which pathogenic proteins, lipids or infectious agents accumulate within or outside of cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Regulation of cyclic AMP by extracellular ATP in cultured brain capillary endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Zubeya; Albert, Jennifer L; Gubby, Sharon E; Boyle, John P; Roberts, Jonathon A; Webb, Tania E; Boarder, Michael R

    1999-01-01

    In primary unpassaged rat brain capillary endothelial cell cultures (RBECs), using reverse-transcriptase PCR with primers specific for P2Y receptor subtypes, we detected mRNA for P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6, but not P2Y1 receptors.None of the various nucleotides tested reduced forskolin elevated cyclic AMP levels in RBECs. ATP and ATPγS, as well as adenosine, enhanced cyclic AMP accumulation in the presence of forskolin.Comparison of the concentration response curves to ATPγS with those for ATP and adenosine, at different incubation times, indicated that the response to purine nucleotides was not wholly dependent on conversion to adenosine. Adenosine deaminase abolished the response to adenosine but only reduced the response to ATP by about 50%. These results suggest the participation of a receptor responsive to nucleotides.Isobutylmethylxanthine and 8-sulphophenyltheophylline prevented the cyclic AMP response, while neither 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine nor SCH58261 were effective antagonists. 2-chloradenosine gave a robust response, but neither 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine nor CGS 21680 were agonists.These results show that adenosine and ATP can elevate the cyclic AMP levels of brain endothelial cells by acting on receptors which have a pharmacology apparently distinct from known P2Y and adenosine receptors. PMID:10510459

  9. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as a cellular network throughout the mineralised matrix of bone and are considered the primary mechanosensors of this tissue. They sense mechanical stimulation such as fluid flow and are able to regulate osteoblast and osteoclast functions on the bone surface. Previously, we fou...... signals may be propagated by P2 receptor activation and further ATP release in the osteocyte network and implicate purinergic signalling as a central signalling pathway in osteocyte mechanotransduction....

  10. Potentiation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission by Extracellular ATP in Rat Suprachiasmatic Nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhattacharya, Anirban; Vávra, Vojtěch; Svobodová, Irena; Bendová, Z.; Vereb, G.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 18 (2013), s. 8035-8044 ISSN 0270-6474 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : suprachiasmatic nucleus * P2X receptors * P2Y receptors * ATP * GABA * spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.747, year: 2013

  11. Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation Induces Bergmann Glia Membrane Depolarization and Ca2+ Rises Mainly Mediated by K+ and ATP Increases in the Extracellular Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Helleringer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During brain ischemia, intense energy deficiency induces a complex succession of events including pump failure, acidosis and exacerbated glutamate release. In the cerebellum, glutamate is the principal mediator of Purkinje neuron anoxic depolarization during episodes of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD. Here, the impact of OGD is studied in Bergmann glia, specialized astrocytes closely associated to Purkinje neurons. Patch clamp experiments reveal that during OGD Bergmann glial cells develop a large depolarizing current that is not mediated by glutamate and purinergic receptors but is mainly due to the accumulation of K+ in the extracellular space. Furthermore, we also found that increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration appear in Bergmann glia processes several minutes following OGD. These elevations require, in an early phase, Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores via P2Y receptor activation, and, over longer periods, Ca2+ entry through store-operated calcium channels. Our results suggest that increases of K+ and ATP concentrations in the extracellular space are primordial mediators of the OGD effects on Bergmann glia. In the cerebellum, glial responses to energy deprivation-triggering events are therefore highly likely to follow largely distinct rules from those of their neuronal counterparts.

  12. CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Llaudet, Enrique; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2.

  13. Variation in bacterial ATP concentration during rapid changes in extracellular pH and implications for the activity of attached bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lynal S; Brown, Derick G

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between a rapid change in extracellular pH and the alteration of bacterial ATP concentration. This relationship is a key component of a hypothesis indicating that bacterial bioenergetics - the creation of ATP from ADP via a proton gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane - can be altered by the physiochemical charge-regulation effect, which results in a pH shift at the bacteria's surface upon adhesion to another surface. The bacterial ATP concentration was measured during a rapid change in extracellular pH from a baseline pH of 7.2 to pH values between 3.5 and 10.5. Experiments were conducted with four neutrophilic bacterial strains, including the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A change in bulk pH produced an immediate response in bacterial ATP, demonstrating a direct link between changes in extracellular pH and cellular bioenergetics. In general, the shifts in ATP were similar across the four bacterial strains, with results following an exponential relationship between the extracellular pH and cellular ATP concentration. One exception occurred with S. epidermidis, where there was no variation in cellular ATP at acidic pH values, and this finding is consistent with this species' ability to thrive under acidic conditions. These results provide insight into obtaining a desired bioenergetic response in bacteria through (i) the application of chemical treatments to vary the local pH and (ii) the selection and design of surfaces resulting in local pH modification of attached bacteria via the charge-regulation effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulates phosphoantigen release and Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation by dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, Barbara; Kopecka, Joanna; Sciancalepore, Patrizia; Mandili, Giorgia; Foglietta, Myriam; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Novelli, Francesco; Riganti, Chiara; Massaia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are activated by phosphoantigens, such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is generated in the mevalonate pathway of antigen-presenting cells. IPP is released in the extracellular microenvironment via unknown mechanisms. Here we show that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates extracellular IPP release from dendritic cells (DC) in cooperation with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and butyrophilin-3A1. IPP concentrations in the supernatants are sufficient to induce Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation after DC mevalonate pathway inhibition with zoledronic acid (ZA). ZA treatment increases ABCA1 and apoA-I expression via IPP-dependent LXRα nuclear translocation and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibition. These results close the mechanistic gap in our understanding of extracellular IPP release from DC and provide a framework to fine-tune Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation via mevalonate and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway modulation. PMID:28580927

  15. The ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release steps control the time course of force development in rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, John; Irving, Malcolm; Burton, Kevin

    2005-03-15

    The time course of isometric force development following photolytic release of ATP in the presence of Ca(2+) was characterized in single skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle. Pre-photolysis force was minimized using apyrase to remove contaminating ATP and ADP. After the initial force rise induced by ATP release, a rapid shortening ramp terminated by a step stretch to the original length was imposed, and the time course of the subsequent force redevelopment was again characterized. Force development after ATP release was accurately described by a lag phase followed by one or two exponential components. At 20 degrees C, the lag was 5.6 +/- 0.4 ms (s.e.m., n = 11), and the force rise was well fitted by a single exponential with rate constant 71 +/- 4 s(-1). Force redevelopment after shortening-restretch began from about half the plateau force level, and its single-exponential rate constant was 68 +/- 3 s(-1), very similar to that following ATP release. When fibres were activated by the addition of Ca(2+) in ATP-containing solution, force developed more slowly, and the rate constant for force redevelopment following shortening-restretch reached a maximum value of 38 +/- 4 s(-1) (n = 6) after about 6 s of activation. This lower value may be associated with progressive sarcomere disorder at elevated temperature. Force development following ATP release was much slower at 5 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. The rate constant of a single-exponential fit to the force rise was 4.3 +/- 0.4 s(-1) (n = 22), and this was again similar to that after shortening-restretch in the same activation at this temperature, 3.8 +/- 0.2 s(-1). We conclude that force development after ATP release and shortening-restretch are controlled by the same steps in the actin-myosin ATPase cycle. The present results and much previous work on mechanical-chemical coupling in muscle can be explained by a kinetic scheme in which force is generated by a rapid conformational change bracketed by two

  16. The antiviral drug tenofovir, an inhibitor of Pannexin-1-mediated ATP release, prevents liver and skin fibrosis by downregulating adenosine levels in the liver and skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Feig

    Full Text Available Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Belonging to the class of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, tenofovir is an analogue of AMP. We tested the hypothesis that tenofovir has direct antifibrotic effects in vivo by interfering with adenosine pathways of fibrosis using two distinct models of adenosine and A2AR-mediated fibrosis.Thioacetamide (100mg/kg IP-treated mice were treated with vehicle, or tenofovir (75mg/kg, SubQ (n = 5-10. Bleomycin (0.25U, SubQ-treated mice were treated with vehicle or tenofovir (75mg/kg, IP (n = 5-10. Adenosine levels were determined by HPLC, and ATP release was quantitated as luciferase-dependent bioluminescence. Skin breaking strength was analysed and H&E and picrosirus red-stained slides were imaged. Pannexin-1expression was knocked down following retroviral-mediated expression of of Pannexin-1-specific or scrambled siRNA.Treatment of mice with tenofovir diminished adenosine release from the skin of bleomycin-treated mice and the liver of thioacetamide-treated mice, models of diffuse skin fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis, respectively. More importantly, tenofovir treatment diminished skin and liver fibrosis in these models. Tenofovir diminished extracellular adenosine concentrations by inhibiting, in a dose-dependent fashion, cellular ATP release but not in cells lacking Pannexin-1.These studies suggest that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, could be useful in the treatment of fibrosing diseases.

  17. X-ray crystallographic studies of the extracellular domain of the first plant ATP receptor, DORN1, and the orthologous protein from Camelina sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijie; Chakraborty, Sayan; Xu, Guozhou (NCSU)

    2016-10-26

    Does not respond to nucleotides 1 (DORN1) has recently been identified as the first membrane-integral plant ATP receptor, which is required for ATP-induced calcium response, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and defense responses inArabidopsis thaliana. In order to understand DORN1-mediated ATP sensing and signal transduction, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies were conducted on the extracellular domain of DORN1 (atDORN1-ECD) and that of an orthologous protein,Camelina sativalectin receptor kinase I.9 (csLecRK-I.9-ECD or csI.9-ECD). A variety of deglycosylation strategies were employed to optimize the glycosylated recombinant atDORN1-ECD for crystallization. In addition, the glycosylated csI.9-ECD protein was crystallized at 291 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected at 4.6 Å resolution from a single crystal. The crystal belonged to space groupC222 orC2221, with unit-cell parametersa= 94.7,b= 191.5,c= 302.8 Å. These preliminary studies have laid the foundation for structural determination of the DORN1 and I.9 receptor proteins, which will lead to a better understanding of the perception and function of extracellular ATP in plants.

  18. Extracellular ATP elevates cytoplasmatic free Ca2+ in HeLa cells by the interaction with a 5'-nucleotide receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Bloemers, S M; Tertoolen, L G; Bast, A; De Laat, S W; Timmerman, H

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we have characterized the effects of ATP and several other nucleotides on the intracellular Ca2+ levels of HeLa cells. Using fura-2 microscopy fluorescence measurements, the ATP-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ was shown to consist of a rapid rise which decreased after a

  19. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  20. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-07-03

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [(3)H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Acid and stretch, but not capsaicin, are effective stimuli for ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa: Are ASIC and TRPV1 receptors involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananda, Prajni; Kao, Felicity C L; Liu, Lu; Mansfield, Kylie J; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2012-05-15

    Stretch-evoked ATP release from the bladder mucosa is a key event in signaling bladder fullness. Our aim was to examine whether acid and capsaicin can also release ATP and to determine the receptors involved, using agonists and antagonists at TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Strips of porcine bladder mucosa were exposed to acid, capsaicin or stretch. Strip tension was monitored. Bath fluid was collected for ATP measurement. Gene expression of ASICs and TRPV1 in porcine bladders was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Stretch stimulus (150% of original length) repeatedly and significantly increased ATP release to approximately 45 times basal release. Acid (pH 6.5, 6.0, 5.6) contracted mucosal strips and also increased ATP release up to 30-fold, without evidence of desensitization. Amiloride (0.3 μM) reduced the acid-evoked ATP release by approximately 70%, while capsazepine (10 μM) reduced acid-evoked ATP release at pH 6.0 and pH 5.6 (by 68% and 61%, respectively). Capsaicin (0.1-10 μM) was ineffective in causing ATP release, and also failed to contract porcine mucosal or detrusor strips. Gene expression for ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and TRPV1 was seen in the lateral wall, dome, trigone and neck of both detrusor and mucosa. In conclusion, stretch and acid induce ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa, but capsaicin is ineffective. The pig bladder is a well-known model for the human bladder, however these data suggest that it should be used with caution, particularly for TRPV1 related studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  3. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  4. Kinetics of extracellular release of 14C-labelled organic carbon by submerged macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, M.

    1981-01-01

    The release of extracellular organic carbon (EOC) by six submerged freswater macrophytes was measured in time course studies with a 14 C-technique. Incubation in light in an open water-flow system made it possible to assay the time courses of 14 C-fixation and the simultaneous release of labelled EOC. Heterotrophic utilization of the released products by epiphytic communities was measured. Two patterns of release kinetics were found: (1) Constant rates of release occurred during the incubations, (2) The rates still increased after 24 h of incubation. During the first hours of incubation the rates of release increased in all species. Elodea reached constant rates after 2-4 h and Littorella and Ceratophyllum demersum after about 20 h. In the experiments with C. submersum and Nitella the rates of release increased almost linearly during the entire incubation period. The kinetics of release were in agreement with the molecular weight distribution of the dissolved EOC measured with gel chromatography. Low molecular weight products ( 10000 Daltons) dominated the dissolved EOC released by C. submersum and Nitella. A large fraction (18-60%) of the total EOC could be recovered on filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm. This particulate fraction probably represents some abiotic removal. The quantities of relase were low in all species and did not exceed 0.9% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. Heterotrophic uptake by the epiphytic communities was less than 10% of the EOC released. The results emphasize that the 14 C-labelling of extracellular products is a time dependent process. (author)

  5. Extracellular histones disarrange vasoactive mediators release through a COX-NOS interaction in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cremades, Daniel; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibañez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Pallardó, Federico V; Novella, Susana

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular histones are mediators of inflammation, tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Interactions between circulating histones and vascular endothelial cells are key events in histone-mediated pathologies. Our aim was to investigate the implication of extracellular histones in the production of the major vasoactive compounds released by human endothelial cells (HUVECs), prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). HUVEC exposed to increasing concentrations of histones (0.001 to 100 μg/ml) for 4 hrs induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release at 100 μg/ml. Extracellular histones raised cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) mRNA and protein expression, decreased COX-1 mRNA levels and did not change thromboxane A2 synthase (TXAS) expression. Moreover, extracellular histones decreased both, eNOS expression and NO production in HUVEC. The impaired NO production was related to COX-2 activity and superoxide production since was reversed after celecoxib (10 μmol/l) and tempol (100 μmol/l) treatments, respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggest that extracellular histones stimulate the release of endothelial-dependent mediators through an up-regulation in COX-2-PGIS-PGI2 pathway which involves a COX-2-dependent superoxide production that decreases the activity of eNOS and the NO production. These effects may contribute to the endothelial cell dysfunction observed in histone-mediated pathologies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Effect of basal forebrain stimulation on extracellular acetylcholine release and blood flow in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako

    2017-05-12

    The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb. When the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using laser speckle contrast imaging, the focal chemical stimulation of the HDB did not significantly alter the blood flow in the olfactory bulb, while increases were observed in the neocortex. Our results suggest a functional difference between the olfactory bulb and neocortex regarding cerebral blood flow regulation through the release of acetylcholine by cholinergic basal forebrain input.

  7. Method for isolation and molecular characterization of extracellular microvesicles released from brain endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haqqani Arsalan S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to possessing intracellular vesicles, eukaryotic cells also produce extracellular microvesicles, ranging from 50 to 1000 nm in diameter that are released or shed into the microenvironment under physiological and pathological conditions. These membranous extracellular organelles include both exosomes (originating from internal vesicles of endosomes and ectosomes (originating from direct budding/shedding of plasma membranes. Extracellular microvesicles contain cell-specific collections of proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other molecules. These vesicles play important roles in intercellular communication by acting as carrier for essential cell-specific information to target cells. Endothelial cells in the brain form the blood–brain barrier, a specialized interface between the blood and the brain that tightly controls traffic of nutrients and macromolecules between two compartments and interacts closely with other cells forming the neurovascular unit. Therefore, brain endothelial cell extracellular microvesicles could potentially play important roles in ‘externalizing’ brain-specific biomarkers into the blood stream during pathological conditions, in transcytosis of blood-borne molecules into the brain, and in cell-cell communication within the neurovascular unit. Methods To study cell-specific molecular make-up and functions of brain endothelial cell exosomes, methods for isolation of extracellular microvesicles using mass spectrometry-compatible protocols and the characterization of their signature profiles using mass spectrometry -based proteomics were developed. Results A total of 1179 proteins were identified in the isolated extracellular microvesicles from brain endothelial cells. The microvesicles were validated by identification of almost 60 known markers, including Alix, TSG101 and the tetraspanin proteins CD81 and CD9. The surface proteins on isolated microvesicles could potentially

  8. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. An association between RBMX, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and ARTS-1 regulates extracellular TNFR1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamik, Barbara; Islam, Aminul; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Hawari, Feras I.; Zhang Jing; Levine, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    The type I, 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) is released to the extracellular space by two mechanisms, the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains. Both pathways appear to be regulated by an interaction between TNFR1 and ARTS-1 (aminopeptidase regulator of TNFR1 shedding). Here, we sought to identify ARTS-1-interacting proteins that modulate TNFR1 release. Co-immunoprecipitation identified an association between ARTS-1 and RBMX (RNA-binding motif gene, X chromosome), a 43-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. RNA interference attenuated RBMX expression, which reduced both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the IL-1β-mediated inducible proteolytic cleavage of soluble TNFR1 ectodomains. Reciprocally, over-expression of RBMX increased TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release and the IL-1β-mediated inducible shedding of TNFR1 ectodomains. This identifies RBMX as an ARTS-1-associated protein that regulates both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains

  10. TNF-α promotes extracellular vesicle release in mouse astrocytes through glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaizhe; Ye, Ling; Lu, Hongfang; Chen, Huili; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin C

    2017-04-20

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown. We posit that TNF-α can promote the release of EVs in astrocytes through upregulation of glutaminase expression. Release of EVs, which was demonstrated by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and Western Blot, increased in mouse astrocytes when treated with TNF-α. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment significantly upregulated protein levels of glutaminase and increased the production of glutamate, suggesting that glutaminase activity is increased after TNF-α treatment. Interestingly, pretreatment with a glutaminase inhibitor blocked TNF-α-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in astrocytes, which indicates that glutaminase activity contributes to stress in astrocytes during neuroinflammation. TNF-α-mediated increased release of EVs can be blocked by either the glutaminase inhibitor, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, or genetic knockout of glutaminase, suggesting that glutaminase plays an important role in astrocyte EV release during neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that glutaminase is an important metabolic factor controlling EV release from astrocytes during neuroinflammation.

  11. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard A; Morsci, Natalia S; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-03-03

    Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular DNA Release Acts as an Antifungal Resistance Mechanism in Mature Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Williams, Craig; Lappin, David F.; Millington, Owain; Martins, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been shown to form biofilms that are associated with adaptive antifungal resistance mechanisms. These include multidrug efflux pumps, heat shock proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is a key structural and protective component of microbial biofilms and in bacteria has been shown to contain extracellular DNA (eDNA). We therefore hypothesized that A. fumigatus biofilms also possess eDNA as part of the ECM, conferring a functional role. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of eDNA, which was released phase dependently (8 autolysis, were significantly upregulated as the biofilm matured and that inhibition of chitinases affected biofilm growth and stability, indicating mechanistically that autolysis was possibly involved. Finally, using checkerboard assays, it was shown that combinational treatment of biofilms with DNase plus amphotericin B and caspofungin significantly improved antifungal susceptibility. Collectively, these data show that eDNA is an important structural component of A. fumigatus ECM that is released through autolysis, which is important for protection from environmental stresses, including antifungal therapy. PMID:23314962

  13. Modulation of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap and Reactive Oxygen Species Release by Periodontal Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Josefine; White, Phillipa C; Milward, Michael R; Cooper, Paul R; Chapple, Iain L C

    2017-12-01

    Oral bacteria are the main trigger for the development of periodontitis, and some species are known to modulate neutrophil function. This study aimed to explore the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), associated antimicrobial proteins, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to periodontal bacteria, as well as the underlying pathways. Isolated peripheral blood neutrophils were stimulated with 19 periodontal bacteria. NET and ROS release, as well as the expression of NET-bound antimicrobial proteins, elastase, myeloperoxidase, and cathepsin G, in response to these species was measured using fluorescence-based assays. NET and ROS release was monitored after the addition of NADP (NADPH) oxidase pathway modulators and inhibitors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Moreover, bacterial entrapment by NETs was visualized microscopically, and bacterial killing was assessed by bacterial culture. Certain microorganisms, e.g., Veillonella parvula and Streptococcus gordonii , stimulated higher levels of ROS and NET release than others. NETs were found to entrap, but not kill, all periodontal bacteria tested. NADPH oxidase pathway modulators decreased ROS production but not NET production in response to the bacteria. Interestingly, TLR inhibitors did not impact ROS and NET release. These data suggest that the variability in the neutrophil response toward different bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases by mechanisms such as bacterial avoidance of host responses and activation of neutrophils. Moreover, our results indicate that bacterium-stimulated NET release may arise in part via NADPH oxidase-independent mechanisms. The role of TLR signaling in bacterium-induced ROS and NET release needs to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Genetic Analysis of the Mode of Interplay between an ATPase Subunit and Membrane Subunits of the Lipoprotein-Releasing ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter LolCDE†

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yasuko; Matsuzawa, Hitomi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The LolCDE complex, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane, thereby initiating lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. The LolCDE complex is composed of two copies of an ATPase subunit, LolD, and one copy each of integral membrane subunits LolC and LolE. LolD hydrolyzes ATP on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane, while LolC and/or LolE recognize and release lipoproteins anchored to the periplasmic leaflet of the i...

  15. Deformation-induced release of ATP from erythrocytes in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microchip with channels that mimic resistance vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander K; Fischer, David J; Martin, R Scott; Spence, Dana M

    2004-08-15

    The ability of nitric oxide to relax smooth muscle cells surrounding resistance vessels in vivo is well documented. Here, we describe a series of studies designed to quantify amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a known stimulus of NO production in endothelial cells, released from erythrocytes that are mechanically deformed as these cells traverse microbore channels in lithographically patterned microchips. Results indicate that micromolar amounts of ATP are released from erythrocytes flowing through channels having cross sectional dimensions of 60 x 38 micron (2.22 +/- 0.50 microM ATP). Microscopic images indicate that erythrocytes, when being pumped through the microchip channels, migrate toward the center of the channels, leaving a cell-free or skimming layer at the walls of the channel, a profile known to exist in circulatory vessels in vivo. A comparison of the amounts of ATP released from RBCs mechanically deformed in microbore tubing (2.54 +/- 0.15 microM) vs a microchip (2.59 +/- 0.32 microM) suggests that channels in microchips may serve as functional biomimics of the microvasculature. Control studies involving diamide, a membrane-stiffening agent, suggest that the RBC-derived ATP is not due to cell lysis but rather physical deformation.

  16. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  17. Muscle Releases Alpha-Sarcoglycan Positive Extracellular Vesicles Carrying miRNAs in the Bloodstream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Guescini

    Full Text Available In the past few years, skeletal muscle has emerged as an important secretory organ producing soluble factors, called myokines, that exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that muscle releases microRNAs into the bloodstream in response to physical exercise. These microRNAs affect target cells, such as hormones and cytokines. The mechanisms underlying microRNA secretion are poorly characterized at present. Here, we investigated whether muscle tissue releases extracellular vesicles (EVs, which carry microRNAs in the bloodstream under physiological conditions such as physical exercise. Using density gradient separation of plasma from sedentary and physically fit young men we found EVs positive for TSG101 and alpha-sarcoglycan (SGCA, and enriched for miR-206. Cytometric analysis showed that the SGCA+ EVs account for 1-5% of the total and that 60-65% of these EVs were also positive for the exosomal marker CD81. Furthermore, the SGCA-immuno captured sub-population of EVs exhibited higher levels of the miR-206/miR16 ratio compared to total plasma EVs. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the aerobic fitness and muscle-specific miRNAs and EV miR-133b and -181a-5p were significantly up-regulated after acute exercise. Thus, our study proposes EVs as a novel means of muscle communication potentially involved in muscle remodeling and homeostasis.

  18. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappa, Germana [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Le, Thuc T. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Johlfs, Mary G. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Fiscus, Ronald R. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Corbeil, Denis [Tissue Engineering Laboratories (BIOTEC) and DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Tatzberg 47–49, 01307 Dresden, Germany Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Lorico, Aurelio, E-mail: alorico@roseman.edu [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  19. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; Johlfs, Mary G.; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  20. ATP-modulated K+ channels sensitive to antidiabetic sulfonylureas are present in adenohypophysis and are involved in growth hormone release.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, H; De Weille, J R; Epelbaum, J; Mourre, C; Amoroso, S; Slama, A; Fosset, M; Lazdunski, M

    1993-01-01

    The adenohypophysis contains high-affinity binding sites for antidiabetic sulfonylureas that are specific blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The binding protein has a M(r) of 145,000 +/- 5000. The presence of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (26 pS) has been demonstrated by electrophysiological techniques. Intracellular perfusion of adenohypophysis cells with an ATP-free medium to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels induces a large hyperpolarization (approximately 30 mV) that is antagonized by an...

  1. Direct demonstration of ATP-dependent release of SecA from a translocating preprotein by surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keyzer, J; van der Does, C; Kloosterman, TG; Driessen, AJM

    2003-01-01

    Translocase mediates the transport of preproteins across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. SecA binds with high affinity to the membrane-embedded protein-conducting SecYEG complex and serves as both a receptor for secretory proteins and as an ATP-driven molecular motor. Cycles of ATP binding

  2. Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein triggers TNFα release, promoting attachment to endothelial cells via protein A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteraemia, which frequently results in complications such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis and exit from the bloodstream to cause metastatic abscesses. Interaction with endothelial cells is critical to these complications and several bacterial proteins have been shown to be involved. The S. aureus extracellular adhesion protein (Eap has many functions, it binds several host glyco-proteins and has both pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. Unfortunately its role in vivo has not been robustly tested to date, due to difficulties in complementing its activity in mutant strains. We previously found Eap to have pro-inflammatory activity, and here show that purified native Eap triggered TNFα release in whole human blood in a dose-dependent manner. This level of TNFα increased adhesion of S. aureus to endothelial cells 4-fold via a mechanism involving protein A on the bacterial surface and gC1qR/p33 on the endothelial cell surface. The contribution this and other Eap activities play in disease severity during bacteraemia was tested by constructing an isogenic set of strains in which the eap gene was inactivated and complemented by inserting an intact copy elsewhere on the bacterial chromosome. Using a murine bacteraemia model we found that Eap expressing strains cause a more severe infection, demonstrating its role in invasive disease.

  3. Osmotic regulation of expression of two extracellular matrix-binding proteins and a haemolysin of Leptospira interrogans: differential effects on LigA and Sph2 extracellular release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Medeiros, Marco A; Sanchez, Yolanda; Werneid, Kristian F; Ko, Albert I

    2007-10-01

    The life cycle of the pathogen Leptospira interrogans involves stages outside and inside the host. Entry of L. interrogans from moist environments into the host is likely to be accompanied by the induction of genes encoding virulence determinants and the concomitant repression of genes encoding products required for survival outside of the host. The expression of the adhesin LigA, the haemolysin Sph2 (Lk73.5) and the outer-membrane lipoprotein LipL36 of pathogenic Leptospira species have been reported to be regulated by mammalian host signals. A previous study demonstrated that raising the osmolarity of the leptospiral growth medium to physiological levels encountered in the host by addition of various salts enhanced the levels of cell-associated LigA and LigB and extracellular LigA. In this study, we systematically examined the effects of osmotic upshift with ionic and non-ionic solutes on expression of the known mammalian host-regulated leptospiral genes. The levels of cell-associated LigA, LigB and Sph2 increased at physiological osmolarity, whereas LipL36 levels decreased, corresponding to changes in specific transcript levels. These changes in expression occurred irrespective of whether sodium chloride or sucrose was used as the solute. The increase of cellular LigA, LigB and Sph2 protein levels occurred within hours of adding sodium chloride. Extracellular Sph2 levels increased when either sodium chloride or sucrose was added to achieve physiological osmolarity. In contrast, enhanced levels of extracellular LigA were observed only with an increase in ionic strength. These results indicate that the mechanisms for release of LigA and Sph2 differ during host infection. Thus, osmolarity not only affects leptospiral gene expression by affecting transcript levels of putative virulence determinants but also affects the release of such proteins into the surroundings.

  4. Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Julia; Lugonja, Božo; Jimmy Ytterberg, A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Creese, Andrew J.; Pearson, Mark J.; Grant, Melissa M.; Milward, Michael; Lundberg, Karin; Buckley, Christopher D.; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Paul R.; Chapple, Iain L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies specifically recognize citrullinated autoantigens that are generated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Neutrophils express high levels of PAD and accumulate in the synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients during disease flares. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that neutrophil cell death, induced by either NETosis (extrusion of genomic DNA–protein complexes known as neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) or necrosis, can contribute to production of autoantigens in the inflamed joint. Methods Extracellular DNA was quantified in the SF of patients with RA, patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Release of PAD from neutrophils was investigated by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence staining, and PAD activity assays. PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and those with OA. Results Extracellular DNA was detected at significantly higher levels in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.001) or PsA SF (P < 0.05), and its expression levels correlated with neutrophil concentrations and PAD activity in RA SF. Necrotic neutrophils released less soluble extracellular DNA compared to NETotic cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Higher PAD activity was detected in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.05). The citrullinated proteins PAD2 and PAD4 were found attached to NETs and also freely diffused in the supernatant. PAD enzymatic activity was detected in supernatants of neutrophils undergoing either NETosis or necrosis. Conclusion Release of active PAD isoforms into the SF by neutrophil cell death is a plausible explanation for the generation of extracellular autoantigens in RA. PMID:26245941

  5. Rapid release of 42K and 86Rb from an occluded state of the Na,K-pump in the presence of ATP or ADP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbush, B. III

    1987-01-01

    We have measured the time course of release of 42 K and 86 Rb from an occluded state of the Na,K-pump using a rapid filtration apparatus. We have found that at 20 degrees C and in the presence of ATP, 42 K is released with a rate constant of approximately 45 s-1 and 86 Rb with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1; both ATP and ADP are effective at a low affinity site (Kd approximately 0.3 and 1 mM, respectively) with the rate of deocclusion being only half as great in ADP as in ATP. Mg2+ stimulates 2-fold at low concentrations probably by forming MgATP, and free Mg2+ is strongly inhibitory at high concentrations (Kd approximately 10 mM). Mg2+ also decreases the affinity for ATP, and the data are consistent with mixed type inhibition; from the analysis the dissociation constant is approximately 1 mM for the inhibitory Mg2+ and the Rb+-occluded form without ATP. The rate of 42 K or 86 Rb release increases monotonically with pH while ATPase activity decreases above pH 8, so that deocclusion is not rate-limiting in the overall cycle at high pH. This is reflected by a convergence of the rate of Na,K-ATPase and Na,Rb-ATPase activities at high pH and by a decrease in the observed steady-state level of the occluded 86 Rb intermediate at high pH. K+, Rb+, Na+, and Cs+, but not Li+, increase the rate of 42 K and 86 Rb release at constant ionic strength, presumably at sites other than the transport sites. The spontaneous rate of deocclusion is only approximately 0.1 s-1 at low ionic strength in the absence of nucleotides, and it is increased markedly by all cations tested except Li+. Overall the data are consistent with deocclusion as a rate-limiting step in the Na,K-pump cycle

  6. Iron Triggers λSo Prophage Induction and Release of Extracellular DNA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Binnenkade, Lucas; Teichmann, Laura; Thormann, Kai M.

    2014-01-01

    Prophages are ubiquitous elements within bacterial chromosomes and affect host physiology and ecology in multiple ways. We have previously demonstrated that phage-induced lysis is required for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release and normal biofilm formation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of prophage λSo spatiotemporal induction in biofilms. To this end, we used a functional fluorescence fusion to monitor λSo activation in various mutant backgrounds...

  7. ATP-containing vesicles in stria vascular marginal cell cytoplasms in neonatal rat cochlea are lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Wenjing; Yang, Jun

    2016-02-11

    We confirmed that ATP is released from cochlear marginal cells in the stria vascular but the cell organelle in which ATP stores was not identified until now. Thus, we studied the ATP-containing cell organelles and suggest that these are lysosomes. Primary cultures of marginal cells of Sprague-Dawley rats aged 1-3 days was established. Vesicles within marginal cells stained with markers were identified under confocal laser scanning microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then ATP release from marginal cells was measured after glycyl-L-phenylalanine-ß- naphthylamide (GPN) treatment using a bioluminescent assay. Quinacrine-stained granules within marginal cells were labeled with LysoTracker, a lysosome tracer, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP1), but not labeled with the mitochondrial tracer MitoTracker. Furthermore, LysoTracker-labelled puncta showed accumulation of Mant-ATP, an ATP analog. Treatment with 200 μM GPN quenched fluorescently labeled puncta after incubation with LysoTracker or quinacrine, but not MitoTracker. Quinacrine-labeled organelles observed by TEM were lysosomes, and an average 27.7 percent increase in ATP luminescence was observed in marginal cells extracellular fluid after GPN treatment. ATP-containing vesicles in cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascular from neonatal rats are likely lysosomes. ATP release from marginal cells may be via Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis.

  8. Antibody Binding Alters the Characteristics and Contents of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Histoplasma capsulatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltazar, Ludmila M.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Sobreira, Tiago; Choi, Hyungwon; Casadevall, Arturo; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2016-03-30

    ABSTRACT

    Histoplasma capsulatumproduces extracellular vesicles containing virulence-associated molecules capable of modulating host machinery, benefiting the pathogen. Treatment ofH. capsulatumcells with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can change the outcome of infection in mice. We evaluated the sizes, enzymatic contents, and proteomic profiles of the vesicles released by fungal cells treated with either protective MAb 6B7 (IgG1) or nonprotective MAb 7B6 (IgG2b), both of which bindH. capsulatumheat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Our results showed that treatment with either MAb was associated with changes in size and vesicle loading. MAb treatments reduced vesicle phosphatase and catalase activities compared to those of vesicles from untreated controls. We identified 1,125 proteins in vesicles, and 250 of these manifested differences in abundance relative to that of proteins in vesicles isolated from yeast cells exposed to Hsp60-binding MAbs, indicating that surface binding of fungal cells by MAbs modified protein loading in the vesicles. The abundance of upregulated proteins in vesicles upon MAb 7B6 treatment was 44.8% of the protein quantities in vesicles from fungal cells treated with MAb 6B7. Analysis of orthologous proteins previously identified in vesicles from other fungi showed that different ascomycete fungi have similar proteins in their extracellular milieu, many of which are associated with virulence. Our results demonstrate that antibody binding can modulate fungal cell responses, resulting in differential loading of vesicles, which could alter fungal cell susceptibility to host defenses. This finding provides additional evidence that antibody binding modulates microbial physiology and suggests a new function for specific immunoglobulins through alterations of fungal secretion.

    IMPORTANCEDiverse fungal species release extracellular vesicles, indicating that this is a

  9. Mechanism of the beneficial effects of ATP-MgCl2 following trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation: downregulation of inflammatory cytokine (TNF, IL-6) release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Ba, Z F; Morrison, M H; Ayala, A; Dean, R E; Chaudry, I H

    1992-04-01

    Although ATP-MgCl2 improves hepatocellular function in a nonheparinized model of trauma-hemorrhage and crystalloid resuscitation, it remains unknown whether the beneficial effects of this agent are due to downregulation of the release of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) under those conditions. To study this, rats underwent a 5-cm laparotomy (i.e., trauma induced) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg until 40% of maximum bleedout volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate (RL). The animals were then resuscitated with four times the volume of shed blood with RL over 60 min. ATP-MgCl2 (50 mumoles/kg body weight each) or an equivalent volume of normal saline was infused intravenously for 95 min. This infusion was started during the last 15 min of RL resuscitation. Plasma levels of TNF and IL-6 were measured at 1.5 hr after the completion of resuscitation by cytokine-dependent cellular assays. Hepatic blood flow was determined by in vivo indocyanine green clearance (corrected by hepatic extraction ratio for indocyanine green), radioactive microspheres, and [3H]-galactose clearance techniques. The results indicate that the levels of circulating TNF and IL-6 increased significantly in the hemorrhaged-resuscitated animals. ATP-MgCl2 treatment, however, markedly decreased the synthesis and/or release of these cytokines to levels similar to the sham group. The markedly decreased hepatic blood flow (as determined by three different methods) and hepatic extraction ratio for indocyanine green were also restored by ATP-MgCl2 treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  11. Hypotonic stress promotes ATP release, reactive oxygen species production and cell proliferation via TRPV4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fen; Hui, Zhenhai; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jianyu; Chen, Ziyuan; Guo, Bu; Xing, Fulin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Pan, Leiting; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune-disease with complex and unclear etiology. Hypotonicity of synovial fluid is a typical characteristic of RA, which may play pivotal roles in RA pathogenesis. In this work, we studied the responses of RA synovial fibroblasts to hypotonic stress in vitro and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Data showed that hyposmotic solutions significantly triggered increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) of synoviocytes. Subsequently, it caused rapid release of ATP, as well as remarkable production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, hypotonic stimulus promoted the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. These effects were almost abolished by calcium-free buffer and significantly inhibited by gadolinium (III) chloride (a mechanosensitive Ca 2+ channel blocker) and ruthenium red (a transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) blocker). 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a specific agonist of TRPV4, also mimicked hypotonic shock-induced responses shown above. In contrast, voltage-gated channel inhibitors verapamil and nifedipine had little influences on these responses. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blotting evidently detected TRPV4 expression at mRNA and protein level in isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, our results indicated that hypotonic stimulus resulted in ATP release, ROS production, and cell proliferation depending on Ca 2+ entry through activation of TRPV4 channel in synoviocytes. - Highlights: • Hypotonic stress evokes Ca 2+ entry in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. • Hypotonic stress induces rapid ATP release and ROS production in synoviocytes. • Hypotonic stimulation promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. • TRPV4 controls hypotonic-induced responses in synoviocytes.

  12. Circadian ATP Release in Organotypic Cultures of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Dependent on P2X7 and P2Y Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Irena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Ivetic, Milorad; Bendová, Z.; Zemková, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 6 (2018), č. článku 192. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : suprachiasmatic nucleus * organotypic cultures * astrocytes * P2X7 receptor * P2Y1 receptor * P2Y2 receptor * pannexin-1 hemichannel * ATP release Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  13. Antiphospholipid Antibodies Promote the Release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: A New Mechanism of Thrombosis in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Gould, Travis J.; Rao, Ashish N.; Mazza, Levi F.; Morris, Alexandra E.; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos; Hernández-Ramírez, Diego; Bockenstedt, Paula L.; Liaw, Patricia C.; Cabral, Antonio R.; Knight, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), especially those targeting beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), are well known to activate endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets, with prothrombotic implications. In contrast, the interaction of aPL with neutrophils has not been extensively studied. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been recognized as an important activator of the coagulation cascade, as well as an integral component of arterial and venous thrombi. Here, we hypothesized that aPL might activate neutrophils to release NETs, thereby predisposing to the arterial and venous thrombosis inherent to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods Neutrophils, sera, and plasma were prepared and characterized from patients with primary APS (n=52), or from healthy volunteers. No patient carried a concomitant diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Results Sera and plasma from patients with primary APS have elevated levels of both cell-free DNA and NETs, as compared to healthy volunteers. Freshly-isolated APS neutrophils are predisposed to high levels of spontaneous NET release. Further, APS-patient sera, as well as IgG purified from APS patients, stimulate NET release from control neutrophils. Human aPL monoclonals, especially those targeting β2GPI, also enhance NET release. The induction of APS NETs can be abrogated with inhibitors of reactive oxygen species formation and toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, APS NETs promote thrombin generation. Conclusion Neutrophil NET release warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic target in APS. PMID:26097119

  14. Proceedings of Biological Actions of Extracellular ATP Conference Held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 27-19 November 1990. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 603)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-16

    Control Hypoxia Recoser, solution." The single ventricle contracted against an artificial resistance of constant value, and an increase in workload was...Suspended Cardiocytes Isolated from Adult Rat Hearr Initial ATP Rate of Hydrolysis ( AM • hr - ’) Concentratisn OC/ 37 "C/ (PM) 0, CO, 03 CO, 37’C/N, 05 4...adenine nucleotides, placed in perfusion chambers, and superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The efflux of endogenous and radiolabeled

  15. Release of Extracellular Polymeric Substance and Disintegration of Anaerobic Granular Sludge under Reduced Sulfur Compounds-Rich Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kobayashi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reduced form of sulfur compounds on granular sludge was investigated. Significant release of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS from the granular sludge occurred in the presence of sulfide and methanethiol according to various concentrations. Granular sludge also showed a rapid increase in turbidity and decrease in diameter in accordance with sulfide concentration during the long-term shaking, suggesting that the strength of the granules was reduced with high-concentration sulfide. A continuous experiment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors with different concentrations of sulfide (10, 200, 500 mg-S/L influence demonstrated that the reactor fed with higher concentration of sulfide allowed more washout of small particle-suspended solid (SS content and soluble carbohydrate and protein, which were considered as EPS released from biofilm. Finally, the presence of sulfide negatively affected methane production, chemical oxygen demand removal and sludge retention in operational performance.

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dual functional extracellular recording using a light-addressable potentiometric sensor for bitter signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wu, Chunsheng; Wang, Ping

    2018-08-31

    This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode. On the other hand, extracellular membrane potential changes can be monitored by recording the fluctuation of LAPS photocurrent when the LAPS chip is working in continuous mode. The results show this biosensor can effectively record the enhancive effect of the bitter substance and inhibitory effect of the carbenoxolone (CBX) on the extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release of single taste bud cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of CBX also confirms LAPS extracellular recordings are originated from bitter signal transduction. It is proved this biosensor is suitable for extracellular recording of ATP release and membrane potential changes of single taste bud cells. It is suggested this biosensor could be applied to investigating taste signal transduction at the single-cell level as well as applied to other types of cells which have similar functions to taste bud cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial extracellular matrix and is released by heparitinase and heparin-like molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, P.; Doctrow, S.; Klagsbrun, M.; Svahn, C.M.; Folkman, J.; Vlodavsky, I.

    1989-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits specific binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells. Binding was saturable as a function both of time and of concentration of 125 I-bFGF. Scatchard analysis of FGF binding revealed the presence of about 1.5 x 10 12 binding sites/mm 2 ECM with an apparent k D of 610 nM. FGF binds to heparan sulfate (HS) in ECM as evidenced by (i) inhibition of binding in the presence of heparin or HS at 0.1-1 μg/mL, but not by chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid at 10 μg/mL, (ii) lack of binding to ECM pretreated with heparitinase, but not with chondroitinase ABC, and (iii) rapid release of up to 90% of ECM-bound FGF by exposure to heparin, HS, or heparitinase, but not to chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, or chondroitinase ABC. Oligosaccharides derived from depolymerized heparin, and as small as the tetrasaccharide, released the ECM-bound FGF, but there was little or no release of FGF by modified nonanticoagulant heparins such as totally desulfated heparin, N-desulfated heparin, and N-acetylated heparin. FGF released from ECM was biologically active, as indicated by its stimulation of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained in studies on release of endogenous FGF-like mitogenic activity from Descement's membranes of bovine corneas. It is suggested that ECM storage and release of bFGF provide a novel mechanism for regulation of capillary blood vessel growth. Whereas ECM-bound FGF may be prevented from acting on endothelial cells, its displacement by heparin-like molecules and/or HS-degrading enzymes may elicit a neovascular response

  19. Inflammatory stress of pancreatic beta cells drives release of extracellular heat-shock protein 90α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Gail J; Pérez, Liliana; Guindon, Lynette; Deffit, Sarah N; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Thurmond, Debbie C; Blum, Janice S

    2017-06-01

    A major obstacle in predicting and preventing the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in at-risk individuals is the lack of well-established early biomarkers indicative of ongoing beta cell stress during the pre-clinical phase of disease. Recently, serum levels of the α cytoplasmic isoform of heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) were shown to be elevated in individuals with new-onset T1D. We therefore hypothesized that hsp90α could be released from beta cells in response to cellular stress and inflammation associated with the earliest stages of T1D. Here, human beta cell lines and cadaveric islets released hsp90α in response to stress induced by treatment with a combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. Mechanistically, hsp90α release was found to be driven by cytokine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a pathway that can eventually lead to beta cell apoptosis. Cytokine-induced beta cell hsp90α release and JNK activation were significantly reduced by pre-treating cells with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mitigating chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid. The hsp90α release by cells may therefore be a sensitive indicator of stress during inflammation and a useful tool in assessing therapeutic mitigation of cytokine-induced cell damage linked to autoimmunity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  1. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Chandan; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  2. Influence of complement on neutrophil extracellular trap release induced by bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Lisa Joanne; Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    by Staphylococcus aureus and three oral bacteria: Actinomyces viscosus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincettii. Material and Methods Bacteria-stimulated NET release from the neutrophils of healthy donors was measured fluorometrically. Various complement containing...... In conclusion, complement opsonization promotes NET release induced by a variety of bacteria, including A. actinomycetemcomitans, and CR1 plays a dominant role in the process. Complement consumption or deficiency may compromise NETosis induced by some bacterial species, including A. actinomycetemcomitans....... Within biofilms, the complement-inactivating abilities of some bacteria may protect other species against NETosis, while these are more vulnerable when adopting a planktonic lifestyle....

  3. Leptin stimulates pituitary prolactin release through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Strom, Christina N; Bailey, Sean T

    2008-01-01

    pituitary model system. This advantageous system allows isolation of a nearly pure population of lactotropes in their natural, in situ aggregated state. The rostral pars distalis were dissected from tilapia pituitaries and exposed to varying concentrations of leptin (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) for 1 h. Release...

  4. ATP as a Multi-target Danger Signal in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ATP is released in an activity-dependent manner from different cell types in the brain, fulfilling different roles as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, astrocyte-to-neuron communication, propagating astrocytic responses and formatting microglia responses. This involves the activation of different ATP P2 receptors (P2R as well as adenosine receptors upon extracellular ATP catabolism by ecto-nucleotidases. Notably, brain noxious stimuli trigger a sustained increase of extracellular ATP, which plays a key role as danger signal in the brain. This involves a combined action of extracellular ATP in different cell types, namely increasing the susceptibility of neurons to damage, promoting astrogliosis and recruiting and formatting microglia to mount neuroinflammatory responses. Such actions involve the activation of different receptors, as heralded by neuroprotective effects resulting from blockade mainly of P2X7R, P2Y1R and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR, which hierarchy, cooperation and/or redundancy is still not resolved. These pleiotropic functions of ATP as a danger signal in brain damage prompt a therapeutic interest to multi-target different purinergic receptors to provide maximal opportunities for neuroprotection.

  5. Role of hemolysis in red cell adenosine triphosphate release in simulated exercise conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairbäurl, Heimo; Ruppe, Florian A; Bärtsch, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from red blood cells has been discussed as a possible mediator controlling microcirculation in states of decreased tissue oxygen. Because intravascular hemolysis might also contribute to plasma ATP, we tested in vitro which portion of ATP release is due to hemolysis in typical exercise-induced strains to the red blood cells (shear stress, deoxygenation, and lactic acidosis). Human erythrocytes were suspended in dextran-containing media (hematocrit 10%) and were exposed to shear stress in a rotating Couette viscometer at 37°C. Desaturation (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin ∼20%) was achieved by tonometry with N2 before shear stress exposure. Cells not exposed to shear stress were used as controls. Na lactate (15 mM), lactic acid (15 mM, pH 7.0), and HCl (pH 7.0) were added to simulate exercise-induced lactic acidosis. After incubation, extracellular hemoglobin was measured to quantify hemolysis. ATP was measured with the luciferase assay. Shear stress increased extracellular ATP in a stress-related and time-dependent manner. Hypoxia induced a ∼10-fold increase in extracellular ATP in nonsheared cells and shear stress-exposed cells. Lactic acid had no significant effect on ATP release and hemolysis. In normoxic cells, approximately 20%-50% of extracellular ATP was due to hemolysis. This proportion decreased to less than 10% in hypoxic cells. Our results indicate that when exposing red blood cells to typical strains they encounter when passing through capillaries of exercising skeletal muscle, ATP release from red blood cells is caused mainly by deoxygenation and shear stress, whereas lactic acidosis had only a minor effect. Hemolysis effects were decreased when hemoglobin was deoxygenated. Together, by specific release and hemolysis, extracellular ATP reaches values that have been shown to cause local vasodilatation.

  6. Comparison of the release of microRNAs and extracellular vesicles from platelets in response to different agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashley R; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Kurmani, Sameer A; Goodall, Alison H

    2018-07-01

    On activation platelets release microRNAs and extracellular vesicles (EV) into circulation. The release of EV from platelets has been shown to be dependent on the agonist; in this study, we investigated whether the microRNA profile or EV released from platelets was also agonist specific. Washed platelets from healthy subjects were maximally stimulated with agonists specific for the receptors for collagen (Glycoprotein VI (GPVI)), thrombin (PAR1/PAR4), or ADP (P2Y1/P2Y12) with/without inhibiting secondary mediators, using aspirin to block cyclooxygenase-1 and apyrase to remove ADP. The released microRNAs were profiled using TaqMan microRNA microarray cards. Platelet-derived EV (pdEV) were characterized by size (Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, NTA), for procoagulant activity (Annexin-V binding and support of thrombin generation), and for the EV markers CD63 and HSP70. Platelet activation triggered the release of 57-79 different microRNAs, dependent upon agonist, with a core of 46 microRNAs observed with all agonists. There was a high level of correlation between agonists (r 2  > 0.98; p  0.98; p < 0.0001). The 46 microRNAs seen in all samples are predicted to have significant effects on the translation of proteins involved in endocytosis, cell cycle control, and differentiation. MiR-223-3p was the most abundant in all samples and has previously been implicated in myeloid lineage development and demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Stimulation through GPVI produced a pdEV population with significantly more procoagulant activity than the other agonists. Apyrase significantly reduced microRNA and pdEV release, while aspirin had little effect. These data suggest that all tested agonists trigger the release of a similar microRNA profile while the procoagulant activity of the pdEV was agonist dependent. ADP was shown to play an important role in the release of both microRNAs and pdEV.

  7. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo; Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo; Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1ΔC) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1ΔC were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  8. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo [Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo, E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  9. Mechanosensory and ATP Release Deficits following Keratin14-Cre-Mediated TRPA1 Deletion Despite Absence of TRPA1 in Murine Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Zappia

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes are the first cells that come into direct contact with external tactile stimuli; however, their role in touch transduction in vivo is not clear. The ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 is essential for some mechanically-gated currents in sensory neurons, amplifies mechanical responses after inflammation, and has been reported to be expressed in human and mouse skin. Other reports have not detected Trpa1 mRNA transcripts in human or mouse epidermis. Therefore, we set out to determine whether selective deletion of Trpa1 from keratinocytes would impact mechanosensation. We generated K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice lacking TRPA1 in K14-expressing cells, including keratinocytes. Surprisingly, Trpa1 transcripts were very poorly detected in epidermis of these mice or in controls, and detection was minimal enough to preclude observation of Trpa1 mRNA knockdown in the K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice. Unexpectedly, these K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice nonetheless exhibited a pronounced deficit in mechanosensitivity at the behavioral and primary afferent levels, and decreased mechanically-evoked ATP release from skin. Overall, while these data suggest that the intended targeted deletion of Trpa1 from keratin 14-expressing cells of the epidermis induces functional deficits in mechanotransduction and ATP release, these deficits are in fact likely due to factors other than reduction of Trpa1 expression in adult mouse keratinocytes because they express very little, if any, Trpa1.

  10. On-chip immunoelectrophoresis of extracellular vesicles released from human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Akagi

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs including exosomes and microvesicles have attracted considerable attention in the fields of cell biology and medicine. For a better understanding of EVs and further exploration of their applications, the development of analytical methods for biological nanovesicles has been required. In particular, considering the heterogeneity of EVs, methods capable of measuring individual vesicles are desired. Here, we report that on-chip immunoelectrophoresis can provide a useful method for the differential protein expression profiling of individual EVs. Electrophoresis experiments were performed on EVs collected from the culture supernatant of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using a measurement platform comprising a microcapillary electrophoresis chip and a laser dark-field microimaging system. The zeta potential distribution of EVs that reacted with an anti-human CD63 (exosome and microvesicle marker antibody showed a marked positive shift as compared with that for the normal immunoglobulin G (IgG isotype control. Thus, on-chip immunoelectrophoresis could sensitively detect the over-expression of CD63 glycoproteins on EVs. Moreover, to explore the applicability of on-chip immunoelectrophoresis to cancer diagnosis, EVs collected from the blood of a mouse tumor model were analyzed by this method. By comparing the zeta potential distributions of EVs after their immunochemical reaction with normal IgG, and the anti-human CD63 and anti-human CD44 (cancer stem cell marker antibodies, EVs of tumor origin circulating in blood were differentially detected in the real sample. The result indicates that the present method is potentially applicable to liquid biopsy, a promising approach to the low-invasive diagnosis of cancer.

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells improve human islet function through released products and extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzouni, Ahmed A; Vargas-Seymour, Andreia; Rackham, Chloe L; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Huang, Guo-Cai; Choudhary, Pratik; Nardi, Nance; King, Aileen J F; Jones, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to determine whether the reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on mouse islet function extend to clinically relevant human tissues (islets and MSCs), enabling translation into improved protocols for clinical human islet transplantation; and (ii) to identify possible mechanisms through which human MSCs influence human islet function. Human islets were co-cultured with human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) or pre-treated with its products - extracellular matrix (ECM) and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Mouse islets were pre-treated with mouse MSC-derived ECM. Islet insulin secretory function was assessed in vitro by radioimmunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen human adipMSCs for potential ligands of human islet G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that co-culture with hASCs improves human islet secretory function in vitro , as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, confirming previous reports using rodent tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these beneficial effects on islet function can be partly attributed to the MSC-derived products ECM and ANXA1. Our results suggest that hASCs have the potential to improve the quality of human islets isolated for transplantation therapy of Type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, it may be possible to achieve improvements in human islet quality in a cell-free culture system by using the MSC-derived products ANXA1 and ECM. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Canine neutrophil extracellular traps release induced by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora Caninum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengkai Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. The Canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum (N. caninum plays a critical role in its life cycle. However, the effects of N. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs formation remain unclear. In the present study, N. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine NETs formation was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Visualization of DNA decorated with H3, NE and MPO within N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs were examined using fluorescence confocal microscopy analyses. Furthermore, the formation of canine NETs was quantified using Sytox Green staining, and the LDH levels in supernatants were examined by an LDH Cytotoxicity Assay® kit. The results clearly showed that NETs-like structures were induced by N. caninum tachyzoites, and the major components within these structures induced by N. caninum tachyzoite were further confirmed by fluorescence confocal microscopy visualization. These results suggest that N. caninum tachyzoites strongly induced NETs formation in canine PMN. In functional inhibition assays, the blockings of NADPH oxidase, NE, MPO, SOCE, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways significantly inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs formation, which suggests that N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs formation is a NADPH oxidase-, NE-, MPO-, SOCE-, ERK 1/2- and p38 MAPK-dependent cell death process. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the formation of NETs in canine PMN against N. caninum infection.

  13. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH Promotes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation via Reduced Expression of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-1 (ABCA1.

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    Wonkyoung Cho

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the major pathology of cardiovascular disease, is caused by multiple factors involving psychological stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, which is released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, peripheral nerve terminals and epithelial cells, regulates various stress-related responses. Our current study aimed to verify the role of CRH in macrophage foam cell formation, the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. Our quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and Western blot results indicate that CRH down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1 and liver X receptor (LXR-α, a transcription factor for ABCA1, in murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Oil-red O (ORO staining and intracellular cholesterol measurement of macrophages treated with or without oxidized LDL (oxLDL and with or without CRH (10 nM in the presence of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 revealed that CRH treatment promotes macrophage foam cell formation. The boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-conjugated cholesterol efflux assay showed that CRH treatment reduces macrophage cholesterol efflux. Western blot analysis showed that CRH-induced down-regulation of ABCA1 is dependent on phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 induced by interaction between CRH and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1. We conclude that activation of this pathway by CRH accelerates macrophage foam cell formation and may promote stress-related atherosclerosis.

  14. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing

  15. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures

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    Jarline Encarnación-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients, and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD. A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5.

  16. A K ATP channel-dependent pathway within alpha cells regulates glucagon release from both rodent and human islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Patrick E; De Marinis, Yang Zhang; Ramracheya, Reshma; Salehi, Albert; Ma, Xiaosong; Johnson, Paul R V; Cox, Roger; Eliasson, Lena; Rorsman, Patrik

    2007-06-01

    Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet alpha cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring beta cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the alpha cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca(2+) responses of alpha and beta cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon release persisted when paracrine GABA or Zn(2+) signalling was blocked, but was reversed by low concentrations (1-20 muM) of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel opener diazoxide, which had no effect on insulin release or beta cell responses. This effect was prevented by the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide (100 muM). Higher diazoxide concentrations (>/=30 muM) decreased glucagon and insulin secretion, and alpha- and beta-cell Ca(2+) responses, in parallel. In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide at low concentrations (10 muM) were inhibitory. In the presence of a maximally inhibitory concentration of tolbutamide (0.5 mM), glucose had no additional suppressive effect. Downstream of the KATP channel, inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) (TTX) and N-type Ca(2+) channels (omega-conotoxin), but not L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), prevented glucagon secretion. Both the N-type Ca(2+) channels and alpha-cell exocytosis were inactivated at depolarised membrane potentials. Rodent and human glucagon secretion is regulated by an alpha-cell KATP channel-dependent mechanism. We propose that elevated glucose reduces electrical activity and exocytosis via depolarisation-induced inactivation of ion channels involved in action potential firing and secretion.

  17. A K ATP channel-dependent pathway within alpha cells regulates glucagon release from both rodent and human islets of Langerhans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E MacDonald

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet alpha cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring beta cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the alpha cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca(2+ responses of alpha and beta cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon release persisted when paracrine GABA or Zn(2+ signalling was blocked, but was reversed by low concentrations (1-20 muM of the ATP-sensitive K(+ (KATP channel opener diazoxide, which had no effect on insulin release or beta cell responses. This effect was prevented by the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide (100 muM. Higher diazoxide concentrations (>/=30 muM decreased glucagon and insulin secretion, and alpha- and beta-cell Ca(2+ responses, in parallel. In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide at low concentrations (10 muM were inhibitory. In the presence of a maximally inhibitory concentration of tolbutamide (0.5 mM, glucose had no additional suppressive effect. Downstream of the KATP channel, inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+ (TTX and N-type Ca(2+ channels (omega-conotoxin, but not L-type Ca(2+ channels (nifedipine, prevented glucagon secretion. Both the N-type Ca(2+ channels and alpha-cell exocytosis were inactivated at depolarised membrane potentials. Rodent and human glucagon secretion is regulated by an alpha-cell KATP channel-dependent mechanism. We propose that elevated glucose reduces electrical activity and exocytosis via depolarisation-induced inactivation of ion channels involved in action potential firing and secretion.

  18. Two-Photon Activation of p-Hydroxyphenacyl Phototriggers: Toward Spatially Controlled Release of Diethyl Phosphate and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Amanda L; Givens, Richard S; Elles, Christopher G

    2016-03-31

    Two-photon activation of the p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) photoactivated protecting group is demonstrated for the first time using visible light at 550 nm from a pulsed laser. Broadband two-photon absorption measurements reveal a strong two-photon transition (>10 GM) near 4.5 eV that closely resembles the lowest-energy band at the same total excitation energy in the one-photon absorption spectrum of the pHP chromophore. The polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption band is consistent with excitation to the same S3 ((1)ππ*) excited state for both one- and two-photon activation. Monitoring the progress of the uncaging reaction under nonresonant excitation at 550 nm confirms a quadratic intensity dependence and that two-photon activation of the uncaging reaction is possible using visible light in the range 500-620 nm. Deprotonation of the pHP chromophore under mildly basic conditions shifts the absorption band to lower energy (3.8 eV) in both the one- and two-photon absorption spectra, suggesting that two-photon activation of the pHP chromophore may be possible using light in the range 550-720 nm. The results of these measurements open the possibility of spatially and temporally selective release of biologically active compounds from the pHP protecting group using visible light from a pulsed laser.

  19. Iron triggers λSo prophage induction and release of extracellular DNA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnenkade, Lucas; Teichmann, Laura; Thormann, Kai M

    2014-09-01

    Prophages are ubiquitous elements within bacterial chromosomes and affect host physiology and ecology in multiple ways. We have previously demonstrated that phage-induced lysis is required for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release and normal biofilm formation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of prophage λSo spatiotemporal induction in biofilms. To this end, we used a functional fluorescence fusion to monitor λSo activation in various mutant backgrounds and in response to different physiological conditions. λSo induction occurred mainly in a subpopulation of filamentous cells in a strictly RecA-dependent manner, implicating oxidative stress-induced DNA damage as the major trigger. Accordingly, mutants affected in the oxidative stress response (ΔoxyR) or iron homeostasis (Δfur) displayed drastically increased levels of phage induction and abnormal biofilm formation, while planktonic cells were not or only marginally affected. To further investigate the role of oxidative stress, we performed a mutant screen and identified two independent amino acid substitutions in OxyR (T104N and L197P) that suppress induction of λSo by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, λSo induction was not suppressed in biofilms formed by both mutants, suggesting a minor role of intracellular H2O2 in this process. In contrast, addition of iron to biofilms strongly enhanced λSo induction and eDNA release, while both processes were significantly suppressed at low iron levels, strongly indicating that iron is the limiting factor. We conclude that uptake of iron during biofilm formation triggers λSo-mediated lysis of a subpopulation of cells, likely by an increase in iron-mediated DNA damage sensed by RecA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Synaptic release and extracellular actions of Zn2+ limit propagation of spreading depression and related events in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Isamu; Carlson, Andrew P; Sheline, Christian T; Shuttleworth, C William

    2012-02-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a consequence of a slowly propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization (spreading depolarization; SD). Massive release of glutamate contributes to SD propagation, and it was recently shown that Zn(2+) is also released from synaptic vesicles during SD. The present study examined consequences of extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation on the propagation of SD. SD mechanisms were studied first in murine brain slices, using focal KCl applications as stimuli and making electrical and optical recordings in hippocampal area CA1. Elevating extracellular Zn(2+) concentrations with exogenous ZnCl(2) reduced SD propagation rates. Selective chelation of endogenous Zn(2+) (using TPEN or CaEDTA) increased SD propagation rates, and these effects appeared due to chelation of Zn(2+) derived from synaptic vesicles. Thus, in tissues where synaptic Zn(2+) release was absent [knockout (KO) of vesicular Zn(2+) transporter ZnT-3], SD propagation rates were increased, and no additional increase was observed following chelation of endogenous Zn(2+) in these tissues. The role of synaptic Zn(2+) was then examined on CSD in vivo. ZnT-3 KO animals had higher susceptibility to CSD than wild-type controls as evidenced by significantly higher propagation rates and frequencies. Studies of candidate mechanisms excluded changes in neuronal excitability, presynaptic release, and GABA receptors but left open a possible contribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition. These results suggest the extracellular accumulation of synaptically released Zn(2+) can serve as an intrinsic inhibitor to limit SD events. The inhibitory action of extracellular Zn(2+) on SD may counteract to some extent the neurotoxic effects of intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation in acute brain injury models.

  1. Dynamic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by astrocyte-derived ATP in hippocampal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Schuichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Tsuda, Makoto; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2003-09-01

    Originally ascribed passive roles in the CNS, astrocytes are now known to have an active role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal activity can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and Ca2+ transients in astrocytes can evoke changes in neuronal activity. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to mediate such bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. We demonstrate here that ATP, a primary mediator of intercellular Ca2+ signaling among astrocytes, also mediates intercellular signaling between astrocytes and neurons in hippocampal cultures. Mechanical stimulation of astrocytes evoked Ca2+ waves mediated by the release of ATP and the activation of P2 receptors. Mechanically evoked Ca2+ waves led to decreased excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission in an ATP-dependent manner. Exogenous application of ATP does not affect postsynaptic glutamatergic responses but decreased presynaptic exocytotic events. Finally, we show that astrocytes exhibit spontaneous Ca2+ waves mediated by extracellular ATP and that inhibition of these Ca2+ responses enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We therefore conclude that ATP released from astrocytes exerts tonic and activity-dependent down-regulation of synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanisms.

  2. Sensitive luminescent reporter viruses reveal appreciable release of hepatitis C virus NS5A protein into the extracellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Nicholas S; Aloia, Amanda L; Joyce, Michael A; Chulanetra, Monrat; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Beard, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    The HCV NS5A protein is essential for viral RNA replication and virus particle assembly. To study the viral replication cycle and NS5A biology we generated an infectious HCV construct with a NanoLuciferase (NLuc) insertion within NS5A. Surprisingly, beyond its utility as a sensitive reporter of cytoplasmic viral RNA replication, we also observed strong luminescence in cell culture fluids. Further analysis using assembly-defective viruses and subgenomic replicons revealed that infectious virus production was not required for extracellular NS5A-NLuc activity but was associated with enrichment of extracellular NS5A-NLuc in intermediate-density fractions similar to those of exosomes and virus particles. Additionally, BRET analysis indicated that intracellular and extracellular forms of NS5A may adopt differing conformations. Importantly, infection studies using a human liver chimeric mouse model confirmed robust infection in vivo and ready detection of NLuc activity in serum. We hypothesise that the presence of NS5A in extracellular fluids contributes to HCV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Expression and extracellular release of a functional anti-trypanosome Nanobody® in Sodalis glossinidius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse fly

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    De Vooght Linda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodalis glossinidius, a gram-negative bacterial endosymbiont of the tsetse fly, has been proposed as a potential in vivo drug delivery vehicle to control trypanosome parasite development in the fly, an approach known as paratransgenesis. Despite this interest of S. glossinidius as a paratransgenic platform organism in tsetse flies, few potential effector molecules have been identified so far and to date none of these molecules have been successfully expressed in this bacterium. Results In this study, S. glossinidius was transformed to express a single domain antibody, (Nanobody® Nb_An33, that efficiently targets conserved cryptic epitopes of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Next, we analyzed the capability of two predicted secretion signals to direct the extracellular delivery of significant levels of active Nb_An33. We show that the pelB leader peptide was successful in directing the export of fully functional Nb_An33 to the periplasm of S. glossinidius resulting in significant levels of extracellular release. Finally, S. glossinidius expressing pelBNb_An33 exhibited no significant reduction in terms of fitness, determined by in vitro growth kinetics, compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions These data are the first demonstration of the expression and extracellular release of functional trypanosome-interfering Nanobodies® in S. glossinidius. Furthermore, Sodalis strains that efficiently released the effector protein were not affected in their growth, suggesting that they may be competitive with endogenous microbiota in the midgut environment of the tsetse fly. Collectively, these data reinforce the notion for the potential of S. glossinidius to be developed into a paratransgenic platform organism.

  5. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  6. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  7. ATP-induced changes in rat skeletal muscle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdrakhmanov, A I; Khayrullin, A E; Grishin, C H; Ziganshin, A U

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular purine compounds, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine, are involved in regulation of many cell functions, engaging in rapid and long-term cellular processes. The nucleotides, including ATP, exert their extracellular effects by influencing membrane P2 receptors. ATP outside of the cell rapidly is metabolized by the ecto-enzyme system to produce adenosine, which acts on separate adenosine (P1) receptors. Since adenosine and ATP often are functional antagonists, ATP degradation not only limits its effect, but also brings new ligand with different, often opposing, properties. Great variety and widespread of P2 and adenosine receptors in the body emphasize the important physiological and pathophysiological significance of these receptors, and make them very attractive as targets for potential drug action.The existence of several subtypes of P2 and adenosine receptors has been shown in the skeletal muscles. ATP as a co-transmitter is densely packed together with classical neurotransmitters in the presynaptic vesicles of vertebral motor units but until recently ATP was refused to have its own functional role there and was recognized only as a source of adenosine. However, on the eve of the third millennium there appeared data that ATP, released from the nerve ending and acting on presynaptic P2 receptors, suppresses subsequent quantum release of acetylcholine. The final product of its degradation, adenosine, performs a similar inhibitory effect acting on presynaptic adenosine receptors.Despite the fact that the mechanisms of presynaptic inhibitory action of ATP and other purines were studied earlier, the object of those studies was usually neuromuscular synapse of cold-blooded animals. The few studies, in which experiments were carried out on preparations of warm-blooded animals, described the basic effects of purines. These often were guided by the convenience of preparation of the synapses of the diaphragm. We think that those results cannot be

  8. High-efficiency extracellular release of free fatty acids from Aspergillus oryzae using non-ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Koichi; Miura, Ai; Koike, Hideaki; Kamisaka, Yasushi; Umemura, Myco; Machida, Masayuki

    2017-04-20

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are useful for generating biofuel compounds and functional lipids. Microbes are increasingly exploited to produce FFAs via metabolic engineering. However, in many microorganisms, FFAs accumulate in the cytosol, and disrupting cells to extract them is energy intensive. Thus, a simple cost-effective extraction technique must be developed to remove this drawback. We found that FFAs were released from cells of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae with high efficiency when they were cultured or incubated with non-ionic surfactants such as Triton X-100. The surfactants did not reduce hyphal growth, even at 5% (w/v). When the faaA disruptant was cultured with 1% Triton X-100, more than 80% of the FFAs synthesized de novo were released. When the disruptant cells grown without surfactants were incubated for 1h in 1% Triton X-100 solution, more than 50% of the FFAs synthesized de novo were also released. Other non-ionic surfactants in the same ether series, such as Brij 58, IGEPAL CA-630, and Tergitol NP-40, elicited a similar FFA release. The dry cell weight of total hyphae decreased when grown with 1% Triton X-100. The decrement was 4.9-fold greater than the weight of the released FFAs, implying release of other intracellular compounds. Analysis of the culture supernatant showed that intracellular lactate dehydrogenase was also released, suggesting that FFAs are not released by a specific transporter. Therefore, ether-type non-ionic surfactants probably cause non-specific release of FFAs and other intracellular compounds by increasing cell membrane permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural glycoprotein M6a is released in extracellular vesicles and modulated by chronic stressors in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Melisa C.; Billi, Silvia C.; Brocco, Marcela A.; Frasch, Alberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane neuronal glycoprotein M6a is highly expressed in the brain and contributes to neural plasticity promoting neurite growth and spine and synapse formation. We have previously showed that chronic stressors alter hippocampal M6a mRNA levels in rodents and tree shrews. We now show that M6a glycoprotein can be detected in mouse blood. M6a is a transmembrane glycoprotein and, as such, unlikely to be free in blood. Here we demonstrate that, in blood, M6a is transported in extracellular vesic...

  10. Regulation of ACh release from guinea pig bladder urothelial cells: potential role in bladder filling sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLatchie, L M; Young, J S; Fry, C H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize the mechanism of non-neuronal ACh release from bladder urothelial cells and to determine if urothelial cells could be a site of action of anti-muscarinic drugs. A novel technique was developed whereby ACh could be measured from freshly isolated guinea pig urothelial cells in suspension following mechanical stimulation. Various agents were used to manipulate possible ACh release pathways in turn and to study the effects of muscarinic receptor activation and inhibition on urothelial ATP release. Minimal mechanical stimulus achieved full ACh release, indicating a small dynamic range and possible all-or-none signal. ACh release involved a mechanism dependent on the anion channel CFTR and intracellular calcium concentration, but was independent of extracellular calcium, vesicular trafficking, connexins or pannexins, organic cation transporters and was not affected by botulinum-A toxin. Stimulating ACh receptors increased ATP production and antagonizing them reduced ATP release, suggesting a link between ACh and ATP release. These results suggest that release of non-neuronal ACh from the urothelium is large enough and well located to act as a modulator of ATP release. It is hypothesized that this pathway may contribute to the actions of anti-muscarinic drugs in reducing the symptoms of lower urinary tract syndromes. Additionally the involvement of CFTR in ACh release suggests an exciting new direction for the treatment of these conditions. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  12. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-04-16

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  13. Protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate movement, attachment, pairing and egg release in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Ressurreição

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases C (PKCs and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using 'smart' antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance.

  14. Profiling extracellular vesicle release by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi reveals sex-specific differences in cargo and a sensitivity to ivermectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiruni Harischandra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B. malayi and here we profile vesicle release across all intra-mammalian life cycle stages (microfilariae, L3, L4, adult male and female worms. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis was used to quantify and size EVs revealing discrete vesicle populations and indicating a secretory process that is conserved across the life cycle. Brugia EVs are internalized by murine macrophages with no preference for life stage suggesting a uniform mechanism for effector molecule trafficking. Further, the use of chemical uptake inhibitors suggests all life stage EVs are internalized by phagocytosis. Proteomic profiling of adult male and female EVs using nano-scale LC-MS/MS described quantitative and qualitative differences in the adult EV proteome, helping define the biogenesis of Brugia EVs and revealing sexual dimorphic characteristics in immunomodulatory cargo. Finally, ivermectin was found to rapidly inhibit EV release by all Brugia life stages. Further this drug effect was also observed in the related filarial nematode, the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis but not in an ivermectin-unresponsive field isolate of that parasite, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for this drug and suggesting new screening platforms for anti-filarial drug development.

  15. AtlA Mediates Extracellular DNA Release, Which Contributes to Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation in an Experimental Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chia, Jean-San

    2017-09-01

    Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (Δ atlA ) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S. mutans GS5 floes during biofilm formation on damaged heart valves, but an Δ atlA strain could not form bacterial aggregates. Semiquantification of eDNA by PCR with bacterial 16S rRNA primers demonstrated that the Δ atlA mutant strain produced dramatically less eDNA than the wild type. Similar results were observed with in vitro biofilm models. The addition of polyanethol sulfonate, a chemical lysis inhibitor, revealed that eDNA release mediated by bacterial cell lysis is required for biofilm initiation and maturation in the wild-type strain. Supplementation of cultures with calcium ions reduced wild-type growth but increased eDNA release and biofilm mass. The effect of calcium ions on biofilm formation was abolished in Δ atlA cultures and by the addition of polyanethol sulfonate. The VicK sensor, but not CiaH, was found to be required for the induction of eDNA release or the stimulation of biofilm formation by calcium ions. These data suggest that calcium ion-regulated AtlA maturation mediates the release of eDNA by S. mutans , which contributes to biofilm formation in infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. The Role of ATP in Sleep Regulation

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    Sachiko eChikahisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of sleep is to maintain energy balance in the brain. There are a variety of hypotheses related to how metabolic pathways interact with sleep/wake regulation. A major finding that demonstrates an interaction between sleep and metabolic homeostasis is the involvement of adenosine in sleep homeostasis. An accumulation of adenosine is supplied from ATP, which can act as an energy currency in the cell. Extracellularly, ATP can act as an activity-dependent signaling molecule, especially in regard to communication between neurons and glia, including astrocytes. Furthermore, the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio controls the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which is a potent energy regulator and is recently reported to play a role in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. Brain ATP may support multiple functions in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and sleep homeostasis.

  17. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  18. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  19. ATP storage and uptake by isolated pancreatic zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for ...

  20. Extracellular vesicles: Exosomes, microvesicles, and friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raposo, G.; Stoorvogel, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385

    2013-01-01

    Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for

  1. Histamine, carbachol, and serotonin induce hyperresponsiveness to ATP in guinea pig tracheas: involvement of COX-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Luis M; Carbajal, Verónica; Vargas, Mario H; García-Hernández, Luz M; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Checa, Marco; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular ATP promotes an indirect contraction of airway smooth muscle via the secondary release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from airway epithelium. Our aim was to evaluate if common contractile agonists modify this response to ATP. Tracheas from sensitized guinea pigs were used to evaluate ATP-induced contractions before and after a transient contraction produced by histamine, carbachol, or serotonin. Epithelial mRNA for COX-1 and COX-2 was measured by RT-PCR and their expression assessed by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the initial response, ATP-induced contraction was potentiated by pretreatment with histamine, carbachol, or serotonin. Either suramin (antagonist of P2X and P2Y receptors) plus RB2 (antagonist of P2Y receptors) or indomethacin (inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2) annulled the ATP-induced contraction, suggesting that it was mediated by P2Y receptor stimulation and TXA2 production. When COX-2 was inhibited by SC-58125 or thromboxane receptors were antagonized by SQ-29548, just the potentiation was abolished, leaving the basal response intact. Airway epithelial cells showed increased COX-2 mRNA after stimulation with histamine or carbachol, but not serotonin, while COX-1 mRNA was unaffected. Immunochemistry corroborated this upregulation of COX-2. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that histamine and carbachol cause hyperresponsiveness to ATP by upregulating COX-2 in airway epithelium, which likely increases TXA2 production. Serotonin-mediated hyperresponsiveness seems to be independent of COX-2 upregulation, but nonetheless is TXA2 dependent. Because acetylcholine, histamine, and serotonin can be present during asthmatic exacerbations, their potential interactions with ATP might be relevant in its pathophysiology.

  2. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K.; Dean, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2013-01-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s−1, 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s−1, 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s−1, 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein–protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Feox(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  3. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K; Dean, Dennis R; Hoffman, Brian M; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2013-10-08

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s(-1), 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s(-1), 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s(-1), 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein-protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Fe(ox)(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein.

  4. ATP secretion from nerve trunks and Schwann cells mediated by glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo Jun; Bennett, Max R

    2003-11-14

    ATP release from rat sciatic nerves and from cultured Schwann cells isolated from the nerves was investigated using an online bioluminescence technique. ATP was released in relatively large amounts from rat sciatic nerve trunks during electrical stimulation. This release was blocked by the sodium channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin and the non-NMDA glutamate receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Schwann cells isolated from the nerve trunks did not release ATP when electrically stimulated but did in response to glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was inhibited by specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and competitive non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was decreased by inhibition of anion transporter inhibitors by furosemide, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by glibenclamide and exocytosis by botulinum toxin A, indicating that anion transporters and exocytosis provide the main secretion mechanisms for ATP release from the Schwann cells.

  5. Atrial natriuretic peptide down-regulates LPS/ATP-mediated IL-1β release by inhibiting NF-kB, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasoma, Letizia; Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide.

  6. Real-time monitoring of extracellular l-glutamate levels released by high-frequency stimulation at region CA1 of hippocampal slices with a glass capillary-based l-glutamate sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ikegami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of l-glutamate released by high-frequency stimulation in region CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices was performed with a glass capillary-based sensor, in combination with the recoding of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs. A method for extracting l-glutamate currents from the recorded ones was described and applied for determining the level of extracellular l-glutamate released by 100 Hz stimulation. Recording of an l-glutamate current with a current sampling interval of 1 Hz was found to be useful for acquiring a Faradaic current that reflects l-glutamate level released by the high-frequency stimulation of 7 trains, each 20 stimuli at 100 Hz and inter-train interval of 3 s. The l-glutamate level was obtained as 15 ± 6 μM (n = 8 for the persistent enhancement of fEPSPs, i.e., the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP, and 3 ± 1 μM (n = 5 for the case of no LTP induction. Based on these observations, the level of the extracellular l-glutamate was shown to play a crucial role in the induction of LTP.

  7. Intercellular odontoblast communication via ATP mediated by pannexin-1 channel and phospholipase C-coupled receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eSato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected form rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s, we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca2+]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca2+]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP release channel (pannexin-1 inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, the increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  8. Extracellular Nucleotide Hydrolysis in Dermal and Limbal Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Source of Adenosine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, Liliana I Sous; Rodrigues, Cristiano; de Campos, Rafael Paschoal; Beckenkamp, Liziane Raquel; Iser, Isabele C; Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Wink, Márcia R

    2017-08-01

    Human Limbal (L-MSCs) and Dermal Mesenchymal Stem Cell (D-MSCs) possess many properties that increase their therapeutic potential in ophthalmology and dermatology. It is known that purinergic signaling plays a role in many aspects of mesenchymal stem cells physiology. They release and respond to purinergic ligands, altering proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Therefore, more information on these processes would be crucial for establishing future clinical applications using their differentiation potential, but without undesirable side effects. This study evaluated and compared the expression of ecto-nucleotidases, the enzymatic activity of degradation of extracellular nucleotides and the metabolism of extracellular ATP in D-MSCs and L-MSCs, isolated from discard tissues of human skin and sclerocorneal rims. The D-MSCs and L-MSCs showed a differentiation potential into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and the expression of markers CD105 + , CD44 + , CD14 - , CD34 - , CD45 - , as expected. Both cells hydrolyzed low levels of extracellular ATP and high levels of AMP, leading to adenosine accumulation that can regulate inflammation and tissue repair. These cells expressed mRNA for ENTPD1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, and CD73 that corresponded to the observed enzymatic activities. Thus, considering the degradation of ATP and adenosine production, limbal MSCs are very similar to dermal MSCs, indicating that from the aspect of extracellular nucleotide metabolism L-MSCs are very similar to the characterized D-MSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2430-2442, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Extracellular nucleotide signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Gary [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Over the life of this funded project, our research group identified and characterized two key receptor proteins in plants; one mediating the innate immunity response to chitin and the other elucidating the key receptor for extracellular ATP. In the case of chitin recognition, we recently described the quaternary structure of this receptor, shedding light on how the receptor functions. Perhaps more importantly, we demonstrated that all plants have the ability to recognize both chitin oligomers and lipochitooligosacchardes, fundamentally changing how the community views the evolution of these systems and strategies that might be used, for example, to extend symbiotic nitrogen fixation to non-legumes. Our discovery of DORN1 opens a new chapter in plant physiology documenting conclusively that eATP is an important extracellular signal in plants, as it is in animals. At this point, we cannot predict just how far reaching this discovery may prove to be but we are convinced that eATP signaling is fundamental to plant growth and development and, hence, we believe that the future will be very exciting for the study of DORN1 and its overall function in plants.

  10. Extracellular Ca²⁺ acts as a mediator of communication from neurons to glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arnulfo; Wang, Fushun; Xu, Qiwu; Fujita, Takumi; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Willecke, Klaus; Takano, Takahiro; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2012-01-24

    Defining the pathways through which neurons and astrocytes communicate may contribute to the elucidation of higher central nervous system functions. We investigated the possibility that decreases in extracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](e)) that occur during synaptic transmission might mediate signaling from neurons to glia. Using noninvasive photolysis of the photolabile Ca(2+) buffer diazo-2 {N-[2-[2-[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-5-(diazoacetyl)phenoxy]ethoxy]-4-methylphenyl]-N-(carboxymethyl)-, tetrapotassium salt} to reduce [Ca(2+)](e) or caged glutamate to simulate glutamatergic transmission, we found that a local decline in extracellular Ca(2+) triggered astrocytic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling. In turn, activation of purinergic P2Y1 receptors on a subset of inhibitory interneurons initiated the generation of action potentials by these interneurons, thereby enhancing synaptic inhibition. Thus, astrocytic ATP release evoked by an activity-associated decrease in [Ca(2+)](e) may provide a negative feedback mechanism that potentiates inhibitory transmission in response to local hyperexcitability.

  11. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; van der Hart, Marieke; Verreij, Michelle; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline condition and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males versus females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 µl, 250 ng/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5 + CNQX (2 mM+0.4 mM/0.5 µl, 30 mM+3 mM/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases intracellular [Ca2+] in U87 cells mainly by influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by release of intracellular stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Yum, Keun Sang; Sung, Jong-Ho; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Kim, Myung-Jun; Min, Do Sik; Hahn, Sang June; Kim, Myung-Suk; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2004-02-01

    Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible preventive agent against cancer and cardiovascular disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea. Using digital calcium imaging and an assay for [3H]-inositol phosphates, we determined whether EGCG increases intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in non-excitable human astrocytoma U87 cells. EGCG induced concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases were reduced to 20.9% of control by removal of extracellular Ca2+. The increases were also inhibited markedly by treatment with the non-specific Ca2+ channel inhibitors cobalt (3 mM) for 3 min and lanthanum (1 mM) for 5 min. The increases were not significantly inhibited by treatment for 10 min with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (100 nM). Treatment with the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase thapsigargin (1 micro M) also significantly inhibited the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Treatment for 15 min with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin (300 micro M) attenuated the increases significantly, while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (30 micro M) had no effect. EGCG increased [3H]-inositol phosphates formation via PLC activation. Treatment for 10 min with mefenamic acid (100 micro M) and flufenamic acid (100 micro M), derivatives of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, blocked the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increase in non-treated and thapsigargin-treated cells but indomethacin (100 micro M) did not affect the increases. Collectively, these data suggest that EGCG increases [Ca2+]i in non-excitable U87 cells mainly by eliciting influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores by PLC activation. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i influx is mediated mainly through channels sensitive to diphenylamine-2-carboxylate derivatives.

  13. sarA negatively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by modulating expression of 1 MDa extracellular matrix binding protein and autolysis‐dependent release of eDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christner, Martin; Heinze, Constanze; Busch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    to biofilm formation in mutant 1585ΔsarA. Increased eDNA amounts indirectly resulted from upregulation of metalloprotease SepA, leading to boosted processing of autolysin AtlE, in turn inducing augmented autolysis and release of eDNA. Hence, this study identifies sarA as a negative regulator of Embp‐ and e...

  14. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, Monica [Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Schmetzer, Helga [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3{sup +}T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  15. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Monica; Schmetzer, Helga; Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund

    2016-01-01

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3 + T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  16. Exposure to high glutamate concentration activates aerobic glycolysis but inhibits ATP-linked respiration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Tian, Yueyang; Shi, Xiaojie; Yang, Jianbo; Ouyang, Li; Gao, Jieqiong; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in removing the synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and maintaining the glutamate below neurotoxic level in the brain. However, high concentration of glutamate leads to toxicity in astrocytes, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether energy metabolism disorder, especially impairment of mitochondrial respiration, is involved in the glutamate-induced gliotoxicity. Exposure to 10-mM glutamate for 48 h stimulated glycolysis and respiration in astrocytes. However, the increased oxygen consumption was used for proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration, but not for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. When the exposure time extended to 72 h, glycolysis was still activated for ATP generation, but the mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration of astrocytes was reduced. The glutamate-induced astrocyte damage can be mimicked by the non-metabolized substrate d-aspartate but reversed by the non-selective glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA. In addition, the glutamate toxicity can be partially reversed by vitamin E. These findings demonstrate that changes of bioenergetic profile occur in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to high concentration of glutamate and highlight the role of mitochondria respiration in glutamate-induced gliotoxicity in cortical astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew M; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polg?r, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphoryla...

  18. Streptococcus mutans Extracellular DNA Is Upregulated during Growth in Biofilms, Actively Released via Membrane Vesicles, and Influenced by Components of the Protein Secretion Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sumei; Klein, Marlise I.; Heim, Kyle P.; Fan, Yuwei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; Ahn, San-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Koo, Hyun; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in biofilms. Limited information is available concerning the extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a scaffolding matrix in S. mutans biofilms. This study demonstrates that S. mutans produces eDNA by multiple avenues, including lysis-independent membrane vesicles. Unlike eDNAs from cell lysis that were abundant and mainly concentrated around broken cells or cell debris with floating open ends, eDNAs produced via the lysis-independent pathway appeared scattered but in a structured network under scanning electron microscopy. Compared to eDNA production of planktonic cultures, eDNA production in 5- and 24-h biofilms was increased by >3- and >1.6-fold, respectively. The addition of DNase I to growth medium significantly reduced biofilm formation. In an in vitro adherence assay, added chromosomal DNA alone had a limited effect on S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite beads, but in conjunction with glucans synthesized using purified glucosyltransferase B, the adherence was significantly enhanced. Deletion of sortase A, the transpeptidase that covalently couples multiple surface-associated proteins to the cell wall peptidoglycan, significantly reduced eDNA in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. Sortase A deficiency did not have a significant effect on membrane vesicle production; however, the protein profile of the mutant membrane vesicles was significantly altered, including reduction of adhesin P1 and glucan-binding proteins B and C. Relative to the wild type, deficiency of protein secretion and membrane protein insertion machinery components, including Ffh, YidC1, and YidC2, also caused significant reductions in eDNA. PMID:24748612

  19. Influence of radiographic contrast media (Iodixanol and Iomeprol) on the endothelin-1 release from human arterial and venous endothelial cells cultured on an extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, R P; Fuhrmann, R; Hiebl, B; Jung, F

    2012-01-01

    Various radiographic contrast media (RCM) are available for visualization of blood vessels in interventional cardiology which can vary widely in their physicochemical properties thereby influencing different functions of blood cells. In the in vitro study described here the influence of two RCMs on arterial as well as on venous endothelial cells was compared to control cultures and examined under statical culture conditions, thus eliminating the influence of RCM viscosity almost completely. The supplementation of the culture medium with RCM (30% v/v) resulted in clearly different reactions of the endothelial cells exposed. Exposition to Iodixanol supplemented culture medium was followed by endothelin-1 release from venous endothelial cells which was equivalent to the endothelin-1 release from venous control cultures. Compared to control cultures, venous endothelial cells exposed to culture medium supplemented with Iomeprol displayed a completely different reaction, the increase in endothelin-1 secretion was missing completely after a 12 hours exposure. Following a 12 hours exposure to both RCMs there were no longer endothelial cells adherent, neither in venous nor in arterial endothelial cell cultures. The study showed that not the wall shear stress was responsible for the differing effects visible after 1.5 min, 5 min, and 12 hours exposure to culture media supplemented with RCM but differences in chemotoxicity of the RCM applied.

  20. Synergistic augmentation of ATP-induced interleukin-6 production by arsenite in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Daigo; Asao, Masashi; Okada, Hideta; Yogi, Kuniko; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes cutaneous diseases such as hyperkeratosis and skin cancer. However, little information has been available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Because extracellular ATP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in pathological aspects of cutaneous diseases, we examined whether sodium arsenite (As(III)) affects ATP-induced IL-6 production in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results showed that the addition of As(III) into the medium of HaCaT cells dose dependently increased the production of IL-6 induced by extracellular ATP, although As(III) alone had no effect on IL-6 production. To elucidate the mechanism of the synergistic effect of As(III) on IL-6 production by extracellular ATP, we next examined the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), since we found that these signaling molecules were stimulated by exposure to extracellular ATP. The results indicated that ATP-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR was synergistically enhanced by co-exposure to As(III). To clarify the mechanisms underlying the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR by As(III), we explored two possible mechanisms: the inhibition of extracellular ATP degradation and the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) activity by As(III). The degradation of extracellular ATP was not changed by As(III), whereas the activity of PTPs was significantly inhibited by As(III). Our results suggest that As(III) augments ATP-induced IL-6 production in HaCaT cells through enhanced phosphorylation of the EGFR and p38/ERK pathways, which is associated with the inhibition of PTPs activity.

  1. Methodological problems of direct bioluminescent ATP assay in platelets and erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, S; Ferri, E; Cascione, M L; Comuzio, S; Mazzuca, A; Orlandini, A; Breccia, A

    1989-07-01

    Direct bioluminescent ATP determination in platelets and erythrocytes involves the study of different parameters which are discussed here. Some parameters are linked to the bioluminescent reaction and to the analyte (ATP); others have regard to the biological matrix. The composition of bioluminescent reagents and the preparation and conservation of the ATP standard, also in the presence of excipients, are among the first given. Matrix problems involve cell characteristics related to age and form, lysis resistance and the possible formation of aggregates (platelets) that may inhibit the complete release of ATP. For these reasons we used the most efficient ATP release agent with the lowest inhibitory effect on luciferase. The data obtained correlate well with a bioluminescent method requiring extraction with ethanol/EDTA, and therefore more time, for ATP determination in platelets and erythrocytes.

  2. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  3. Zinc is released by cultured astrocytes as a gliotransmitter under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions and regulates microglial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Shohei; Nishiura, Takeshi; Furuta, Takahiro; Ohsato, Yuki; Tani, Misaki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-01-17

    Astrocytes contribute to the maintenance of brain homeostasis via the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP and glutamate. Here we examined whether zinc was released from astrocytes under stress-loaded conditions, and was involved in the regulation of microglial activity as a gliotransmitter. Hypoosmotic stress was loaded to astrocytes using balanced salt solution prepared to 214-314 mOsmol/L, and then intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels were assessed using Newport Green DCF diacetate (NG) and ICP-MS, respectively. Microglial activation by the astrocytic supernatant was assessed by their morphological changes and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer accumulation. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoosmotic buffer, increased the extracellular ATP level in osmolarity-dependent manners, indicating a load of hypoosmotic stress. In hypoosmotic stress-loaded astrocytes, there were apparent increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels. Incubation of microglia in the astrocytic conditioned medium transformed them into the activated "amoeboid" form and induced PAR formation. Administration of an extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA, to the astrocytic conditioned medium almost completely prevented the microglial activation. Treatment of astrocytes with an intracellular zinc chelator, TPEN, suppressed the hypoosmotic stress-increased intracellular, but not the extracellular, zinc level, and the increase in the intracellular zinc level was blocked partially by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, but not by CaEDTA, indicating that the mechanisms underlying the increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels might be different. These findings suggest that under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions, zinc is released from astrocytes and then plays a primary role in microglial activation as a gliotransmitter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  5. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  6. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  7. Towards the development of an automated ATP measuring platform to monitor microbial quality of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Hansen, C. B.; Rasmussen, A.

    is detected by a photomultiplier. Temperature in the assay box is controlled and set to 25°C. Calibration of the system using ATP standard solutions was successful, both for free and for total ATP. Chemical release of ATP by reagent addition however resulted in the formation of particles that ultimately......This work aimed to develop an automated and nearly on-line method to monitor ATP levels in drinking water as an indicator of microbial contamination. The system consists of a microfluidic cartridge installed in a light tight box, where the sample is mixed with the reagents and the emitted light...

  8. A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2010-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory

  9. Use of luciferase probes to measure ATP in living cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Giampaolo; Sarti, Alba Clara; Marchi, Saverio; Missiroli, Sonia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Pistoia, Vito; Giorgi, Carlotta; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Pinton, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    ATP, the energy exchange factor that connects anabolism and catabolism, is required for major reactions and processes that occur in living cells, such as muscle contraction, phosphorylation and active transport. ATP is also the key molecule in extracellular purinergic signaling mechanisms, with an established crucial role in inflammation and several additional disease conditions. Here, we describe detailed protocols to measure the ATP concentration in isolated living cells and animals using luminescence techniques based on targeted luciferase probes. In the presence of magnesium, oxygen and ATP, the protein luciferase catalyzes oxidation of the substrate luciferin, which is associated with light emission. Recombinantly expressed wild-type luciferase is exclusively cytosolic; however, adding specific targeting sequences can modify its cellular localization. Using this strategy, we have constructed luciferase chimeras targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Here, we describe optimized protocols for monitoring ATP concentrations in the cytosol, mitochondrial matrix and pericellular space in living cells via an overall procedure that requires an average of 3 d. In addition, we present a detailed protocol for the in vivo detection of extracellular ATP in mice using luciferase-transfected reporter cells. This latter procedure may require up to 25 d to complete.

  10. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  11. Journey in guidelines for lipid management: From adult treatment panel (ATP-I to ATP-III and what to expect in ATP-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Talwalkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Treatment Panel (ATP, an expert panel to supervise cholesterol management was set up under the aegis of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP in 1985. Since then NCEP-ATP has been revising and framing guidelines to enable clinician to deliver better treatment to cardiovascular patients and to educate general people. As a result, considerable reduction in cardiovascular related deaths has been observed in recent times. All three ATP guidelines viz. ATP-I, ATP-II and ATP-III have targeted low density lipoprotein as their primary goal. The ATP-III guideline was updated in the light of evidences from 5-major clinical trials and was released in 2004. It added therapeutic lifestyle changes, concept of risk equivalents, Framingham CHD-risk score non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C as secondary target and gave strong emphasis on metabolic risk factors. The earlier treat-to-target paradigm faced fierce criticism from clinicians across the globe because of insufficient proof of safety and benefits of treating patients with respect to an individual′s low density lipoprotein (LDL level. Further, demonstration of non-HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio as strong predictors of overall cardiovascular risk foresees new guidelines. A tailored-treatment approach was suggested instead of LDL-C target based treatment approach which was soundly based on direct clinical trials evidences and proposes treatment based on individual′s overall 5- to 10-year cardiovascular risk irrespective of LDL-C level, leading to lower number of people on high dose/s of statins. Recent report of the Cholesterol Treatment Trialist′s Collaborators meta-analysis strongly supported primary prevention of LDL with statins in low risk individuals and showed that its benefits completely outweighed its known hazards. Markers other than LDL-C like apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio would take precedence in the risk assessment and

  12. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release mediated by P2Y receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, S; Veggetti, M; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A

    2006-09-29

    At the neuromuscular junction, ATP is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and once in the synaptic space, it is degraded to the presynaptically active metabolite adenosine. Intracellular recordings were performed on diaphragm fibers of CF1 mice to determine the action of extracellular ATP (100 muM) and the slowly hydrolysable ATP analog 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate lithium (betagamma-imido ATP) (30 muM) on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency. We found that application of ATP and betagamma-imido ATP decreased spontaneous secretion by 45.3% and 55.9% respectively. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist and alpha,beta-methylene ADP sodium salt (alphabeta-MeADP), which is an inhibitor of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, did not prevent the inhibitory effect of ATP, demonstrating that the nucleotide is able to modulate spontaneous ACh release through a mechanism independent of the action of adenosine. Blockade of Ca(2+) channels by both, Cd(2+) or the combined application of nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) (L-type and N-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists, respectively) prevented the effect of betagamma-imido ATP, indicating that the nucleotide modulates Ca(2+) influx through the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels related to spontaneous secretion. betagamma-Imido ATP-induced modulation was antagonized by the non-specific P2 receptor antagonist suramin and the P2Y receptor antagonist 1-amino-4-[[4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3(or4)-sulfophenyl] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-3-sulfophenyl] amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenesulfonic acid (reactive blue-2), but not by pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt (PPADS), which has a preferential antagonist effect on P2X receptors. Pertussis toxin and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which are blockers of G(i/o) proteins, prevented the action of the nucleotide, suggesting that the effect is mediated by P2Y receptors

  13. Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials - an ISEV position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lener, Thomas; Gimona, Mario; Aigner, Ludwig; Börger, Verena; Buzas, Edit; Camussi, Giovanni; Chaput, Nathalie; Chatterjee, Devasis; Court, Felipe A; Del Portillo, Hernando A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Fraile, Lorenzo; Gho, Yong Song; Görgens, André; Gupta, Ramesh C; Hendrix, An; Hermann, Dirk M; Hill, Andrew F; Hochberg, Fred; Horn, Peter A; de Kleijn, Dominique; Kordelas, Lambros; Kramer, Boris W; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laner-Plamberger, Sandra; Laitinen, Saara; Leonardi, Tommaso; Lorenowicz, Magdalena J; Lim, Sai Kiang; Lötvall, Jan; Maguire, Casey A; Marcilla, Antonio; Nazarenko, Irina; Ochiya, Takahiro; Patel, Tushar; Pedersen, Shona; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Pluchino, Stefano; Quesenberry, Peter; Reischl, Ilona G; Rivera, Francisco J; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schallmoser, Katharina; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke; Strunk, Dirk; Tonn, Torsten; Vader, Pieter; van Balkom, Bas W M; Wauben, Marca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; Andaloussi, Samir El; Théry, Clotilde; Rohde, Eva; Giebel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information

  14. Mitochondria Targeted Nanoscale Zeolitic Imidazole Framework-90 for ATP Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ming; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-04-26

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) are an emerging class of functional porous materials with promising biomedical applications such as molecular sensing and intracellular drug delivery. We report herein the first example of using nanoscale ZIFs (i.e., ZIF-90), self-assembled from Zn 2+ and imidazole-2-carboxyaldehyde, to target subcellular mitochondria and image dynamics of mitochondrial ATP in live cells. Encapsulation of fluorescent Rhodamine B (RhB) into ZIF-90 suppresses the emission of RhB, while the competitive coordination between ATP and the metal node of ZIF-90 dissembles ZIFs, resulting in the release of RhB for ATP sensing. With this method, we are able to image mitochondrial ATP in live cells and study the ATP level fluctuation in cellular glycolysis and apoptosis processes. The strategy reported here could be further extended to tune nanoscale ZIFs inside live cells for targeted delivery of therapeutics to subcellular organelles for advanced biomedical applications.

  15. Arabidopsis ATP A2 peroxidase. Expression and high-resolution structure of a plant peroxidase with implications for lignification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Teilum, K; Mirza, O

    2000-01-01

    Lignins are phenolic biopolymers synthesized by terrestrial, vascular plants for mechanical support and in response to pathogen attack. Peroxidases have been proposed to catalyse the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols into lignins, although no specific isoenzyme has been shown...... to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Recently we isolated an extracellular anionic peroxidase, ATP A2, from rapidly lignifying Arabidopsis cell suspension culture and cloned its cDNA. Here we show that the Atp A2 promoter directs GUS reporter gene expression in lignified tissues of transgenic plants. Moreover......-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols are preferred by ATP A2, while the oxidation of sinapyl alcohol will be sterically hindered in ATP A2 as well as in all other plant peroxidases due to an overlap with the conserved Pro-139. We suggest ATP A2 is involved in a complex regulation of the covalent cross-linking in the plant...

  16. Exocytosis of ATP From Astrocytes Modulates Phasic and Tonic Inhibition in the Neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooli-Nejad, Seyed; Andrew, Jemma; Haydon, Philip G.; Pankratov, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for many brain functions. Astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength via Ca2+-stimulated release of various gliotransmitters, including glutamate and ATP. A physiological role of ATP release from astrocytes was suggested by its contribution to glial Ca2+-waves and purinergic modulation of neuronal activity and sleep homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying release of gliotransmitters remain uncertain, and exocytosis is the most intriguing and debated pathway. We investigated release of ATP from acutely dissociated cortical astrocytes using “sniff-cell” approach and demonstrated that release is vesicular in nature and can be triggered by elevation of intracellular Ca2+ via metabotropic and ionotropic receptors or direct UV-uncaging. The exocytosis of ATP from neocortical astrocytes occurred in the millisecond time scale contrasting with much slower nonvesicular release of gliotransmitters via Best1 and TREK-1 channels, reported recently in hippocampus. Furthermore, we discovered that elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in cortical astrocytes triggered the release of ATP that directly activated quantal purinergic currents in the pyramidal neurons. The glia-driven burst of purinergic currents in neurons was followed by significant attenuation of both synaptic and tonic inhibition. The Ca2+-entry through the neuronal P2X purinoreceptors led to phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of GABAA receptors. The negative purinergic modulation of postsynaptic GABA receptors was accompanied by small presynaptic enhancement of GABA release. Glia-driven purinergic modulation of inhibitory transmission was not observed in neurons when astrocytes expressed dn-SNARE to impair exocytosis. The astrocyte-driven purinergic currents and glia-driven modulation of GABA receptors were significantly reduced in the P2X4 KO mice. Our data provide a key evidence to support the physiological importance of exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes

  17. Exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes modulates phasic and tonic inhibition in the neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Lalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for many brain functions. Astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength via Ca(2+-stimulated release of various gliotransmitters, including glutamate and ATP. A physiological role of ATP release from astrocytes was suggested by its contribution to glial Ca(2+-waves and purinergic modulation of neuronal activity and sleep homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying release of gliotransmitters remain uncertain, and exocytosis is the most intriguing and debated pathway. We investigated release of ATP from acutely dissociated cortical astrocytes using "sniff-cell" approach and demonstrated that release is vesicular in nature and can be triggered by elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ via metabotropic and ionotropic receptors or direct UV-uncaging. The exocytosis of ATP from neocortical astrocytes occurred in the millisecond time scale contrasting with much slower nonvesicular release of gliotransmitters via Best1 and TREK-1 channels, reported recently in hippocampus. Furthermore, we discovered that elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+ in cortical astrocytes triggered the release of ATP that directly activated quantal purinergic currents in the pyramidal neurons. The glia-driven burst of purinergic currents in neurons was followed by significant attenuation of both synaptic and tonic inhibition. The Ca(2+-entry through the neuronal P2X purinoreceptors led to phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of GABAA receptors. The negative purinergic modulation of postsynaptic GABA receptors was accompanied by small presynaptic enhancement of GABA release. Glia-driven purinergic modulation of inhibitory transmission was not observed in neurons when astrocytes expressed dn-SNARE to impair exocytosis. The astrocyte-driven purinergic currents and glia-driven modulation of GABA receptors were significantly reduced in the P2X4 KO mice. Our data provide a key evidence to support the physiological importance of exocytosis of

  18. The P2X7 ATP receptor modulates renal cyst development in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Kate A.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Johnson, Tanya M.; Wade, Angela; Unwin, Robert J.; Winyard, Paul J.D.

    2004-01-01

    P2X 7 , a piercing receptor, is expressed in renal collecting ducts as they undergo fulminant cysto genesis in the cpk/cpk mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Dissociated cpk/cpk kidneys generate cysts from cell aggregates within 24 h of suspension culture and we demonstrate that BzATP, a P2X 7 agonist, reduces cystogenesis. This effect is P2X 7 -specific, because: (i) equimolar concentrations of other purinergic agonists, ATP and UTP, had lesser effects and (ii) the P2X 7 inhibitor, oxidized ATP, abrogated the BzATP-mediated reduction in cystogenesis. BzATP did not significantly affect total cell number, proliferation, LDH release or caspase 3 activity, and zVAD-fmk, a caspase blocker, failed to modulate BzATP effects. In addition, this P2X 7 agonist did not significantly alter cyst size, probably excluding altered vectorial transport. In vivo, ATP was detected in cyst fluid from cpk/cpk kidneys; moreover, P2X 7 protein was also upregulated in human fetal ARPKD epithelia versus normal fetal collecting ducts. Thus, ATP may inhibit pathological renal cyst growth through P2X 7 signaling

  19. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  20. Extracellular vesicles provide a means for tissue crosstalk during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitham, Martin; Parker, Benjamin L; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Exercise stimulates the release of molecules into the circulation, supporting the concept that inter-tissue signaling proteins are important mediators of adaptations to exercise. Recognizing that many circulating proteins are packaged in extracellular vesicles (EVs), we employed quantitative prot...

  1. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution,...... be separated from the water phase by filtration.......Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  2. Intracellular and extracellular adenosine triphosphate in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells (β).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjiong; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Guan, Youfei; Yang, Jichun

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and release in mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly characterized by a decrease in ATP production, which is a central event in the progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and diabetes. ATP has been demonstrated to regulate insulin secretion via several pathways: (i) Intracellular ATP directly closes ATP-sensitive potassium channel to open L-type calcium channel, leading to an increase in free cytosolic calcium levels and exocytosis of insulin granules; (ii) A decrease in ATP production is always associated with an increase in production of reactive oxygen species, which exerts deleterious effects on pancreatic β cell survival and insulin secretion; and (iii) ATP can be co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic β cells, and the released ATP functions as an autocrine signal to modulate insulin secretory process via P2 receptors on the cell membrane. In this review, the recent findings regarding the role and mechanism of ATP synthesis and release in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells will be summarized and discussed. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Kernien, John F; Wang, Steven X; Beebe, David J; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ansari, Hamayail; Nett, Jeniel E

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm. NET inhibition depended on an intact extracellular biofilm matrix as physical or genetic disruption of this component resulted in NET release. Biofilm inhibition of NETosis could not be overcome by protein kinase C activation via phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and was associated with suppression of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The degree of impaired NET release correlated with resistance to neutrophil attack. The clinical relevance of the role for extracellular matrix in diminishing NET production was corroborated in vivo using a rat catheter model. The C. albicans pmr1Δ/Δ, defective in production of matrix mannan, appeared to elicit a greater abundance of NETs by scanning electron microscopy imaging, which correlated with a decreased fungal burden. Together, these findings show that C. albicans biofilms impair neutrophil response through an inhibitory pathway induced by the extracellular matrix.

  4. A self-referencing biosensor for real-time monitoring of physiological ATP transport in plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Diana C; Clark, Greg; Cannon, Ashley E; Roux, Stanley; Chaturvedi, Prachee; McLamore, Eric S

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a self-referencing electrochemical biosensor for the direct measurement of ATP flux into the extracellular matrix by living cells/organisms. The working mechanism of the developed biosensor is based on the activity of glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase. A stratified bi-enzyme nanocomposite was created using a protein-templated silica sol gel encapsulation technique on top of graphene-modified platinum electrodes. The biosensor exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a sensitivity of 2.4±1.8 nA/µM, a response time of 20±13 s and a lower detection limit of 1.3±0.7 nM. The self-referencing biosensor was used to measure exogenous ATP efflux by (i) germinating Ceratopteris spores and (ii) growing Zea mays L. roots. This manuscript demonstrates the first development of a non-invasive ATP micro-biosensor for the direct measurement of eATP transport in living tissues. Before this work, assays of eATP have not been able to record the temporally transient movement of ATP at physiological levels (nM and sub-nM). The method demonstrated here accurately measured [eATP] flux in the immediate vicinity of plant cells. Although these proof of concept experiments focus on plant tissues, the technique developed herein is applicable to any living tissue, where nanomolar concentrations of ATP play a critical role in signaling and development. This tool will be invaluable for conducting hypothesis-driven life science research aimed at understanding the role of ATP in the extracellular environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism at P2X3 receptors in respiratory & urological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eFord

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates & sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X & P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways & participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs, linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice & knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity & visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory & visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action & are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral & central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral hollow organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation & pain (symptoms as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs, & how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary & airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional & sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs & symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists.

  6. Conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins via data mining and molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    The conformational diversity of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins was investigated using molecular dynamics and data mining. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) conformations were found to be constrained mostly by inter cavity motifs in the motor proteins. It is demonstrated that ATP favors extended conformations in the tight pockets of motor proteins such as F1-ATPase and actin whereas compact structures are favored in motor proteins such as RNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The incorporation of Mg2+ leads to increased flexibility of ATP molecules. The differences in the conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in various motor proteins was quantified by the radius of gyration. The relationship between the simulation results and those obtained by data mining of motor proteins available in the protein data bank is analyzed. The data mining analysis of motor proteins supports the conformational diversity of the phosphate group of ATP obtained computationally.

  7. Origin Licensing Requires ATP Binding and Hydrolysis by the MCM Replicative Helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Gideon; Frigola, Jordi; Beuron, Fabienne; Morris, Edward P.; Diffley, John F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loading of the six related Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) proteins as head-to-head double hexamers during DNA replication origin licensing is crucial for ensuring once-per-cell-cycle DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Assembly of these prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) requires the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), Cdc6, and Cdt1. ORC, Cdc6, and MCM are members of the AAA+ family of ATPases, and pre-RC assembly requires ATP hydrolysis. Here we show that ORC and Cdc6 mutants defective in ATP hydrolysis are competent for origin licensing. However, ATP hydrolysis by Cdc6 is required to release nonproductive licensing intermediates. We show that ATP binding stabilizes the wild-type MCM hexamer. Moreover, by analyzing MCM containing mutant subunits, we show that ATP binding and hydrolysis by MCM are required for Cdt1 release and double hexamer formation. This work alters our view of how ATP is used by licensing factors to assemble pre-RCs. PMID:25087873

  8. Structure of the LDL receptor extracellular domain at endosomalpH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby; Henry, Lisa; Henderson, Keith; Ichtchenko,Konstantin; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Deisenhofer, Johann

    2002-09-05

    The structure of the low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular portion has been determined. The document proposes a mechanism for the release of lipoprotein in the endosome. Without this release, the mechanism of receptor recycling cannot function.

  9. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  10. Characterization of a Ca2+ response to both UTP and ATP at human P2Y11 receptors: evidence for agonist-specific signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J; Webb, Tania E; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-06-01

    Previous reports on heterologously-expressed human P2Y11 receptors have indicated that ATP, but not UTP, is an agonist stimulating both phosphoinositidase C and adenylyl cyclase. Consistent with these findings, we report that in 1321N1 cells expressing human P2Y11 receptors, UTP stimulation did not lead to accumulation of inositol(poly)phosphates under conditions in which ATP gave a robust, concentration-dependent effect. Unexpectedly, however, both UTP and ATP stimulated increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), with both nucleotides achieving similar EC50 and maximal responses. The responses to maximally effective concentrations of ATP and UTP were not additive. The [Ca2+]c increase in response to UTP was less dependent on extracellular Ca2+ than was the response to ATP. AR-C67085 (2-propylthio-beta,gamma-difluoromethylene-d-ATP, a P2Y11-selective agonist), adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), and benzoyl ATP were all full agonists with potencies similar to those of ATP and UTP. In desensitization experiments, exposure to ATP resulted in loss of the UTP response; this response was more sensitive to desensitization than that of ATP. Pertussis toxin pretreatment attenuated the response to UTP but left the ATP response unaffected. The presence of 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate differentially affected the responses of ATP and UTP. No mRNA transcripts for P2Y2 or P2Y4 were detectable in the P2Y11-expressing cells. We conclude that UTP is a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist at P2Y11 receptors and that ATP and UTP acting at the same receptor recruit distinct signaling pathways. This example of agonist-specific signaling is discussed in terms of agonist trafficking and differential signal strength.

  11. Molecular Events Involved in a Single Cycle of Ligand Transfer from an ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, LolCDE, to a Molecular Chaperone, LolA*

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Naohiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    An ATP binding cassette transporter LolCDE complex releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli in an ATP-dependent manner, leading to the formation of a complex between a lipoprotein and a periplasmic chaperone, LolA. LolA is proposed to undergo a conformational change upon the lipoprotein binding. The lipoprotein is then transferred from the LolA-lipoprotein complex to the outer membrane via LolB. Unlike most ATP binding cassette transporters med...

  12. Mutations in the Atp1p and Atp3p subunits of yeast ATP synthase differentially affect respiration and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian R; White, Karen H; Thorsness, Peter E

    2007-04-01

    ATP1-111, a suppressor of the slow-growth phenotype of yme1Delta lacking mitochondrial DNA is due to the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 111 of the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (Atp1p in yeast). The suppressing activity of ATP1-111 requires intact beta (Atp2p) and gamma (Atp3p) subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but not the stator stalk subunits b (Atp4p) and OSCP (Atp5p). ATP1-111 and other similarly suppressing mutations in ATP1 and ATP3 increase the growth rate of wild-type strains lacking mitochondrial DNA. These suppressing mutations decrease the growth rate of yeast containing an intact mitochondrial chromosome on media requiring oxidative phosphorylation, but not when grown on fermentable media. Measurement of chronological aging of yeast in culture reveals that ATP1 and ATP3 suppressor alleles in strains that contain mitochondrial DNA are longer lived than the isogenic wild-type strain. In contrast, the chronological life span of yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA and containing these mutations is shorter than that of the isogenic wild-type strain. Spore viability of strains bearing ATP1-111 is reduced compared to wild type, although ATP1-111 enhances the survival of spores that lacked mitochondrial DNA.

  13. Increased degradation of ATP is driven by memory regulatory T cells in kidney transplantation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Maxim; Dubois, Florian; Dejou, Cécile; Durand, Eugénie; Danger, Richard; Chesneau, Mélanie; Brosseau, Carole; Guerif, Pierrick; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Degauque, Nicolas; Eliaou, Jean-François; Giral, Magali; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Brouard, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Regulatory T cells were recently proposed as the central actor in operational tolerance after renal transplantation. Tolerant patients harbor increased FoxP3hi memory Treg frequency and increased demethylation in the Foxp3 Treg-specific demethylated region when compared to stable kidney recipients and exhibit greater memory Treg suppressive capacities and higher expression of the ectonucleotidase CD39. However, in this particular and unique situation the mechanisms of action of Tregs were not identified. Thus, we analyzed the ability of memory Tregs to degrade extracellular ATP in tolerant patients, healthy volunteers, and patients with stable graft function under immunosuppression and determined the role of immunosuppressive drugs on this process. The conserved proportion of memory Tregs leads to the establishment of a pro-tolerogenic balance in operationally tolerant patients. Memory Tregs in tolerant patients display normal capacity to degrade extracellular ATP/ADP. In contrast, memory Tregs from patients with stable graft function do not have this ability. Finally, in vitro, immunosuppressive drugs may favor the lower proportion of memory Tregs in stable patients, but they have no effect on CD39-dependent ATP degradation and do not explain memory Treg lack of extracellular ATP/ADP degradation ability. Thus, intrinsic active regulatory mechanisms may act long after immunosuppressive drug arrest in operationally tolerant patients and may contribute to kidney allograft tolerance via the maintenance of CD39 Treg function. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracellular Purine Metabolism Is the Switchboard of Immunosuppressive Macrophages and a Novel Target to Treat Diseases With Macrophage Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ohradanova-Repic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available If misregulated, macrophage (Mϕ–T cell interactions can drive chronic inflammation thereby causing diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We report that in a proinflammatory environment, granulocyte-Mϕ (GM-CSF- and Mϕ colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF-dependent Mϕs have dichotomous effects on T cell activity. While GM-CSF-dependent Mϕs show a highly stimulatory activity typical for M1 Mϕs, M-CSF-dependent Mϕs, marked by folate receptor β (FRβ, adopt an immunosuppressive M2 phenotype. We find the latter to be caused by the purinergic pathway that directs release of extracellular ATP and its conversion to immunosuppressive adenosine by co-expressed CD39 and CD73. Since we observed a misbalance between immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory Mϕs in human and murine arthritic joints, we devised a new strategy for RA treatment based on targeted delivery of a novel methotrexate (MTX formulation to the immunosuppressive FRβ+CD39+CD73+ Mϕs, which boosts adenosine production and curtails the dominance of proinflammatory Mϕs. In contrast to untargeted MTX, this approach leads to potent alleviation of inflammation in the murine arthritis model. In conclusion, we define the Mϕ extracellular purine metabolism as a novel checkpoint in Mϕ cell fate decision-making and an attractive target to control pathological Mϕs in immune-mediated diseases.

  15. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD, respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation.

  16. ATP/P2X7 axis modulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell functions in neuroblastoma microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G; Vuerich, M; Pellegatti, P; Marimpietri, D; Emionite, L; Marigo, I; Bronte, V; Di Virgilio, F; Pistoia, V; Raffaghello, L

    2014-03-20

    Tumor microenvironment of solid tumors is characterized by a strikingly high concentration of adenosine and ATP. Physiological significance of this biochemical feature is unknown, but it has been suggested that it may affect infiltrating immune cell responses and tumor progression. There is increasing awareness that many of the effects of extracellular ATP on tumor and inflammatory cells are mediated by the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Aim of this study was to investigate whether: (i) extracellular ATP is a component of neuroblastoma (NB) microenvironment, (ii) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) express functional P2X7R and (iii) the ATP/P2X7R axis modulates MDSC functions. Our results show that extracellular ATP was detected in NB microenvironment in amounts that increased in parallel with tumor progression. The percentage of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) cells was higher in NB-bearing mice compared with healthy animals. Within the CD11b/Gr-1(+) population, monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), arginase-1 (ARG-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and stimulated more potently in vivo tumor growth, as compared with granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs). P2X7R of M-MDSCs was localized at the plasma membrane, coupled to increased functionality, upregulation of ARG-1, TGF-β1 and ROS. Quite surprisingly, the P2X7R in primary MDSCs as well as in the MSC-1 and MSC-2 lines was uncoupled from cytotoxicity. This study describes a novel scenario in which MDSC immunosuppressive functions are modulated by the ATP-enriched tumor microenvironment.

  17. Redox regulation of ATP sulfurylase in microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prioretti, L.; Lebrun, R.; Gontero, B.; Giordano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 478, č. 4 (2016), s. 1555-1562 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ATP sulfurylase * cysteine * Sulfur metabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  18. NCEP ATP III dan Framingham score

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Refli; Fahila, Reny

    2016-01-01

    Laporan ini merupakan Program Pendidikan Kolesterol National yang diperbaharui yaitu pedoman klinis untuk melakukan pengujian kolesterol dan manajemen. ATP III dibuat berdasarkan bukti dan laporan ekstensif yang akan menjadi referensi dan rekomendasi ilmiah. Laporan ATP III dapat dijadikan pedoman untuk pemberian terapi penurun kolesterol yang intensif dalam praktek. Pedoman ini hanya sebagai informasi , tidak dapat mempengaruhi secara mutlak dalam penilaian klinis dokter yang akhirnya menent...

  19. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  20. Effect of Intramuscular Protons, Lactate, and ATP on Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Gregory

    Full Text Available Chronic muscle pain is a significant health problem leading to disability[1]. Muscle fatigue can exacerbate muscle pain. Metabolites, including ATP, lactate, and protons, are released during fatiguing exercise and produce pain in humans. These substances directly activate purinergic (P2X and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs on muscle nociceptors, and when combined, produce a greater increase in neuron firing than when given alone. Whether the enhanced effect of combining protons, lactate, and ATP is the sum of individual effects (additive or more than the sum of individual effects (synergistic is unknown. Using a rat model of muscle nociceptive behavior, we tested each of these compounds individually over a range of physiologic and supra-physiologic concentrations. Further, we combined all three compounds in a series of dilutions and tested their effect on muscle nociceptive behavior. We also tested a non-hydrolyzable form of ATP (α,β-meATP alone and in combination with lactate and acidic pH. Surprisingly, we found no dose-dependent effect on muscle nociceptive behavior for protons, lactate, or ATP when given alone. We similarly found no effect after application of each two-metabolite combination. Only pH 4 saline and α,β-meATP produced hyperalgesia when given alone. When all 3 substances were combined, however, ATP (2.4μm, lactate (10mM, and acidic pH (pH 6.0 produced an enhanced effect greater than the sum of the effects of the individual components, i.e. synergism. α,β me ATP (3nmol, on the other hand, showed no enhanced effects when combined with lactate (10mM or acidic pH (pH 6.0, i.e. additive. These data suggest that combining fatigue metabolites in muscle produces a synergistic effect on muscle nociception.

  1. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  2. The utilization of adenosine triphosphate in rat mast cells during histamine release induced by anaphylactic reaction and compound 48/80

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Chakravarty, N

    1975-01-01

    of ATP synthesis while a large part of the histamine release remained unaffected-a decrease in the ATP content could be demonstrated in close time relation to both anaphylactic and compound 48/80-induced histamine release. The observations indicate an increased utilization of ATP in mast cells during...

  3. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  4. Rapid tissue regeneration induced by intracellular ATP delivery-A preliminary mechanistic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Sarojini

    Full Text Available We have reported a new phenomenon in acute wound healing following the use of intracellular ATP delivery-extremely rapid tissue regeneration, which starts less than 24 h after surgery, and is accompanied by massive macrophage trafficking, in situ proliferation, and direct collagen production. This unusual process bypasses the formation of the traditional provisional extracellular matrix and significantly shortens the wound healing process. Although macrophages/monocytes are known to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of wound healing, their in situ proliferation and direct collagen production in wound healing have never been reported previously. We have explored these two very specific pathways during wound healing, while excluding confounding factors in the in vivo environment by analyzing wound samples and performing in vitro studies. The use of immunohistochemical studies enabled the detection of in situ macrophage proliferation in ATP-vesicle treated wounds. Primary human macrophages and Raw 264.7 cells were used for an in vitro study involving treatment with ATP vesicles, free Mg-ATP alone, lipid vesicles alone, Regranex, or culture medium. Collagen type 1α 1, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were determined by ELISA of the culture supernatant. The intracellular collagen type 1α1 localization was determined with immunocytochemistry. ATP-vesicle treated wounds showed high immunoreactivity towards BrdU and PCNA antigens, indicating in situ proliferation. Most of the cultured macrophages treated with ATP-vesicles maintained their classic phenotype and expressed high levels of collagen type 1α1 for a longer duration than was observed with cells treated with Regranex. These studies provide the first clear evidence of in situ macrophage proliferation and direct collagen production during wound healing. These findings provide part of the explanation for the extremely rapid tissue regeneration, and this treatment may hold

  5. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-01-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand–receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers

  6. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-03-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand-receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers.

  7. The Role of ATP in the Regulation of NCAM Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübschmann, Martin; Skladchikova, Galina

    2008-01-01

    overlaps with the site of NCAM-FGFR interaction, and ATP is capable of disrupting NCAM-FGFR binding. This implies that NCAM signaling through FGFR can be regulated by ATP, which is supported by the observation that ATP can abrogate NCAM-induced neurite outgrowth. Finally, ATP can induce NCAM ectodomain...... shedding, possibly affecting the structural plasticity associated with learning and memory....

  8. Analysis of an ATP-induced conformational transition of ABC transporter MsbA using a coarse-grained model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Naoki; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Upon the binding of ATP molecules to nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters undergo a conformational transition from an inward-facing (IF) to an outward-facing (OF) state. This molecular event is a typical example of chemo-mechanical coupling. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the IF→OF transition of a representative ABC exporter, MsbA, by solving the equation of motion under an elastic network model (ENM). ATP was represented as a single node in ENM or replaced by external forces. When two ATP nodes were added to the ENM of the IF state protein, the two NBDs dimerized; subsequently, the two transmembrane domains opened toward the extracellular side, resulting in the formation of the OF structure. Such a conformational transition was also reproduced by applying external forces, which caused the rotational motion of the NBDs instead of the addition of ATP nodes. The process of the conformational transition was analyzed in detail using cross-correlation maps for node-node interactions. More importantly, it was revealed that the ATP binding energy is converted into distortion energy of several transmembrane helices. These results are useful for understanding the chemo-mechanical coupling in ABC transporters.

  9. InP/ZnS Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Probes for the Detection of ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Massadeh, Salam; Nann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study on fluorescence adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection by InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). We present a spectroscopic analysis displaying the effect of enzymatic reactions of glucose oxidase (GOX) and hexokinase (HEX) on the InP/ZnS quantum dots at physiological pH. The InP/ZnS quantum dots act as glucose sensors in the presence of GOX, Glu and ATP, and their luminescence quenches during the release of hydrogen peroxide from the reaction. However, in the presence of...

  10. Skeletal muscle expresses the extracellular cyclic AMP–adenosine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatti, T; Costa, V L; Araújo, M S; Godinho, R O

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: cAMP is a key intracellular signalling molecule that regulates multiple processes of the vertebrate skeletal muscle. We have shown that cAMP can be actively pumped out from the skeletal muscle cell. Since in other tissues, cAMP efflux had been associated with extracellular generation of adenosine, in the present study we have assessed the fate of interstitial cAMP and the existence of an extracellular cAMP-adenosine signalling pathway in skeletal muscle. Experimental approach: cAMP efflux and/or its extracellular degradation were analysed by incubating rat cultured skeletal muscle with exogenous cAMP, forskolin or isoprenaline. cAMP and its metabolites were quantified by radioassay or HPLC, respectively. Key results: Incubation of cells with exogenous cAMP was followed by interstitial accumulation of 5′-AMP and adenosine, a phenomenon inhibited by selective inhibitors of ecto-phosphodiesterase (DPSPX) and ecto-nucleotidase (AMPCP). Activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in cultured cells with forskolin or isoprenaline increased cAMP efflux and extracellular generation of 5′-AMP and adenosine. Extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway was also observed after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of AC in rat extensor muscle ex vivo. These events were attenuated by probenecid, an inhibitor of ATP binding cassette family transporters. Conclusions and implications: Our results show the existence of an extracellular biochemical cascade that converts cAMP into adenosine. The functional relevance of this extracellular signalling system may involve a feedback modulation of cellular response initiated by several G protein-coupled receptor ligands, amplifying cAMP influence to a paracrine mode, through its metabolite, adenosine. PMID:18157164

  11. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: normal ATP turnover in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, I.H.; Bertorini, T.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Shefner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines ATP metabolism in cultured muscle cells and fibroblasts from patients with Duchenne dystrophy. ATP and ADP levels were the same in cultured cells from normal subjects and patients and there was no difference in ATP synthesis or degradation. The ATP synthesis was measured by the incorporation of C 14-U-adenine into aTP and ADP. although there was a significant decrease in radioactively labelled ATP after incubation with deoxyglucose in Duchenne muscle cells, there was no difference in ATP concentration of ADP metabolism

  12. Endogenous adenosine produced during hypoxia attenuates neutrophil accumulation: coordination by extracellular nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltzschig, Holger K; Thompson, Linda F; Karhausen, Jorn; Cotta, Richard J; Ibla, Juan C; Robson, Simon C; Colgan, Sean P

    2004-12-15

    Hypoxia is a well-documented inflammatory stimulus and results in tissue polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation. Likewise, increased tissue adenosine levels are commonly associated with hypoxia, and given the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine, we hypothesized that adenosine production via adenine nucleotide metabolism at the vascular surface triggers an endogenous anti-inflammatory response during hypoxia. Initial in vitro studies indicated that endogenously generated adenosine, through activation of PMN adenosine A(2A) and A(2B) receptors, functions as an antiadhesive signal for PMN binding to microvascular endothelia. Intravascular nucleotides released by inflammatory cells undergo phosphohydrolysis via hypoxia-induced CD39 ectoapyrase (CD39 converts adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate [ATP/ADP] to adenosine monophosphate [AMP]) and CD73 ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73 converts AMP to adenosine). Extensions of our in vitro findings using cd39- and cd73-null animals revealed that extracellular adenosine produced through adenine nucleotide metabolism during hypoxia is a potent anti-inflammatory signal for PMNs in vivo. These findings identify CD39 and CD73 as critical control points for endogenous adenosine generation and implicate this pathway as an innate mechanism to attenuate excessive tissue PMN accumulation.

  13. A polycystin-type transient receptor potential (Trp channel that is activated by ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Traynor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants. We report that the DIF morphogens, cyclic-di-GMP, GABA, glutamate and adenosine all induce strong cytoplasmic calcium responses, likewise independently of TrpP. Thus, TrpP is dedicated to purinergic signalling. ATP treatment causes cell blebbing within seconds but this does not require TrpP, implicating a separate purinergic receptor. We could detect no effect of ATP on chemotaxis and TrpP mutants grow, chemotax and develop almost normally in standard conditions. No gating ligand is known for the human homologue of TrpP, polycystin-2, which causes polycystic kidney disease. Our results now show that TrpP mediates purinergic signalling in Dictyostelium and is directly or indirectly gated by ATP.

  14. Baseline extracellular potassium level as an indicator of the rate of increase of the same on further storage in CPDA-1 whole blood units: a potential approach to complement FIFO system for prioritisation of blood bags for release from blood-banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S; Jaiswal, M

    2014-02-01

    Potassium levels in stored blood bags increases as they age. Hyperkalemia in transfused blood has undesirable cardiac effects. Within a 19-month period, baseline and weekly samples from 15 CPDA-1 whole blood bags were collected till 28 days of storage and analysed for potassium, sodium, uric acid, albumin and whole blood haemoglobin. One unit increase in baseline (0 day) potassium in extracellular fluid of blood units was associated with the following increases in potassium levels on later days of storage: around two unit increase at 1 week (r2 = 0·50, P values. For CPDA-1 blood bags (i) low baseline potassium blood bags might be preferred for transfusion in cases demanding a low potassium load and (ii) coordinating the ‘first-in-first-out’ (FIFO) policy with ‘early release of blood-bags with high initial potassium’ might be helpful in improving the release of suitable blood units from blood-banks.

  15. Methods to isolate extracellular vesicles for diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, Jaesung

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound bodies that are released into extracellular space by diverse cells, and are found in body fluids like blood, urine and saliva. EVs contain RNA, DNA and proteins, which can be biomarkers for diagnosis. EVs can be obtained by minimally-invasive biopsy, so they are useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to precise diagnosis of disease, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause confu sed results. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Furthermore, the isolation method that is most suitable to maximize EV recovery efficiency depends on the experimental conditions. This review focuses on merits and demerits of several types of EV isolation methods, and provides examples of how to diagnose disease by exploiting information obtained by analysis of EVs.

  16. Control of ATP hydrolysis by ADP bound at the catalytic site of chloroplast ATP synthase as related to protonmotive force and Mg sup 2+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z.; Boyer, P.D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-01-24

    The activation of the ATP synthesis and hydrolysis capacity of isolated chloroplast membranes by protonmotive force is known to be associated with the release of tightly bound ADP from the ATP synthase. The data support the view that the activation requires only those structural changes occurring in the steady-state reaction mechanism. The trapping of ADP released during light activation or the chelation of Mg{sup 2+} with EDTA effectively reduces the rate of decay of the ATPase activity. When the release of tightly bound ADP and Mg{sup 2+} is promoted by light activation, followed by immediate dilution and washing to retard the rebinding of the ADP and Mg{sup 2+} released, the ATPase activity remains high in the dark long after the protonmotive force has disappeared. After the addition of ADP and Mg{sup 2+} the decay of the ATPase activity has the same characteristics as those of the unwashed chloroplast membrane. The results are interpreted as indicating that both Mg{sup 2+} and ADP must be present prior to exposure to MgATP for the ATPase to be inhibited. However, in contrast to the isolated chloroplast ATPase, the steady-state activity of the membrane-bound ATPase is not inhibited by excess Mg{sup 2+}. The replacement of ({sup 3}H)ADP from catalytic sites during hydrolysis of unlabeled ATP or during photophosphorylation with unlabeled ADP occurs as anticipated if Mg{sup 2+} and ADP bound at one catalytic site without P{sub i} block catalysis by all three enzyme sites. The inhibited form induced by Mg{sup 2+} and ADP may occur only under laboratory conditions and not have an in vivo role.

  17. Control of ATP hydrolysis by ADP bound at the catalytic site of chloroplast ATP synthase as related to protonmotive force and Mg2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Z.; Boyer, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The activation of the ATP synthesis and hydrolysis capacity of isolated chloroplast membranes by protonmotive force is known to be associated with the release of tightly bound ADP from the ATP synthase. The data support the view that the activation requires only those structural changes occurring in the steady-state reaction mechanism. The trapping of ADP released during light activation or the chelation of Mg 2+ with EDTA effectively reduces the rate of decay of the ATPase activity. When the release of tightly bound ADP and Mg 2+ is promoted by light activation, followed by immediate dilution and washing to retard the rebinding of the ADP and Mg 2+ released, the ATPase activity remains high in the dark long after the protonmotive force has disappeared. After the addition of ADP and Mg 2+ the decay of the ATPase activity has the same characteristics as those of the unwashed chloroplast membrane. The results are interpreted as indicating that both Mg 2+ and ADP must be present prior to exposure to MgATP for the ATPase to be inhibited. However, in contrast to the isolated chloroplast ATPase, the steady-state activity of the membrane-bound ATPase is not inhibited by excess Mg 2+ . The replacement of [ 3 H]ADP from catalytic sites during hydrolysis of unlabeled ATP or during photophosphorylation with unlabeled ADP occurs as anticipated if Mg 2+ and ADP bound at one catalytic site without P i block catalysis by all three enzyme sites. The inhibited form induced by Mg 2+ and ADP may occur only under laboratory conditions and not have an in vivo role

  18. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells

  19. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-01-04

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells.

  20. Lack of Direct Cytotoxicity of Extracellular ATP against Hepatocytes: Role in the Mechanism of Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yuchao; Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Kos, Milan; McGill, Mitchell R.; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is a major cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Mechanistic studies in mice and humans have implicated formation of a reactive metabolite, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress as critical events in the pathophysiology of APAP-induced liver cell

  1. Extracellular Gd-CA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Until recently it was believed that extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents were safe for both the kidneys and all other organs within the dose range up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight. However, in 2006, it was demonstrated that some gadolinium-based contrast agents may trig the development...... gadolinium-based agent (3-7% versus 0-1% per injection) in patients with reduced renal function. Prevalence after exposure to two gadodiamide injections is as high as 36% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. No report of NSF after the most stable agents has been reported in the peer...

  2. The metal chaperone Atox1 regulates the activity of the human copper transporter ATP7B by modulating domain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Corey H; Yang, Nan; Bothe, Jameson; Tonelli, Marco; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Dolgova, Natalia V; Braiterman, Lelita; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2017-11-03

    The human transporter ATP7B delivers copper to the biosynthetic pathways and maintains copper homeostasis in the liver. Mutations in ATP7B cause the potentially fatal hepatoneurological disorder Wilson disease. The activity and intracellular localization of ATP7B are regulated by copper, but the molecular mechanism of this regulation is largely unknown. We show that the copper chaperone Atox1, which delivers copper to ATP7B, and the group of the first three metal-binding domains (MBD1-3) are central to the activity regulation of ATP7B. Atox1-Cu binding to ATP7B changes domain dynamics and interactions within the MBD1-3 group and activates ATP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism linking Atox1-MBD interactions and enzyme activity, we have determined the MBD1-3 conformational space using small angle X-ray scattering and identified changes in MBD dynamics caused by apo -Atox1 and Atox1-Cu by solution NMR. The results show that copper transfer from Atox1 decreases domain interactions within the MBD1-3 group and increases the mobility of the individual domains. The N-terminal segment of MBD1-3 was found to interact with the nucleotide-binding domain of ATP7B, thus physically coupling the domains involved in copper binding and those involved in ATP hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest a regulatory mechanism in which Atox1-mediated copper transfer activates ATP7B by releasing inhibitory constraints through increased freedom of MBD1-3 motions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Red Wine Inhibits Aggregation and Increases ATP-diphosphohydrolase (CD39) Activity of Rat Platelets in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Idolo; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis. There is evidence that red wine consumption increases CD39 activity in platelets from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Here we show that two kinds of Aglianico red wines inhibit aggregation and increase ATP--and ADPase activity in rat platelets.

  4. Rapid release of 42K or 86Rb from two distinct transport sites on the Na,K-pump in the presence of Pi or vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbush, B. III

    1987-01-01

    The rate of 86Rb or 42 K release from an occluded form of the phosphorylated Na+ pump has been studied using a rapid filtration apparatus described previously. The rate constant of release is 5-15 s-1, and 42 K and 86Rb dissociate at approximately the same rate. Mg2+ is required for deocclusion in the presence of Pi at a site which has the same affinity as the site involved in stabilization of E2(K) with ATP; we propose that Na,K-ATPase has only one site for Mg2+, that the affinity of this site for Mg2+ is increased by Pi binding and decreased by ATP binding, and that Mg2+ is bound and released in the normal transport cycle. In the presence of K+, Cs+, Rb+, or Tl+, the release of two distinct 86Rb ions can be observed, the slow release from one site (''s'' site) being blocked by occupancy of the site vacated by the other (''f'', fast site). By a sequence of incubations, labeled 86Rb can be placed at either site, and the rate of dissociation monitored individually; in the absence of K+, dissociation from the s site proceeds after a lag in which the f site is vacated. The results are consistent with a ''flickering-gate'' model of deocclusion to the extracellular pump face, in which the site is exposed to the medium only long enough for a single ion to be released. When deocclusion to the intracellular face is promoted with ATP, ions are released from both sites at the same rate, presumably because the E2----E1 conformational change is rate-limiting. Unlabeled ions co-occluded with 86Rb increase the ATP-stimulated rate of release in the order Rb+ less than Tl+ less than Cs+ less than K+; since the same rank order is observed when dissociation from the s site is monitored in the presence of these ions and MgPi we propose that the latter process proceeds toward the intracellular pump face

  5. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Mráček, Tomáš; Vrbacký, Marek; Kaplanová, Vilma; Karbanová, Vendula; Nůsková, Hana; Pecina, Petr; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S57-S71 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0970; GA ČR GAP303/12/1363; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA MZd(CZ) NT14050 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 370411 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial diseases * TMEM70 * ATPAF1 * ATP5A1 * ATP5E Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  6. Adenosine triphosphate levels during anaphylactic histamine release in rat mast cells in vitro. Effects of glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells was studied during and after anaphylactic histamine release. The almost identical time course of ATP decrease from mast cells treated with either glycolytic or respiratory inhibitors supports the view that the ATP depletion was largely re...

  7. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unusual isotopic composition of C-CO2 from sterilized soil microcosms: a new way to separate intracellular from extracellular respiratory metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Alvarez, Gaël; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Amblard, Christian; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization of organic C requires two main steps. First, microorganisms secrete exoenzymes in soil in order to depolymerize plant and microbial cell walls and release soluble substrates for microbial assimilation. The second step of mineralization, during which C is released as CO2, implies the absorption and utilization of solubilized substrates by microbial cells with the aim to produce energy (ATP). In cells, soluble substrates are carried out by a cascade of respiratory enzymes, along which protons and electrons are transferred from a substrate to oxygen. Given the complexity of this oxidative metabolism and the typical fragility of respiratory enzymes, it is traditionally considered that respiration (second step of C mineralization process) is strictly an intracellular metabolism process. The recurrent observations of substantial CO2 emissions in soil microcosms where microbial cells have been reduced to extremely low levels challenges this paradigm. In a recent study where some respiratory enzymes have shown to function in an extracellular context in soils, Maire et al. (2013) suggested that an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) substantially contributes to CO2 emission from soils. This idea is supported by the recent publication of Blankinship et al., 2014 who showed the presence of active enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle on soil particles. Many controversies subsist in the scientific community due to the presence of non-proliferating but morphologically intact cells after irradiation that could substantially contribute to those soil CO2 emissions. To test whether a purely extracellular oxidative metabolism contribute to soil CO2 emissions, we combined high doses of gamma irradiations to different time of soil autoclaving. The presence of active and non-active cells in soil was checked by DNA and RNA extraction and by electronic microscopy. None active cells (RNA-containing cells) were detectable after irradiation, but some morphological

  9. Novel cellular bouton structure activated by ATP in the vascular wall of porcine retinal arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Mikkel Wölck; Aalkjaer, Christian; Simonsen, Ulf; Bek, Toke

    2010-12-01

    The retinal blood flow is regulated by the tone of resistance arterioles, which is influenced by purinergic compounds such as adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from the retinal tissue. However, it is unknown what cellular elements in the perivascular retina are responsible for the effect of purines on the tone of retinal arterioles. Porcine retinal arterioles were loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore Oregon green. The vessels were mounted in a confocal myograph for simultaneous recordings of tone and calcium activity in cells of the vascular wall during stimulation with ATP and adenosine, with and without modifiers of these compounds. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was used to localize elements with calcium activity in the vascular wall. Hyperfluorescence indicating calcium activity was recorded in a population of abundant round boutons interspersed in a network of vimentin-positive processes located immediately external to the smooth muscle cell layer but internal to the perivascular glial cells. These structures showed calcium activity when the vessel was relaxed with ATP but not when it was relaxed with adenosine. Ryanodine reduced calcium activity in the boutons, whereas the ATP antagonist adenosine-5'-O-(α, β- methylene diphosphate) reduced calcium activity in both the boutons and vascular tone. The vasodilating effect of purines in porcine retinal tissue involves ATP-dependent calcium activity in a layer of cellular boutons located external to the vascular smooth muscle cells and internal to the perivascular glial cells.

  10. Ligand binding and conformational changes of SUR1 subunit in pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Ding, Dian; Wang, Mengmeng; Kang, Yunlu; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Lei

    2018-06-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) are energy sensors on the plasma membrane. By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio of β-cells, pancreatic K ATP channels control insulin release and regulate metabolism at the whole body level. They are implicated in many metabolic disorders and diseases and are therefore important drug targets. Here, we present three structures of pancreatic K ATP channels solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), at resolutions ranging from 4.1 to 4.5 Å. These structures depict the binding site of the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide, indicate how Kir6.2 (inward-rectifying potassium channel 6.2) N-terminus participates in the coupling between the peripheral SUR1 (sulfonylurea receptor 1) subunit and the central Kir6.2 channel, reveal the binding mode of activating nucleotides, and suggest the mechanism of how Mg-ADP binding on nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) drives a conformational change of the SUR1 subunit.

  11. ATP mediates NADPH oxidase/ROS generation and COX-2/PGE2 expression in A549 cells: role of P2 receptor-dependent STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 release remain unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin, PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin, ROS (Edaravone, NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490, and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE] and transfection with siRNAs of PKCα, PKCι, PKCμ, p47(phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA(2 markedly reduced ATPγS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATPγS. Moreover, ATPγS-induced ROS generation and p47(phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATPγS stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA(2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies.

  12. The role of extracellular histones in haematological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamdi, Yasir; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, chromosomal alterations have been extensively investigated for their pathophysiological relevance in haematological malignancies. In particular, epigenetic modifications of intra-nuclear histones are now known as key regulators of healthy cell cycles that have also evolved into novel therapeutic targets for certain blood cancers. Thus, for most haematologists, histones are DNA-chained proteins that are buried deep within chromatin. However, the plot has deepened with recent revelations on the function of histones when unchained and released extracellularly upon cell death or from activated neutrophils as part of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Extracellular histones and NETs are increasingly recognized for profound cytotoxicity and pro-coagulant effects. This article highlights the importance of recognizing this new paradigm of extracellular histones as a key player in host defence through its damage-associated molecular patterns, which could translate into novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in various haematological and critical disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship of tightly bound ADP and ATP to control and catalysis by chloroplast ATP synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Xue, Z.; Du, Z.; Melese, T.; Boyer, P.D.

    1988-07-12

    Whether the tightly bound ADP that can cause a pronounced inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast ATP synthase and F/sub 1/ ATPase (CF/sub 1/) is bound at catalytic sites or at noncatalytic regulatory sites or both has been uncertain. The authors have used photolabeling by 2-azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP to ascertain the location, with Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, of tightly bound ADP (a) that inhibits the hydrolysis of ATP by chloroplast ATP synthase, (b) that can result in an inhibited form of CF/sub 1/ that slowly regains activity during ATP hydrolysis, and (c) that arises when low concentrations of ADP markedly inhibit the hydrolysis of GTP by CF/sub 1/. The data show that in all instances the inhibition is associated with ADP binding without inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) at catalytic sites. After photophosphorylation of ADP or 2-azido-ADP with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, similar amounts of the corresponding triphosphates are present on washed thylakoid membranes. Trials with appropriately labeled substrates show that a small portion of the tightly bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling by an ADP moiety at a catalytic site. They also report the occurrence of a 1-2-min delay in the onset of the Mg/sup 2 +/-induced inhibition after addition of CF/sub 1/ to solutions containing Mg/sup 2 +/ and ATP, and that this delay is not associated with the filling of noncatalytic sites. A rapid burst of P/sub i/ formation is followed by a much lower, constant steady-state rate. The burst is not observed with GTP as a substrate or with Ca/sup 2 +/ as the activating cation.

  14. Bioluminometric assay of ATP in mouse brain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Firefly luciferase bioluminescence (FLB) is a highly sensitive and specific method for the analysis of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) in biological samples. Earlier attempts to modify the FLB test for enhanced sensitivity have been typically based on in vitro cell systems. This study reports an optimized FLB procedure for the ...

  15. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  16. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  17. Oncolytic Group B Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Mediates Non-apoptotic Cell Death with Membrane Disruption and Release of Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Dyer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enadenotucirev (EnAd is a chimeric group B adenovirus isolated by bioselection from a library of adenovirus serotypes. It replicates selectively in and kills a diverse range of carcinoma cells, shows effective anticancer activity in preclinical systems, and is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials. EnAd kills cells more quickly than type 5 adenovirus, and speed of cytotoxicity is dose dependent. The EnAd death pathway does not involve p53, is predominantly caspase independent, and appears to involve a rapid fall in cellular ATP. Infected cells show early loss of membrane integrity; increased exposure of calreticulin; extracellular release of ATP, HSP70, and HMGB1; and influx of calcium. The virus also causes an obvious single membrane blister reminiscent of ischemic cell death by oncosis. In human tumor biopsies maintained in ex vivo culture, EnAd mediated release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1. In accordance with this, EnAd-infected tumor cells showed potent stimulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells in a mixed tumor-leukocyte reaction in vitro. Whereas many viruses have evolved for efficient propagation with minimal inflammation, bioselection of EnAd for rapid killing has yielded a virus with a short life cycle that combines potent cytotoxicity with a proinflammatory mechanism of cell death.

  18. Neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Anne Jan; Zeerleder, Sacha; Blok, Dana C.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; Lede, Ivar O.; Rahman, Wahid; Afroz, Rumana; Ghose, Aniruddha; Visser, Caroline E.; Zahed, Abu Shahed Md; Husain, Md Anwar; Alam, Khan Mashrequl; Barua, Pravat Chandra; Hassan, Mahtabuddin; Tayab, Md Abu; Dondorp, Arjen M.; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a devastating infectious disease causing many deaths worldwide. Recent investigations have implicated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the host response to tuberculosis. The aim of the current study was to obtain evidence for NETs release in the circulation during human

  19. ATP-consuming and ATP-generating enzymes secreted by pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Samburski, Sergei S; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2006-01-01

    -generating enzymes in pancreatic juice, adenylate kinase, and NDP kinase, capable of sequentially phosphorylating AMP via ADP to ATP. Activities of nonspecific phosphatases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases, and adenosine deaminase were negligible. Taken together, CCK-8 stimulation of pancreas causes...

  20. Neutrophil extracellular traps in the host defense against sepsis induced by Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Achouiti, Ahmed; van der Meer, Anne J.; Bulder, Ingrid; Stephan, Femke; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Day, Nick P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a central player in the host response to bacteria: neutrophils release extracellular DNA (nucleosomes) and neutrophil elastase to entrap and kill bacteria. We studied the role of NETs in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), an important cause

  1. Sequential Action of MalE and Maltose Allows Coupling ATP Hydrolysis to Translocation in the MalFGK2 Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Cytrynbaum, Eric; Duong, Franck

    2015-10-16

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have evolved an ATP-dependent alternating-access mechanism to transport substrates across membranes. Despite important progress, especially in their structural analysis, it is still unknown how the substrate stimulates ATP hydrolysis, the hallmark of ABC transporters. In this study, we measure the ATP turnover cycle of MalFGK2 in steady and pre-steady state conditions. We show that (i) the basal ATPase activity of MalFGK2 is very low because the cleavage of ATP is rate-limiting, (ii) the binding of open-state MalE to the transporter induces ATP cleavage but leaves release of Pi limiting, and (iii) the additional presence of maltose stimulates release of Pi, and therefore increases the overall ATP turnover cycle. We conclude that open-state MalE stabilizes MalFGK2 in the outward-facing conformation until maltose triggers return to the inward-facing state for substrate and Pi release. This concerted action explains why ATPase activity of MalFGK2 depends on maltose, and why MalE is essential for transport. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A label-free electrochemiluminescent sensor for ATP detection based on ATP-dependent ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Lin, Chunshui; Yao, Qiuhong; Chen, Xi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we describe a new label-free, sensitive and highly selective strategy for the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of ATP at the picomolar level via ATP-induced ligation. The molecular-beacon like DNA probes (P12 complex) are self-assembled on a gold electrode. The presence of ATP leads to the ligation of P12 complex which blocks the digestion by Exonuclease III (Exo III). The protected P12 complex causes the intercalation of numerous ECL indicators (Ru(phen)3(2+)) into the duplex DNA grooves, resulting in significantly amplified ECL signal output. Since the ligating site of T4 DNA ligase and the nicking site of Exo III are the same, it involves no long time of incubation for conformation change. The proposed strategy combines the amplification power of enzyme and the inherent high sensitivity of the ECL technique and enables picomolar detection of ATP. The developed strategy also shows high selectivity against ATP analogs, which makes our new label-free and highly sensitive ligation-based method a useful addition to the amplified ATP detection arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    strain is not able to utilize the resulting proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Indeed, the ratio of ATP concentration to ADP concentration was decreased from 19 in the wild type to 7 in the atp mutant, and the membrane potential of the atp deletion strain was increased by 20%, confirming......The membrane-bound H+-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth...... rate and growth yield were decreased less than expected for a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis alone as a source of ATP. Moreover, the respiration rate of a atp deletion strain was increased by 40% compared with the wild-type strain. This result is surprising, since the atp deletion...

  4. Relationship between particulate and extracellular carbon compounds of phytoplankton photosynthesis in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Pant, A.

    and during the monsoon, into the protein fraction. Quantitative analysis of some selected low molecular weight compounds present in the intracellular photosynthate pool and extracellular exudate pool suggested that the release of organic compounds is governed...

  5. CXCR2 mediates NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation in cystic fibrosis airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcos, Veronica; Zhou, Zhe; Yildirim, Ali Onder; Bohla, Alexander; Hector, Andreas; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Wiedenbauer, Eva-Maria; Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Stoiber, Walter; Belohradsky, Bernd H.; Rieber, Nikolaus; Kormann, Michael; Koller, Barbara; Roscher, Adelbert; Roos, Dirk; Griese, Matthias; Eickelberg, Oliver; Döring, Gerd; Mall, Marcus A.; Hartl, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    Upon activation, neutrophils release DNA fibers decorated with antimicrobial proteins, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although NETs are bactericidal and contribute to innate host defense, excessive NET formation has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles isolated by acoustic trapping or differential centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezeli, Melinda; Gidlöf, Olof; Evander, Mikael; Bryl-Górecka, Paulina; Sathanoori, Ramasri; Gilje, Patrik; Pawlowski, Krzysztof; Horvatovich, Péter; Erlinge, David; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs), including microparticles (MPs) and exosomes, are submicron membrane vesicles released by diverse cell types upon activation or stress. Circulating ECVs are potential reservoirs of disease biomarkers, and the complexity of these vesicles is significantly lower compared

  7. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  8. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  9. ATP-dependent human RISC assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mayuko; Kawamata, Tomoko; Paroo, Zain; Ye, Xuecheng; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Liu, Qinghua; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.

  10. Seahorse Xfe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer-based analysis of cellular respiration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L.; Smith, Latasha L.; Rooney, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for their role in ATP production as well as multiple nonenergetic functions, and mitochondrial dysfunction is causal in myriad human diseases. Less well appreciated is the fact that mitochondria integrate environmental and inter- as well as intracellular signals to modulate function. Because mitochondria function in an organismal milieu, there is need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD, ATP synthase inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP, mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we describe how to obtain in vivo measurements of the fundamental parameters (basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP-linked respiration, maximal OCR, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:26523474

  11. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances, which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease.

  12. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  14. The Role of Extracellular Histones in Influenza Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Harshini K; Mueller, Nathan C; Rudd, Jennifer M; Snider, Timothy A; Achanta, Mallika; Prasanthi, Maram; Pulavendran, Sivasami; Thomas, Paul G; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R; Ritchey, Jerry W; Rajasekhar, Rachakatla; Chow, Vincent T K; Esmon, Charles T; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2018-01-01

    Although exaggerated host immune responses have been implicated in influenza-induced lung pathogenesis, the etiologic factors that contribute to these events are not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps exacerbate pulmonary injury during influenza pneumonia. Histones are the major protein components of neutrophil extracellular traps and are known to have cytotoxic effects. Here, we examined the role of extracellular histones in lung pathogenesis during influenza. Mice infected with influenza virus displayed high accumulation of extracellular histones, with widespread pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Occluded pulmonary blood vessels with vascular thrombi often exhibited endothelial necrosis surrounded by hemorrhagic effusions and pulmonary edema. Histones released during influenza induced cytotoxicity and showed strong binding to platelets within thrombi in infected mouse lungs. Nasal wash samples from influenza-infected patients also showed increased accumulation of extracellular histones, suggesting a possible clinical relevance of elevated histones in pulmonary injury. Although histones inhibited influenza growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with histones did not yield antiviral effects and instead exacerbated lung pathology. Blocking with antihistone antibodies caused a marked decrease in lung pathology in lethal influenza-challenged mice and improved protection when administered in combination with the antiviral agent oseltamivir. These findings support the pathogenic effects of extracellular histones in that pulmonary injury during influenza was exacerbated. Targeting histones provides a novel therapeutic approach to influenza pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The ATP/DNA Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Islet Cell Viability Than the ADP/ATP Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, T.M.; Wildey, G.M.; Falde, E.J.; Cline, G.W.; Maynard, K. Stewart; Ko, N.; Sotiris, J.; Naji, A.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, accurate assessment of islet viability is critical for avoiding transplantation of nontherapeutic preparations. Measurements of the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio have been recently proposed as useful prospective estimates of islet cell viability and potency. However, dead cells may be rapidly depleted of both ATP and ADP, which would render the ratio incapable of accounting for dead cells. Since the DNA of dead cells is expected to remain stable over prolonged periods of time (days), we hypothesized that use of the ATP/DNA ratio would take into account dead cells and may be a better indicator of islet cell viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. We tested this hypothesis using mixtures of healthy and lethally heat-treated (HT) rat insulinoma cells and human islets. Measurements of ATP/DNA and ADP/ATP from the known mixtures of healthy and HT cells and islets were used to evaluate how well these parameters correlated with viability. The results indicated that ATP and ADP were rapidly (within 1 hour) depleted in HT cells. The fraction of HT cells in a mixture correlated linearly with the ATP/DNA ratio, whereas the ADP/ADP ratio was highly scattered, remaining effectively unchanged. Despite similar limitations in both ADP/ADP and ATP/DNA ratios, in that ATP levels may fluctuate significantly and reversibly with metabolic stress, the results indicated that ATP/DNA was a better measure of islet viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. PMID:18374063

  16. Characteristics of the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium inorganic phosphate by mitochondrial F1 adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Stempel, K.E.; Boyer, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium P/sub i/ by mitochondrial F 1 adenosinetriphosphatase that has tightly bound ADP present. Measurements are reported of medium P/sub i/ ↔ H 18 OH exchange and of the dependence of formation of enzyme-bound ATP on P/sub i/ concentration. Attainment of an apparent equilibrium between medium P/sub i/ and bound ATP requires longer than 30 min, even though the rates of P/sub i/ binding and release after apparent equilibrium is reached would suffice for a faster approach to equilibrium. Slow protein conformational changes or other unknown modulating factors may be responsible for the slow rate of bound ATP formation. After apparent equilibrium is reached, each P/sub i/ that binds to the enzyme reversibly forms ATP about 50 times before being released to the medium. The rate of interconversion of bound ATP to bound ADP and P/sub i/ is much slower than that in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide as measured with sufficient low ATP concentrations so that single-site catalysis is favored. Although the interconversion rate is slowed, the equilibrium constant for bound ATP formation from bound ADP and P/sub i/ is not far from unity. Dimethyl sulfoxide favors the formation of enzyme-bound ATP by promoting the competent binding of P/sub i/ to enzyme with ADP bound at a catalytic site rather than by promoting formation of bound ATP from bound ADP and P/sub i/

  17. Biotin enhances ATP synthesis in pancreatic islets of the rat, resulting in reinforcement of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Komai, Michio; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yuji

    2004-02-13

    Previous studies showed that biotin enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. Changes in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in the pancreatic islets participate in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. In the present study we investigated whether biotin regulates the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in glucose-stimulated islets. When islets were stimulated with glucose plus biotin, the ATP/ADP ratio increased to approximately 160% of the ATP/ADP ratio in islets stimulated with glucose alone. The rate of glucose oxidation, assessed by CO(2) production, was also about 2-fold higher in islets treated with biotin. These increasing effects of biotin were proportional to the effects seen in insulin secretion. There are no previous reports of vitamins, such as biotin, directly affecting ATP synthesis. Our data indicate that biotin enhances ATP synthesis in islets following the increased rate of substrate oxidation in mitochondria and that, as a consequence of these events, glucose-induced insulin release is reinforced by biotin.

  18. Hypo-and hyperthyroidism affect the ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis in rat hippocampal and cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Ricachenevsky, Felipe Klein; Pochmann, Daniela; Bonan, Carla Denise; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2005-05-01

    The presence of severe neurological symptoms in thyroid diseases has highlighted the importance of thyroid hormones in the normal functioning of the mature brain. Since, ATP is an important excitatory neurotransmitter and adenosine acts as a neuromodulatory structure inhibiting neurotransmitters release in the central nervous system (CNS), the ectonucleotidase cascade that hydrolyzes ATP to adenosine, is also involved in the control of brain functions. Thus, we investigated the influence of hyper-and hypothyroidism on the ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis in hippocampal and cortical slices from adult rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily injections of l-thyroxine (T4) 25 microg/100 g body weight, for 14 days. Hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy and methimazole (0.05%) added to their drinking water for 14 days. Hypothyroid rats were hormonally replaced by daily injections of T4 (5 microg/100 g body weight, i.p.) for 5 days. Hyperthyroidism significantly inhibited the ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis in hippocampal slices. In brain cortical slices, hyperthyroidism inhibited the AMP hydrolysis. In contrast, hypothyroidism increased the ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis in both hippocampal and cortical slices and these effects were reverted by T4 replacement. Furthermore, hypothyroidism increased the expression of NTPDase1 and 5'-nucleotidase, whereas hyperthyroidism decreased the expression of 5'-nucleotidase in hippocampus of adult rats. These findings demonstrate that thyroid disorders may influence the enzymes involved in the complete degradation of ATP to adenosine and possibly affects the responses mediated by adenine nucleotides in the CNS of adult rats.

  19. Neutrophil Extracellular Trap-Related Extracellular Histones Cause Vascular Necrosis in Severe GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh V R; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Romoli, Simone; Thomasova, Dana; Scherbaum, Christina R; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Müller, Susanna; Liapis, Helen; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Severe GN involves local neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We hypothesized a local cytotoxic effect of NET-related histone release in necrotizing GN. In vitro, histones from calf thymus or histones released by neutrophils undergoing NETosis killed glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and parietal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Histone-neutralizing agents such as antihistone IgG, activated protein C, or heparin prevented this effect. Histone toxicity on glomeruli ex vivo was Toll-like receptor 2/4 dependent, and lack of TLR2/4 attenuated histone-induced renal thrombotic microangiopathy and glomerular necrosis in mice. Anti-glomerular basement membrane GN involved NET formation and vascular necrosis, whereas blocking NET formation by peptidylarginine inhibition or preemptive anti-histone IgG injection significantly reduced all aspects of GN (i.e., vascular necrosis, podocyte loss, albuminuria, cytokine induction, recruitment or activation of glomerular leukocytes, and glomerular crescent formation). To evaluate histones as a therapeutic target, mice with established GN were treated with three different histone-neutralizing agents. Anti-histone IgG, recombinant activated protein C, and heparin were equally effective in abrogating severe GN, whereas combination therapy had no additive effects. Together, these results indicate that NET-related histone release during GN elicits cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effects. Furthermore, neutralizing extracellular histones is still therapeutic when initiated in established GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. Cellular nucleic acids were labeled in vivo by incubation with [ 3 H]thymidine or [ 3 H]adenine, and production of extracellular DNA in marine waters, artificial seawater, or minimal salts media was determined by detecting radiolabeled macromolecules in incubation filtrates. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Three of four organisms produced the greatest amounts of extracellular nucleic acids when incubated in low-salinity media (2% artificial seawater) rather than high-salinity media (10 to 50% artificial seawater). The greatest production of extracellular nucleic acids by P. cepacia occurred at pH 7 and 37 degree C, suggesting that extracellular-DNA production may be a normal physiologic function of the cell. Incubation of labeled P. cepacia cells in water from Bimini Harbor, Bahamas, resulted in labeling of macromolecules of the ambient microbial population. Collectively these results indicate that (i) extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physicochemical factors than biotic factors, (ii) extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments, and (iii) ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms

  1. Extracellular release of acid phosphatase from blood stream forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phase separation of the extracts using the detergent Triton X-114 (TX-114), resulted in protein partitioning into aqueous and detergent phases. ACP activity was higher in the detergent phases (56.2 μmol/min and 28.8 μmol/min) of WPE and ESE respectively. ACP activity recorded in the aqueous phases of WPE and EPE ...

  2. Augmentation of Muscle Blood Flow by Ultrasound Cavitation Is Mediated by ATP and Purinergic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcik, J Todd; Davidson, Brian P; Xie, Aris; Wu, Melinda D; Yadava, Mrinal; Qi, Yue; Liang, Sherry; Chon, Chae Ryung; Ammi, Azzdine Y; Field, Joshua; Harmann, Leanne; Chilian, William M; Linden, Joel; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2017-03-28

    Augmentation of tissue blood flow by therapeutic ultrasound is thought to rely on convective shear. Microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation markedly amplify these effects. We hypothesized that purinergic signaling is responsible for shear-dependent increases in muscle perfusion during therapeutic cavitation. Unilateral exposure of the proximal hindlimb of mice (with or without ischemia produced by iliac ligation) to therapeutic ultrasound (1.3 MHz, mechanical index 1.3) was performed for 10 minutes after intravenous injection of 2×10 8 lipid microbubbles. Microvascular perfusion was evaluated by low-power contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging. In vivo muscle ATP release and in vitro ATP release from endothelial cells or erythrocytes were assessed by a luciferin-luciferase assay. Purinergic signaling pathways were assessed by studying interventions that (1) accelerated ATP degradation; (2) inhibited P2Y receptors, adenosine receptors, or K ATP channels; or (3) inhibited downstream signaling pathways involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase or prostanoid production (indomethacin). Augmentation in muscle perfusion by ultrasound cavitation was assessed in a proof-of-concept clinical trial in 12 subjects with stable sickle cell disease. Therapeutic ultrasound cavitation increased muscle perfusion by 7-fold in normal mice, reversed tissue ischemia for up to 24 hours in the murine model of peripheral artery disease, and doubled muscle perfusion in patients with sickle cell disease. Augmentation in flow extended well beyond the region of ultrasound exposure. Ultrasound cavitation produced an ≈40-fold focal and sustained increase in ATP, the source of which included both endothelial cells and erythrocytes. Inhibitory studies indicated that ATP was a critical mediator of flow augmentation that acts primarily through either P2Y receptors or adenosine produced by ectonucleotidase activity. Combined indomethacin and inhibition of

  3. A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for ATP detection based on exonuclease III-assisted signal amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ting; Shu, Huawei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-03-03

    A target-induced structure-switching electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive detection of ATP was successfully constructed which was based on exonuclease III-catalyzed target recycling for signal amplification. With the existence of ATP, methylene blue (MB) labeled hairpin DNA formed G-quadruplex with ATP, which led to conformational changes of the hairpin DNA and created catalytic cleavage sites for exonuclease III (Exo III). Then the structure-switching DNA hybridized with capture DNA which made MB close to electrode surface. Meanwhile, Exo III selectively digested aptamer from its 3'-end, thus G-quadruplex structure was destroyed and ATP was released for target recycling. The Exo III-assisted target recycling amplified electrochemical signal significantly. Fluorescence experiment was performed to confirm the structure-switching process of the hairpin DNA. In fluorescence experiment, AuNPs-aptamer conjugates were synthesized, AuNPs quenched fluorescence of MB, the target-induced structure-switching made Exo III digested aptamer, which restored fluorescence. Under optimized conditions, the proposed aptasensor showed a linear range of 0.1-20 nM with a detection limit of 34 pM. In addition, the proposed aptasensor had good stability and selectivity, offered promising choice for the detection of other small molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Ana, E-mail: ana-sierra@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Subbotina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina-subbotina@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong-zhu@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gao, Zhan, E-mail: zhan-gao@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna, E-mail: sivaramakrishna.koganti@ttuhc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coetzee, William A., E-mail: william.coetzee@nyumc.org [Department of Pediatrics, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Goldhamer, David J., E-mail: david.goldhamer@uconn.edu [Center for Regenerative Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Advanced Technology Laboratory, University of Connecticut, 1392 Storrs Road Unit 4243, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M., E-mail: denice-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zingman, Leonid V., E-mail: leonid-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K{sub ATP} channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K{sub ATP} channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K{sub ATP} channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  5. Modeling steady state SO2-dependent changes in capillary ATP concentration using novel O2 micro-delivery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonaim, Nour W.; Fraser, Graham M.; Ellis, Christopher G.; Yang, Jun; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to be released from the erythrocyte in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner. Since ATP is a potent vasodilator, it is proposed to be a key regulator in the pathway that mediates micro-vascular response to varying tissue O2 demand. We propose that ATP signaling mainly originates in the capillaries due to the relatively long erythrocyte transit times in the capillary and the short ATP diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium. We have developed a computational model to investigate the effect of delivering or removing O2 to limited areas at the surface of a tissue with an idealized parallel capillary array on total ATP concentration. Simulations were conducted when exposing full surface to perturbations in tissue O2 tension (PO2) or locally using a circular micro-outlet (~100 μm in diameter), a square micro-slit (200 × 200 μm), or a rectangular micro-slit (1000 μm wide × 200 μm long). Results indicated the rectangular micro-slit has the optimal dimensions for altering hemoglobin saturations (SO2) in sufficient number capillaries to generate effective changes in total [ATP]. This suggests a threshold for the minimum number of capillaries that need to be stimulated in vivo by imposed tissue hypoxia to induce a conducted micro-vascular response. SO2 and corresponding [ATP] changes were also modeled in a terminal arteriole (9 μm in diameter) that replaces 4 surface capillaries in the idealized network geometry. Based on the results, the contribution of terminal arterioles to the net change in [ATP] in the micro-vascular network is minimal although they would participate as O2 sources thus influencing the O2 distribution. The modeling data presented here provide important insights into designing a novel micro-delivery device for studying micro-vascular O2 regulation in the capillaries in vivo. PMID:24069001

  6. Identification of the inorganic pyrophosphate metabolizing, ATP substituting pathway in mammalian spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Kennedy, Chelsey; Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies.

  7. Identification of the inorganic pyrophosphate metabolizing, ATP substituting pathway in mammalian spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Yi

    Full Text Available Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1 in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies.

  8. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  9. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the catalysis of shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-08-01

    is therefore conceivable that kinase enzymes achieve the observed 2,500-fold variation in KM through a combination of the various conserved “push” and “pull” mechanisms associated with the release of C8-H, the proton transfer cascades unique to the class of kinase in question and the resultant/concomitant creation of a pentavalent species from the γ-phosphate group of ATP. Also demonstrated is the interplay between the role of the C8-H of ATP and the ATP concentration in the observed enzyme activity. The lability of the C8-H mediated by active site residues co-ordinated to the purine ring of ATP therefore plays a significant role in explaining the broad KM range associated with kinase steady state enzyme activities.

  10. Utilization of adenosine triphosphate in rat mast cells during histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The role of endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187 in vitro has been studied. 2 The amount of histamine released by calcium from rat mast cells primed with the ionophore A23187 was dependent on the ATP content of the mast...... cells. 3 In aerobic experiments a drastic reduction in mast cell ATP content was found during the time when histamine release induced by A23187 takes place. 4 Anaerobic experiments were performed with metabolic inhibitors (antimycin A, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p......-trifluorometroxyphenylnydrazone), which are known to block the energy-dependent calcium uptake by isolated mitochondria. The mast cell ATP content was reduced during A23187-induced histamine release under anaerobic conditions in the presence of glucose. This indicates an increased utilization of ATP during the release process. 5...

  11. ISEV position paper: extracellular vesicle RNA analysis and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Hill

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are the collective term for the various vesicles that are released by cells into the extracellular space. Such vesicles include exosomes and microvesicles, which vary by their size and/or protein and genetic cargo. With the discovery that EVs contain genetic material in the form of RNA (evRNA has come the increased interest in these vesicles for their potential use as sources of disease biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents. Rapid developments in the availability of deep sequencing technologies have enabled the study of EV-related RNA in detail. In October 2012, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV held a workshop on “evRNA analysis and bioinformatics.” Here, we report the conclusions of one of the roundtable discussions where we discussed evRNA analysis technologies and provide some guidelines to researchers in the field to consider when performing such analysis.

  12. Evaluating the Efficacy of GLUT Inhibitors Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changyong; Heitmeier, Monique; Hruz, Paul W; Shanmugam, Mala

    2018-01-01

    Glucose is metabolized through anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Perturbing glucose uptake and its subsequent metabolism can alter both glycolytic and OXPHOS pathways and consequently lactate and/or oxygen consumption. Production and secretion of lactate, as a consequence of glycolysis, leads to acidification of the extracellular medium. Molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, facilitating oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The alterations in extracellular acidification and/or oxygen consumption can thus be used as indirect readouts of glucose metabolism and assessing the impact of inhibiting glucose transport through specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The Seahorse bioenergetics analyzer can measure both the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). The proposed methodology affords a robust, high-throughput method to screen for GLUT inhibition in cells engineered to express specific GLUTs, providing live cell read-outs upon GLUT inhibition.

  13. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium

  14. Protein kinase C-mediated ATP stimulation of Na(+)-ATPase activity in LLC-PK1 cells involves a P2Y2 and/or P2Y4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, M; Ribeiro, M C; Abreu, T P; Coutinho-Silva, R; Leão-Ferreira, L R; Pinheiro, A A S; Caruso-Neves, C

    2013-07-15

    ATP-activated P2Y receptors play an important role in renal sodium excretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of ATPase-driven sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule by ATP or adenosine (Ado). LLC-PK1 cells, a model of porcine proximal tubule cells, were used. ATP (10(-6)M) or Ado (10(-6)M) specifically stimulated Na(+)-ATPase activity without any changes in (Na(+)+K(+))-ATPase activity. Our results show that the Ado effect is mediated by its conversion to ATP. Furthermore, it was observed that the effect of ATP was mimicked by UTP, ATPγS and 2-thio-UTP, an agonist of P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors. In addition, ATP-stimulated Na(+)-ATPase activity involves protein kinase C (PKC). Our results indicate that ATP-induced stimulation of proximal tubule Na(+)-ATPase activity is mediated by a PKC-dependent P2Y2 and/or P2Y4 pathway. These findings provide new perspectives on the role of the effect of P2Y-mediated extracellular ATP on renal sodium handling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B -/- mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag + /Cu + transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  16. Neutrophil extracellular traps: double-edged swords of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mariana J; Radic, Marko

    2012-09-15

    Spectacular images of neutrophils ejecting nuclear chromatin and bactericidal proteins, in response to microbes, were first reported in 2004. As externalized chromatin could entangle bacteria, these structures were named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Subsequent studies identified microorganisms and sterile conditions that stimulate NETs, as well as additional cell types that release extracellular chromatin. The release of NETs is the most dramatic stage in a cell death process called NETosis. Experimental evidence suggests that NETs participate in pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, with proposed involvement in glomerulonephritis, chronic lung disease, sepsis, and vascular disorders. Exaggerated NETosis or diminished NET clearance likely increases risk of autoreactivity to NET components. The biological significance of NETs is just beginning to be explored. A more complete integration of NETosis within immunology and pathophysiology will require better understanding of NET properties associated with specific disease states and microbial infections. This may lead to the identification of important therapeutic targets.

  17. Effects of airway surface liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Tauanne D; da Silva, Jafferson K L; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2014-12-21

    Experimental techniques aimed at measuring the concentration of signaling molecules in the airway surface liquid (ASL) often require an unrealistically large ASL volume to facilitate sampling. This experimental limitation, prompted by the difficulty of pipetting liquid from a very shallow layer (~15 μm), leads to dilution and the under-prediction of physiologic concentrations of signaling molecules that are vital to the regulation of mucociliary clearance. Here, we use a computational model to describe the effect of liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in the airway surface liquid coating respiratory epithelia. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion equation with boundary conditions that represent the enzymatic reactions occurring on the epithelial surface. The simulations reproduce successfully the kinetics of extracellular ATP following hypotonic challenge for ASL volumes ranging from 25 μl to 500 μl in a 12-mm diameter cell culture. The model reveals that [ATP] and [ADO] reach 1200 nM and 2200 nM at the epithelial surface, respectively, while their volumetric averages remain less than 200 nM at all times in experiments with a large ASL volume (500 μl). These findings imply that activation of P2Y2 and A2B receptors is robust after hypotonic challenge, in contrast to what could be concluded based on experimental measurements of volumetric concentrations in large ASL volumes. Finally, given the central role that ATP and ADO play in regulating mucociliary clearance, we investigated which enzymes, when inhibited, provide the greatest increase in ATP and ADO concentrations. Our findings suggest that inhibition of NTPDase1/highTNAP would cause the greatest increase in [ATP] after hypotonic challenge, while inhibition of the transporter CNT3 would provide the greatest increase in [ADO]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  19. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site

  20. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  1. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. METHODS: In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability...... was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells. RESULTS: Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p...-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials....

  2. The role of extracellular vesicles in phenotypic cancer transformation:

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Ogorevc, Eva; Veranič, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cancer has traditionally been considered as a disease resulting from gene mutations. New findings in biology are challenging gene-centered explanations of cancer progression and redirecting them to the non-genetic origins of tumorigenicity. It has become clear that intercellular communication plays a crucial role in cancer progression. Among the most intriguing ways of intercellular communication is that via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane structures released from v...

  3. Evidence for the Synthesis of ATP by an F0F1 ATP Synthase in Membrane Vesicles from Halorubrum Saccharovorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, David; Lawson, Darion; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vesicles prepared in a buffer containing ADP, Mg(2+) and Pi synthesized ATP at an initial rate of 2 nmols/min/mg protein after acidification of the bulk medium (pH 8 (right arrow) 4). The intravesicular ATP concentration reached a steady state after about 30 seconds and slowly declined thereafter. ATP synthesis was inhibited by low concentrations of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and m-chlorophenylhydrazone indicating that synthesis took place in response to the proton gradient. NEM and PCMS, which inhibit vacuolar ATPases and the vacuolar-like ATPases of extreme halophiles, did not affect ATP synthesis, and, in fact, produced higher steady state levels of ATP. This suggested that two ATPase activities were present, one which catalyzed ATP synthesis and one that caused its hydrolysis. Azide, a specific inhibitor of F0F1 ATP Synthases, inhibited halobacterial ATP synthesis. The distribution of acridine orange as imposed by a delta pH demonstrated that azide inhibition was not due to the collapse of the proton gradient due to azide acting as a protonophore. Such an effect was observed, but only at azide concentrations higher than those that inhibited ATP synthesis. These results confirm the earler observations with cells of H. saccharovorum and other extreme halophiles that ATP synthesis is inconsistent with the operation of a vacuolar-like ATPase. Therefore, the observation that a vacuolar-like enzyme is responsible for ATP synthesis (and which serves as the basis for imputing ATP synthesis to the vacuolar-like ATPases of the extreme halophiles, and the Archaea in general) should be taken with some degree of caution.

  4. Occurrence State and Molecular Structure Analysis of Extracellular Proteins with Implications on the Dewaterability of Waste-Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Boran; Ni, Bing-Jie; Horvat, Kristine; Song, Liyan; Chai, Xiaoli; Dai, Xiaohu; Mahajan, Devinder

    2017-08-15

    The occurrence state and molecular structure of extracellular proteins were analyzed to reveal the influencing factors on the water-holding capacities of protein-like substances in waste-activated sludge (WAS). The gelation process of extracellular proteins verified that advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for WAS dewaterability improvement eliminated the water affinity of extracellular proteins and prevented these macromolecules from forming stable colloidal aggregates. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics identified that most of the extracellular proteins were originally derived from the intracellular part and the proteins originally located in the extracellular part were mainly membrane-associated. The main mechanism of extracellular protein transformation during AOPs could be represented by the damage of the membrane or related external encapsulating structure and the release of intracellular substances. For the selected representative extracellular proteins, the strong correlation (R 2 > 0.97, p proteins on the interstitial water removal from WAS.

  5. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation in supragingival biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Josefine; Dommisch, Henrik; Skora, Philipp; Horvath, Gabor; Latz, Eicke; Hoerauf, Achim; Waller, Tobias; Kawai, Toshihisa; Jepsen, Søren; Deschner, James; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Oral biofilms are the causative agents of the highly prevalent oral diseases periodontitis and caries. Additionally, the host immune response is thought to play a critical role in disease onset. Neutrophils are known to be a key host response factor to bacterial challenge on host surfaces. Release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a novel antimicrobial defense strategy has gained increasing attention in the past years. Here, we investigated the influx of neutrophils into the dental plaque and the ability of oral bacteria to trigger intra-biofilm release of NETs and intracellular proteins. Supragingival biofilms and whole saliva were sampled from systemically healthy subjects participating in an experimental gingivitis study. Biofilms were analysed by immunofluorescence followed by confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, concentrations of cytokines and immune-associated proteins in biofilm suspensions and saliva were assessed by ELISA. Neutrophils obtained from blood were stimulated with twelve bacterial species isolated from cultured biofilms or with lipopolysaccharide to monitor NET formation. Neutrophils, NETs, neutrophil-associated proteins (myeloperoxidase, elastase-2, cathepsin G, cathelicidin LL-37), interleukin-8, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor were detected within plaque samples and saliva. All tested bacterial species as well as the polymicrobial samples isolated from the plaque of each donor induced release of NETs and interleukin-8. The degree of NET formation varied among different subjects and did not correlate with plaque scores or clinical signs of local inflammation. Our findings indicate that neutrophils are attracted towards dental biofilms, in which they become incorporated and where they are stimulated by microbes to release NETs and immunostimulatory proteins. Thus, neutrophils and NETs may be involved in host biofilm control, although their specific role needs to be further elucidated. Moreover, inter

  6. Historical review: ATP as a neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-03-01

    Purinergic signalling is now recognized to be involved in a wide range of activities of the nervous system, including neuroprotection, central control of autonomic functions, neural-glial interactions, control of vessel tone and angiogenesis, pain and mechanosensory transduction and the physiology of the special senses. In this article, I give a personal retrospective of the discovery of purinergic neurotransmission in the early 1970s, the struggle for its acceptance for approximately 20 years, the expansion into purinergic cotransmission and its eventual acceptance when receptor subtypes for ATP were cloned and characterized and when purinergic synaptic transmission between neurons in the brain and peripheral ganglia was described in the early 1990s. I also discuss the current status of the field, including recent interest in the pathophysiology of purinergic signalling and its therapeutic potential.

  7. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Is a Candidate Signaling Molecule in the Mitochondria-to-Nucleus Retrograde Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular communication from the mitochondria to the nucleus is achieved via the retrograde response. In budding yeast, the retrograde response, also known as the RTG pathway, is regulated positively by Rtg1, Rtg2, Rtg3 and Grr1 and negatively by Mks1, Lst8 and two 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2. Activation of retrograde signaling leads to activation of Rtg1/3, two basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. Rtg1/3 activation requires Rtg2, a cytoplasmic protein with an N-terminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP binding domain belonging to the actin/Hsp70/sugar kinase superfamily. The critical regulatory step of the retrograde response is the interaction between Rtg2 and Mks1. Rtg2 binds to and inactivates Mks1, allowing for activation of Rtg1/3 and the RTG pathway. When the pathway is inactive, Mks1 has dissociated from Rtg2 and bound to Bmh1/2, preventing activation of Rtg1/3. What signals association or disassociation of Mks1 and Rtg2 is unknown. Here, we show that ATP at physiological concentrations dissociates Mks1 from Rtg2 in a highly cooperative fashion. We report that ATP-mediated dissociation of Mks1 from Rtg2 is conserved in two other fungal species, K. lactis and K. waltii. Activation of Rtg1/3 upregulates expression of genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the first three reactions of the Krebs cycle, which is coupled to ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that the retrograde response is an ATP homeostasis pathway coupling ATP production with ATP-mediated repression of the retrograde response by releasing Mks1 from Rtg2.

  8. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  9. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-15

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This 'DNA sliding' is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Target-induced structure switching of hairpin aptamers for label-free and sensitive fluorescent detection of ATP via exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunying; Xu, Jin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2014-01-15

    In this work, we described the development of a new label-free, simple and sensitive fluorescent ATP sensing platform based on exonuclease III (Exo III)-catalyzed target recycling (ECTR) amplification and SYBR Green I indicator. The hairpin aptamer probes underwent conformational structure switching and re-configuration in the presence of ATP, which led to catalytic cleavage of the re-configured aptamers by Exo III to release ATP and to initiate the ECTR process. Such ECTR process resulted in the digestion of a significant number of the hairpin aptamer probes, leading to much less intercalation of SYBR Green I to the hairpin stems and drastic suppression of the fluorescence emission for sensitive ATP detection down to the low nanomolar level. Due to the highly specific affinity bindings between aptamers and ATP, the developed method exhibited excellent selectivity toward ATP against other analogous molecules. Besides, our ATP sensing approach used un-modified aptamer probes and could be performed in a "mix-and-detect" fashion in homogenous solutions. All these distinct advantages of the developed method thus made it hold great potential for the development of simple and robust sensing strategies for the detection of other small molecules. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of Hippocampal 5-HT Release by P2X7 Receptors in Response to Optogenetic Stimulation of Median Raphe Terminals of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra Gölöncsér

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors (P2rx7 are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. P2rx7s are implicated in various neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. Here we investigated whether 5-HT release released from the hippocampal terminals of MRR is subject to modulation by P2rx7s. To achieve this goal, an optogenetic approach was used to selectively activate subpopulation of serotonergic terminals derived from the MRR locally, and one of its target area, the hippocampus. Optogenetic activation of neurons in the MRR with 20 Hz was correlated with freezing and enhanced locomotor activity of freely moving mice and elevated extracellular levels of 5-HT, glutamate but not GABA in vivo. Similar optical stimulation (OS significantly increased [3H]5-HT and [3H]glutamate release in acute MRR and hippocampal slices. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of [3H]5-HT release and the interaction between the serotonin and glutamate systems. Whilst [3H]5-HT release from MRR neurons was [Ca2+]o-dependent and sensitive to TTX, CNQX and DL-AP-5, release from hippocampal terminals was not affected by the latter drugs. Hippocampal [3H]5-HT released by electrical but not OS was subject to modulation by 5- HT1B/D receptors agonist sumatriptan (1 μM, whereas the selective 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (0.1 μM was without effect. [3H]5-HT released by electrical and optical stimulation was decreased in mice genetically deficient in P2rx7s, and after perfusion with selective P2rx7 antagonists, JNJ-47965567 (0.1 μM, and AZ-10606120 (0.1 μM. Optical and electrical stimulation elevated the extracellular level of ATP. Our results demonstrate for the

  12. ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Muneyuki, E; Hisabori, T

    2001-09-01

    ATP synthase can be thought of as a complex of two motors--the ATP-driven F1 motor and the proton-driven Fo motor--that rotate in opposite directions. The mechanisms by which rotation and catalysis are coupled in the working enzyme are now being unravelled on a molecular scale.

  13. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jin; Wu, Gengze; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  14. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jin [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Gengze [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jose, Pedro A. [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Physiology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zeng, Chunyu, E-mail: Chunyuzeng01@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  15. ATP economy of force maintenance in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Mizuno, Masao

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate ATP economy of force maintenance in the human tibialis anterior muscle during 60 s of anaerobic voluntary contraction at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: ATP turnover rate was evaluated using P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P...... contraction. It averaged at 4.81 +/- 0.42 N.s.micromol-1, and correlated with the relative cross-sectional area of the muscle occupied by Type I fiber (r = 0.73, P contraction, subjects dropping in force showed lower ATP economy compared with those maintaining the force (3.......7 +/- 0.6 vs 5.3 +/- 0.6 N.s.micromol-1; P contraction could be due to an increase in the ATP economy of contracting muscle fibers offsetting the effects of increased temperature and low ATP economy...

  16. Maitotoxin-induced liver cell death involving loss of cell ATP following influx of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, R.K.; Singh, Y.; Santostasi, G.; Krishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, one of the most potent marine toxins known, produced cell death in cultures of rat hepatocytes with a TD50 of 80 pM at 24 hr. The cell death, as indicated by a dose- and time-dependent leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was also associated with the leakage of [14C]adenine nucleotides from hepatocytes prelabeled with [14C]-adenine. The toxic effect of maitotoxin was completely abolished by the omission of calcium from the culture medium. The cell death induced by maitotoxin increased with increasing concentrations of calcium in the medium. Treatment of hepatocytes with low concentrations of the toxin (less than 0.5 ng/ml) resulted in increases in 45Ca influx into the cells. At higher concentrations of maitotoxin (greater than 1ng/ml), the initial increase in 45Ca influx was followed by the release of the 45Ca from the cells into the medium. Since the 45Ca release paralleled the LDH leakage, the release of calcium was due to cell death. The 45Ca influx, [14C]adenine nucleotide leakage, and LDH leakage were effectively inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. Maitotoxin also induced a time- and dose-dependent loss of ATP from hepatocytes, which preceded the [14C]adenine nucleotide and LDH leakage. Thus, it appears that the cell death resulting from maitotoxin treatment is caused by the elevated intracellular calcium, which in turn inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation causing depletion of cell ATP. Loss of cell ATP may be the causative event in the maitotoxin-induced cell death

  17. Keragaman Genetik Sekuen Gen ATP Synthase FO Subunit 6 (ATP6 Monyet Hantu (Tarsius Indonesia (GENETIC DIVERSITY STUDY OF ATP6 GENE SEQUENCES OF TARSIERS FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Widayanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a conservation effort, the identification of Tarsier species, on the bases of the morphological andmolecular characteristic is necessary. Up to now, the identification of the animals were based on themorphology and vocalizations, which is extremely difficult to identify each, tarsier species. The objective ofthis research was to study the genetic diversity on ATP6 gene of Tarsius sp. Based on sequencing of PCRproduct using primer ATP6F and ATP6R with 681 nts. PCR product. The sequence of ATP6 fragmentswere aligned with other primates from Gene bank with aid of software Clustal W, and were analyzed usingMEGA program version 4.0. Three different nucleotide sites were found (nucleotide no. 288, 321 and 367.The genetic distance based on nucleotide ATP6 sequence calculated using Kimura 2-parameter modelindicated that the smallest genetic distance 0%, biggest 0.8% and average 0, 2%. The phylogenetic treeusing neighbor joining method based on the sequence of nucleotide ATP6 gene could not be used todifferentiate among T. Dianae (from Central Sulawesi, T. Spectrum (from North Sulawesi, T. bancanus(from lampung, South Sumatera and T.bancanus from West Kalimantan.

  18. Neutrophil extracellular traps promote deep vein thrombosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, A.; Fuchs, T.A.; Savchenko, A.S.; Thomas, G.M.; Martinod, K.; De Meyer, S.F.; Bhandari, A.A.; Wagner, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Upon activation, neutrophils can release nuclear material known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which were initially described as a part of antimicrobial defense. Extracellular chromatin was recently reported to be pro-thrombotic in vitro and to accumulate in plasma and thrombi of baboons with experimental deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Objective To explore the source and role of extracellular chromatin in DVT. Methods We used an established murine model of DVT induced by flow restriction (stenosis) in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Results We demonstrate that the levels of extracellular DNA increase in plasma after 6 h IVC stenosis, compared to sham-operated mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of Gr-1-positive neutrophils in both red (RBC-rich) and white (platelet-rich) parts of thrombi. Citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3), an element of NETs’ structure, was present only in the red part of thrombi and was frequently associated with the Gr-1 antigen. Immunofluorescent staining of thrombi showed proximity of extracellular CitH3 and von Willebrand factor (VWF), a platelet adhesion molecule crucial for thrombus development in this model. Infusion of Deoxyribonuclease 1 (DNase 1) protected mice from DVT after 6 h and also 48 h IVC stenosis. Infusion of an unfractionated mixture of calf thymus histones increased plasma VWF and promoted DVT early after stenosis application. Conclusions Extracellular chromatin, likely originating from neutrophils, is a structural part of a venous thrombus and both the DNA scaffold and histones appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of DVT in mice. NETs may provide new targets for DVT drug development. PMID:22044575

  19. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaki; Imamura, Hiromi; Sasaoka, Norio; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Uemura, Norihito; Shudo, Toshiyuki; Fuchigami, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kakizuka, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances), which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors) are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist) against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor) were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple Roles of the Extracellular Vestibule Amino Acid Residues in the Function of the Rat P2X4 Receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokic, Milos Boro; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Vávra, Vojtěch; Kuzyk, Pavlo; Tvrdoňová, Vendula; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e59411 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * transmembrane domain * extracellular vestibule * gating * ivermectin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  1. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  2. Evidence for a functional vasoconstrictor role for ATP in the human cutaneous microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, James A; Krajek, Alex C; Smaller, Kevin A

    2017-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In young adults, about half of the cold-related reduction in skin blood flow during cold exposure is mediated by noradrenaline, while the remainder is attributable to other substances co-released with noradrenaline that have yet to be identified. What is the main finding and its importance? Purinergic receptor blockade blunted the vasoconstriction response to whole-body cooling and to intradermal administration of tyramine. These results indicate that ATP is necessary to vasoconstrict blood vessels in the skin adequately and prevent heat loss in a cold environment. Noradrenaline is responsible for eliciting ∼60% of the reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) response in young adults, while the remainder is attributable to one or more unidentified co-released sympathetic adrenergic neurotransmitter(s). Inconsistent evidence has placed neuropeptide Y in this role; however, other putative cotransmitters have yet to be tested. We hypothesize that ATP contributes to the reflex cutaneous VC response. Two protocols were conducted in young adults (n = 10); both involved the placement of three microdialysis probes in forearm skin and whole-body cooling (skin temperature = 30.5°C). In protocol 1, the following solutions were infused: (i) lactated Ringer solution (control); (ii) 10 mm l-NAME; and (iii) purinergic receptor blockade with 1 mm suramin plus l-NAME. In protocol 2, the following solutions were infused: (i) lactated Ringer solution; (ii) suramin plus l-NAME; and (iii) suramin plus l-NAME plus adrenoreceptor blockade with 5 mm yohimbine plus 1 mm propranolol. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was measured over each microdialysis site, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated (CVC = LDF/MAP) and expressed as percentage changes from baseline (%ΔCVC BASELINE ). l-NAME was used to block the vasodilatory influence of ATP and unmask the P 2 X-mediated VC response to exogenous ATP infusion (-21 ± 6%

  3. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny eMomboisse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1 is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 µM in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress.

  4. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  5. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. What Orthopaedic Operating Room Surfaces Are Contaminated With Bioburden? A Study Using the ATP Bioluminescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Raveesh Daniel; Bowen, Thomas R

    2017-07-01

    Contaminated operating room surfaces can increase the risk of orthopaedic infections, particularly after procedures in which hardware implantation and instrumentation are used. The question arises as to how surgeons can measure surface cleanliness to detect increased levels of bioburden. This study aims to highlight the utility of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology as a novel technique in detecting the degree of contamination within the sterile operating room environment. What orthopaedic operating room surfaces are contaminated with bioburden? When energy is required for cellular work, ATP breaks down into adenosine biphosphate (ADP) and phosphate (P) and in that process releases energy. This process is inherent to all living things and can be detected as light emission with the use of bioluminescence assays. On a given day, six different orthopaedic surgery operating rooms (two adult reconstruction, two trauma, two spine) were tested before surgery with an ATP bioluminescence assay kit. All of the cases were considered clean surgery without infection, and this included the previously performed cases in each sampled room. These rooms had been cleaned and prepped for surgery but the patients had not been physically brought into the room. A total of 13 different surfaces were sampled once in each room: the operating room (OR) preparation table (both pre- and postdraping), OR light handles, Bovie machine buttons, supply closet countertops, the inside of the Bair Hugger™ hose, Bair Hugger™ buttons, right side of the OR table headboard, tourniquet machine buttons, the Clark-socket attachment, and patient positioners used for total hip and spine positioning. The relative light units (RLUs) obtained from each sample were recorded and data were compiled and averaged for analysis. These values were compared with previously published ATP benchmark values of 250 to 500 RLUs to define cleanliness in both the hospital and restaurant industries. All

  7. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  9. Greater ATP dependence than sodium dependence of radiocalcium efflux in bullfrog ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brommundt, G.; Kavaler, F.

    1985-01-01

    45 Ca efflux was studied in intact bullfrog ventricles following a 2-h period of loading with radiocalcium-containing Ringer solution. The cannulated ventricle was placed in a closed air-filled container to which were applied rhythmic, electronically timed, positive- and negative-pressure pulsations, which induced ventricular volume excursions. The mechanical arrangement and timing circuitry made it possible for each period to be as short in duration as 15 s. By use of this technique, penetration of the extracellular space by [ 14 C]inulin was found to be complete within 30 s, and recovery of the inulin proceeded with a time constant of 17-24 s, indicating a completeness of recovery of 98% within 90 s. Washout of added 45 Ca was quantitatively quite close to that of inulin, and in addition the estimated rate of sequestration of the isotope was slow enough to introduce only a small error into the experimental results. 45 Ca efflux was only slightly (15%) sensitive to replacement of extracellular sodium but was profoundly sensitive to the inhibitors of ATP synthesis, cyanide and 2-deoxy-glucose

  10. An inhibitory effect of extracellular Ca2+ on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    Full Text Available AIM: Neurotransmitter release is elicited by an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i. The action potential triggers Ca(2+ influx through Ca(2+ channels which causes local changes of [Ca(2+](i for vesicle release. However, any direct role of extracellular Ca(2+ (besides Ca(2+ influx on Ca(2+-dependent exocytosis remains elusive. Here we set out to investigate this possibility on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and chromaffin cells, widely used models for studying vesicle exocytosis. RESULTS: Using photolysis of caged Ca(2+ and caffeine-induced release of stored Ca(2+, we found that extracellular Ca(2+ inhibited exocytosis following moderate [Ca(2+](i rises (2-3 µM. The IC(50 for extracellular Ca(2+ inhibition of exocytosis (ECIE was 1.38 mM and a physiological reduction (∼30% of extracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](o significantly increased the evoked exocytosis. At the single vesicle level, quantal size and release frequency were also altered by physiological [Ca(2+](o. The calcimimetics Mg(2+, Cd(2+, G418, and neomycin all inhibited exocytosis. The extracellular Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR was not involved because specific drugs and knockdown of CaSR in DRG neurons did not affect ECIE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As an extension of the classic Ca(2+ hypothesis of synaptic release, physiological levels of extracellular Ca(2+ play dual roles in evoked exocytosis by providing a source of Ca(2+ influx, and by directly regulating quantal size and release probability in neuronal cells.

  11. Spectrographic study of neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlova, I.E.; Dobrynina, N.A.; Martynenko, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    By spectrographic method neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP in aqueous solutions at different pH values has been studied. The composition of the complexes was determined by the method of isomolar series. On the basis of analysis of absorption spectra it has been ascertained that at equimolar ratio of Nd 3+ and ATP absorption band of L278A corresponds to monocomplex, and the band of 4290 A - to biscomplex. For the complexes with ADP the absorption band of 4288 A is referred to bicomplexes. The character of ATP and ADP coordination by Nd 3+ ion is considered. Stability constants of the complexes are calculated

  12. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín; Boronat, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic plastids specialized in the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. During fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts in a process characterized by the degradation of the thylakoid membranes, and by the active synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes in non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report the involvement of a plastidial ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit induced during ripening, which lacks the regulatory dithiol domain present in plant and algae chloroplast γ-subunits. Silencing of this atypical γ-subunit during fruit ripening impairs the capacity of isolated chromoplast to synthesize ATP de novo. We propose that the replacement of the γ-subunit present in tomato leaf and green fruit chloroplasts by the atypical γ-subunit lacking the dithiol domain during fruit ripening reflects evolutionary changes, which allow the operation of chromoplast ATP synthase under the particular physiological conditions found in this organelle. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Astrocytes protect neurons against methylmercury via ATP/P2Y(1) receptor-mediated pathways in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yusuke; Shinozaki, Youichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in astrocytes, thereby protecting neurons against MeHg via interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated pathways. MeHg increased several mRNAs in astrocytes, among which IL-6 was the highest. For this, ATP/P2Y1 receptor-mediated mechanisms were required because the IL-6 production was (i) inhibited by a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, (ii) abolished in astrocytes obtained from P2Y1 receptor-knockout mice, and (iii) mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. In addition, (iv) MeHg released ATP by exocytosis from astrocytes. As for the intracellular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 production, p38 MAP kinase was involved. MeHg-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) showed neuro-protective effects against MeHg, which was blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody and was mimicked by the application of recombinant IL-6. As for the mechanism of neuro-protection by IL-6, an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pathway in neurons seems to be involved. Taken together, when astrocytes sense MeHg, they release ATP that autostimulates P2Y1 receptors to upregulate IL-6, thereby leading to A1 receptor-mediated neuro-protection against MeHg.

  14. Alkali pH directly activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and inhibits insulin secretion in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Karaman, Gunce; Wheeler, Michael B

    2006-11-17

    Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells is reported to lead to sustained alkalization, while extracellular application of weak bases is reported to inhibit electrical activity and decrease insulin secretion. We hypothesize that beta-cell K(ATP) channel activity is modulated by alkaline pH. Using the excised patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate a direct stimulatory action of alkali pH on recombinant SUR1/Kir6.2 channels due to increased open probability. Bath application of alkali pH similarly activates native islet beta-cell K(ATP) channels, leading to an inhibition of action potentials, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential. In situ pancreatic perfusion confirms that these cellular effects of alkali pH are observable at a functional level, resulting in decreases in both phase 1 and phase 2 glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data are the first to report a stimulatory effect of a range of alkali pH on K(ATP) channel activity and link this to downstream effects on islet beta-cell function.

  15. Direct ATP photolabeling of Escherichia coli recA proteins: identification of regions required for ATP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, G.R.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    When the Escherichia coli RecA protein is UV irradiated in the presence of [alpha- 32 P]ATP, a labeled protein--ATP adduct is formed. All the experimental evidence indicates that, in forming such an adduct, the ATP becomes specifically immobilized in the catalytically relevant ATP binding site. The adduct can also be identified after irradiation of E. coli cell lysates in a similar manner. This direct ATP photolabeling of RecA proteins has been used to identify regions of the polypeptide chain involved in the binding of ATP. The photolabeling of a RecA protein that lacks wild-type carboxy-terminal amino acids is not detectable. A RecA protein in which the amino-terminal sequence NH2-Ala-Ile-Asp-Glu-Asn- is replaced by NH2-Thr-Met-Ile-Thr-Asn-Ser-Ser-Ser- is only about 5% as efficiently photolabeled as the wild-type protein. Both of these RecA protein constructions, however, contain all the elements previously implicated, directly or indirectly, in the binding of ATP. ATP-photolabeled RecA protein has also been chemically cleaved at specific amino acids in order to identify regions of the polypeptide chain to which the nucleotide becomes covalently photolinked. The evidence is consistent with a region comprising amino acids 116-170. Thus, this work and that of others suggest that several disparate regions of the unfolded polypeptide chain may combine to form the ATP binding site upon protein folding or may influence binding through long-range effects

  16. Extracellular DNA Shields against Aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Nilsson, Martin; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, it has been established that extracellular DNA is a key constituent of the matrix of microbial biofilms. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that DNA binds positively charged antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we...... provide evidence that extracellular DNA shields against aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We show that exogenously supplemented DNA integrates into P. aeruginosa biofilms and increases their tolerance toward aminoglycosides. We provide evidence that biofilms formed by a DNA release......-deficient P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing mutant are more susceptible to aminoglycoside treatment than wild-type biofilms but become rescued from the detrimental action of aminoglycosides upon supplementation with exogenous DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to lysed polymorphonuclear leukocytes...

  17. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple types of cancer have the specific ability to home to the bone microenvironment and cause metastatic lesions. Despite being the focus of intense investigation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the metastasis of disseminated tumor cells still remain largely unknown. Bone metastases severely impact quality of life since they are associated with pain, fractures, and bone marrow aplasia. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries on the role of extracellular vesicles (EV in the regulation of bone remodeling activity and bone metastasis occurrence. Indeed, it was shown that extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, released from tumor cells can modify the bone microenvironment, allowing the formation of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, and mixed mestastases. In turn, bone-derived EV can stimulate the proliferation of tumor cells. The inhibition of EV-mediated crosstalk between cancer and bone cells could represent a new therapeutic target for bone metastasis.

  18. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro (Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  19. ( Atp9) gene between cytoplasmic male sterile line and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Soybean Research Institute of Nanjing Agricultural University, National Center for Soybean .... All these transgenic experiments confirmed the correlation ... editing of ATP synthase subunit 9 mRNA using wheat mitochondrial.

  20. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family...... with an ATP13A2 mutation (one affected mutation carrier (MC) with a compound heterozygous mutation, 4 asymptomatic MC with a single heterozygous mutation) and 11 healthy subjects without mutations were studied. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEP), the contralateral silent period (cSP), short interval....... RESULTS: CSP duration was increased in the symptomatic ATP13A2 MC. The iSP measurements revealed increased interhemispheric inhibition in both the compound heterozygous and the heterozygous MC. CONCLUSION: A compound heterozygous mutation in the ATP13A2 gene is associated with increased intracortical...

  1. ATP- and gap junction-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N R; Geist, S T; Civitelli, R

    1997-01-01

    mechanically induced calcium waves in two rat osteosarcoma cell lines that differ in the gap junction proteins they express, in their ability to pass microinjected dye from cell to cell, and in their expression of P2Y2 (P2U) purinergic receptors. ROS 17/2.8 cells, which express the gap junction protein......Many cells coordinate their activities by transmitting rises in intracellular calcium from cell to cell. In nonexcitable cells, there are currently two models for intercellular calcium wave propagation, both of which involve release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)- sensitive intracellular calcium...... stores. In one model, IP3 traverses gap junctions and initiates the release of intracellular calcium stores in neighboring cells. Alternatively, calcium waves may be mediated not by gap junctional communication, but rather by autocrine activity of secreted ATP on P2 purinergic receptors. We studied...

  2. Highly divergent mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Balabaskaran Nina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a

  3. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na + or K + (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer

  4. Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-15

    Perivascular adipose tissue can be involved in the process of cardiovascular pathology through the release of adipokines, namely adiponectins. Monomeric adiponectin has been shown to increase coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through increased nitric oxide (NO) release and the involvement of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). The present study was therefore planned to examine the effects of monomeric adiponectin on NO release and Ca(2+) transients in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEs) in normal/high glucose conditions and the related mechanisms. PAEs were treated with monomeric adiponectin alone or in the presence of intracellular kinases blocker, AdipoR1 and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitors. The role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was examined in experiments performed in zero Na(+) medium. NO release and intracellular Ca(2+) were measured through specific probes. In PAE cultured in normal glucose conditions, monomeric adiponectin elevated NO production and [Ca(2+)]c. Similar effects were observed in high glucose conditions, although the response was lower and not transient. The Ca(2+) mobilized by monomeric adiponectin originated from an intracellular pool thapsigargin- and ATP-sensitive and from the extracellular space. Moreover, the effects of monomeric adiponectin were prevented by kinase blockers and AdipoR1 inhibitor. Finally, in normal glucose condition, a role for Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump in restoring Ca(2+) was found. Our results add new information about the control of endothelial function elicited by monomeric adiponectin, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release and Ca(2+) transients. A signalling related to Akt, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK downstream AdipoR1 would be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of ATP in the regulation of cholesterol biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Rao, G.; Ramasarma, T.

    1974-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of glucose (4oomg/rat) stimulated the biogenesis of sterols in starved rats while citrate or pyruvate (20mg/rat) did not have any effect. ATP (10mg/ rat) administered intraperitoneally stimulated the incorporation of acetate-1- 14 C into sterols but not of mevalonate-2- 14 C into sterols in starved rats. The results indicate that ATP may play a role in regulating cholesterol biogenesis and it is not acting merely as an energy source. (author)

  6. Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Aharon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, comprised of exosomes, microparticles, apoptotic bodies, and other microvesicles, are shed from a variety of cells upon cell activation or apoptosis. EVs promote clot formation, mediate pro-inflammatory processes, transfer proteins and miRNA to cells, and induce cell signaling that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. This paper will review the contribution of EVs in hematological disorders, including hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hematological malignancies (lymphomas, myelomas, and acute and chronic leukemias.

  7. Blood extracellular DNA after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Tishchenko, L.I.; Surkova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that blood extracellular DNA of irradiated rats largely consists of the low-molecular DNA and its oligomers. Molecular masses of oligomers are multiple to molecular mass of monomer fragment with nucleosome size. The low-molecular DNA has linear form. The average content of GC-pairs in low-molecular DNA is higher than in total rat's DNA (48.5% against 41.5%). The low-molecular DNA is a part of complex containing RNA, acidic proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the formation of low-molecular DNA is a result of Ca/Mg - dependent nuclear endonuclease action

  8. Modification of synthesis nucleotides [γ-32P] ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wira Y Rahman; Endang Sarmini; Herlina; Triyanto; Hambali; Abdul Mutalib; Santi Nurbaiti

    2013-01-01

    In molecular biology, radionuclides in the form of radiolabeled compounds have been widely used as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) / ribonucleic acid (RNA) tracer in order to explore a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. One of such compounds is [γ- 32 P]-adenosine triphosphate {[γ- 32 P]-ATP} [γ- 32 P]-ATP which has been widely used in the biotechnology research. In order to support the biotechnology research in Indonesia in this project, [γ- 32 P]- ATP had been synthesized by enzymatic reactions with modifying the method of synthesis using the precursor DL-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, nucleotides Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and H 3 32 PO 4 and enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoroglyceric phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The purification of the synthesized [γ- 32 P]-ATP, by using DEAE Sephadex column chromatography. The synthesis and purification process that had been performed were able in producing of [γ- 32 P]-ATP with radioactivity of 1,175 mCi and radiochemical purity of 99,49%.. Having successfully prepared the [γ- 32 P]-ATP and application, in the near future the Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Centre is expected to be able in providing the above-mentioned radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnology research in Indonesia. (author)

  9. New extracellular resistance mechanism for cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centerwall, Corey R; Kerwood, Deborah J; Goodisman, Jerry; Toms, Bonnie B; Dabrowiak, James C

    2008-01-01

    The HSQC NMR spectrum of 15N-cisplatin in cell growth media shows resonances corresponding to the monocarbonato complex, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(CO3)Cl](-), 4, and the dicarbonato complex, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(CO3)2](-2), 5, in addition to cisplatin itself, cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], 1. The presence of Jurkat cells reduces the amount of detectable carbonato species by (2.8+/-0.7) fmol per cell and has little effect on species 1. Jurkat cells made resistant to cisplatin reduce the amount of detectable carbonato species by (7.9+/-5.6) fmol per cell and also reduce the amount of 1 by (3.4+/-0.9) fmol per cell. The amount of detectable carbonato species is also reduced by addition of the drug to medium that has previously been in contact with normal Jurkat cells (cells removed); the reduction is greater when drug is added to medium previously in contact with resistant Jurkat cells (cells removed). This shows that the platinum species are modified by a cell-produced substance that is released to the medium. Since the modified species have been shown not to enter or bind to cells, and since resistant cells modify more than non-resistant cells, the modification constitutes a new extracellular mechanism for cisplatin resistance which merits further attention.

  10. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  11. Structural models of the human copper P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, P.; Sitsel, Oleg; Karlsen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The human copper exporters ATP7A and ATP7B contain domains common to all P-type ATPases as well as class-specific features such as six sequential heavy-metal binding domains (HMBD1-HMBD6) and a type-specific constellation of transmembrane helices. Despite the medical significance of ATP7A and ATP7B......, allowing protein-specific properties to be addressed. Furthermore, the mapping of known disease-causing missense mutations indicates that among the heavy-metal binding domains, HMBD5 and HMBD6 are the most crucial for function, thus mimicking the single or dual HMBDs found in most copper-specific P-type...

  12. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcõn-Bieto, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic plastids specialized in the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. During fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts in a process characterized by the degradation of the thylakoid membranes, and by the active...... synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes...... in non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report...

  13. Lysosomal Storage of Subunit c of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Brain-Specific Atp13a2-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeto; Koike, Masato; Funayama, Manabu; Ezaki, Junji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ueno, Takashi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-12-01

    Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan Minh; MacIntyre, April; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases) that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease. PMID:27336156

  15. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Minh Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease.

  16. The effect of nucleotides and adenosine on stimulus-evoked glutamate release from rat brain cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G C; Boarder, M R

    2000-10-01

    Evidence has previously been presented that P1 receptors for adenosine, and P2 receptors for nucleotides such as ATP, regulate stimulus-evoked release of biogenic amines from nerve terminals in the brain. Here we investigated whether adenosine and nucleotides exert presynaptic control over depolarisation-elicited glutamate release. Slices of rat brain cortex were perfused and stimulated with pulses of 46 mM K(+) in the presence of the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (0.2 mM). High K(+) substantially increased efflux of glutamate from the slices. Basal glutamate release was unchanged by the presence of nucleotides or adenosine at concentrations of 300 microM. Adenosine, ATP, ADP and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphoshate) at 300 microM attenuated depolarisation-evoked release of glutamate. However UTP, 2-methylthio ATP, 2-methylthio ADP, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP at 300 microM had no effect on stimulated glutamate efflux. Adenosine deaminase blocked the effect of adenosine, but left the response to ATP unchanged. The A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine antagonised the inhibitory effect of both adenosine and ATP. Cibacron blue 3GA inhibited stimulus-evoked glutamate release when applied alone. When cibacron blue 3GA was present with ATP, stimulus-evoked glutamate release was almost eliminated. However, this P2 antagonist had no effect on the inhibition by adenosine. These results show that the release of glutamate from depolarised nerve terminals of the rat cerebral cortex is inhibited by adenosine and ATP. ATP appears to act directly and not through conversion to adenosine.

  17. Lytic cell death induced by melittin bypasses pyroptosis but induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Fátima; Martínez-García, Juan José; Muñoz-García, María; Martínez-Villanueva, Miriam; Noguera-Velasco, José A; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luís; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2017-08-10

    The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor with a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a sensor for different types of infections and alterations of homeostatic parameters, including abnormally high levels of the extracellular nucleotide ATP or crystallization of different metabolites. All NLRP3 activators trigger a similar intracellular pathway, where a decrease in intracellular K + concentration and permeabilization of plasma membrane are key steps. Cationic amphipathic antimicrobial peptides and peptide toxins permeabilize the plasma membrane. In fact, some of them have been described to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Among them, the bee venom antimicrobial toxin peptide melittin is known to elicit an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to bee venom. Our study found that melittin induces canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation by plasma membrane permeabilization and a reduction in the intracellular K + concentration. Following melittin treatment, the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, an adaptor protein with a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), was necessary to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-1β release. However, cell death induced by melittin prevented the formation of large ASC aggregates, amplification of caspase-1 activation, IL-18 release and execution of pyroptosis. Therefore, melittin-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in an attenuated inflammasome response that does not result in caspase-1 dependent cell death.

  18. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  19. Extracellular Vesicles in Heart Disease: Excitement for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M. Danielson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV, including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, are released from numerous cell types and are involved in intercellular communication, physiological functions and the pathology of disease. They have been shown to carry and transfer a wide range of cargo including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The role of EVs in cardiac physiology and heart disease is an emerging field that has produced intriguing findings in recent years. This review will outline what is currently known about EVs in the cardiovascular system, including cellular origins, functional roles and utility as biomarkers and potential therapeutics.

  20. A mechano-chemiosmotic model for the coupling of electron and proton transfer to ATP synthesis in energy-transforming membranes: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Eldar A; Kasumov, Ruslan E; Kasumova, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    -helix of γ-subunit that acts as a lift; then, in the formation of phosphoryl group; and lastly, in the release of ATP molecules from the active center of the enzyme and the loading of ADP. We are aware that our model is not an accepted model for ATP synthesis, but it is presented here for further examination and test.

  1. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... was reflected in the sensitivity of the cells to extracellular calcium, since inhibition of the release could be counteracted by increasing the extracellular concentration of calcium....

  2. Corrigendum to “Extracellular ATP and adenosine: The yin and yang in immune responses?”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Saez, T.; de Vos, P.

    2017-01-01

    The authors regret that they did not mention this funding: This project has received funding from the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme with the 7th European Community Framework Program under grant agreement No. 295185 - EULAMDIMA. The authors would like to apologise for any

  3. Analysis of extracellular RNA by digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eTakahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of extracellular RNA is emerging as an important mechanism for intracellular communication. The ability for the transfer of functionally active RNA molecules from one cell to another within vesicles such as exosomes enables a cell to modulate cellular signaling and biological processes within recipient cells. The study of extracellular RNA requires sensitive methods for the detection of these molecules. In this methods article, we will describe protocols for the detection of such extracellular RNA using sensitive detection technologies such as digital PCR. These protocols should be valuable to researchers interested in the role and contribution of extracellular RNA to tumor cell biology.

  4. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion

  5. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  6. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. DDPH ameliorated oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in rat hippocampal neurons via interrupting Ca2+ overload and glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Jianguo; Guo, Lianjun

    2009-01-28

    Our previous work has demonstrated that DDPH (1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride), a competitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, could improve cognitive deficits, reduce histopathological damage and facilitate synaptic plasticity in vivo possibly via increasing NR2B (NMDA receptor 2B) expression and antioxidation of DDPH itself. The present study further evaluated effects of DDPH on OGD (Oxygen and glucose deprivation)-induced neuronal damage in rat primary hippocampal cells. The addition of DDPH to the cultured cells 12 h before OGD for 4 h significantly reduced neuronal damage as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release experiments. The effects of DDPH on intracellular calcium concentration were explored by Fura-2 based calcium imaging techniques and results showed that DDPH at the dosages of 5 microM and 10 microM suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) stimulated by 50 mM KCl in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions. However, DDPH couldn't suppress the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by both 50 microM glutamate in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions and 20 microM ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in Ca(2+)-free solution. These results indicated that DDPH prevented [Ca(2+)](i) overload in hippocampal neurons by blocking Ca(2+) influx (voltage-dependent calcium channel) but not Ca(2+) mobilization from the intracellular Ca(2+) store in endoplasm reticulum (ER). We also demonstrated that DDPH could decrease glutamate release when hippocampal cells were subjected to OGD. These observations demonstrated that DDPH protected hippocampal neurons against OGD-induced damage by preventing the Ca(2+) influx and decreasing glutamate release.

  8. Synthesis and purification of [γP32]-ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Santoso, Daniel; Basri, T. Hasan; Natalia Adventini

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of [γP 3 2]-ATP has been carried out using an enzymes procedure. The compound was formed by the phosphorylation of ADP during the enzymatic conversion of L-α-glycerol-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate. In the present study, lactatedehydrogenase and sodium pyruvat were used in order to maintain β-NAD + concentration and to push the reaction of glyceralaldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase towards the formation of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. L-α-glycerolphosphate was used as primary substrate, as it is more stable than DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The enzymatic reaction was stopped by immersing the reaction vessel in boiling water for about 10 minutes. The labelled [γP 3 2]-ATP formed was separated by thin layer chromatography using PEI-cellulose and the spots of [γP 3 2]-ATP and inorganic P 3 2 residue located by autoradiography using X-ray film. The optimum time for the reaction at room temperature was 90 minutes with a labeling efficiency of 94.9 %. Purification of the [γP 3 2]-ATP by anion exchange chromatography using DEAE sephadex yielded a purity of more than 95%. The results showed that the labeled compound [γP 3 2]-ATP can be synthesized via an enzymatic process with a satisfactory yield. (author), 4 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  9. A New Enzyme-linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA) to Quantify Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles in Biological Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goehner, Claudia; Weber, Maja; Tannetta, Dionne S.; Groten, Tanja; Ploesch, Torsten; Faas, Marijke M.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R.; Fitzgerald, Justine S.

    ProblemThe pregnancy-associated disease preeclampsia is related to the release of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) by the placenta. To improve functional research on STBEV, reliable and specific methods are needed to quantify them. However, only a few quantification methods are

  10. Extracellular histones, cell-free DNA, or nucleosomes: differences in immunostimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Gerben; Zeerleder, Sacha; Luken, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    In inflammation, extensive cell death may occur, which results in the release of chromatin components into the extracellular environment. Individually, the purified chromatin components double stranded (ds)DNA and histones have been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to display various

  11. Influence of extracellular polymeric substances on deposition and redeposition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Pasma, J; van der Borden, AJ; Wingender, J; Flemming, HC; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    In this study, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the initial adhesion of EPS-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG91 and SG81R1, a non-EPS-producing strain, to substrata with different hydrophobicity was investigated. The release of EPS by SG81 was concurrent with a decrease in

  12. Stabilization of extracellular polymeric substances (Bacillus subtilis) by adsorption to and coprecipitation with Al forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikutta, R.; Zang, U.; Chorover, J.; Haumaier, L.; Kalbitz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are continuously produced by bacteria during their growth and metabolism. In soils, EPS are bound to cell surfaces, associated with biofilms, or released into solution where they can react with other solutes and soil particle surfaces. If such reaction

  13. Novel serological neo-epitope markers of extracellular matrix proteins for the detection of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, M A; Byrjalsen, I

    2013-01-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an invasive, but important diagnostic and prognostic marker in cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PHT). During cirrhosis, remodelling of fibrotic tissue by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a permanent process generating small fragments of degrade...... extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins known as neoepitopes, which are then released into the circulation....

  14. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    L?sser, Cecilia; Th?ry, Clotilde; Buz?s, Edit I.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; L?tvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field co...

  15. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    Current standard methods for surveillance of microbial drinking water quality are culture based, which are laborious and time-consuming, where results not are available before one to three days after sampling. This means that the water may have been consumed before results on deteriorated water....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP......, microbial quality in distributed water, detection of aftergrowth, biofilm formation etc. This PhD project demonstrated that ATP levels are relatively low and fairly stable in drinking water without chlorine residual despite different sampling locations, different drinking water systems and time of year...

  16. Nisin depletes ATP and proton motive force in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H J; Montville, T J; Chikindas, M L

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the inhibitory effect of nisin and its mode of action against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic species of mycobacteria, and M. bovis-Bacill Carmette Guerin (BCG), a vaccine strain of pathogenic M. bovis. In agar diffusion assays, 2.5 mg ml(-1) nisin was required to inhibit M. bovis-BCG. Nisin caused a slow, gradual, time- and concentration-dependent decrease in internal ATP levels in M. bovis-BCG, but no ATP efflux was detected. In mycobacteria, nisin decreased both components of proton motive force (membrane potential, Delta Psi and Delta pH) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, mycobacteria maintained their intracellular ATP levels during the initial time period of Delta Psi and Delta pH dissipation. These data suggest that the mechanism of nisin in mycobacteria is similar to that in food-borne pathogens.

  17. ATP Synthase, a Target for Dementia and Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2018-02-01

    Advancing age is the biggest risk factor for development for the major life-threatening diseases in industrialized nations accounting for >90% of deaths. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is among the most devastating. Currently approved therapies fail to slow progression of the disease, providing only modest improvements in memory. Recently reported work describes mechanistic studies of J147, a promising therapeutic molecule previously shown to rescue the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by aged, transgenic AD mice. Apparently, J147 targets the mitochondrial alpha-F1-ATP synthase (ATP5A). Modest inhibition of the ATP synthase modulates intracellular calcium to activate AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, a known mechanism of lifespan extension from worms to mammals.

  18. Diverse Functional Properties of Wilson Disease ATP7B Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Dominik; Kühne, Angelika; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Raines, Lily; Jantsch, Vanessa; Noe, Johannes; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Sommerer, Ines; Sabri, Osama; Berr, Frieder; Mössner, Joachim; Stieger, Bruno; Caca, Karel; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Wilson disease is a severe disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B, which encodes a copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase. The disease presents with a variable phenotype that complicates the diagnostic process and treatment. Little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to the different phenotypes of the disease. METHODS We analyzed 28 variants of ATP7B from patients with Wilson disease that affected different functional domains; the gene products were expressed using the baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells. Protein function was analyzed by measuring catalytic activity and copper (64Cu) transport into vesicles. We studied intracellular localization of variants of ATP7B that had measurable transport activities and were tagged with green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS Properties of ATP7B variants with pathogenic amino-acid substitution varied greatly even if substitutions were in the same functional domain. Some variants had complete loss of catalytic and transport activity, whereas others lost transport activity but retained phosphor-intermediate formation or had partial losses of activity. In mammalian cells, transport-competent variants differed in stability and subcellular localization. CONCLUSIONS Variants in ATP7B associated with Wilson disease disrupt the protein’s transport activity, result in its mislocalization, and reduce its stability. Single assays are insufficient to accurately predict the effects of ATP7B variants the function of its product and development of Wilson disease. These findings will contribute to our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlation and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22240481

  19. Dependence of anaphylactic histamine release from rat mast cells on cellular energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The relation between anaphylactic histamine release and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the mast cells was studied. The cells were incubated with glycolytic (2-deoxyglucose) and respiratory inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) in order to decrease the ATP content of the cells prior...... to initiation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction. The secretory capacity of mast cells was less related to the cellular level of ATP at the time of activation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction than to the rate of cellular energy supply. Furthermore, mast cells were...... pretreated with 2-deoxyglucose. The release of histamine from these cells was reduced when respiratory inhibitors were added to the cell suspension 5 to 20 sec after exposure of the cells to antigen. This may indicate that the secretory process requires energy, and it seems necessary that energy should...

  20. Rapid photolytic release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate from a protected analogue: utilization by the Na:K pump of human red blood cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, J.H.; Forbush, B. III; Hoffman, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzyl phosphate and 1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl phosphate have been synthesized and demonstrated to be suitable as photolabile sources of inorganic phosphate. The same protecting groups were attached to the terminal phosphate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. These caged ATP compounds released adenosine 5'-triphosphate on illumination at 340 nm in aqueous solution and P 3 -1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl-ATP gave about a 70 percent yield in under 30 s. The unphotolyzed caged ATP was neither a substrate nor inhibitor of purified renal Na,K-ATPase (EC 3.61.3). Following photolysis in the presence of the enzyme, the liberated ATP was hydrolyzed but at an inhibited rate. The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addition of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated solution. Caged ATP was incorporated into resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells depleted of internal energy stores. While the NA : K pump was unable to use incorporated caged ATP as a substrate, the ATP liberated by photolysis activated the pump as evidenced by measurements of K-dependent, ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. Thus the caged ATP can be used as a stable source of ATP unmetabolizable by intracellular ATPases until the ATP is released following photolytic irradiation

  1. Serological neo-epitope extracellular matrix related markers reflecting collagen or elastin degradation are elevated in a mouse model of allergic asthma exacerbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckmann, M.; Rønnow, S.; Bülow-Sand, J.M.; Wegmann, M.; Lunding, L.; Burgess, J.; Bahmer, T.; Leeming, D.J.; Kopp, M.V.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by symptoms including increased mucus production, reversible airway obstruction and lung inflammation: all of which are exaggerated during asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix remodeling is associated with the release of ECM protein

  2. Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhamy, Donia Said

    Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The

  3. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  4. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd 3+ . In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd 3+ by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd 3+ with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA

  5. Students’ reasoning about “high-energy bonds” and ATP: A vision of interdisciplinary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Dreyfus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As interdisciplinary courses are developed, instructors and researchers have to grapple with questions of how students should make connections across disciplines. We explore the issue of interdisciplinary reconciliation (IDR: how students reconcile seemingly contradictory ideas from different disciplines. While IDR has elements in common with other frameworks for the reconciliation of ideas across contexts, it differs in that each disciplinary idea is considered canonically correct within its own discipline. The setting for the research is an introductory physics course for biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes biologically relevant topics such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP and chemical bond energy. In our case-study data, students grapple with the apparent contradiction between the energy released when the phosphate bond in ATP is broken and the idea that an energy input is required to break a bond. We see students justifying context-dependent modeling choices, showing nuance in articulating how system choices may be related to disciplinary problems of interest. This represents a desired end point of IDR, in which students can build coherent connections between concepts from different disciplines while understanding each concept in its own disciplinary context. Our case study also illustrates elements of the instructional environment that play roles in the process of IDR.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II, ATP, and ionophore A23187 on potassium efflux in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, M.V.; Marusic, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Angiotensin II stimulus on perifused bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells elicited an increase in 86Rb efflux from cells previously equilibrated with the radioisotope. When 45Ca fluxes were measured under similar conditions, it was observed that Ca and Rb effluxes occurred within the first 30 s of the addition of the hormone and were independent of the presence of external Ca. The 86Rb efflux due to angiotensin II was inhibited by quinine and apamin. The hypothesis that the angiotensin II response is a consequence of an increase in the K permeability of the glomerulosa cell membrane triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca is supported by the finding that the divalent cation ionophore A23187 also initiated 86Rb or K loss (as measured by an external K electrode). This increased K conductance was also seen with 10(-4) M ATP. Quinine and apamin greatly reduced the effect of ATP or A23187 on 86Rb or K release in adrenal glomerulosa cells. The results suggest that Ca-dependent K channels or carriers are present in the membranes of bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and are sensitive to hormonal stimulus

  7. Glioblastoma extracellular vesicles: reservoirs of potential biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic JS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jasmina S Redzic,1 Timothy H Ung,2 Michael W Graner2 1Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent and most devastating of the primary central nervous system tumors, with few patients living beyond 2 years postdiagnosis. The damage caused by the disease and our treatments for the patients often leave them physically and cognitively debilitated. Generally, GBMs appear after very short clinical histories and are discovered by imaging (using magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and the diagnosis is validated by pathology, following surgical resection. The treatment response and diagnosis of tumor recurrence are also tracked by MRI, but there are numerous problems encountered with these monitoring modalities, such as ambiguous interpretation and forms of pseudoprogression. Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers would be an immense boon in following treatment schemes and in determining recurrence, which often requires an invasive intracranial biopsy to verify imaging data. Extracellular vesicles (EVs are stable, membrane-enclosed, virus-sized particles released from either the cell surface or from endosomal pathways that lead to the systemic release of EVs into accessible biofluids, such as serum/plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva. EVs carry a wide variety of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other metabolites, with many common features but with enough individuality to be able to identify the cell of origin of the vesicles. These components, if properly interrogated, could allow for the identification of tumor-derived EVs in biofluids, indicating tumor progression, relapse, or treatment failure. That knowledge would allow clinicians to continue with treatment regimens that were actually effective or to change course if the therapies were failing. Here, we review

  8. Cerebral serotonin release correlates with [11C]AZ10419369 PET measures of 5-HT1B receptor binding in the pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Svarer, Claus

    2018-01-01

    of extracellular serotonin levels with microdialysis after various acute interventions (saline, escitalopram, fenfluramine). The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular serotonin levels to two to six times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of serotonin release...

  9. Effects of Irradiation on bacterial atp luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Hua

    2010-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cooled pork and chicken was detected with ATP luminous intensity method. The influences of other factors to ATP luminous intensity were also discussed. There was positive correlation between ATP standard concentration and ATP luminous intensity, and negative correlation between irradiation dosage and ATP luminous intensity. The trend of ATP luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken after irradiation was inverse S, and the maximum ATP luminous intensity appeared at 6.0 kGy, and minimum at 4.0 and 8.0 kGy. Sterilized water and sterilized pork had no interference to ATP luminous intensity of the samples. There was significant positive correlation between E. coli 10003 concentration and ATP luminous intensity, the coefficient correlation was 0.9437. (authors)

  10. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection.

  11. ATP Induces IL-1β Secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Infected Human Macrophages by a Mechanism Not Related to the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killen García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo has developed multiple immune evasion mechanisms involving the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent findings have reported that Ngo reduces the IL-1β secretion of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Here, we investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in production and release of IL-1β in Ngo-infected MDM. We found that the exposure of Ngo-infected MDM to ATP increases IL-1β levels about ten times compared with unexposed Ngo-infected MDM (P0.05 and caspase-1 (CASP1, P>0.05. In addition, ATP was not able to modify caspase-1 activity in Ngo-infected MDM but was able to increase pyroptosis (P>0.01. Notably ATP treatment defined an increase of positive staining for IL-1β with a distinctive intracellular pattern of distribution. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces IL-1β secretion by a mechanism not related to the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis and likely is acting at the level of vesicle trafficking or pore formation.

  12. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  13. Extracellular DNA metabolism in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eChimileski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA is found in all environments and is a dynamic component of the micro-bial ecosystem. Microbial cells produce and interact with extracellular DNA through many endogenous mechanisms. Extracellular DNA is processed and internalized for use as genetic information and as a major source of macronutrients, and plays several key roles within prokaryotic biofilms. Hypersaline sites contain some of the highest extracellular DNA con-centrations measured in nature–a potential rich source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for halophilic microorganisms. We conducted DNA growth studies for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii DS2 and show that this model Halobacteriales strain is capable of using exogenous double-stranded DNA as a nutrient. Further experiments with varying medium composition, DNA concentration and DNA types revealed that DNA is utilized primarily as a phosphorus source, that growth on DNA is concentration-dependent and that DNA isolated from different sources is metabolized selectively, with a bias against highly divergent methylated DNA sources. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that labeled DNA colocalized with Haloferax volcanii cells. The gene Hvo_1477 was also identified using a comparative genomic approach as a factor likely to be involved in extracellular DNA processing at the cell surface, and deletion of Hvo_1477 created an H. volcanii strain deficient in its ability to grow on extracellular DNA. Widespread distribution of Hvo_1477 homologs in archaea suggests metabolism of extracellular DNA may be of broad ecological and physiological relevance in this domain of life.

  14. Limitations of ATP as a measure of microbial biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limits the use of ATP as a measure of microbial biomass. S. AIr. J. Zool. 1982, 17: 93 - 95. Beraming van die totale .... only micro-organisms present in the experimental culture, but these were later succeeded by a large ... a value of 49: I by the last day of the experiment. Estimates of the total living biomass of the heterotro-.

  15. Exon duplications in the ATP7A gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mie; Skjørringe, Tina; Kodama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    the identified duplicated fragments originated from a single or from two different X-chromosomes, polymorphic markers located in the duplicated fragments were analyzed. RESULTS: Partial ATP7A gene duplication was identified in 20 unrelated patients including one patient with Occipital Horn Syndrome (OHS...

  16. Electrochemical Investigation of the Interaction between Catecholamines and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleat, Zahra; Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Machado, José D; Dunevall, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G; Borges, Ricardo

    2018-02-06

    The study of the colligative properties of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and catecholamines has received the attention of scientists for decades, as they could explain the capabilities of secretory vesicles (SVs) to accumulate neurotransmitters. In this Article, we have applied electrochemical methods to detect such interactions in vitro, at the acidic pH of SVs (pH 5.5) and examined the effect of compounds having structural similarities that correlate with functional groups of ATP (adenosine, phosphoric acid and sodium phosphate salts) and catecholamines (catechol). Chronoamperometry and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) provide evidence compatible with an interaction of the catechol and adenine rings. This interaction is also reinforced by an electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of ATP and the protonated ammonium group of catecholamines. Furthermore, chronoamperometry data suggest that the presence of ATP subtlety reduces the apparent diffusion coefficient of epinephrine in aqueous media that adds an additional factor leading to a slower rate of catecholamine exocytosis. This adds another plausible mechanism to regulate individual exocytosis events to alter communication.

  17. Supplementary data: Novel mutation in ATP-binding domain of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Novel mutation in ATP-binding domain of ABCD1 gene in adrenoleucodystrophy. Neeraj Kumar, Krishna K. Taneja, Atul Kumar, Deepti Nayar, Bhupesh Taneja, Satindra Aneja,. Madhuri Behari, Veena Kalra and Surendra K. Bansal. J. Genet. 89, 473–477. Figure 1. Rmsd plot of native and Arg617Ser substituted models.

  18. 'Domino' systems biology and the 'A' of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Malkhey; Zakhartsev, Maksim; Reuss, Matthias; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2013-01-01

    We develop a strategic 'domino' approach that starts with one key feature of cell function and the main process providing for it, and then adds additional processes and components only as necessary to explain provoked experimental observations. The approach is here applied to the energy metabolism of yeast in a glucose limited chemostat, subjected to a sudden increase in glucose. The puzzles addressed include (i) the lack of increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) upon glucose addition, (ii) the lack of increase in adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when ATP is hydrolyzed, and (iii) the rapid disappearance of the 'A' (adenine) moiety of ATP. Neither the incorporation of nucleotides into new biomass, nor steady de novo synthesis of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) explains. Cycling of the 'A' moiety accelerates when the cell's energy state is endangered, another essential domino among the seven required for understanding of the experimental observations. This new domino analysis shows how strategic experimental design and observations in tandem with theory and modeling may identify and resolve important paradoxes. It also highlights the hitherto unexpected role of the 'A' component of ATP. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity and regulation of ATP sulfurylase in photosynthetic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura ePrioretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ATP sulfurylase (ATPS catalyzes the first committed step in the sulfate assimilation pathway, the activation of sulfate prior to its reduction. ATPS has been studied in only a few model organisms and even in these cases to a much smaller extent than the sulfate reduction and cysteine synthesis enzymes. This is possibly because the latter were considered of greater regulatory importance for sulfate assimilation. Recent evidences (reported in this paper challenge this view and suggest that ATPSes may have a crucial regulatory role in sulfate assimilation, at least in algae.In the ensuing text, we summarize the current knowledge on ATPS, with special attention to the processes that control its activity and gene(s expression. Special attention is given to algae ATPSes. The focus on algae is the consequence of the fact that a comprehensive investigation of ATPSes revealed that the algal enzymes, especially those that are most likely involved in the pathway of sulfate reduction to cysteine, possess features that are not present in other organisms. For instance, algae ATPSes show a great diversity of isoforms and a high content of cysteine residues, whose positions are often conserved. It is interesting that, at least with respect to the number of cysteines, the ATPSes of eukaryotic algae are closer to the marine cyanobacteria of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus and are more distant from freshwater cyanobacteria. These characteristics might have evolved in parallel with the radiation of algae in the oceans and the increase of sulfate concentration in seawater.

  20. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ATP and other purines on 45 Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular 45 Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to 45 Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of 45 Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced 45 Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels

  1. Paradox applications integration ATP's for MAC and mass balance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs

  2. ATP Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Flagella by Glycolytic Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Beth F; Pedersen, Lotte B; Feely, Michael

    2005-01-01

    reside in the detergent-soluble (membrane + matrix) compartments. We further show that axonemal enolase is a subunit of the CPC1 central pair complex and that reduced flagellar enolase levels in the cpc1 mutant correlate with the reduced flagellar ATP concentrations and reduced in vivo beat frequencies...

  3. Nucleotide transmitters ATP and ADP mediate intercellular calcium wave communication via P2Y12/13 receptors among BV-2 microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengchong Jiang

    Full Text Available Nerve injury is accompanied by a liberation of diverse nucleotides, some of which act as 'find/eat-me' signals in mediating neuron-glial interplay. Intercellular Ca2+ wave (ICW communication is the main approach by which glial cells interact and coordinate with each other to execute immune defense. However, the detailed mechanisms on how these nucleotides participate in ICW communication remain largely unclear. In the present work, we employed a mechanical stimulus to an individual BV-2 microglia to simulate localized injury. Remarkable ICW propagation was observed no matter whether calcium was in the environment or not. Apyrase (ATP/ADP-hydrolyzing enzyme, suramin (broad-spectrum P2 receptor antagonist, 2-APB (IP3 receptor blocker and thapsigargin (endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump inhibitor potently inhibited these ICWs, respectively, indicating the dependence of nucleotide signals and P2Y receptors. Then, we detected the involvement of five naturally occurring nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose by desensitizing receptors. Results showed that desensitization with ATP and ADP could block ICW propagation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas other nucleotides had little effect. Meanwhile, the expression of P2Y receptors in BV-2 microglia was identified and their contributions were analyzed, from which we suggested P2Y12/13 receptors activation mostly contributed to ICWs. Besides, we estimated that extracellular ATP and ADP concentration sensed by BV-2 microglia was about 0.3 μM during ICWs by analyzing calcium dynamic characteristics. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the nucleotides ATP and ADP were predominant signal transmitters in mechanical stimulation-induced ICW communication through acting on P2Y12/13 receptors in BV-2 microglia.

  4. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Physiological Role and Signalling Properties of Extracellular Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Iraci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are a heterogeneous population of secreted membrane vesicles, with distinct biogenesis routes, biophysical properties and different functions both in physiological conditions and in disease. The release of EVs is a widespread biological process, which is conserved across species. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that several bioactive molecules are trafficked with(in EVs, such as microRNAs, mRNAs, proteins and lipids. The understanding of their final impact on the biology of specific target cells remains matter of intense debate in the field. Also, EVs have attracted great interest as potential novel cell-free therapeutics. Here we describe the proposed physiological and pathological functions of EVs, with a particular focus on their molecular content. Also, we discuss the advances in the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the secretion of EV-associated molecules and the specific pathways activated upon interaction with the target cell, highlighting the role of EVs in the context of the immune system and as mediators of the intercellular signalling in the brain.

  5. Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP Is a Source of Adenosine*

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Edwin K.; Ren, Jin; Mi, Zaichuan

    2009-01-01

    We discovered that renal injury releases 2′,3′-cAMP (positional isomer of 3′,5′-cAMP) into the interstitium. This finding motivated a novel hypothesis: renal injury leads to activation of an extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (i.e. metabolism of extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 3′-AMP and 2′-AMP, which are metabolized to adenosine, a retaliatory metabolite). In isolated rat kidneys, arterial infusions of 2′,3′-cAMP (30 μmol/liter) increased the mean venous secretion of 3′-AMP (3,400-fold),...

  6. Extracellular vesicles in Alzheimer's disease: friends or foes? Focus on aβ-vesicle interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooja; Benussi, Luisa; Furlan, Roberto; Ghidoni, Roberta; Verderio, Claudia

    2015-03-03

    The intercellular transfer of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins has received increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among other transfer modes, Aβ and tau dissemination has been suggested to occur through release of Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), which may facilitate delivery of pathogenic proteins over large distances. Recent evidence indicates that EVs carry on their surface, specific molecules which bind to extracellular Aβ, opening the possibility that EVs may also influence Aβ assembly and synaptotoxicity. In this review we focus on studies which investigated the impact of EVs in Aβ-mediated neurodegeneration and showed either detrimental or protective role for EVs in the pathology.

  7. TOL plasmid carriage enhances biofilm formation and increases extracellular DNA content in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Sjoholm, O.R.; Yankelevich, T.

    2010-01-01

    laser scanning microscopy. The TOL-carrying strains formed pellicles and thick biofilms, whereas the same strains without the plasmid displayed little adherent growth. Microscopy using fluorescent nucleic acid-specific stains revealed differences in the production of extracellular polymeric substances......: TOL carriage leads to more extracellular DNA (eDNA) in pellicles and biofilms. Pellicles were dissolved by DNase I treatment. Enhanced cell lysis due to plasmid carriage was ruled out as the mechanism for eDNA release. We report, for the first time, that carriage of a conjugative plasmid leads...

  8. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  9. The active transport of histidine and its role in ATP production in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisón, M J; Damasceno, F S; Mantilla, B S; Silber, A M

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas's disease, metabolizes glucose, and after its exhaustion, degrades amino acids as energy source. Here, we investigate histidine uptake and its participation in energy metabolism. No putative genes for the histidine biosynthetic pathway have been identified in genome databases of T. cruzi, suggesting that its uptake from extracellular medium is a requirement for the viability of the parasite. From this assumption, we characterized the uptake of histidine in T. cruzi, showing that this amino acid is incorporated through a single and saturable active system. We also show that histidine can be completely oxidised to CO2. This finding, together with the fact that genes encoding the putative enzymes for the histidine - glutamate degradation pathway were annotated, led us to infer its participation in the energy metabolism of the parasite. Here, we show that His is capable of restoring cell viability after long-term starvation. We confirm that as an energy source, His provides electrons to the electron transport chain, maintaining mitochondrial inner membrane potential and O2 consumption in a very efficient manner. Additionally, ATP biosynthesis from oxidative phosphorylation was found when His was the only oxidisable metabolite present, showing that this amino acid is involved in bioenergetics and parasite persistence within its invertebrate host.

  10. Evidence that Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is an ATP-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada-Shimizu, Naoko; Hisamitsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2013-03-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) 1 is a member of the solute carrier superfamily, which regulates intracellular ionic homeostasis. NHE1 is known to require cellular ATP for its activity, despite there being no requirement for energy input from ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated whether NHE1 is an ATP-binding protein. We designed a baculovirus vector carrying both epitope-tagged NHE1 and its cytosolic subunit CHP1, and expressed the functional NHE1-CHP1 complex on the surface of Sf9 insect cells. Using the purified complex protein consisting of NHE1 and CHP1 from Sf9 cells, we examined a photoaffinity labeling reaction with 8-azido-ATP-biotin. UV irradiation promoted the incorporation of 8-azido-ATP into NHE1, but not into CHP1, with an apparent Kd of 29.1 µM in the presence of Mg(2+). The nonlabeled nucleotides ATP, GTP, TTP and CTP all inhibited this crosslinking. However, ATP had the strongest inhibitory effect, with an apparent inhibition constant (IC50) for ATP of 2.2 mM, close to the ATP concentration giving the half-maximal activation of NHE1 activity. Importantly, crosslinking was more strongly inhibited by ATP than by ADP, suggesting that ATP is dissociated from NHE1 upon ATP hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis with thrombin and deletion mutant analysis revealed that the 8-azido-ATP-binding site is within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1. Equilibrium dialysis with NHE1-derived peptides provided evidence that ATP directly binds to the proximal cytoplasmic region (Gly542-Pro598), which is critical for ATP-dependent regulation of NHE1. These findings suggest that NHE1 is an ATP-binding transporter. Thus, ATP may serve as a direct activator of NHE1. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  11. How Native and Alien Metal Cations Bind ATP: Implications for Lithium as a Therapeutic Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Grauffel, Cédric; Lim, Carmay

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the major energy currency of the cell, exists in solution mostly as ATP-Mg. Recent experiments suggest that Mg2+ interacts with the highly charged ATP triphosphate group and Li+ can co-bind with the native Mg2+ to form ATP-Mg-Li and modulate the neuronal purine receptor response. However, it is unclear how the negatively charged ATP triphosphate group binds Mg2+ and Li+ (i.e. which phosphate group(s) bind Mg2+/Li+) and how the ATP solution conformation depends on the type of metal cation and the metal-binding mode. Here, we reveal the preferred ATP-binding mode of Mg2+/Li+ alone and combined: Mg2+ prefers to bind ATP tridentately to each of the three phosphate groups, but Li+ prefers to bind bidentately to the terminal two phosphates. We show that the solution ATP conformation depends on the cation and its binding site/mode, but it does not change significantly when Li+ binds to Mg2+-loaded ATP. Hence, ATP-Mg-Li, like Mg2+-ATP, can fit in the ATP-binding site of the host enzyme/receptor, activating specific signaling pathways.

  12. Bacterial binding to extracellular proteins - in vitro adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, C.; Fiehn, N.-E.

    1999-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis......Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis...

  13. Structure of the oxalate-ATP complex with pyruvate kinase: ATP as a bridging ligand for the two divalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodato, D.T.; Reed, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The 2 equiv of divalent cation that are required cofactors for pyruvate kinase reside in sites of different affinities for different species of cation. The intrinsic selectivity of the protein-based site for Mn(II) and of the nucleotide-based site for Mg(II) has been exploited in electron paramagnetic resonance (EOR) investigations of ligands for Mn(II) at the protein-based site. Oxalate, a structural analogue of the enolate of pyruvate, has been used as a surrogate for the reactive form of pyruvate in complexes with enzyme, Mn(II), Mg(II), and ATP. Superhyperfine coupling between the unpaired electron spin of Mn(II) and the nuclear spin of 17 O, specifically incorporated into oxalate, shows that oxalate is bound at the active site as a bidentate chelate with Mn(II). Coordination of the γ-phosphate of ATP to this same Mn(II) center is revealed by observation of superhyperfine coupling from 17 O regiospecifically incorporated into the γ-phosphate group of ATP. By contrast, 17 O in the α-phosphate or in the β-phosphate groups of ATP does not influence the spectrum. Experiments in 17 O-enriched water show that there is also a single water ligand bound to the Mn(II). These data indicate that ATP bridges Mn(II) and Mg(II) at the active site. A close spacing of the two divalent cations is also evident from the occurrence of magnetic interactions for complexes in which 2 equiv of Mn(II) are present at the active site. The structure for the enzyme-Mn(II)-oxalate-Mg(II)-ATP complex suggests a scheme for the normal reverse reaction of pyruvate kinase in which the divalent cation at the protein-based site activates the keto acid substrate through chelation and promotes phospho transfer by simultaneous coordination to the enolate oxygen and to a pendant oxygen from the γ-phosphate of ATP

  14. Loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of ATP synthase (ATP5A1) from the W chromosome in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, S R

    2001-08-01

    This study describes the results of an analysis using Southern blotting, the polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing which shows that the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) lacks the W-chromosomal gene for the alpha subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATP5A1W). Additional evidence shows that in other psittacines a fragment of the ATP5A1W gene contains five times as many nonsynonymous nucleotide replacements as the homologous fragment of the Z gene. Therefore, whereas in these other psittacines the corresponding ATP5A1Z protein fragment is highly conserved and varies by only a few, moderately conservative amino acid substitutions, the homologous ATP5A1W fragments contain a considerable number of, sometimes highly nonconservative, amino acid replacements. In one of these species, the ringneck parakeet (Psittacula krameri), the ATP5A1W gene is present in an inactive form because of the presence of a nonsense codon. Other changes, possibly leading to an inactive ATP5A1W gene product, involve the substitution of arginine residues by cysteine in the ATP5A1W protein of the mitred conure (Aratinga mitrata) and the blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). The data suggest also that although the divergence of the psittacine ATP5A1W and ATP5A1Z genes preceded the origin of the psittacidae, this divergence occurred independently of a similar process in the myna (Gracula religiosa), the outgroup used in this study.

  15. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  16. Purification and characterization of extracellular amylolytic enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOSS

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... characterization of extracellular amylases from four ... Somogyi-Nelson's method (Nelson, 1944; Somogyi, 1952). ... The mycelia dry weight of currently studied four.

  17. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 5711 different proteins with proteomics. The abundance of the proteins calprotectin and lactotransferrin in the tissue correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation as determined by histology. However, fecal calprotectin did...... not correlate. Forty-six proteins were measured with a statistically significant differences in abundances between the UC colon tissue and controls. Eleven of the proteins with increased abundances in the UC biopsies were associated with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps. The findings were...... validated by microscopy, where an increased abundance of neutrophils and the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps by extracellular DNA present in the UC colon tissue were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils, induced neutrophil extracellular traps, and several proteins that play a part in innate...

  18. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Differential Changes in Metabolites during ATP Oscillations in Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prechondrogenic condensation is a critical step for skeletal pattern formation. Recent studies reported that ATP oscillations play an essential role in prechondrogenic condensation. However, the molecular mechanism to underlie ATP oscillations remains poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated how changes in metabolites are implicated in ATP oscillations during chondrogenesis by using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS. CE-TOF-MS detected 93 cationic and 109 anionic compounds derived from known metabolic pathways. 15 cationic and 18 anionic compounds revealed significant change between peak and trough of ATP oscillations. These results implicate that glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and uronic acid pathway oscillate in phase with ATP oscillations, while PPRP and nucleotides synthesis pathways oscillate in antiphase with ATP oscillations. This suggests that the ATP-producing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration oscillate in antiphase with the ATP-consuming PPRP/nucleotide synthesis pathway during chondrogenesis.

  20. Sources of extracellular tau and its signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesús; Simón, Diana; Díaz-Hernández, Miguel; Pintor, Jesús; Hernández, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The pathology associated with tau protein, tauopathy, has been recently analyzed in different disorders, leading to the suggestion that intracellular and extracellular tau may itself be the principal agent in the transmission and spreading of tauopathies. Tau pathology is based on an increase in the amount of tau, an increase in phosphorylated tau, and/or an increase in aggregated tau. Indeed, phosphorylated tau protein is the main component of tau aggregates, such as the neurofibrillary tangles present in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been suggested that intracellular tau could be toxic to neurons in its phosphorylated and/or aggregated form. However, extracellular tau could also damage neurons and since neuronal death is widespread in Alzheimer's disease, mainly among cholinergic neurons, these cells may represent a possible source of extracellular tau. However, other sources of extracellular tau have been proposed that are independent of cell death. In addition, several ways have been proposed for cells to interact with, transmit, and spread extracellular tau, and to transduce signals mediated by this tau. In this work, we will discuss the role of extracellular tau in the spreading of the tau pathology.

  1. Neonatal diabetes and congenital hyperinsulinism caused by mutations in ABCC8/SUR1 are associated with altered and opposite affinities for ATP and ADP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBryan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels composed of potassium inward-rectifier type 6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor type 1 subunits (Kir6.2/SUR14 are expressed in various cells in the brain and endocrine pancreas where they couple metabolic status to membrane potential. In β-cells, increases in cytosolic [ATP/ADP]c inhibit KATP channel activity, leading to membrane depolarization and exocytosis of insulin granules. Mutations in ABCC8 (SUR1 or KCNJ11 (Kir6.2 can result in gain or loss of channel activity and cause neonatal diabetes (ND or congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI, respectively. SUR1 is reported to be a Mg2+-dependent ATPase. A prevailing model posits that ATP hydrolysis at SUR1 is required to stimulate openings of the pore. However, recent work shows nucleotide binding, without hydrolysis, is sufficient to switch SUR1 to stimulatory conformations. The actions of nucleotides, ATP and ADP, on ND (SUR1E1506D and CHI (SUR1E1506K mutants, without Kir6.2, were compared to assess both models. Both substitutions significantly impair hydrolysis in SUR1 homologues. SUR1E1506D has greater affinity for MgATP than wildtype; SUR1E1506K has reduced affinity. Without Mg2+, SUR1E1506K has a greater affinity for ATP4- consistent with electrostatic attraction between ATP4-, unshielded by Mg2+, and the basic lysine. Further analysis of ND and CHI ABCC8 mutants in the second transmembrane and nucleotide binding domains (TMD2 & NBD2, found a relation between their affinities for ATP (± Mg2+ and their clinical phenotype. Increased affinity for ATP is associated with ND; decreased affinity with CHI. In contrast, MgADP showed a weaker relationship. Diazoxide, known to reduce insulin release in some CHI cases, potentiates switching of CHI mutants from non-stimulatory to stimulatory states consistent with diazoxide stabilizing a nucleotide-bound conformation. The results emphasize the greater importance of nucleotide binding vs hydrolysis in the regulation of KATP channels

  2. Postjunctional effects and neural release of purine compounds in the guinea-pig vas deferens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, D P; Stitzel, R E; Rowe, J N [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (USA). Medical Center

    1978-07-01

    The smooth muscle of the in vitro guinea-pig vas deferens was shown to contract upon addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), the order of potency being ATP>ADP>AMP. Adenosine did not produce contraction. Pretreatment of animals with reserpine or treatment of tissues with an ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor blocking agent failed to alter the dose-response relationship for ATP. Because ATP is both a potent agent and is present in the adrenergic storage complex, evidence was sought for the role of ATP as a possible co-transmitter following neural stimulation. Tissues preincubated in /sup 3/H-adenosine, a procedure which results in the incorporation of label into /sup 3/H-adenine nucleotides in the vas deferens, released significant amounts of tritium upon transmural simulation. Because contraction per se can contribute to the tritium overflow, experiments were conducted with bathing solution made hypertonic with sucrose (12.5%). Hypertonic solution prevented the electrically induced tissue contraction, but failed to prevent a tetrodotoxin-sensitive release of tritium from tissue preincubated with either /sup 3/H-norepinephrine or /sup 3/H-adenosine. Because of the known association of ATP with norepinephrine in synaptic vesicles of adrenergic nerves and in view of the present evidence of a postjunctional action of ATP as well as the release of tritium from /sup 3/H-adenosine-treated vasa deferentia, it seems possible that in this tissue ATP, in addition to its other functions, may serve as a co-transmitter with norepinephrine.

  3. Immunoscreening of the extracellular proteome of colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein-Scory, Susanne; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Kübler, Salwa; Diehl, Hanna; Eilert-Micus, Christina; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Stühler, Kai; Warscheid, Bettina; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2010-01-01

    The release of proteins from tumors can trigger an immune response in cancer patients involving T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, which results in the generation of antibodies to tumor-derived proteins. Many studies aim to use humoral immune responses, namely autoantibody profiles, directly, as clinical biomarkers. Alternatively, the antibody immune response as an amplification system for tumor associated alterations may be used to indicate putative protein biomarkers with high sensitivity. Aiming at the latter approach we here have implemented an autoantibody profiling strategy which particularly focuses on proteins released by tumor cells in vitro: the so-called secretome. For immunoscreening, the extracellular proteome of five colorectal cancer cell lines was resolved on 2D gels, immobilized on PVDF membranes and used for serological screening with individual sera from 21 colorectal cancer patients and 24 healthy controls. All of the signals from each blot were assigned to a master map, and autoantigen candidates were defined based of the pattern of immunoreactivities. The corresponding proteins were isolated from preparative gels, identified by MALDI-MS and/or by nano-HPLC/ESI-MS/MS and exemplarily confirmed by duplex Western blotting combining the human serum samples with antibodies directed against the protein(s) of interest. From 281 secretome proteins stained with autoantibodies in total we first defined the 'background patterns' of frequently immunoreactive extracellular proteins in healthy and diseased people. An assignment of these proteins, among them many nominally intracellular proteins, to the subset of exosomal proteins within the secretomes revealed a large overlap. On this basis we defined and consequently confirmed novel biomarker candidates such as the extreme C-terminus of the extracellular matrix protein agrin within the set of cancer-enriched immunorectivities. Our findings suggest, first, that autoantibody responses may be due, in

  4. Multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the function of the rat P2X4 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B Rokic

    Full Text Available The binding of ATP to trimeric P2X receptors (P2XR causes an enlargement of the receptor extracellular vestibule, leading to opening of the cation-selective transmembrane pore, but specific roles of vestibule amino acid residues in receptor activation have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, alanine or cysteine scanning mutagenesis of V47-V61 and F324-N338 sequences of rat P2X4R revealed that V49, Y54, Q55, F324, and G325 mutants were poorly responsive to ATP and trafficking was only affected by the V49 mutation. The Y54F and Y54W mutations, but not the Y54L mutation, rescued receptor function, suggesting that an aromatic residue is important at this position. Furthermore, the Y54A and Y54C receptor function was partially rescued by ivermectin, a positive allosteric modulator of P2X4R, suggesting a rightward shift in the potency of ATP to activate P2X4R. The Q55T, Q55N, Q55E, and Q55K mutations resulted in non-responsive receptors and only the Q55E mutant was ivermectin-sensitive. The F324L, F324Y, and F324W mutations also rescued receptor function partially or completely, ivermectin action on channel gating was preserved in all mutants, and changes in ATP responsiveness correlated with the hydrophobicity and side chain volume of the substituent. The G325P mutant had a normal response to ATP, suggesting that G325 is a flexible hinge. A topological analysis revealed that the G325 and F324 residues disrupt a β-sheet upon ATP binding. These results indicate multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the P2X4R function: the V49 residue is important for receptor trafficking to plasma membrane, the Y54 and Q55 residues play a critical role in channel gating and the F324 and G325 residues are critical for vestibule widening.

  5. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    compared to lean control. The ATP synthesis rate without ATP consumption was not different between groups and there were no significant gender differences. The mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes in vivo is partly based on a primarily impaired ATP synthesis....... or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...

  6. Phosphate starvation triggers production and secretion of an extracellular lipoprotein in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Blastier

    Full Text Available Life in oligotrophic environments necessitates quick adaptive responses to a sudden lack of nutrients. Secretion of specific degradative enzymes into the extracellular medium is a means to mobilize the required nutrient from nearby sources. The aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus must often face changes in its environment such as phosphate limitation. Evidence reported in this paper indicates that under phosphate starvation, C. crescentus produces a membrane surface-anchored lipoprotein named ElpS subsequently released into the extracellular medium. A complete set of 12 genes encoding a type II secretion system (T2SS is located adjacent to the elpS locus in the C. crescentus genome. Deletion of this T2SS impairs release of ElpS in the environment, which surprisingly remains present at the cell surface, indicating that the T2SS is not involved in the translocation of ElpS to the outer membrane but rather in its release. Accordingly, treatment with protease inhibitors prevents release of ElpS in the extracellular medium suggesting that ElpS secretion relies on a T2SS-secreted protease. Finally, secretion of ElpS is associated with an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in culture supernatants, suggesting a role of the secreted protein in inorganic phosphate mobilization. In conclusion, we have shown that upon phosphate starvation, C. crescentus produces an outer membrane bound lipoprotein, ElpS, which is further cleaved and released in the extracellular medium in a T2SS-dependent manner. Our data suggest that ElpS is associated with an alkaline phosphatase activity, thereby allowing the bacterium to gather inorganic phosphates from a poor environment.

  7. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  8. Wilson Disease Protein ATP7B Utilizes Lysosomal Exocytosis to Maintain Copper Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polishchuk, Elena V.; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we

  9. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Glycolysis was shown to occur during freezing of cod of decrease in glycogen and an increase in lactate. In addition, the ATP content decreased during freezing. Synthesis of ATP was measured as degradation of glycogen. During storage at -9 and - 12 degreesC it was found that degradation of ATP...

  10. Stimulation of acetoin production in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis by increasing ATP demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi; Würtz, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Having a sufficient supply of energy, usually in the form of ATP, is essential for all living organisms. In this study, however, we demonstrate that it can be beneficial to reduce ATP availability when the objective is microbial production. By introducing the ATP hydrolyzing F1-ATPase into a Lact...

  11. A comparative study of ATPase subunit 9 (Atp9) gene between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATPase subunit 9 gene (Atp9) is an important functional gene in mitochondria, and is closely related with energy supply. RNA editing of atp9 gene was associated with male sterility in plants. In this study, the atp9 gene in soybeans was cloned from a soybean cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS2A and its maintainer line ...

  12. Statistical Mechanics Analysis of ATP Binding to a Multisubunit Enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yun-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provide a new way to understand biophysical processe by statistical mechanics analysis. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further......, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic...

  14. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. Ballast water compliance monitoring: A new application for ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, A.; Stehouwer, P.; Gianoli, C.; Schneider, G.; Raymond, M.; Bonamin, V.

    2018-03-01

    The coming into force of the USCG ballast water regulations and the IMO ballast water management convention resulted in the development of several technologies approved for the treatment of ballast water. To ensure compliance of these technologies, the development of rapid and robust analysis methods was necessary. In collaboration with the SGS Group (Switzerland) and LuminUltra (Canada), Aqua-tools (France) has developed an innovative Ballast Water Treatment Monitoring (BWTM) kit for rapid onboard testing. The affordable kit provides results in less than 1 h, is easy to use and durable ensuring that the ballast water treatment system on the ship is fully compliant with the discharge standards upon arrival in port. The core of this method is a combination of high-quality reagents (lysis solution and ATP 2G Luminase™ enzyme) not inhibited by salinity and a patented fast homogenizing method for ATP extraction developed for a higher ATP recovery from zooplankton and phytoplankton. Compared to traditional analysis methods, the BWTM Kit provides fast and accurate results for all three fractions of microorganisms (≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 ÷ < 50 μm and bacteria). Preliminary tests carried out in cooperation with SGS showed that the proposed method was able to detect onboard the efficiency of the treatment systems used. Compliance limits were established for all size fractions and a correlation between the standard methods (microscopy, plate count, MPN) and ATP was evaluated. The BWTM kit can provide a fast indication of compliance or gross exceedance. The rare borderline cases, when encountered, of course require additional confirmation.

  16. The thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sunil

    2016-12-01

    As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments. Hence this problem has been reinvestigated from first principles. The overall thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrial energy transduction OX PHOS process has been found to lie between 40 and 41% from four different approaches based on a) estimation using structural and biochemical data, b) fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis, c) novel insights arising from Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis, and d) the overall balance of cellular energetics. The torsional mechanism also offers an explanation for the observation of a thermodynamic efficiency approaching 100% in some experiments. Applications of the unique, molecular machine mode of functioning of F 1 F O -ATP synthase involving direct inter-conversion of chemical and mechanical energies in the design and fabrication of novel, man-made mechanochemical devices have been envisaged, and some new ways to exorcise Maxwell's demon have been proposed. It is hoped that analysis of the fundamental problem of energy transduction in OX PHOS from a fresh perspective will catalyze new avenues of research in this interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  18. Catalytic strategy used by the myosin motor to hydrolyze ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-07-22

    Myosin is a molecular motor responsible for biological motions such as muscle contraction and intracellular cargo transport, for which it hydrolyzes adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Early steps of the mechanism by which myosin catalyzes ATP hydrolysis have been investigated, but still missing are the structure of the final ADP·inorganic phosphate (Pi) product and the complete pathway leading to it. Here, a comprehensive description of the catalytic strategy of myosin is formulated, based on combined quantum-classical molecular mechanics calculations. A full exploration of catalytic pathways was performed and a final product structure was found that is consistent with all experiments. Molecular movies of the relevant pathways show the different reorganizations of the H-bond network that lead to the final product, whose γ-phosphate is not in the previously reported HPγO4(2-) state, but in the H2PγO4(-) state. The simulations reveal that the catalytic strategy of myosin employs a three-pronged tactic: (i) Stabilization of the γ-phosphate of ATP in a dissociated metaphosphate (PγO3(-)) state. (ii) Polarization of the attacking water molecule, to abstract a proton from that water. (iii) Formation of multiple proton wires in the active site, for efficient transfer of the abstracted proton to various product precursors. The specific role played in this strategy by each of the three loops enclosing ATP is identified unambiguously. It explains how the precise timing of the ATPase activation during the force generating cycle is achieved in myosin. The catalytic strategy described here for myosin is likely to be very similar in most nucleotide hydrolyzing enzymes.

  19. Evasion of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Respiratory Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storisteanu, Daniel M L; Pocock, Joanna M; Cowburn, Andrew S; Juss, Jatinder K; Nadesalingam, Angalee; Nizet, Victor; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2017-04-01

    The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone- and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Since the discovery of NETs over a decade ago, evidence that "NET evasion" might act as an immune protection strategy among respiratory pathogens, including group A Streptococcus, Bordetella pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae, has been growing, with the majority of these studies being published in the past 2 years. Evasion strategies fall into three main categories: inhibition of NET release by down-regulating host inflammatory responses; degradation of NETs using pathogen-derived DNases; and resistance to the microbicidal components of NETs, which involves a variety of mechanisms, including encapsulation. Hence, the evasion of NETs appears to be a widespread strategy to allow pathogen proliferation and dissemination, and is currently a topic of intense research interest. This article outlines the evidence supporting the three main strategies of NET evasion-inhibition, degradation, and resistance-with particular reference to common respiratory pathogens.

  20. Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca(2+) release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca(2+) release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca(2+) release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca(2+) from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca(2+) pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca(2+) release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)(-1) for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg(-1); EDL, 168 μmol kg(-1)). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca(2+) release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca(2+) release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca(2+) release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca(2+) released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles.

  1. Persister formation in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with ATP depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Rowe, Sarah E.; Gandt, Autumn Brown; Nuxoll, Austin S.; Donegan, Niles P.; Zalis, Eliza A.; Clair, Geremy; Adkins, Joshua N.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Lewis, Kim

    2016-04-18

    Persisters are dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are tolerant to killing by antibiotics1. Persisters are associated with chronic bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment failure. In Escherichia coli, toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules are responsible for persister formation. The mechanism of persister formation in Gram positive bacteria is unknown. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, responsible for a variety of chronic and relapsing infections such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis and infections of implanted devices. Deleting TA modules in S. aureus did not affect the level of persisters. Here we show that S. aureus persisters are produced due to a stochastic entrance to stationary phase accompanied by a drop in intracellular ATP. Cells expressing stationary state markers are present throughout the growth phase, increasing in frequency with cell density. Cell sorting revealed that expression of stationary markers was associated with a 100-1000 fold increased likelihood of survival to antibiotic challenge. We find that the antibiotic tolerance of these cells is due to a drop in intracellular ATP. The ATP level of the cell is predictive of bactericidal antibiotic efficacy and explains bacterial tolerance to antibiotic treatment.

  2. Imidazopyridine Compounds Inhibit Mycobacterial Growth by Depleting ATP Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Theresa; Alling, Torey; Early, Julie V; Wescott, Heather A; Kumar, Anuradha; Moraski, Garrett C; Miller, Marvin J; Masquelin, Thierry; Hipskind, Philip A; Parish, Tanya

    2018-06-01

    The imidazopyridines are a promising new class of antitubercular agents with potent activity in vitro and in vivo We isolated mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to a representative imidazopyridine; the mutants had large shifts (>20-fold) in MIC. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in Rv1339, a hypothetical protein of unknown function. We isolated mutants resistant to three further compounds from the series; resistant mutants isolated from two of the compounds had single nucleotide polymorphisms in Rv1339 and resistant mutants isolated from the third compound had single nucleotide polymorphisms in QcrB, the proposed target for the series. All the strains were resistant to two compounds, regardless of the mutation, and a strain carrying the QcrB T313I mutation was resistant to all of the imidazopyridine derivatives tested, confirming cross-resistance. By monitoring pH homeostasis and ATP generation, we confirmed that compounds from the series were targeting QcrB; imidazopyridines disrupted pH homeostasis and depleted ATP, providing further evidence of an effect on the electron transport chain. A representative compound was bacteriostatic against replicating bacteria, consistent with a mode of action against QcrB. The series had a narrow inhibitory spectrum, with no activity against other bacterial species. No synergy or antagonism was seen with other antituberculosis drugs under development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that the imidazopyridine series functions by reducing ATP generation via inhibition of QcrB. Copyright © 2018 O'Malley et al.

  3. Effect of ATP sulfurylase overexpression in bright yellow 2 tobacco cells: regulation of ATP sulfurylase and SO4(-2) transport activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzfeld, Y.; Cathala, N.; Grignon, C.; Davidian, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    To determine if the ATP sulfurylase reaction is a regulatory step for the SO4(2-)-assimilation pathway in plants, an Arabidopsis thaliana ATP sulfurylase cDNA, APS2, was fused to the 355 promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and introduced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation into isolated Bright Yellow 2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. The ATP sulfurylase activity in transgenic cells was 8-fold that in control cells, and was correlated with the expression of a specific polypeptide revealed by western analysis using an anti-ATP sulfurylase antibody. The molecular mass of this polypeptide agreed with that for the overexpressed mature protein. ATP sulfurylase overexpression had no effect on [35S]SO4(2-) influx or ATP sulfurylase activity regulation by S availability, except that ATP sulfurylase activity variations in response to S starvation in transgenic cells were 8 times higher than in the wild type. There were also no differences in cell growth or sensitivity to SeO4(2-) (a toxic SO4(2-) analog) between transgenic and wild-type cells. We propose that in Bright Yellow 2 tobacco cells, the ATP sulfurylase derepression by S deficiency may involve a posttranscriptional mechanism, and that the ATP sulfurylase abundance is not limiting for cell metabolism

  4. Royal Society Scientific Meeting: Extracellular vesicles in the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ryan Charles; Elmusrati, Areeg A; Lambert, Daniel; Carter, David Raul Francisco

    2018-01-05

    Cancer cells do not grow as an isolated homogeneous mass; tumours are, in fact, complex and heterogeneous collections of cancer and surrounding stromal cells, collectively termed the tumour microenvironment. The interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment has emerged as a key concept in the regulation of cancer progression. Understanding the intercellular dialogue in the tumour microenvironment is therefore an important goal. One aspect of this dialogue that has not been appreciated until recently is the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are small vesicles released by cells under both normal and pathological conditions; they can transfer biological molecules between cells leading to changes in phenotype. EVs have emerged as important regulators of biological processes and can be dysregulated in diseases such as cancer; rapidly growing interest in their biology and therapeutic potential led to the Royal Society hosting a Scientific Meeting to explore the roles of EVs in the tumour microenvironment. This cross-disciplinary meeting explored examples of how aberrant crosstalk between tumour and stromal cells can promote cancer progression, and how such signalling can be targeted for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic benefit. In this review, and the special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that follows, we will provide an overview of the content and outcomes of this exciting meeting.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'Extracellular vesicles and the tumour microenvironment'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Pathophysiology of neutrophil-mediated extracellular redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganjac, Morana; Cipak, Ana; Schaur, Rudolf Joerg; Zarkovic, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocyte leukocytes (neutrophils) play fundamental role in the innate immune response. In the presence of adequate stimuli, neutrophils release excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may induce cell and tissue injury. Oxidative burst of neutrophils acts as a double-edged sword. It may contribute to the pathology of atherosclerosis and brain injury but is also necessary in resolving infections. Moreover, neutrophil-derived ROS may also have both a tumor promoting and tumor suppressing role. ROS have a specific activities and diffusion distance, which is related to their short lifetime. Therefore, the manner in which ROS will act depends on the cells targeted and the intra- and extracellular levels of individual ROS, which can further cause production of reactive aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) that act as a second messengers of ROS. In this review we discuss the influence of neutrophil mediated extracellular redox reactions in ischemia reperfusion injury, transplant rejection and chronic diseases (atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer). At the end a brief overview of cellular mechanisms to maintain ROS homeostasis is given.

  6. Myeloid extracellular vesicles: messengers from the demented brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eNigro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-borne monocyte derived cells play a pivotal, initially unrecognized, role in most central nervous system disorders, including diseases initially classified as purely neurodegenerative (i.e. AD, PD, and ALS. Their trafficking to the brain and spinal cord has been extensively studied in classical neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Central nervous system resident myeloid cells, namely microglia and perivascular macrophages, also are in the spotlight of investigations on neurological disorders. Myeloid cells, such as infiltrating macrophages and microglia, have been described as having both protective and destructive features in neurological disorders, thus identification of their functional phenotype during disease evolution would be of paramount importance. Extracellular vesicles, namely exosomes and shed vesicles, are released by virtually any cell type and can be detected and identified in terms of cell origin in biological fluids. They therefore constitute an ideal tool to access information on cells residing in an inaccessible site such as the brain. We will review here available information on extracellular vesicles detection in neurological disorders with special emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Introducing the Next Small Big Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kalra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular communication was long thought to be regulated exclusively through direct contact between cells or via release of soluble molecules that transmit the signal by binding to a suitable receptor on the target cell, and/or via uptake into that cell. With the discovery of small secreted vesicular structures that contain complex cargo, both in their lumen and the lipid membrane that surrounds them, a new frontier of signal transduction was discovered. These “extracellular vesicles” (EV were initially thought to be garbage bags through which the cell ejected its waste. Whilst this is a major function of one type of EV, i.e., apoptotic bodies, many EVs have intricate functions in intercellular communication and compound exchange; although their physiological roles are still ill-defined. Additionally, it is now becoming increasingly clear that EVs mediate disease progression and therefore studying EVs has ignited significant interests among researchers from various fields of life sciences. Consequently, the research effort into the pathogenic roles of EVs is significantly higher even though their protective roles are not well established. The “Focus on extracellular vesicles” series of reviews highlights the current state of the art regarding various topics in EV research, whilst this review serves as an introductory overview of EVs, their biogenesis and molecular composition.

  8. Spatiotemporal regulation of ATP and Ca2+ dynamics in vertebrate rod and cone ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry E; Perkins, Guy A; Giddabasappa, Anand; Chaney, Shawntay; Xiao, Weimin; White, Andrew D; Brown, Joshua M; Waggoner, Jenna; Ellisman, Mark H; Fox, Donald A

    2007-06-15

    In conventional neurons, Ca2+ enters presynaptic terminals during an action potential and its increased local concentration triggers transient exocytosis. In contrast, vertebrate photoreceptors are nonspiking neurons that maintain sustained depolarization and neurotransmitter release from ribbon synapses in darkness and produce light-dependent graded hyperpolarizing responses. Rods transmit single photon responses with high fidelity, whereas cones are less sensitive and exhibit faster response kinetics. These differences are likely due to variations in presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics. Metabolic coupling and cross-talk between mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) coordinately control presynaptic ATP production and Ca2+ dynamics. The goal of our structural and functional studies was to determine the spatiotemporal regulation of ATP and Ca2+ dynamics in rod spherules and cone pedicles. Central retina tissue from C57BL/6 mice was used. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) experiments were conducted on fixed-frozen vertical sections. Primary antibodies were selected for their tissue/cellular specificity and ability to recognize single, multiple or all splice variants of selected isoforms. Electron microscopy (EM) and 3-D electron tomography (ET) studies used our standard procedures on thin- and thick-sectioned retinas, respectively. Calibrated fluo-3-Ca2+ imaging experiments of dark- and light-adapted rod and cone terminals in retinal slices were conducted. Confocal microscopy showed that mitochondria, ER, PMCA, and NCX1 exhibited distinct retinal lamination patterns and differential distribution in photoreceptor synapses. Antibodies for three distinct mitochondrial compartments differentially labeled retinal areas with high metabolic demand: rod and cone inner segments, previously undescribed cone juxtanuclear mitochondria and the two plexiform layers. Rod spherule membranes uniformly and intensely

  9. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumors and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ciregia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs, and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins. Indeed, exosomes are fundamental to assemble and transport proteins during development, but they can also transfer neurotoxic misfolded proteins in pathogenesis. The present review will focus on their roles in neurological diseases, specifically brain tumors, such as glioblastoma (GBM, neuroblastoma (NB, medulloblastoma (MB, and metastatic brain tumors and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, multiple sclerosis (MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Huntington, and Prion diseseases highlighting their involvement in spreading neurotoxicity, in therapeutics, and in pathogenesis.

  10. Circulating Extracellular Histones Are Clinically Relevant Mediators of Multiple Organ Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Chihiro; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Ishida, Tokiko; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular histones are a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The mechanisms of histone-mediated injury in certain organs have been extensively studied, but an understanding of the pathophysiological role of histone-mediated injury in multiple organ injury remains elusive. To elucidate this role, we systemically subjected C57BL/6 mice to various doses of histones and performed a chronological evaluation of the morphological and functional changes in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Notably, histone administration ultimately led to death after a dose-dependent aggravation of multiple organ injury. In chronological studies, pulmonary and hepatic injuries occurred within 15 minutes, whereas renal injuries presented at a later phase, suggesting that susceptibility to extracellular histones varies among organs. Histones bound to pulmonary and hepatic endothelial cells immediately after administration, leading to endothelial damage, which could be ameliorated by pretreatment with heparin. Furthermore, release of another DAMP, high-mobility group protein box 1, followed the histone-induced tissue damage, and an antibody against the molecule ameliorated hepatic and renal failure in a late phase. These findings indicate that extracellular histones induce multiple organ injury in two progressive stages-direct injury to endothelial cells and the subsequent release of other DAMPs-and that combination therapies against extracellular histones and high-mobility group protein box 1 may be a promising strategy for treating multiple organ injury. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of amygdalar extracellular zinc in rat behavior for passive avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Yamaide, Rie; Oku, Naoto

    2004-03-25

    On the basis of the evidence that zinc is released from glutamatergic neuron terminals in the amygdala, the effect of chelation of amygdalar extracellular zinc on glutamate release from the neuron terminals was studied by using in vivo microdialysis. When the amygdala was perfused with 100 microM CaEDTA to chelate extracellular zinc, glutamate concentration in the perfusate was decreased significantly, whereas that tended to be increased by perfusion with 100 microM ZnEDTA as a control. The effect of CaEDTA on extracellular glutamate levels was different between the amygdala and hippocampus, implying that modulation of glutamate signaling by zinc is different between them. To evaluate chelation of zinc in rat behavior, perfusion of the amygdala with CaEDTA was started 40 min before behavioral test for passive avoidance. The behavior for passive avoidance was impaired during perfusion with CaEDTA. On the other hand, the behavior during perfusion with ZnEDTA was more rapidly developed than that with vehicle only. These results suggest that amygdalar extracellular zinc is involved in the behavior for passive avoidance.

  12. Metabolic multianalyte microphysiometry reveals extracellular acidosis is an essential mediator of neuronal preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer R; Palubinsky, Amy M; Brown, Jacquelynn E; McLaughlin, Bethann; Cliffel, David E

    2012-07-18

    Metabolic adaptation to stress is a crucial yet poorly understood phenomenon, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). The ability to identify essential metabolic events which predict neuronal fate in response to injury is critical to developing predictive markers of outcome, for interpreting CNS spectroscopic imaging, and for providing a richer understanding of the relevance of clinical indices of stress which are routinely collected. In this work, real-time multianalyte microphysiometry was used to dynamically assess multiple markers of aerobic and anaerobic respiration through simultaneous electrochemical measurement of extracellular glucose, lactate, oxygen, and acid. Pure neuronal cultures and mixed cultures of neurons and glia were compared following a 90 min exposure to aglycemia. This stress was cytotoxic to neurons yet resulted in no appreciable increase in cell death in age-matched mixed cultures. The metabolic profile of the cultures was similar in that aglycemia resulted in decreases in extracellular acidification and lactate release in both pure neurons and mixed cultures. However, oxygen consumption was only diminished in the neuron enriched cultures. The differences became more pronounced when cells were returned to glucose-containing media upon which extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption never returned to baseline in cells fated to die. Taken together, these data suggest that lactate release is not predictive of neuronal survival. Moreover, they reveal a previously unappreciated relationship of astrocytes in maintaining oxygen uptake and a correlation between metabolic recovery of neurons and extracellular acidification.

  13. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal ( 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  14. Extracellular histones in tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin's histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other forms of regulated necrosis including pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cyclophilin D-mediated regulated necrosis. Beyond these toxic effects, extracellular histones also trigger thrombus formation and innate immunity by activating Toll-like receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thereby, extracellular histones contribute to the microvascular complications of sepsis, major trauma, small vessel vasculitis as well as acute liver, kidney, brain, and lung injury. Finally, histones prevent the degradation of extracellular DNA, which promotes autoimmunization, anti-nuclear antibody formation, and autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Here, we review the current evidence on the pathogenic role of extracellular histones in disease and discuss how to target extracellular histones to improve disease outcomes.

  15. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Eththilu [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa Univesity, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramesh, Pandian [UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Departmento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-07-15

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  16. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Ramdass, Arumugam; Ramesh, Pandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  17. Small amounts of functional ATP7A protein permit mild phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2015-01-01

    concentrations, ATP7A shifts to the post-Golgi compartments or to the plasma membrane to export copper out of the cell. Impaired copper-regulation trafficking has been observed for ATP7A mutants, but its impact on the clinical outcome is not clear. The major problem in patients with MD seems to be insufficient...... of missense mutations on structural models of the ATP7A protein suggests that affected conserved residues generally lead to a severe phenotype. The ATP7A protein traffics within the cells. At low copper levels, ATP7A locates to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) to load cuproenzymes with copper, whereas at higher...

  18. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzen, Erin L; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Hitomi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    and their unaffected parents to identify de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven individuals. In a subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 other patients with AHC, we found that ATP1A3 mutations were likely to be responsible for at least 74% of the cases; we also identified one inherited mutation...... affecting the level of protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in ATP1A3....

  19. atpE gene as a new useful specific molecular target to quantify Mycobacterium in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The environment is the likely source of many pathogenic mycobacterial species but detection of mycobacteria by bacteriological tools is generally difficult and time-consuming. Consequently, several molecular targets based on the sequences of housekeeping genes, non-functional RNA and structural ribosomal RNAs have been proposed for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical or environmental samples. While certain of these targets were proposed as specific for this genus, most are prone to false positive results in complex environmental samples that include related, but distinct, bacterial genera. Nowadays the increased number of sequenced genomes and the availability of software for genomic comparison provide tools to develop novel, mycobacteria-specific targets, and the associated molecular probes and primers. Consequently, we conducted an in silico search for proteins exclusive to Mycobacterium spp. genomes in order to design sensitive and specific molecular targets. Results Among the 3989 predicted proteins from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, only 11 proteins showed 80% to 100% of similarity with Mycobacterium spp. genomes, and less than 50% of similarity with genomes of closely related Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus genera. Based on DNA sequence alignments, we designed primer pairs and a probe that specifically detect the atpE gene of mycobacteria, as verified by quantitative real-time PCR on a collection of mycobacteria and non-mycobacterial species. The real-time PCR method we developed was successfully used to detect mycobacteria in tap water and lake samples. Conclusions The results indicate that this real-time PCR method targeting the atpE gene can serve for highly specific detection and precise quantification of Mycobacterium spp. in environmental samples. PMID:24299240

  20. Pulmonary endothelial activation caused by extracellular histones contributes to neutrophil activation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Guan, Li; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Zanmei; Mao, Lijun; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-11-21

    During the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis, and their activation requires interaction with the endothelium. Extracellular histones have been recognized as pivotal inflammatory mediators. This study was to investigate the role of pulmonary endothelial activation during the extracellular histone-induced inflammatory response in ARDS. ARDS was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exogenous histones. Concurrent with LPS administration, anti-histone H4 antibody (anti-H4) or non-specific IgG was administered to study the role of extracellular histones. The circulating von Willebrand factor (vWF) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) were measured with ELISA kits at the preset time points. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue was measured with a MPO detection kit. The translocation of P-selectin and neutrophil infiltration were measured by immunohistochemical detection. For in vitro studies, histone H4 in the supernatant of mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs) was measured by Western blot. The binding of extracellular histones with endothelial membrane was examined by confocal laser microscopy. Endothelial P-selectin translocation was measured by cell surface ELISA. Adhesion of neutrophils to MLVECs was assessed with a color video digital camera. The results showed that during LPS-induced ARDS extracellular histones caused endothelial and neutrophil activation, as seen by P-selectin translocation, release of vWF, an increase of circulating sTM, lung neutrophil infiltration and increased MPO activity. Extracellular histones directly bound and activated MLVECs in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, the direct stimulatory effect of exogenous histones on neutrophils was very limited, as measured by neutrophil adhesion and MPO activity. With the contribution of activated endothelium, extracellular histones could effectively activating

  1. Role of water in the enzymatic catalysis: study of ATP + AMP → 2ADP conversion by adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Bharat V; Jana, Biman; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-04-28

    The catalytic conversion ATP + AMP → 2ADP by the enzyme adenylate kinase (ADK) involves the binding of one ATP molecule to the LID domain and one AMP molecule to the NMP domain. The latter is followed by a phosphate transfer and then the release of two ADP molecules. We have computed a novel two-dimensional configurational free energy surface (2DCFES), with one reaction coordinate each for the LID and the NMP domain motions, while considering explicit water interactions. Our computed 2DCFES clearly reveals the existence of a stable half-open half-closed (HOHC) intermediate state of the enzyme. Cycling of the enzyme through the HOHC state reduces the conformational free energy barrier for the reaction by about 20 kJ/mol. We find that the stability of the HOHC state (missed in all earlier studies with implicit solvent model) is largely because of the increase of specific interactions of the polar amino acid side chains with water, particularly with the arginine and the histidine residues. Free energy surface of the LID domain is rather rugged, which can conveniently slow down LID's conformational motion, thus facilitating a new substrate capture after the product release in the catalytic cycle.

  2. Extracellular Vesicles from Hypoxic Adipocytes and Obese Subjects Reduce Insulin‐Stimulated Glucose Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczko, Justyna; Ortega, Francisco J.; Falcon‐Perez, Juan Manuel; Wabitsch, Martin; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Scope We investigate the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. Methods and results EVs are isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen), or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15% v/v). EVs are isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes are incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin‐stimulated glucose transport are measured. EVs released from hypoxic adipocytes impair insulin‐stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake and reduce insulin mediated phosphorylation of AKT. Insulin‐mediated phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is not affected. EVs from individuals with obesity decrease insulin stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes (p = 0.0159). Conclusion EVs released by stressed adipocytes impair insulin action in neighboring adipocytes. PMID:29292863

  3. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the main kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis by ouabain sensitive Na+, K+-ATP-ase in spermatozoa of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. В. Фафула

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that Na+,K+-ATP-ase plays important role in physiology of spermatozoa including their motility. Na+,K+-ATP-ase is one of the targets for reactive oxygen species. Hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species can damage sperm cells and it is considered to be as one of the mechanisms of male infertility. Objectives: To evaluate the H2O2 effect on the main kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis by ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase of spermatozoa of fertile (normozoospermia and infertility men (asthenozoospermia. Materials and methods: Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by production of Pi. Concentration dependencies ware linearized in Lineweaver-Burk plot. Results: Effective inhibitory effect of H2O2 on ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATP-ase activity of sperm cells of fertile and infertile men was demonstrated. The effects of H2O2 on the main kinetic parameters of the ATP hydrolysis with the involvement of Na+, K+-ATP-ase was studied. In the whole range of studied concentrations of ATP the Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity of spermatozoa of fertile and infertile men was reduced in the presence of H2O2 in the incubation medium. However, the optimal activity of the Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity of sperm cells in both normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men was observed in the presence of 5 mM ATP in the incubation medium. By linearization of concentration curves in Lineweaver-Burk plot the main kinetic parameters of Na+, K+-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis in the sperm cells of fertile and infertile men were determined. Under the effect of H2O2, the affinity constant of enzyme to ATP in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men increases several times. The initial maximum rate of ATP hydrolysis was significantly reduced only in the spermatozoa of fertile men with normozoospermia. Conclusions: Under conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress the inhibition of ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATP-ase activity in sperm cells

  4. Purinergic signalling links mechanical breath profile and alveolar mechanics with the pro-inflammatory innate immune response causing ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasan (Djo); P. Blankman (Paul); G.F. Nieman (Gary F.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSevere pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high

  5. Effect of irradiation on detection of bacteria in dehydrated vegetables with ATP bioluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Huan; Luo Shishi; Wang Zegang; Feng Min; Zhu Jiating; Chen Xiulan; Zhai Jianqing

    2011-01-01

    ATP bioluminescence intensity of 4 kinds of irradiated dehydrated vegetables was inconsistent with the bacteria number, the reasons were investigated in this paper. Results showed that irradiation had little effect on background luminescence, and there was no effect on luciferase-luminous system. When irradiation killed the bacteria, the ATPase activity also decreased. As a result, the ATP content in bacteria didn't decreased with the killed of bacteria, which contributed to the increase of free ATP in ATP extract and finally led to the disagreement between the bioluminescence intensity and the actual number of bacteria. When the free ATP in the dehydrated vegetable was removed, the bioluminescence intensity of ATP extract was consistent with the actual number of bacteria in irradiated dehydrated vegetable and ATP bioluminescence technology could be used in bacteria detection of irradiated samples. (authors)

  6. ATP-independent DNA synthesis in Vaccinia-infected L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, N.A.; Kauff, R.A.; Sikorski, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse L cells can be made permeable to exogenous nucleotides by a cold shock in 0.01 M Tris . HCl pH 7.8, 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 30 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 4 mM MgCl 2 . DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells requires ATP whereas DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells that are infected with Vaccinia virus is ATP-independent. Permeabilized L cells that are infected with ultraviolet-irradiated virus show a marked suppression of DNA synthesis which is not corrected by an excess of deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP. The ATP-dependent and ATP-independent processes of DNA synthesis are inhibited to the same extent by Mal-Net, pHMB, ara CTP and phosphonoacetate. Concentrations of daunorubicin and cytembena, which cause marked inhibition of the ATP-dependent enzymes, only cause partial inhibition of the ATP-independent enzymes. (Auth.)

  7. Role of glycogenolysis in memory and le