WorldWideScience

Sample records for extra spectral component

  1. Hadronic Models for the Extra Spectral Component in the short GRB 090510

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Katsuaki; Mészáros, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A short gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 detected by {\\it Fermi} shows an extra spectral component between 10 MeV and 30 GeV, an addition to a more usual low-energy ($<10$ MeV) Band component. In general, such an extra component could originate from accelerated protons. In particular, inverse Compton emission from secondary electron-positron pairs and proton synchrotron emission are competitive models for reproducing the hard spectrum of the extra component in GRB 090510. Here, using Monte Carlo simulations, we test the hadronic scenarios against the observed properties. To reproduce the extra component around GeV with these models, the proton injection isotropic-equivalent luminosity is required to be larger than $10^{55}$ erg$ / $s. Such large proton luminosities are a challenge for the hadronic models.

  2. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1 and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  3. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Antonio; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  4. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Antonio; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the as...

  5. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohri, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may not change the prediction of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. One can remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to $N_e\\sim 60$, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of $\\pm 0.01$ without modifying other cosmological parameters. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be generated by such additional dynamical fields, can be used to nullify the tension between BICEP2 and other experiments.

  6. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics group, Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Study (Sokendai), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may alter the time-dependence of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is possible to remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to 0N{sub e}∼ 6, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of ± 0.01 without adding significant contribution to the spectral index. The corrections to the spectral index (and the amplitude) could be important in considering global behavior of the corrected spectrum, although they can be neglected in the estimation of the spectrum and its spectral index at the pivot scale. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be due to such fields, can be used to nullify tension between BICEP2 and Planck experiments.

  7. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  8. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The present and future of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergin, E. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Comito, C.; Crockett, N. R.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.; Wang, S.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G. A.; Bumble, B.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F. P.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pagani, L.; Pearson, J. C.; Pérault, M.; Plume, R.; Roelfsema, P.; Qin, S.-L.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present initial results from the Herschel GT key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS) and outline the promise and potential of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI. The HIFI instrument offers unprecedented sensitivity, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the

  9. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Dmitry; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-09-14

    We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of components etc., in order to separate them. In this paper we propose a method where one puts conditions on the spectra only. The advantages of our method are: 1) it is internal: the maps of the components are constructed as combinations of data in different energy bins, 2) the components may be correlated among each other, 3) the method is semi-blind: in many cases, it is sufficient to assume a functional form of the spectra and determine the parameters from a maximization of a likelihood function. As an example, we derive the CMB map and the foreground maps for seven yeas of WMAP data. In an Appendix, we present a generalization of the method, where one can also add a number of external templates.

  10. Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Young, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  11. Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach Independent Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ning; Kong, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a new statistical analysis technique, Mean Field approach to Bayesian Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA), on galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress the stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Comparing to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in the efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter-recover for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find that our MF-ICA method not only can fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but also can recover the physical parameters of galaxies accurately. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find...

  12. Harmonic component detection: Optimized Spectral Kurtosis for operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, J.-L.; Tawfiq, I.; Chevallier, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution in the field of Operational Modal Analysis to identify the modal parameters of mechanical structures using only measured responses. The study deals with structural responses coupled with harmonic components amplitude and frequency modulated in a short range, a common combination for mechanical systems with engines and other rotating machines in operation. These harmonic components generate misleading data interpreted erroneously by the classical methods used in OMA. The present work attempts to differentiate maxima in spectra stemming from harmonic components and structural modes. The detection method proposed is based on the so-called Optimized Spectral Kurtosis and compared with others definitions of Spectral Kurtosis described in the literature. After a parametric study of the method, a critical study is performed on numerical simulations and then on an experimental structure in operation in order to assess the method's performance.

  13. Neutrino production in electromagnetic cascades: An extra component of cosmogenic neutrino at ultrahigh energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Li, Zhuo; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2017-03-01

    Muon pairs can be produced in the annihilation of ultrahigh energy (UHE, E ≳1 018 eV ) photons with low energy cosmic background radiation in the intergalactic space, giving birth to neutrinos. Although the branching ratio of muon pair production is low, products of other channels, which are mainly electron/positron pairs, will probably transfer most of their energies into the new generated UHE photon in the subsequent interaction with the cosmic background radiation via Compton scattering in deep Klein-Nishina regime. The regeneration of these new UHE photons then provides a second chance to produce the muon pairs, enhancing the neutrino flux. We investigate the neutrino production in the propagation of UHE photons in the intergalactic space at different redshifts, considering various competing processes such as pair production, double pair production for UHE photons, and triplet production and synchrotron radiation for UHE electrons. Following the analytic method raised by Gould and Rephaeli, we firstly study the electromagnetic cascade initiated by an UHE photon, with paying particular attention to the leading particle in the cascade process. Regarding the least energetic outgoing particles as energy loss, we obtain the effective penetration length of the leading particle, as well as energy loss rate including the neutrino emission rate in the cascade process. Finally, we find that an extra component of UHE neutrinos will arise from the propagation of UHE cosmic rays due to the generated UHE photons and electron/positrons. However, the flux of this component is quite small, with a flux of at most 10% of that of the conventional cosmogenic neutrino at a few EeV, in the absence of a strong intergalactic magnetic field and a strong cosmic radio background. The precise contribution of extra component depends on several factors, e.g., cosmic radio background, intergalactic magnetic field, and the spectrum of proton, which are discussed in this work.

  14. Two Component Dark Matters in S_4 x Z_2 Flavor Symmetric Extra U(1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Daikoku, Yasuhiro; Toma, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We study cosmic-ray anomaly observed by PAMELA based on E_6 inspired extra U(1) model with S_4 x Z_2 flavor symmetry. In our model, the lightest flavon has very long lifetime of O(10^{18)) second which is longer than the age of the universe, but not long enough to explain the PAMELA result ~ O(10^{26}) sec. Such a situation could be avoidable by considering that the flavon is not the dominant component of dark matters and the dominant one is the lightest neutralino. With appropriate parameter set, density parameter of dark matter and over-abundance of positron flux in cosmic-ray are realized at the same time. There is interesting correlation between spectrum of positron flux and V_{MNS}. No excess of anti-proton in cosmic-ray suggests that sfermions are heavier than 4 TeV and the masses of the light Higgs bosons are degenerated.

  15. Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Su, Shan-Shan; Kong, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra.

  16. Spectral evolution of superluminal components in parsec-scale jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mimica, P; Agudo, I; Martí, J M; Gómez, J L; Miralles, J A

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present numerical simulations of the spectral evolution and radio emission of superluminal components in relativistic jets. We have developed an algorithm (SPEV) for the transport of a population of non-thermal particles (NTPs). For very large values of the ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field energy density ($\\sim 6\\times 10^4$), quiescent over-pressured jet models show substantial spectral evolution compared to models whithout radiative losses. Larger values of the magnetic field yield much shorter jets. Larger magnetic fields result in shorter losses-dominated regimes, with a rapid and intense radiation of energy. We also show that jets with a positive photon spectral index may result if the lower limit $\\gamma_min$ of the NTP energy distribution is placed close or above a threshold $\\gamma_M$, where the synchrotron function R has its maximum. A temporary increase of the Lorentz factor at the jet inlet produces a traveling perturbation that appears in the synthetic maps as a radio componen...

  17. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: the present and future of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A; Comito, C; Crockett, N R; Lis, D C; Schilke, P; Wang, S; Bell, T A; Blake, G A; Bumble, B; Caux, E; Cabrit, S; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; de Graauw, Th; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Hartogh, P; Helmich, F P; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Kawamura, J H; Langer, W D; Latter, W B; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Muller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pagani, L; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Plume, R; Roelfsema, P; Qin, S -L; Salez, M; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Tielens, A G G M; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We present initial results from the Herschel GT key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS) and outline the promise and potential of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI. The HIFI instrument offers unprecedented sensitivity, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high-resolution spectroscopy. We show the spectrum of Orion KL between 480 and 560 GHz and from 1.06 to 1.115 THz. From these data, we confirm that HIFI separately measures the dust continuum and spectrally resolves emission lines in Orion KL. Based on this capability we demonstrate that the line contribution to the broad-band continuum in this molecule-rich source is ~20-40% below 1 THz and declines to a few percent at higher frequencies. We also tentatively identify multiple transitions of HD18O in the spectra. The first detection of this rare isotopologue in the interstellar medium suggests that HDO emission is optically thick i...

  18. Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair vs. extra-pair paternity in song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J M; Arcese, P; Losdat, S

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to estimate additive genetic variance and covariance in the total number of offspring a male sired per year outside his social pairings (i.e. his total extra-pair reproductive success achieved through multiple mating) and his liability to sire offspring produced by his socially paired female (i.e. his success in defending within-pair paternity). Both components of male fitness showed nonzero additive genetic variance, and the estimated genetic covariance was positive, implying that males with high additive genetic value for extra-pair reproduction also have high additive genetic propensity to sire their socially paired female's offspring. There was consequently no evidence of a genetic or phenotypic trade-off between male within-pair paternity success and extra-pair reproductive success. Such positive genetic covariance might be expected to facilitate ongoing evolution of polygyny and could also shape the ongoing evolution of polyandry through indirect selection. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: The Terahertz spectrum of Orion KL seen at high spectral resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Crockett, N R; Wang, S; Lis, D C; Bell, T A; Blake, G A; Boogert, A; Bumble, B; Cabrit, S; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Comito, C; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Gusten, R; Hartogh, P; Helmich, F; Herbst, E; Honingh, N; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Karpov, A; Kawamura, J H; Kooi, J; Krieg, J -M; Langer, W D; Latter, W D; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Muller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Phillips, T G; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Roelfsema, P; Schieder, R; Schilke, P; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; van der Tak, F F S; Tielens, A; Trappe, N; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution observations of Orion KL in the frequency ranges 1573.4 - 1702.8 GHz (band 6b) and 1788.4 - 1906.8 GHz (band 7b) obtained using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We characterize the main emission lines found in the spectrum, which primarily arise from a range of components associated with Orion KL including the hot core, but also see widespread emission from components associated with molecular outflows traced by H2O, SO2, and OH. We find that the density of observed emission lines is significantly diminished in these bands compared to lower frequency Herschel/HIFI bands.

  20. Phasor analysis of multiphoton spectral images distinguishes autofluorescence components of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fereidouni, F.; Bader, A.N.; Colonna, A.; Gerritsen, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Skin contains many autofluorescent components that can be studied using spectral imaging. We employed a spectral phasor method to analyse two photon excited auto-fluorescence and second harmonic generation images of in vivo human skin. This method allows segmentation of images based on spectral feat

  1. X-ray spectral components observed in the afterglow of GRB 130925A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between...

  2. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Storniolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mediterranean diet (MD reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development.

  3. SIMULATlON OF EXTRA LlGHT-THIN COMPONENT DEFORMATlON WITH ABNORMAL SHAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Lizhi; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the structural feature and the function requirements of newstyle bottle cap, the two fundamental components, the 1ining washer and the outer body, are abstracted as a plate and a cylinder with thin wal1 respectively. For simulating the deformation of the 1ining washer under equiaxia1 pressure, the modified Lagrangian finite element analysis is applied on the 228 triangular elements. Under assembly pressure, the plastoelastic deformation of both the 1ining washer and the outer body are studied in terms of Tresca's yield criterion and the limitation of the plastic deformation is presented when the two components are assembled into one unit. For the production of this kind of bottle cover, experiments are carried out by carefully measuring the changes of the diameter of 1ining washer as well as that of the outer body. It is shown that results from the experiments have a good agreement with the theoretical calculation and the maximum value of the allowable pressure has successfully been used in the design of newly developed bottle cap production system.

  4. Phasor analysis of multiphoton spectral images distinguishes autofluorescence components of in vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Bader, Arjen N; Colonna, Anne; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2014-08-01

    Skin contains many autofluorescent components that can be studied using spectral imaging. We employed a spectral phasor method to analyse two photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation images of in vivo human skin. This method allows segmentation of images based on spectral features. Various structures in the skin could be distinguished, including Stratum Corneum, epidermal cells and dermis. The spectral phasor analysis allowed investigation of their fluorescence composition and identification of signals from NADH, keratin, FAD, melanin, collagen and elastin. Interestingly, two populations of epidermal cells could be distinguished with different melanin content.

  5. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  6. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Breland

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC, and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  7. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Erin J; Eberly, Allison R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  8. New infrared spectral component of the quasar 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, E.I.; Gear, W.K.; Brown, L.M.J.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Smith, M.G.; Griffin, M.J.; Blecha, A.

    1986-09-11

    Following the dramatic infrared to millimetre-wavelength flare seen in the quasar 3C273 during 1983, the authors have continued to monitor its overall continuum emission. Recent measurements show that the 10-..mu..m to 3-mm emission has decayed to a level well below any seen previously, while the 1-4-..mu..m emission has remained relatively constant. This behaviour has revealed the presence of an apparently non-variable component which dominates the near-infrared emission in 3C273 and includes the small 'bump' at approx. 3.5 ..mu..m in the power-law continuum.

  9. Spectral components of cytosolic [Ca2+] spiking in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardos, J; Szilágyi, N; Juhász, G;

    1998-01-01

    into evolutionary spectra of a characteristic set of frequencies. Non-delayed small spikes on top of sustained [Ca2+]c were synthesized by a main component frequency, 0.132+/-0.012 Hz, showing its maximal amplitude in phase with the start of depolarization (25 mM KCI) combined with caffeine (10 mM) application....... Delayed complex responses of large [Ca2+]c spiking observed in cells from a different set of cultures were synthesized by a set of frequencies within the range 0.018-0.117 Hz. Differential frequency patterns are suggested as characteristics of the [Ca2+]c spiking responses of neurons under different...

  10. Spectral characterisation of colour printer based on a novel grey component replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyi Guo; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Binyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Conventional printer characterisation models are generally based on the assumption that the densities of primary colours are additive.However,additivity failure frequently occurs in practice.We propose a novel grey component replacement(GCR) method based on the spectral density sub-additivity equations in this letter for spectral characterisation of a 4-ink colour printer.The method effectively correct the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the model performance.Finally,the GCR model for characterising colour printer with high spectral and colorimetric prediction accuracy is established.

  11. Military target detection using spectrally modeled algorithms and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kailash Chandra; Arora, Manoj K.; Singh, Dharmendra; Yadav, Deepti

    2013-02-01

    Most military targets of strategic importance are very small in size. Though some of them may get spatially resolved, most cannot be detected due to lack of adequate spectral resolution. Hyperspectral data, acquired over hundreds of narrow contiguous wavelength bands, are extremely suitable for most military target detection applications. Target detection, however, still remains complicated due to a host of other issues. These include, first, the heavy volume of hyperspectral data, which leads to computational complexities; second, most materials in nature exhibit spectral variability and remain unpredictable; and third, most target detection algorithms are based on spectral modeling and availability of a priori target spectra is an essential requirement, a condition difficult to meet in practice. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a new evolving technique that aims at finding components that are statistically independent or as independent as possible. It does not have any requirement of a priori availability of target spectra and is an attractive alternative. This paper, presents a study of military target detection using four spectral matching algorithms, namely, orthogonal subspace projection (OSP), constrained energy minimisation, spectral angle mapper and spectral correlation mapper, four anomaly detection algorithms, namely, OSP anomaly detector (OSPAD), Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector (RXD), uniform target detector (UTD), a combination of RXD-UTD. The performances of these spectrally modeled algorithms are then also compared with ICA using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The superior performance of ICA indicates that it may be considered a viable alternative for military target detection.

  12. Cardiac Function Evaluation Analyzing Spectral Components due to the Consumption of Energy Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bashir Uddin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of energy drinks consumption on cardiac function of human being by analyzing the spectral components of pulse and ECG of several healthy people. Using pulse transducer connected with MP36 (Biopac, USA data acquisition unit, pulse recordings were performed. With electrode lead set connected to the same MP36 data acquisition unit, ECG recordings were also performed. At before and after the consumption of energy drinks available in Bangladesh, pulse and ECG recordings as well as analysis were performed with Biopac software. After having energy drinks, the spectral components such as power of spectral density and amplitude of fast Fourier transform of pulse signal decreased about 47.5 and 37%, respectively. In case of ECG signal, the spectral components such as power of spectral density and amplitude of fast Fourier transform increased about 17 and 7.5% within a short interval about 0-20 min, then effective decrements about 10 and 18.5%, respectively started for long duration. Analyzing spectral parameters, the findings highlight the adverse impacts on cardiac function which may cause cardiac abnormality as well as severe cardiac disease due to the regular consumption of energy drinks.

  13. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The Terahertz spectrum of Orion KL seen at high spectral resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Wang, S.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A.; Bumble, B.; Cabrit, S.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Comito, C.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Güsten, R.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F.; Herbst, E.; Honingh, N.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Karpov, A.; Kawamura, J. H.; Kooi, J.; Krieg, J.-M.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. D.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pearson, J. C.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Roelfsema, P.; Schieder, R.; Schilke, P.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Tielens, A.; Trappe, N.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution observations of Orion KL in the frequency ranges 1573.4-1702.8 GHz (band 6b) and 1788.4-1906.8 GHz (band 7b) obtained using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We characterize the main emission lines found in the spectrum, which

  14. Spectral discrimination of bleached and healthy submerged corals based on principal components analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, H.; LeDrew, E. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Remote discrimination of substrate types in relatively shallow coastal waters has been limited by the spatial and spectral resolution of available sensors. An additional limiting factor is the strong attenuating influence of the water column over the substrate. As a result, there have been limited attempts to map submerged ecosystems such as coral reefs based on spectral characteristics. Both healthy and bleached corals were measured at depth with a hand-held spectroradiometer, and their spectra compared. Two separate principal components analyses (PCA) were performed on two sets of spectral data. The PCA revealed that there is indeed a spectral difference based on health. In the first data set, the first component (healthy coral) explains 46.82%, while the second component (bleached coral) explains 46.35% of the variance. In the second data set, the first component (bleached coral) explained 46.99%; the second component (healthy coral) explained 36.55%; and the third component (healthy coral) explained 15.44 % of the total variance in the original data. These results are encouraging with respect to using an airborne spectroradiometer to identify areas of bleached corals thus enabling accurate monitoring over time.

  15. Two-Component Structure of the Hbeta Broad-Line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500--5500 \\AA. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, \\emph{the fractional-contribution spectrum}, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstr...

  16. Are Bulges and Disks Real? Decomposing Spectral Data Cubes Into Their Astrophysical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Michael; Tabor, Martha; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cappellari, Michele; Johnston, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Decomposing galaxies photometrically into bulge and disk components is now a well-established technique, but it remains unclear how distinct and real these components are, and how they relate to each other. To address these questions, we have been developing novel techniques to extract the various structural components from integral field unit (IFU) spectral observations of galaxies, in order to study simultaneously their spectral and spatial properties.As a first approach, by spatially decomposing each wavelength in a spectral data cube, we can discover how much light comes from the separate components as a function of wavelength, and hence derive unprecedentedly high quality spectra of bulge and disk for detailed analysis of their stellar populations.In addition, we have decomposed spectral data cubes by fitting the spectrum at each location with the sum of two components, with the spectral properties left entirely free to fit both kinematic and stellar population properties, subject only to the constraint that the relative flux contributions match those of a conventional bulge-disk decomposition.Initial results applied to MaNGA and other IFU surveys show the power of these techniques when applied to such high quality data. The first method allows us to understand the formation sequence of bulges and disks, with, for example, bulges showing the younger stellar populations in S0 galaxies, implying that this was where the last gasp of star formation occurred. The second technique reveals subtle population gradients within individual components, but also confirms that the decomposition into separate components is a credible procedure, as the resulting bulges and disks have entirely plausible kinematic properties that are in no way imposed by the decomposition.Although our initial application of these decomposition techniques has been to studying bulges and disks in S0 galaxies, the methods have much wider application to the spectral data cubes that MaNGA and other

  17. Multi-Component NLS Models on Symmetric Spaces: Spectral Properties versus Representations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Grahovski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic structure and the spectral properties of a special class of multi-component NLS equations, related to the symmetric spaces of BD.I-type are analyzed. The focus of the study is on the spectral theory of the relevant Lax operators for different fundamental representations of the underlying simple Lie algebra g. Special attention is paid to the structure of the dressing factors in spinor representation of the orthogonal simple Lie algebras of B_r simeq so(2r+1,C type.

  18. Spectral components at visual and infrared wavelengths in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, W. A.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Rudy, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aperture-dependent infrared photometry of active galactic nuclei are presented which illustrate the importance of eliminating starlight of the galaxy in order to obtain the intrinsic spectral distribution of the active nuclei. Separate components of emission are required to explain the infrared emission with a spectral index of alpha approx = 2 and the typical visual-ultraviolet continuum with alpha approx = 0.3 (where F(nu) varies as nu(sup-alpha). Present evidence does not allow unique determination of the appropriate mechanisms, but the characteristics of each are discussed.

  19. Processing of spectral X-ray data with principal components analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Cook, N J; Butzer, J; Schleich, N; Tlustos, L; Scott, N; Grasset, R; de Ruiter, N; Anderson, N G

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work was to develop a general method for processing spectral x-ray image data. Principle component analysis (PCA) is a well understood technique for multivariate data analysis and so was investigated. To assess this method, spectral (multi-energy) computed tomography (CT) data was obtained using a Medipix2 detector in a MARS-CT (Medipix All Resolution System). PCA was able to separate bone (calcium) from two elements with k-edges in the X-ray spectrum used (iodine and barium) within a mouse. This has potential clinical application in dual-energy CT systems and future Medipix3 based spectral imaging where up to eight energies can be recorded simultaneously with excellent energy resolution. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hard X-Ray Imaging of Individual Spectral Components in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M; Krucker, Säm

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analytical technique, combining Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations, to visualize solar flare emission as a function of spectral component (e.g., isothermal temperature) rather than energy. This computationally inexpensive technique is applicable to all spatially-invariant spectral forms and is useful for visualizing spectroscopically-determined individual sources and placing them in context, e.g., comparing multiple isothermal sources with nonthermal emission locations. For example, while extreme ultraviolet images can usually be closely identified with narrow temperature ranges, due to the emission being primarily from spectral lines of specific ion species, X-ray images are dominated by continuum emission and therefore have a broad temperature response, making it difficult to identify sources of specific temperatures regardless of the energy band of the image. We combine RHESSI calibrated X-ray visibilities wi...

  1. An Augmented Classical Least Squares Method for Quantitative Raman Spectral Analysis against Component Information Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an augmented classical least squares (ACLS calibration method for quantitative Raman spectral analysis against component information loss. The Raman spectral signals with low analyte concentration correlations were selected and used as the substitutes for unknown quantitative component information during the CLS calibration procedure. The number of selected signals was determined by using the leave-one-out root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV curve. An ACLS model was built based on the augmented concentration matrix and the reference spectral signal matrix. The proposed method was compared with partial least squares (PLS and principal component regression (PCR using one example: a data set recorded from an experiment of analyte concentration determination using Raman spectroscopy. A 2-fold cross-validation with Venetian blinds strategy was exploited to evaluate the predictive power of the proposed method. The one-way variance analysis (ANOVA was used to access the predictive power difference between the proposed method and existing methods. Results indicated that the proposed method is effective at increasing the robust predictive power of traditional CLS model against component information loss and its predictive power is comparable to that of PLS or PCR.

  2. X-ray Spectral Components in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E; Cenko, S Bradley; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K; Miller, Jon M; Ofek, Eran O; Perley, Daniel A; Rana, Vikram R; Reynolds, Stephen P; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift-XRT, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power-law is required at $>4\\sigma$ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at $2\\times10^5$ and $10^6$ seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive black body or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant ($10^8$ cm), while the second powerlaw component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi-LAT.

  3. X-RAY SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130925A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barrière, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Cenko, S. Bradley [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Astrophysics Office/ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: ebellm@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 × 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10{sup 8} cm), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  4. X-Ray Spectral Components Observed in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at greater than 4 less than 1 significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 x 10 (sup 5) and 10 (sup 6) seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several kiloelectronvolts width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10 (sup 8) centimeters), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  5. Investigation on Spectral Structure of Gearbox Vibration Signals by Principal Component Analysis for Condition Monitoring Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimroz, Radoslaw [Wroclaw University of Technology, Diagnostics and Vibro-Acoustics Science Laboratory (Poland); Bartkowiak, Anna, E-mail: radoslaw.zimroz@pwr.wroc.pl, E-mail: aba@ii.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Computer Science, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-07-19

    Spectral analysis is well-established analysis of vibrations used in diagnostics both in academia and industry. In general, one may identify components related to particular stages in the gearbox and analyze amplitudes of these components with a simple rule for decision-making: if amplitudes are increasing the condition becomes worse. However, usually one should analyze not single amplitude but at least several components, but: how to analyze them simultaneously? We have provided an example (case study) for planetary gearboxes in good and bad conditions (case B and case A). As diagnostic features we have used 15 amplitudes of spectral components related to fundamental planetary mesh frequency and its harmonics. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), it has been shown that amplitudes don't vary in the same way; change of condition affects not only amplitudes of all components in that sense, but also relation between them. We have investigated geometry of the data and it has been shown that the proportions of the explained total inertia of the three data sets ('good', 'bad' and mixed good/bad) are different. We claim that it may be a novel diagnostic approach to employ multidimensional analysis for accounting not only directly observed values but also interrelations both within and between the two groups of data. Different structure of the data is associated with different condition of the machines and such assumption is specified for the first time in the literature. Obviously it requires more studies.

  6. Spectral Indices of Core and Extended Components of Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Shui Zhang; Jun-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We use observed peak and total flux densities at 6cm and 20 cm to determine the spectral indices separately for the core and extended components of QSOs and galaxies, as well as their core-dominance parameters. Our results indicate that 1) Nine QSOs show both greater than 1.0 core-dominance parameters (those objects should be blazars) and greater than 0.5 spectral indices. The average core spectral index is αCore = 0.85±0.21 for the nine blazars, which implies that it is not reliable to use αradio = 0.0 for blazars. For the different subclasses, the core and extended spectral indices are as follows: for the blazars, αCore = 0.22±0.06 and αExt =0.77±0.12; the galaxies, αCore = 1.01±0.13 and αExt =0.83±0.21, and for the QSOs, αCore = 0.28±0.10 and αExt =0.68±0.08. 2) The core spectral index and core dominance parameter (R) show an anti-correlation, αC = (-1.28±0.26) log R+(0.65 ± 0.11); 3) R is approximately linearly correlated with redshift (z).

  7. Spectral and Geological Characterization of Beach Components in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential since variations along beach profiles can shed light on river and ocean processes influencing beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. It is likely these influences are related to beach proximity within the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Therefore, this study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, which are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size, mineralogy, and beachrock morphology. Several approaches were taken to geologically and spectrally characterize main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification, granulometry, and a comparison between remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) obtained with a field spectroradiometer and pre-existing spectral library signatures. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between each method. This study may help explore the possibility of using only Rrs to characterize beach and shallow submarine components for detailed image analysis and management of coastal features.This study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, two beaches that are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size and mineralogy, as well as in beachrock morphology. Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential, since it is likely that differences are mostly related to each beaches' proximity to the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Hence, changes in components along beach profiles can shed light on the river's and the ocean's influence on beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. Several approaches were taken to properly geologically and spectrally characterize the main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification

  8. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet transform and principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anita Gharekhan; Ashok N Oza; M B Sureshkumar; Asima Pradhan; Prasanta K Panigrahi

    2010-12-01

    Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types. The emission range in the visible wavelength regime of 500–700 nm is analysed, with the excitation wavelength at 488 nm using laser as an excitation source, where flavin and porphyrin are some of the active fluorophores. A number of global and local parameters from principal component analysis of both high- and low-pass coefficients extracted in the wavelet domain, capturing spectral variations and subtle changes in the diseased tissues are clearly identifiable.

  9. A method for dynamic spectrophotometric measurements in vivo using principal component analysis-based spectral deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor

    2003-10-01

    A method was developed for dynamic spectrophotometric measurements in vivo in the presence of non-specific spectral changes due to external disturbances. This method was used to measure changes in mitochondrial respiratory pigment redox states in photoreceptor cells of live, white-eyed mutants of the blowfly Calliphora vicina. The changes were brought about by exchanging the atmosphere around an immobilised animal from air to N2 and back again by a rapid gas exchange system. During an experiment reflectance spectra were measured by a linear CCD array spectrophotometer. This method involves the pre-processing steps of difference spectra calculation and digital filtering in one and two dimensions. These were followed by time-domain principal component analysis (PCA). PCA yielded seven significant time domain principal component vectors and seven corresponding spectral score vectors. In addition, through PCA we also obtained a time course of changes common to all wavelengths-the residual vector, corresponding to non-specific spectral changes due to preparation movement or mitochondrial swelling. In the final step the redox state time courses were obtained by fitting linear combinations of respiratory pigment difference spectra to each of the seven score vectors. The resulting matrix of factors was then multiplied by the matrix of seven principal component vectors to yield the time courses of respiratory pigment redox states. The method can be used, with minor modifications, in many cases of time-resolved optical measurements of multiple overlapping spectral components, especially in situations where non-specific external influences cannot be disregarded.

  10. [Independent component analysis for spectral unmixing in hyperspectral remote sensing image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Fei; Zhong, Liang; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lian-Ru

    2010-06-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing plays an important role in earth observation on land, ocean and atmosphere. A key issue in hyperspectral data exploitation is to extract the spectra of the constituent materials (endmembers) as well as their proportions (fractional abundances) from each measured spectrum of mixed pixel in hyperspectral remote sensing image, called spectral un-mixing. Linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) provides an effective analytical model for spectral unmixing, which assumes that there is a linear relationship among the fractional abundances of the substances within a mixed pixel. To be physically meaningful, LSMM is subject to two constraints: the first constraint requires all abundances to be nonnegative and the second one requires all abundances to be summed to one. Independent component analysis (ICA) has been proposed as an advanced tool to un-mix hyperspectral image. However, ICA is based on the assumption of mutually independent sources, which violates the constraint conditions in LSMM. This embarrassment compromises ICA applicability to hyperspectral data. To overcome this problem, the present paper introduces a solution of minimization of total correlation of the components. Interestingly, with the minimization of total correlation of the components, the angle of the direction between each components is invariable. A Parallel oblique-ICA (Pob-ICA) algorithm is proposed to correct the angle of the searching direction between the components. Two novelties result from our proposed Pob-ICA algorithm. First, the algorithm completely satisfies the physical constraint conditions in LSMM and overcomes the limitation of statistical independency assumed by ICA. Second, the last component, which is missed in other existing ICA algorithms, can be estimated by our proposed algorithm. In experiments, Pob-ICA algorithm demonstrates excellent performance in the simulative and real hyperspectral images.

  11. Synchronization of spectral components and its regularities in chaotic dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E; Koronovskii, Alexey A; Kurovskaya, Mariya K; Moskalenko, Olga I

    2005-05-01

    The chaotic synchronization regime in coupled dynamical systems is considered. It has been shown that the onset of a synchronous regime is based on the appearance of a phase relation between the interacting chaotic oscillator frequency components of Fourier spectra. The criterion of synchronization of spectral components as well as the measure of synchronization has been discussed. The universal power law has been described. The main results are illustrated by coupled Rössler systems, Van der Pol and Van der Pol-Duffing oscillators.

  12. Spectral quantitation by principal component analysis using complex singular value decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M A; Walter, G A; Swift, A; Vandenborne, K; Schotland, J C; Leigh, J S

    1999-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a powerful method for quantitative analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data sets. It has the advantage of being model independent, making it well suited for the analysis of spectra with complicated or unknown line shapes. Previous applications of PCA have required that all spectra in a data set be in phase or have implemented iterative methods to analyze spectra that are not perfectly phased. However, improper phasing or imperfect convergence of the iterative methods has resulted in systematic errors in the estimation of peak areas with PCA. Presented here is a modified method of PCA, which utilizes complex singular value decomposition (SVD) to analyze spectral data sets with any amount of variation in spectral phase. The new method is shown to be completely insensitive to spectral phase. In the presence of noise, PCA with complex SVD yields a lower variation in the estimation of peak area than conventional PCA by a factor of approximately 2. The performance of the method is demonstrated with simulated data and in vivo 31P spectra from human skeletal muscle.

  13. Phase Coupling Between Spectral Components of Collapsing Langmuir Solitons in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the high time resolution observations of one of the Langmuir wave packets obtained in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. This wave packet satisfies the threshold condition of the supersonic modulational instability, as well as the criterion of a collapsing Langmuir soliton, i.e., the spatial scale derived from its peak intensity is less than that derived from its short time scale. The spectrum of t his wave packet contains an intense spectral peak at local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe) and relatively weaker peaks at 2f(sub pe) and 3f(sub pe). We apply the wavelet based bispectral analysis technique on this wave packet and compute the bicoherence between its spectral components. It is found that the bicoherence exhibits two peaks at (approximately f(sub pe), approximately f(sub pe)) and (approximately f(sub pe) approximately 2f(sub pe)), which strongly suggest that the spectral peak at 2f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the second harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of the merging of antiparallel propagating Langmuir waves trapped in the collapsing Langmuir soliton, and, the spectral peak at 3f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the third harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of merging of a trapped Langmuir wave and a second harmonic electromagnetic wave.

  14. Spectral principal component analysis of mid-infrared spectra of a sample of PG QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Wei-Hao; Green, Richard; Shi, Yong; Ge, Xue; Liu, Wen-Shuai

    2015-01-01

    A spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 87 PG QSOs at $z < 0.5$ is presented for their mid-infrared spectra from Spitzer Space Telescope. We have derived the first five eigenspectra, which account for 85.2\\% of the mid-infrared spectral variation. It is found that the first eigenspectrum represents the mid-infrared slope, forbidden emission line strength and $9.7~\\mu m$ silicate feature, the 3rd and 4th eigenspectra represent the silicate features at $18~ \\mu m$ and $9.7~\\mu m$, respectively. With the principal components (PC) from optical PCA, we find that there is a medium strong correlation between spectral SPC1 and PC2 (accretion rate). It suggests that more nuclear contribution to the near-IR spectrum leads to the change of mid-IR slope. We find mid-IR forbidden lines are suppressed with higher accretion rate. A medium strong correlation between SPC3 and PC1 (Eddington ratio) suggests a connection between the silicate feature at $18~\\mu m$ and the Eddington ratio. For the ratio o...

  15. Spitzer spectral line mapping of supernova remnants: I. Basic data and principal component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, David A; Kaufman, Michael J; Snell, Ronald L; Melnick, Gary J; Bergin, Edwin A; Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward small (1 x 1 arcmin) regions within the supernova remnants W44, W28, IC443, and 3C391 using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, have led to the detection of a total of 15 fine structure transitions of Ne+, Ne++, Si+, P+, S, S++, Cl+, Fe+, and Fe++; the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen; and the R(3) and R(4) transitions of hydrogen deuteride. In addition to these 25 spectral lines, the 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.6 micron PAH emission bands were also observed. Most of the detected line transitions have proven strong enough to map in several sources, providing a comprehensive picture of the relative distribution of the various line emissions observable in the Spitzer/IRS bandpass. A principal component analysis of the spectral line maps reveals that the observed emission lines fall into five distinct groups, each of which may...

  16. Introducing phonetics students to spectral components of vowel-like sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2005-09-01

    Undergraduate students in phonetics classes typically have difficulty understanding the concept behind Fourier analysis: that vowels can be decomposed into a series of spectral components. The concept can be introduced to students beginning with its inverse: that vowel-like sounds can be constructed from a series of sine waves. The demonstration consists of a PRAAT script which students are given to work with as a homework assignment before vowels are covered in class (PRAAT is free cross-platform software). The students are asked to input three frequencies, the script plots the time-domain representation of each sine wave and the sum of the three sine waves, and the frequency-domain representation of the sum of the three sine waves. It also plays the three sine waves and the sum of the three sine waves. Instructions include suggestions of frequencies for the students to try, and ask which vowels the results sound most like. Instructions also ask students to experiment with different frequencies to try to make sounds similar to other vowels. The students gain hands-on experience with vowel-like synthesis in order to give them an intuitive sense of the spectral components of vowel-like sounds before the theoretical concepts are introduced in the classroom.

  17. Effect of Noradrenergic Neurotoxin DSP-4 and Maprotiline on Heart Rate Spectral Components in Stressed and Resting Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yanova, E V; Zhukova, Yu D; Teplyi, D L

    2017-07-01

    The effects of intraperitoneal DSP-4 (N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, a noradrenergic neurotoxin) and maprotiline (an inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake in synapses) on spectral components of heart rhythm variability were examined in outbred male and female rats treated with these agents in daily doses of 10 mg/kg for 3 days. At rest, DSP-4 elevated LF and VLF spectral components in male and female rats. Maprotiline elevated LF and VLF components in males at rest, increased HR and reduced all spectral components in resting females. Stress against the background of DSP-4 treatment sharply increased heart rate and reduced the powers of all spectral components (especially LF and VLF components). In maprotiline-treated rats, stress increased the powers of LF and VLF components. Thus, the central noradrenergic system participates in the formation of LF and VLF spectral components of heart rate variability at rest and especially during stressful stimulation, which can determine the phasic character of changes in the heart rate variability observed in stressed organism.

  18. A principal component analysis to interpret the spectral electrical behaviour of sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzoli, Silvia; Giudici, Mauro; Huisman, Johan Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements provide the opportunity to evaluate both conduction and polarization processes occurring in a porous medium. Conduction properties are related to the pore volume (for coarse grained materials) and also to the pore surface (for fine grained materials), whereas polarization properties are mainly controlled by the pore surface. Thus, SIP is a valuable survey method and its applicability ranges from aquifer characterization to organic and inorganic contaminant detection. However, the high number of factors affecting the spectral electrical behaviour still prevents an easy and unambiguous interpretation of SIP measurements. Controlled laboratory experiments by different research groups have shown that the resistivity phase depends on pore/grain size distribution, clay percentage, specific surface area, water saturation/conductivity and packing, among other factors. In the analysis of natural samples, all these variables are often simultaneously unknown and the direct application of the laboratory-derived empirical relationships between geophysical and sedimentological properties is not trivial. In this framework, we performed SIP laboratory measurements on unconsolidated alluvial samples of the Po river and Lambro river depositional units (Northern Italy). These samples were fully saturated with NaCl solutions with increasing electrical conductivity. SIP measurements were analysed using a Debye Decomposition technique and by fitting two Cole-Cole-type models (i.e. the Cole-Cole and the Generalized Cole-Cole). A principal component analysis was then applied separately on the three different subsets of model parameters. The main aims of this analysis were: i) to cluster the samples according to their spectral properties; ii) to evaluate differences and similarities of the fitting models in terms of the most significant combinations of parameters able to describe the overall variability within the dataset; iii) to analyse

  19. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  20. Spectral variability of the IR-source IRAS 01005+7910 optical component

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova, V G; Panchuk, V E; Sendzikas, E G; Yushkin, M V

    2014-01-01

    Highly-resolution optical spectra of the optical component of the IR-source IRAS01005+7910 are used to determine the spectral type of its central star, B1.5$ \\pm $0.3, identify the spectral features, and analyze their profile and radial velocity variations. The systemic velocity Vsys =$-50.5$ km/s is determined from the positions of the symmetric and stable profiles of the forbidden [NI], [NII], [OI], [SII], and [FeII] emission lines. The presence of the [NII] and [SII] forbidden emissions indicates the onset of the ionization of the circumstellar envelope and the fact that the star is very close to undergoing the planetary nebula stage. The broad range of heliocentric radial velocity Vr estimates based on the core lines, which amounts to about 34 km/s, is partly due to the deformations of the profiles caused by variable emissions. The variations of the Vr in the line wings are smaller, about 23 km/s, and may be due to pulsations and/or hidden binarity of the star. The deformations of the profiles of complex ...

  1. Modelling and studies of the spectral response of some optoelectronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, André; Bortoli, Daniele; Tlemçani, Mouhaydine; Joyce, António

    2016-10-01

    Solar radiation takes in today's world, an increasing importance. Different devices are used to carry out spectral and integrated measurements of solar radiation. Thus the sensors can be divided into the fallow types: Calorimetric, Thermomechanical, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric. The first three categories are based on components converting the radiation to temperature (or heat) and then into electrical quantity. On the other hand, the photoelectric sensors are based on semiconductor or optoelectronic elements that when irradiated change their impedance or generate a measurable electric signal. The response function of the sensor element depends not only on the intensity of the radiation but also on its wavelengths. The radiation sensors most widely used fit in the first categories, but thanks to the reduction in manufacturing costs and to the increased integration of electronic systems, the use of the photoelectric-type sensors became more interesting. In this work we present a study of the behavior of different optoelectronic sensor elements. It is intended to verify the static response of the elements to the incident radiation. We study the optoelectronic elements using mathematical models that best fit their response as a function of wavelength. As an input to the model, the solar radiation values are generated with a radiative transfer model. We present a modeling of the spectral response sensors of other types in order to compare the behavior of optoelectronic elements with other sensors currently in use.

  2. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  3. Images and Spectral Properties of Two Component Advective Flows Around Black Holes: Effects of Photon Bending

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arka; Ghosh, Himadri

    2016-01-01

    Two component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. We employ a Monte-Carlo simulation technique to achieve our goal. For accurate prediction of the image and the spectra, null trajectories are generated without constraining the motion to any specific plane. Red shift, bolometric flux and corresponding temperature have been calculated with appropriate relativistic consideration. The centrifugal barrier dominated boundary layer or CENBOL near the inner region of the disk which acts as the Compton cloud is appropriately modelled as a thick accretion disk in Schwarzschild geometry for the purpose of imaging and computing spectra. The variations of spectra and image with physical parameters such as the accretion rate ($\\dot{m}_d$) and inclination...

  4. Extraversion and fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V

    2012-02-01

    Several studies show that the fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient is a stable individual characteristic related to personality. Whether this characteristic is specifically related to agentic extraversion and theta band of frequencies or is associated with a broader set of personality traits and frequency bands is a matter of debate, as well as the specific cortical regions contributing to this effect. To clarify these questions, we used group independent component analysis (ICA) and source localization techniques. Agentic extraversion was associated with higher theta activity in the default mode network's (DMN) posterior hub and lower theta activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Regression analyses showed that theta activity predicted agentic extraversion better than other frequency bands and agentic extraversion predicted posterior versus frontal activity better than other personality dimensions. These results are taken to indicate higher tonic activity in OFC and lower activity in DMN in extraverts as compared to introverts.

  5. Direct study of minor extra-virgin olive oil components without any sample modification. (1)H NMR multisupression experiment: A powerful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-08-01

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) was employed to study monovarietal commercial Spanish extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) (Arbequina, Arroniz, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Picual). Each sample was analyzed by a standard pulse and by an experiment suppressing the main lipid signals, enabling the detection of signals of minor components. The aim was to determine the possibilities of both (1)H NMR approaches to characterize EVOO composition, focusing on acyl groups, squalene, sterols, triterpene acids/esters, fatty alcohols, wax esters and phenols (lignans, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal, oleacein, oleokoronal, oleomissional, ligstrodials and oleuropeindials), and to determine hydrolysis and oxidation levels. The signal assignments (in deuterated chloroform) are thoroughly described, identifying for the first time those of the protons of esters of phytol and of geranylgeraniol. Correct signal assignment is fundamental for obtaining sound results when interpreting statistical data from metabolomic studies of EVOO composition and adulteration, making it possible to differentiate and classify oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration.

  7. Detecting spectrally localized components of lunar tide-frequency in time-series of the electric field vertical component of the earth atmosphere boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Isakevich, V V; Isakevich, D V

    2016-01-01

    Using the signal eigenvectors and components analyser (Grunskaya L.V., Isakevich V.V., Isakevich D.V. the RF Utility Model Patent 116242 of 30.09.2011) made it possible to detect non-coherent complex-period components localized at lunar tide frequencies in the time-series of the electric field vertical component of the Earth atmosphere boundary layer. The detected components are unobservable by means of spectral analysis quadrature scheme. The probability of the detected effects being pseudo-estimates is not more than 0.00025

  8. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

  9. Assessing the Spectral Properties of Sunlit and Shaded Components in Rice Canopies with Near-Ground Imaging Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the components of crop canopies with remote sensing can help us understand the within-canopy variation in spectral properties and resolve the sources of uncertainties in the spectroscopic estimation of crop foliar chemistry. To date, the spectral properties of leaves and panicles in crop canopies and the shadow effects on their spectral variation remain poorly understood due to the insufficient spatial resolution of traditional spectroscopy data. To address this issue, we used a near-ground imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial and spectral resolutions to examine the spectral properties of rice leaves and panicles in sunlit and shaded portions of canopies and evaluate the effect of shadows on the relationships between spectral indices of leaves and foliar chlorophyll content. The results demonstrated that the shaded components exhibited lower reflectance amplitude but stronger absorption features than their sunlit counterparts. Specifically, the reflectance spectra of panicles had unique double-peak absorption features in the blue region. Among the examined vegetation indices (VIs, significant differences were found in the photochemical reflectance index (PRI between leaves and panicles and further differences in the transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI between sunlit and shaded components. After an image-level separation of canopy components with these two indices, statistical analyses revealed much higher correlations between canopy chlorophyll content and both PRI and TCARI of shaded leaves than for those of sunlit leaves. In contrast, the red edge chlorophyll index (CIRed-edge exhibited the strongest correlations with canopy chlorophyll content among all vegetation indices examined regardless of shadows on leaves. These findings represent significant advances in the understanding of rice leaf and panicle spectral properties under natural light conditions and demonstrate the significance of commonly

  10. Mapping shrublands and forests with multispectral satellite images based on spectral unmixing of scene components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Mario R.; Oliveira, Tiago; Paul, Jose U.; Vasconcelos, Maria J.; Cardoso Pereira, Jose M.

    1997-12-01

    Linear spectral mixture models (SMM) with image endmembers (IEM) and with reference endmembers (REM) were tested for discriminating maritime pine stands and shrublands in a Landsat-TM image of Central Portugal. For both types of EM, IEM and REM, two types of SMM were tried: SMM with three EM (SMM-3), i.e., green vegetation, soil and shade, and SMM with five EM (SMM-5), where the EM were the components of the landscapes that we were interested on, i.e., pine canopy, shrub, soil, forest litter and shade. Results showed that in the SMM-5, REM need to be used, since IEM were not pure enough. We verified that in the SMM-5, there was not a single set of EM that could be applied to the whole study area, because the shrubs that exist underneath the pine canopy and in the shrublands could not be modeled just by using a shrub EM. Therefore, SMM-5 require a multi-endmember approach, where the set of EM may change from pixel to pixel. In the SMM-3, an accurate discrimination of shrublands and pine stands (90% accuracy) was achieved by thresholding the shade fraction. In these simpler SMM, IEM and REM produced similar results.

  11. Non-LTE spectral models for the gaseous debris-disk component of Ton 345

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, S; Rauch, T; Werner, K

    2014-01-01

    For a fraction of single white dwarfs with debris disks, an additional gaseous disk was discovered. Both dust and gas are thought to be created by the disruption of planetary bodies. The composition of the extrasolar planetary material can directly be analyzed in the gaseous disk component, and the disk dynamics might be accessible by investigating the temporal behavior of the Ca II infrared emission triplet, hallmark of the gas disk. We obtained new optical spectra for the first helium-dominated white dwarf for which a gas disk was discovered (Ton 345) and modeled the non-LTE spectra of viscous gas disks composed of carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, and calcium with chemical abundances typical for solar system asteroids. Iron and its possible line-blanketing effects on the model structure and spectral energy distribution was still neglected. A set of models with different radii, effective temperatures, and surface densities as well as chondritic and bulk-Earth abundances was computed and compared w...

  12. Decomposing Dusty Galaxies. I. Multi-Component Spectral Energy Distribution Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J A; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Spoon, H W W; Bernard-Salas, J; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We present a new multi-component spectral energy distribution (SED) decomposition method and use it to analyze the ultraviolet to millimeter wavelength SEDs of a sample of dusty infrared-luminous galaxies. SEDs are constructed from spectroscopic and photometric data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, in conjunction with photometry from the literature. Each SED is decomposed into emission from populations of stars, an AGN accretion disk, PAHs, atomic and molecular lines, and distributions of graphite and silicate grains. Decompositions of the SEDs of the template starburst galaxies NGC7714 and NGC2623 and the template AGNs PG0804+761 and Mrk463 provide baseline properties to aid in quantifying the strength of star-formation and accretion in the composite systems NGC6240 and Mrk1014. We find that obscured radiation from stars is capable of powering the total dust emission from NGC6240, although we cannot rule out a contribution from a deeply embedded AGN visible only in X-rays. The decomposition of Mrk1...

  13. On the high-energy spectral component of TGFs detected by AGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Galli, Marcello; Ursi, Alessandro; Tavani, Marco; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Østgaard, Nikolai; Cummer, Steven; Lyu, Fanchao

    2017-04-01

    We follow up on the latest results presented on TGFs with high-energy counts (>30 MeV) detected by the MCAL instrument onboard the AGILE satellite. The motivation is to provide a reliable assessment of the high-energy spectral component of TGFs, when energy calibration and instrumental effects such as dead time and pile-up are properly accounted for. We consider a dataset of 85 confirmed TGFs with simultaneous WWLLN association detected in the period March - June 2015, providing a sample of events unbiased by any additional selection criteria. Twenty events in this sample include at least one count with reconstructed energy larger than 30 MeV, with few photons with energy apparently above 100 MeV. We show that most of the counts with measured energy exceeding 40 MeV are compatible with pile-up of lower energy photons. However, the topology of the interactions in the detector active volume suggests that a likely scenario for the interpretation of these counts is the simultaneous interaction (within few microseconds) of a small number of photons with energies in the several tens-of-MeV range, rather than a large number of MeV photons.

  14. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  15. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry by Kishimoto et al. (2004, MNRAS, 354, 1065) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of λ four polarization-decreasing quasars of Kishimoto et al.'s (4C 09.72, 3C 323.1, Ton 202, and B2 1208+32) to derive the variable component spectra and compare the spectral shape of them with that of the polarized flux spectra. Contrary to expectation, we confirm that the two spectral components of these quasars have totally different spectral shapes, in that the variable component spectra are significantly bluer compared to the polarized flux spectra. This discrepancy between two spectral shapes may imply either (1) the decrease of polarization degree in the rest-frame UV wavelengths is not indicating the Balmer absorption edge feature but is induced by some unknown (de)polarization mechanisms, or (2) the UV-optical flux variability is occurring preferentially at the hot inner radii of the accretion disk and thus the variable component spectra do not reflect the whole accretion disk emission.

  16. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils, has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC, principal component (PCA and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%.

  17. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  18. Spectral Unmixing of Forest Crown Components at Close Range, Airborne and Simulated Sentinel-2 and EnMAP Spectral Imaging Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Clasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest biochemical and biophysical variables and their spatial and temporal distribution are essential inputs to process-orientated ecosystem models. To provide this information, imaging spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool. In this context, the present study investigates the potential of spectral unmixing to derive sub-pixel crown component fractions in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem. However, the high proportion of foliage in this complex vegetation structure leads to the problem of saturation effects, when applying broadband vegetation indices. This study illustrates that multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA can contribute to overcoming this challenge. Reference fractional abundances, as well as spectral measurements of the canopy components, could be precisely determined from a crane measurement platform situated in a deciduous forest in North-East Germany. In contrast to most other studies, which only use leaf and soil endmembers, this experimental setup allowed for the inclusion of a bark endmember for the unmixing of components within the canopy. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional endmembers markedly improves the accuracy. A mean absolute error of 7.9% could be achieved for the fractional occurrence of the leaf endmember and 5.9% for the bark endmember. In order to evaluate the results of this field-based study for airborne and satellite-based remote sensing applications, a transfer to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA and simulated Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP and Sentinel-2 imagery was carried out. All sensors were capable of unmixing crown components with a mean absolute error ranging between 3% and 21%.

  19. Spectral images browsing using principal component analysis and set partitioning in hierarchical tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Zhao, Deping

    2011-12-01

    Spectral imaging technology have been used mostly in remote sensing, but have recently been extended to new area requiring high fidelity color reproductions like telemedicine, e-commerce, etc. These spectral imaging systems are important because they offer improved color reproduction quality not only for a standard observer under a particular illuminantion, but for any other individual exhibiting normal color vision capability under another illuminantion. A possibility for browsing of the archives is needed. In this paper, the authors present a new spectral image browsing architecture. The architecture for browsing is expressed as follow: (1) The spectral domain of the spectral image is reduced with the PCA transform. As a result of the PCA transform the eigenvectors and the eigenimages are obtained. (2) We quantize the eigenimages with the original bit depth of spectral image (e.g. if spectral image is originally 8bit, then quantize eigenimage to 8bit), and use 32bit floating numbers for the eigenvectors. (3) The first eigenimage is lossless compressed by JPEG-LS, the other eigenimages were lossy compressed by wavelet based SPIHT algorithm. For experimental evalution, the following measures were used. We used PSNR as the measurement for spectral accuracy. And for the evaluation of color reproducibility, ΔE was used.here standard D65 was used as a light source. To test the proposed method, we used FOREST and CORAL spectral image databases contrain 12 and 10 spectral images, respectively. The images were acquired in the range of 403-696nm. The size of the images were 128*128, the number of bands was 40 and the resolution was 8 bits per sample. Our experiments show the proposed compression method is suitable for browsing, i.e., for visual purpose.

  20. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry carried out by Kishimoto et al. (2004) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-UV wavelengths of $\\lambda<4000$\\AA. In the literature, this spectral feature is interpreted as evidence of the broadened hydrogen Balmer absorption edge imprinted in the accretion disk thermal emission due to the disk atmospheric opacity effect. On the other hand, the quasar flux variability studies have shown that the variable continuum component in UV-optical spectra of quasars, which is considered to be a good indicator of the intrinsic spectral shape of the accretion disk emission, generally have significantly flat spectral shape throughout the near-UV to optical spectral range. To examine whether the disk continuum spectral shapes revealed as the polarized flux and as the variable component spectra are consistent with each other, we carry out multi-band photometric monitoring observations for a sample of four pol...

  1. Spectral methods for bivariate Markov processes with diffusion and discrete components and a variant of the Wright-Fisher model

    CERN Document Server

    de la Iglesia, Manuel D

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study differential and spectral properties of the infinitesimal operator of two dimensional Markov processes with diffusion and discrete components. The infinitesimal operator is now a second-order differential operator with matrix-valued coefficients, from which we can derive backward and forward equations, a spectral representation of the probability density, study recurrence of the process and the corresponding invariant distribution. All these results are applied to an example coming from group representation theory which can be viewed as a variant of the Wright-Fisher model involving only mutation effects.

  2. Detecting components spectrally localized at astrophysical process frequencies in time series of the electric field vertical component of the earth atmosphere boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Grunskaya, L V; Isakevich, D V; Sushkova, L T

    2016-01-01

    Signal eigenvectors and components analyser (RF Utility model patent 116242) was used to explore the time-series of the electric field vertical component Ez in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer. There have been detected non-coherent complex-periodic components localized at the frequencies of gravity-wave impact of binary stars and at the frequency of axion-photon interaction. These components cannot be detected by means of quadrature scheme of spectral analysis and have RMS values from 0.05 V/m to 0.5 V/m at binary stars gravity-wave impact frequencies and from 0.7 V/m to 2.7 V/m at axion-photon interaction frequency. It was also demonstrated that the axion-photon interaction frequency modulates the amplitude

  3. Spectral components in the bright, long GRB 061007: properties of the photosphere and the nature of the outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, J; Lundman, C; McGlynn, S; Larsson, S; Yamaoka, M Ohno K

    2011-01-01

    We present a time-resolved spectral analysis of the bright, long GRB 061007 (z=1.261) using Swift BAT and Suzaku WAM data. We find that the prompt emission of GRB 061007 can be equally well explained by a photospheric component together with a power law as by a Band function, and we explore the implications of the former model. The photospheric component, which we model with a multicolour blackbody, dominates the emission and has a very stable shape throughout the burst. This component provides a natural explanation for the hardness-intensity correlation seen within the burst and also allows us to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor and the radius of the photosphere. The power-law component dominates the fit at high energies and has a nearly constant slope of -1.5. We discuss the possibility that this component is of the same origin as the high-energy power laws recently observed in some Fermi LAT bursts.

  4. Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources (hexos) : Analysis of the Hifi 1.2 Thz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Wang, S.; Blake, G.; Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D.; Gupta, H.; Pearson, J.; Yu, S.; Bell, T.; Cernicharo, J.; Lord, S.; Plume, R.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a full spectral survey of the Kleiman-Low nebula within the Orion Molecular Cloud (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. These observations span a frequency range of 490 -- 1240 GHz and 1430 --

  5. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Emprechtinger, M.; Gupta, H.; Lord, S.; Pearson, J.; Plume, R.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.; Wang, S.; Yu, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a full spectral survey of the Kleiman-Low nebula within the Orion Molecular Cloud (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. These observations, shown in the figure below, span a frequency range of

  6. Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources (hexos): Analysis of the Hifi 1.2 Thz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Wang, S.; Blake, G.; Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D.; Gupta, H.; Pearson, J.; Yu, S.; Bell, T.; Cernicharo, J.; Lord, S.; Plume, R.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a full spectral survey of the Kleiman-Low nebula within the Orion Molecular Cloud (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. These observations span a frequency range of 490 -- 1240 GHz and 1430 --

  7. Investigating the connection between Quasi Periodic Oscillations and spectral components with NuSTAR data of GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Jassal, Anjali Rao; S, Mithun N P; Misra, Ranjeev

    2015-01-01

    The low frequency quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) are commonly observed during hard states of black hole binaries. Several studies have established various observational/empirical correlations between spectral parameters and QPO properties, indicating a close link between the two. However, the exact mechanism of generation of QPO is not yet well understood. In this paper, we present our attempts to comprehend the connection between the spectral components and the low frequency QPO observed in GRS 1915+105 using the data from NuSTAR. Detailed spectral modeling as well as the presence of the low frequency QPO and its energy dependence during this observation have been reported by Miller et al. (2013) and Zhang et al. (2015) respectively. We investigate the compatibility of the spectral model and energy dependence of the QPO by simulating light curves in various energy bands for small variation of the spectral parameters. The basic concept here is to establish connection, if any, between the QPO and the varia...

  8. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL I. Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Crockett, Nathan R; Neill, Justin L; Favre, Cécile; Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bell, Tom A; Blake, Geoffrey; Cernicharo, José; Emprechtinger, Martin; Esplugues, Gisela B; Gupta, Harshal; Kleshcheva, Maria; Lord, Steven; Marcelino, Nuria; McGuire, Brett A; Pearson, John; Phillips, Thomas G; Plume, Rene; van der Tak, Floris; Tercero, Belén; Yu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broad band spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this high-mass star-forming region in the sub-mm with high spectral resolution, and include frequencies $>$ 1 THz where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 39 molecules (79 isotopologues). Combining this dataset with ground based mm spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission from the mm to the far-IR using the XCLASS program which assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Several molecules are also modeled with the MADEX non-LTE code. Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained by ...

  9. Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Mikhail A; Yu, Nanfang; Genevet, Patrice; Gaburro, Zeno; Capasso, Federico

    2011-10-24

    We explore the relationship between the near-field enhancement, absorption, and scattering spectra of localized plasmonic elements. A simple oscillator model including both internal and radiative damping is developed, and is shown to accurately capture the near- and far-field spectral features of linear optical antennas, including their phase response. At wavelengths away from the interband transitions of the metal, we expect the absorption of a plasmonic element to be red-shifted relative to the scattering, and the near-field to be red-shifted relative to both.

  10. Synchronization to metrical levels in music depends on low-frequency spectral components and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2017-07-15

    Previous studies have found relationships between music-induced movement and musical characteristics on more general levels, such as tempo or pulse clarity. This study focused on synchronization abilities to music of finely-varying tempi and varying degrees of low-frequency spectral change/flux. Excerpts from six classic Motown/R&B songs at three different tempos (105, 115, and 130 BPM) were used as stimuli in this experiment. Each was then time-stretched by a factor of 5% with regard to the original tempo, yielding a total of 12 stimuli that were presented to 30 participants. Participants were asked to move along with the stimuli while being recorded with an optical motion capture system. Synchronization analysis was performed relative to the beat and the bar level of the music and four body parts. Results suggest that participants synchronized different body parts to specific metrical levels; in particular, vertical movements of hip and feet were synchronized to the beat level when the music contained large amounts of low-frequency spectral flux and had a slower tempo, while synchronization of head and hands was more tightly coupled to the weak flux stimuli at the bar level. Synchronization was generally more tightly coupled to the slower versions of the same stimuli, while synchronization showed an inverted u-shape effect at the bar level as tempo increased. These results indicate complex relationships between musical characteristics, in particular regarding metrical and temporal structure, and our ability to synchronize and entrain to such musical stimuli.

  11. Spectral data compression using weighted principal component analysis with consideration of human visual system and light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Jingxing; Li, Chan

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed two weight functions based on principal component analysis (PCA) to reserve more colorimetric information in spectral data compression process. One weight function consisted of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions representing the characteristic of the human visual system, while another was made up of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions of human visual system and relative spectral power distribution of the CIE standard illuminant D65. The improvement obtained from the proposed two methods were tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of 1600 glossy Munsell color chips and 1950 Natural Color System color chips as well as six multispectral images. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color difference under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminant D65 and A. The mean values of root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed two methods significantly outperform the standard PCA and another two weighted PCA in the aspects of colorimetric reconstruction accuracy with very slight degradation in spectral reconstruction accuracy. In addition, weight functions with the CIE standard illuminant D65 can improve the colorimetric reconstruction accuracy compared to weight functions without the CIE standard illuminant D65.

  12. Spectral data compression using weighted principal component analysis with consideration of human visual system and light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Jingxing; Li, Chan

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed two weight functions based on principal component analysis (PCA) to reserve more colorimetric information in spectral data compression process. One weight function consisted of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions representing the characteristic of the human visual system, while another was made up of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions of human visual system and relative spectral power distribution of the CIE standard illuminant D65. The improvement obtained from the proposed two methods were tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of 1600 glossy Munsell color chips and 1950 Natural Color System color chips as well as six multispectral images. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color difference under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminant D65 and A. The mean values of root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed two methods significantly outperform the standard PCA and another two weighted PCA in the aspects of colorimetric reconstruction accuracy with very slight degradation in spectral reconstruction accuracy. In addition, weight functions with the CIE standard illuminant D65 can improve the colorimetric reconstruction accuracy compared to weight functions without the CIE standard illuminant D65.

  13. New Spectral Fitting Method for Full-Spectrum Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrieval Based on Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The full-spectrum Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF within the 650-800 nm spectral region can provide important information regarding physiological and biochemical activities in vegetation. This paper proposes a new Full-spectrum Spectral Fitting Method (F-SFM for the retrieval of SIF spectra based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA. Using F-SFM, both the full-spectrum reflectance and SIF within the 650-800 nm region were modeled by PCA based on a training dataset simulated by the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model, and the weighting coefficients of the principal components were estimated by the least-squares fitting method. An iterative process was employed to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the reflectance. In each iteration, the SIF spectra retrieved from the last run were removed from the total upwelling radiance to minimize the small contribution of the SIF to the apparent reflectance outside the absorption bands. Then, the F-SFM algorithm was tested using both simulated and field-measured data with different Spectral Resolutions (SRs and Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNRs. For data with an SR of 0.3 nm and without noise, the Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE was less than 14% within the spectral region that was studied, and the peak-value ratio (SIF735/SIF685 was accurately estimated with an RRMSE of 3.56%. In addition, the F-SFM algorithm proved less sensitive to the SR than the three-band Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (3 FLD and improved FLD (iFLD methods. In the case of the field spectral data with SRs of 3 nm and 0.3 nm, the double-peak shape and the diurnal variation trend of the SIF spectra could be reasonably reconstructed by F-SFM, and the retrieved SIF values at the O2-A and O2-B bands were consistent with those retrieved by 3FLD from data with a high SR (0.3 nm and SNR (1000. Therefore, the F-SFM method can provide full-spectrum SIF information with high accuracy even at

  14. Energy migration in allophycocyanin-B trimer with a linker polypeptide: analysis by the principal multi-component spectral estimation (PMSE) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Nishimura, Y; Yamazaki, I; Hirano, M; Matsuura, K; Shimada, K; Mimuro, M

    1994-10-10

    Energy migration processes in allophycocyanin-B trimer with a linker polypeptide were analyzed using the principal multi-component spectral estimation (PMSE) method, which does not require assumption of component number, decay function, or the spectral band shape. We determined the number of spectral components showing independent kinetic behavior by the eigen-value of an auto-correlation matrix, and further the spectra of the components and their rise and decay curves. Two decay components were resolved at 20 degrees C: one corresponded to the decay of one type of beta-84 chromophore, and the other to the decay from the thermally equilibrated state between another type of beta-84 chromophore and the alpha-allophycocyanin B chromophore. An additional slow decay process was resolved at -196 degrees C. We also compared the component spectra obtained using the PMSE method with the decay-associated spectra obtained using the global analysis.

  15. Robust demarcation of basal cell carcinoma by dependent component analysis-based segmentation of multi-spectral fluorescence images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Persin, Antun; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina

    2010-07-02

    This study was designed to demonstrate robust performance of the novel dependent component analysis (DCA)-based approach to demarcation of the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) through unsupervised decomposition of the red-green-blue (RGB) fluorescent image of the BCC. Robustness to intensity fluctuation is due to the scale invariance property of DCA algorithms, which exploit spectral and spatial diversities between the BCC and the surrounding tissue. Used filtering-based DCA approach represents an extension of the independent component analysis (ICA) and is necessary in order to account for statistical dependence that is induced by spectral similarity between the BCC and surrounding tissue. This generates weak edges what represents a challenge for other segmentation methods as well. By comparative performance analysis with state-of-the-art image segmentation methods such as active contours (level set), K-means clustering, non-negative matrix factorization, ICA and ratio imaging we experimentally demonstrate good performance of DCA-based BCC demarcation in two demanding scenarios where intensity of the fluorescent image has been varied almost two orders of magnitude.

  16. THz spectral data analysis and components unmixing based on non-negative matrix factorization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yehao; Li, Xian; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guangxin

    2017-04-01

    In many situations the THz spectroscopic data observed from complex samples represent the integrated result of several interrelated variables or feature components acting together. The actual information contained in the original data might be overlapping and there is a necessity to investigate various approaches for model reduction and data unmixing. The development and use of low-rank approximate nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and smooth constraint NMF (CNMF) algorithms for feature components extraction and identification in the fields of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) data analysis are presented. The evolution and convergence properties of NMF and CNMF methods based on sparseness, independence and smoothness constraints for the resulting nonnegative matrix factors are discussed. For general NMF, its cost function is nonconvex and the result is usually susceptible to initialization and noise corruption, and may fall into local minima and lead to unstable decomposition. To reduce these drawbacks, smoothness constraint is introduced to enhance the performance of NMF. The proposed algorithms are evaluated by several THz-TDS data decomposition experiments including a binary system and a ternary system simulating some applications such as medicine tablet inspection. Results show that CNMF is more capable of finding optimal solutions and more robust for random initialization in contrast to NMF. The investigated method is promising for THz data resolution contributing to unknown mixture identification.

  17. Principal Component Analysis in the Spectral Analysis of the Dynamic Laser Speckle Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, K. M.; Braga, R. A., Jr.; Horgan, G. W.; Ferreira, D. D.; Safadi, T.

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic laser speckle is a phenomenon that interprets an optical patterns formed by illuminating a surface under changes with coherent light. Therefore, the dynamic change of the speckle patterns caused by biological material is known as biospeckle. Usually, these patterns of optical interference evolving in time are analyzed by graphical or numerical methods, and the analysis in frequency domain has also been an option, however involving large computational requirements which demands new approaches to filter the images in time. Principal component analysis (PCA) works with the statistical decorrelation of data and it can be used as a data filtering. In this context, the present work evaluated the PCA technique to filter in time the data from the biospeckle images aiming the reduction of time computer consuming and improving the robustness of the filtering. It was used 64 images of biospeckle in time observed in a maize seed. The images were arranged in a data matrix and statistically uncorrelated by PCA technique, and the reconstructed signals were analyzed using the routine graphical and numerical methods to analyze the biospeckle. Results showed the potential of the PCA tool in filtering the dynamic laser speckle data, with the definition of markers of principal components related to the biological phenomena and with the advantage of fast computational processing.

  18. Images and spectral properties of two-component advective flows around black holes: effects of photon bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-03-01

    Two-component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. We employ a Monte Carlo simulation technique to achieve our goal. For accurate prediction of the image and the spectra, null trajectories are generated without constraining the motion to any specific plane. Redshift, bolometric flux and corresponding temperature have been calculated with appropriate relativistic consideration. The CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer or CENBOL near the inner region of the disc, which acts as the Compton cloud, is appropriately modelled as a thick accretion disc in Schwarzschild geometry for the purpose of imaging and computing spectra. The variations of spectra and image with physical parameters such as the accretion rate (dot{m}_d) and inclination angle are presented. We show that the gravitational bending effects of photons do change the spectral shape to some extent.

  19. Multi-band morpho-Spectral Component Analysis Deblending Tool (MuSCADeT): Deblending colourful objects

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, R; Starck, J -L

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for colour separation and deblending of multi-band astronomical images called MuSCADeT which is based on Morpho-spectral Component Analysis of multi-band images. The MuSCADeT algorithm takes advantage of the sparsity of astronomical objects in morphological dictionaries such as wavelets and their differences in spectral energy distribution (SED) across multi-band observations. This allows us to devise a model independent and automated approach to separate objects with different colours. We show with simulations that we are able to separate highly blended objects and that our algorithm is robust against SED variations of objects across the field of view. To confront our algorithm with real data, we use HST images of the strong lensing galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223 and we show that MuSCADeT performs better than traditional profile-fitting techniques in deblending the foreground lensing galaxies from background lensed galaxies. Although the main driver for our work is the deblending...

  20. Maintaining accuracy of cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer models for different ink cartridges using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binyu; Xu, Haisong; Luo, M Ronnier; Guo, Jinyi

    2011-07-01

    The replacement of used-up ink cartridges is unavoidable, but it makes the existing characterization model far from accurate, while recharacterization is labor intensive. In this study, we propose a new correction method for cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) models based on principal component analysis (PCA). First, a small set of correction samples are predicted, printed using new ink cartridges, and then measured. Second, the link between the predicted and measured reflectance weights, generated by PCA, is determined. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides a significant and robust improvement, since not only the color change between original and new inks but also the systemic error of CYNSN modelsis taken into account in the method.

  1. Interim Progress Report on the Application of an Independent Components Analysis-based Spectral Unmixing Algorithm to Beowulf Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, George

    2003-01-01

    This report describes work done to implement an independent-components-analysis (ICA) -based blind unmixing algorithm on the Eastern Region Geography (ERG) Beowulf computer cluster. It gives a brief description of blind spectral unmixing using ICA-based techniques and a preliminary example of unmixing results for Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper multispectral imagery using a recently reported1,2,3 unmixing algorithm. Also included are computer performance data. The final phase of this work, the actual implementation of the unmixing algorithm on the Beowulf cluster, was not completed this fiscal year and is addressed elsewhere. It is noted that study of this algorithm and its application to land-cover mapping will continue under another research project in the Land Remote Sensing theme into fiscal year 2004.

  2. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  3. Real-time detection of organic contamination events in water distribution systems by principal components analysis of ultraviolet spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hou, Dibo; Wang, Ke; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin; Loáiciga, Hugo

    2017-05-01

    The detection of organic contaminants in water distribution systems is essential to protect public health from potential harmful compounds resulting from accidental spills or intentional releases. Existing methods for detecting organic contaminants are based on quantitative analyses such as chemical testing and gas/liquid chromatography, which are time- and reagent-consuming and involve costly maintenance. This study proposes a novel procedure based on discrete wavelet transform and principal component analysis for detecting organic contamination events from ultraviolet spectral data. Firstly, the spectrum of each observation is transformed using discrete wavelet with a coiflet mother wavelet to capture the abrupt change along the wavelength. Principal component analysis is then employed to approximate the spectra based on capture and fusion features. The significant value of Hotelling's T(2) statistics is calculated and used to detect outliers. An alarm of contamination event is triggered by sequential Bayesian analysis when the outliers appear continuously in several observations. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested on-line using a pilot-scale setup and experimental data.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND SPECTRAL COMPONENTS WITH NuSTAR DATA OF GRS 1915+105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassal, Anjali Rao; Vadawale, Santosh V.; Mithun, N. P. S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Misra, Ranjeev, E-mail: anjali@prl.res.in [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-01-20

    Low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are commonly observed during the hard states of black hole binaries. Several studies have established various observational/empirical correlations between spectral parameters and QPO properties, indicating a close link between the two. However, the exact mechanism of generation of QPOs is not yet well understood. In this paper, we present our attempts to comprehend the connection between the spectral components and the low-frequency QPO (LFQPO) observed in GRS 1915+105 using the data from NuSTAR. Detailed spectral modeling as well as the presence of the LFQPO and its energy dependence during this observation have been reported by Miller et al. and Zhang et al., respectively. We investigate the compatibility of the spectral model and the energy dependence of the QPO by simulating light curves in various energy bands for small variation of the spectral parameters. The basic concept here is to establish the connection, if any, between the QPO and the variation of either a spectral component or a specific parameter, which in turn can shed some light on the origin of the QPO. We begin with the best-fit spectral model of Miller et al. and simulate the light curve by varying the spectral parameters at frequencies close to the observed QPO frequency in order to generate the simulated QPO. Furthermore we simulate similar light curves in various energy bands in order to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the rms amplitude of the QPO. We find that the observed trend of increasing rms amplitude with energy can be reproduced qualitatively if the spectral index is assumed to be varying with the phases of the QPO. Variation of any other spectral parameter does not reproduce the observed energy dependence.

  5. ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts over-express extra-cellular matrix components, display cell cycle delay and are resistant to apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zulato

    Full Text Available Alström Syndrome (ALMS is a rare genetic disorder (483 living cases, characterized by many clinical manifestations, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiomyopathy. ALMS is caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene, encoding for a large protein with implicated roles in ciliary function, cellular quiescence and intracellular transport. Patients with ALMS have extensive fibrosis in nearly all tissues resulting in a progressive organ failure which is often the ultimate cause of death. To focus on the role of ALMS1 mutations in the generation and maintenance of this pathological fibrosis, we performed gene expression analysis, ultrastructural characterization and functional assays in 4 dermal fibroblast cultures from ALMS patients. Using a genome-wide gene expression analysis we found alterations in genes belonging to specific categories (cell cycle, extracellular matrix (ECM and fibrosis, cellular architecture/motility and apoptosis. ALMS fibroblasts display cytoskeleton abnormalities and migration impairment, up-regulate the expression and production of collagens and despite the increase in the cell cycle length are more resistant to apoptosis. Therefore ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts showed a constitutively activated myofibroblast phenotype even if they do not derive from a fibrotic lesion. Our results support a genetic basis for the fibrosis observed in ALMS and show that both an excessive ECM production and a failure to eliminate myofibroblasts are key mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings suggest new roles for ALMS1 in both intra- and extra-cellular events which are essential not only for the normal cellular function but also for cell-cell and ECM-cell interactions.

  6. Extending generalized linear models with random effects and components of dispersion = [Gegeneraliseerde lineaire modellen met extra stochastische termen en bijbehorende variantiecomponenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.

    1997-01-01


    This dissertation was born out of a need for general and numerically feasible procedures for inference in variance components models for non-normal data. The methodology should be widely applicable within the institutes of the Agricultural Research Department (DLO) of the Dutch Ministry o

  7. Surface temperature measurement of the plasma facing components with the multi-spectral infrared thermography diagnostics in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Gauthier, E.; Pocheau, C.; Balorin, C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Jouve, M.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Courtois, X.; Loarer, Th.; Houry, M.

    2017-03-01

    For the long-pulse high-confinement discharges in tokamaks, the equilibrium of plasma requires a contact with the first wall materials. The heat flux resulting from this interaction is of the order of 10 MW/m2 for steady state conditions and up to 20 MW/m2 for transient phases. The monitoring on surface temperatures of the plasma facing components (PFCs) is a major concern to ensure safe operation and to optimize performances of experimental operations on large fusion facilities. Furthermore, this measurement is also required to study the physics associated to the plasma material interactions and the heat flux deposition process. In tokamaks, infrared (IR) thermography systems are routinely used to monitor the surface temperature of the PFCs. This measurement requires an accurate knowledge of the surface emissivity. However, and particularly for metallic materials such as tungsten, this emissivity value can vary over a wide range with both the surface condition and the temperature itself, which makes instantaneous measurement challenging. In this context, the multi-spectral infrared method appears as a very promising alternative solution. Indeed, the system has the advantage to carry out a non-intrusive measurement on thermal radiation while evaluating surface temperature without requiring a mandatory surface emissivity measurement. In this paper, a conceptual design for the multi-spectral infrared thermography is proposed. The numerical study of the multi-channel system based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) nonlinear curve fitting is applied. The numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate the design allows for measurements over a large temperature range with a relative error of less than 10%. Furthermore, laboratory experiments have been performed from 200 °C to 740 °C to confirm the feasibility for temperature measurements on stainless steel and tungsten. In these experiments, the unfolding results from the multi-channel detection provide good

  8. GMOSS: All-sky Model of Spectral Radio Brightness Based on Physical Components and Associated Radiative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Udaya Shankar, N.; Chluba, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We present the Global Model for the Radio Sky Spectrum (GMOSS), a novel, physically motivated model of the low-frequency radio sky from 22 MHz to 23 GHz. GMOSS invokes different physical components and associated radiative processes to describe the sky spectrum over 3072 pixels of 5° resolution. The spectra are allowed to be convex, concave, or of more complex form with contributions from synchrotron emission, thermal emission, and free-free absorption included. Physical parameters that describe the model are optimized to best fit four all-sky maps at 150 MHz, 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, and 23 GHz and two maps at 22 and 45 MHz generated using the Global Sky Model of de Oliveira-Costa et al. The fractional deviation of the model from data has a median value of 6% and is less than 17% for 99% of the pixels. Though aimed at the modeling of foregrounds for the global signal arising from the redshifted 21 cm line of hydrogen during the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), over redshifts 150≲ z≲ 6, GMOSS is well suited for any application that requires simulating spectra of the low-frequency radio sky as would be observed by the beam of any instrument. The complexity in spectral structure that naturally arises from the underlying physics of the model provides a useful expectation for departures from smoothness in EoR foreground spectra and hence may guide the development of algorithms for EoR signal detection. This aspect is further explored in a subsequent paper.

  9. New Spectral Evidence of an Unaccounted Component of the Near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light from the CIBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shuji; Arai, Toshiaki; Bock, James J.; Cooray, Asantha; Korngut, Phillip M.; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Dae Hee; Levenson, Louis R.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Onishi, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Zemcov, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) captures the total integrated emission from stars and galaxies throughout the cosmic history. The amplitude of the near-infrared EBL from space absolute photometry observations has been controversial and depends strongly on the modeling and subtraction of the zodiacal light (ZL) foreground. We report the first measurement of the diffuse background spectrum at 0.8-1.7 μm from the CIBER experiment. The observations were obtained with an absolute spectrometer over two flights in multiple sky fields to enable the subtraction of ZL, stars, terrestrial emission, and diffuse Galactic light. After subtracting foregrounds and accounting for systematic errors, we find the nominal EBL brightness, assuming the Kelsall ZL model, is {42.7}-10.6+11.9 nW m-2 sr-1 at 1.4 μm. We also analyzed the data using the Wright ZL model, which results in a worse statistical fit to the data and an unphysical EBL, falling below the known background light from galaxies at λ EBL brightness, we find an EBL brightness of {28.7}-3.3+5.1 nWm-2 sr-1 at 1.4 μm. While the derived EBL amplitude strongly depends on the ZL model, we find that we cannot fit the spectral data to ZL, Galactic emission, and EBL from solely integrated galactic light from galaxy counts. The results require a new diffuse component, such as an additional foreground or an excess EBL with a redder spectrum than that of ZL.

  10. Interpretation of the X(3872) as a charmonium state plus an extra component due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2013-07-01

    We present a quark model calculation of the charmonium spectrum with self-energy corrections due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within the relativized quark model by Godfrey and Isgur. The strong decay widths of 3S, 2P, 1D, and 2D cc¯ states are also calculated, to set the values of the 3P0 pair-creation model's parameters we use to compute the vertex functions of the loop integrals. Finally, the nature of the X(3872) resonance is analyzed and the main possibilities (cc¯ state or DD¯* molecule) are discussed. According to our results, the X(3872) is compatible with the meson χc1(2P), with JPC=1++, and is thus interpreted as a cc¯ core plus higher Fock components due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. These JPC=1++ quantum numbers are in agreement with the experimental results found by the LHCb collaboration. In our view, the X(3872)'s mass is lower than the quark model's predictions because of self-energy shifts.

  11. Using RPAS Multi-Spectral Imagery to Characterise Vigour, Leaf Development, Yield Components and Berry Composition Variability within a Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rey-Caramés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of precision viticulture techniques requires the use of emerging sensing technologies to assess the vineyard spatial variability. This work shows the capability of multispectral imagery acquired from a remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS, and the derived spectral indices to assess the vegetative, productive, and berry composition spatial variability within a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.. Multi-spectral imagery of 17 cm spatial resolution was acquired using a RPAS. Classical vegetation spectral indices and two newly defined normalised indices, NVI1 = (R802 − R531/(R802 + R531 and NVI2 = (R802 − R570/(R802 + R570, were computed. Their spatial distribution and relationships with grapevine vegetative, yield, and berry composition parameters were studied. Most of the spectral indices and field data varied spatially within the vineyard, as showed through the variogram parameters. While the correlations were significant but moderate among the spectral indices and the field variables, the kappa index showed that the spatial pattern of the spectral indices agreed with that of the vegetative variables (0.38–0.70 and mean cluster weight (0.40. These results proved the utility of the multi-spectral imagery acquired from a RPAS to delineate homogeneous zones within the vineyard, allowing the grapegrower to carry out a specific management of each subarea.

  12. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  13. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  14. Infrared imaging in breast cancer: automated tissue component recognition and spectral characterization of breast cancer cells as well as the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Audrey; Desmedt, Christine; Smolina, Margarita; Szternfeld, Philippe; Verdonck, Magali; Rouas, Ghizlane; Kheddoumi, Naima; Rothé, Françoise; Larsimont, Denis; Sotiriou, Christos; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2014-03-07

    Current evaluation of histological sections of breast cancer samples remains unsatisfactory. The search for new predictive and prognostic factors is ongoing. Infrared spectroscopy and its potential to probe tissues and cells at the molecular level without requirement for contrast agents could be an attractive tool for clinical and diagnostic analysis of breast cancer. In this study, we report the successful application of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) imaging for breast tissue component characterization. We show that specific FTIR spectral signatures can be assigned to the major tissue components of breast tumor samples. We demonstrate that a tissue component classifier can be built based on a spectral database of well-annotated tissues and successfully validated on independent breast samples. We also demonstrate that spectral features can reveal subtle differences within a tissue component, capturing for instance lymphocytic and stromal activation. By investigating in parallel lymph nodes, tonsils and wound healing tissues, we prove the uniqueness of the signature of both lymphocytic infiltrate and tumor microenvironment in the breast disease context. Finally, we demonstrate that the biochemical information reflected in the epithelial spectra might be clinically relevant for the grading purpose, suggesting potential to improve breast cancer management in the future.

  15. Spectral scattering inversion method of GEO satellite components%典型GEO卫星部件光谱散射特性反演方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐融; 赵飞

    2016-01-01

    The core of the satellite characteristics inversion based on mixed satellite spectra is the mathematical model and inversion algorithm. Theoretical model of spectral mixing was built with experiments conducted to justify the model. First, theoretical analysis of components’ spectral scattering model, linear spectral mixing model and unmixing methods of satellite’ s spectral data was conducted. Then, experiments were designed to measure and calibrate the spectral BRDF of a high-fidelity GEO satellite and its components, while the spectral scattering characteristics of component and material were discussed. Finally, nonnegative constrained least square methods were utilized to unmix the satellite’ s spectral data, with the largest relative residue less than 10%. Experiment results show that the linear spectral mixing model and nonnegative constrained least square unmixing methods have practical meaning in explaining spectral data of satellites and inversing satellite conditions.%由整星混合光谱反演卫星特征的核心在于数理模型及反演算法,基于此建立了光谱混合数理模型并进行了实验验证。首先,对部件光谱散射模型、线性光谱混合模型、整星光谱解混方法进行了理论分析;然后,设计实验定标测量了高保真GEO卫星模型及部件的光谱BRDF特性,讨论了部件和材料光谱散射特性的差别;最后,采用非负约束最小二乘法对卫星整体光谱进行了解混分析,最大相对残差小于10%。实验结果表明,线性光谱混合模型及非负约束最小二乘解混方法对于描述卫星光谱混合机理、反演卫星状态具有一定实用意义。

  16. Nonlinear spectral imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palero, J. A.

    2007-07-01

    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates live high resolution 3D imaging of tissue in its native state and environment. The nonlinear interaction between focussed femtosecond light pulses and the biological tissue results in the emission of natural autofluorescence and second-harmonic signal. Because biological intrinsic emission is generally very weak and extends from the ultraviolet to the visible spectral range, a broad-spectral range and high sensitivity 3D spectral imaging system is developed. Imaging the spectral characteristics of the biological intrinsic emission reveals the structure and biochemistry of the cells and extra-cellular components. By using different methods in visualizing the spectral images, discrimination between different tissue structures is achieved without the use of any stain or fluorescent label. For instance, RGB real color spectral images of the intrinsic emission of mouse skin tissues show blue cells, green hair follicles, and purple collagen fibers. The color signature of each tissue component is directly related to its characteristic emission spectrum. The results of this study show that skin tissue nonlinear intrinsic emission is mainly due to the autofluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), flavins, keratin, melanin, phospholipids, elastin and collagen and nonlinear Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation in Type I collagen. In vivo time-lapse spectral imaging is implemented to study metabolic changes in epidermal cells in tissues. Optical scattering in tissues, a key factor in determining the maximum achievable imaging depth, is also investigated in this work.

  17. Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE : non-thermal component detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Mendez, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting

  18. Determining the von Mises stress power spectral density for frequency domain fatigue analysis including out-of-phase stress components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.H.A.; Boer, de A.; Liebregts, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a new formula to take into account phase differences in the determination of an equivalent von Mises stress power spectral density (PSD) from multiple random inputs. The obtained von Mises PSD can subsequently be used for fatigue analysis. The formula was derived for use in the c

  19. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  20. Origin of the spectral deformation in the near infrared radiation from Tore-Supra carbon components; Origine de la deformation spectrale de la luminance proche infrarouge des composants en carbone de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchambre, E

    2004-03-01

    This work concerns the understanding of a physical phenomenon which is important for the future course of magnetic confinement fusion research: namely the anomalous deformation in the near infrared of radiation from tokamak plasma facing components under plasma particle impact. The goal of this work was to reproduce this phenomenon in laboratory experiments, characterize it and explain it, so that the measurements of the temperature of plasma facing components can be made with confidence. Laboratory experiments have been performed using an ECR ions source and a helicon plasma source. The spectral luminance deformation has been observed on graphite surface under electrons and ions bombardment and the amplitude of this phenomenon was found to depend on the type of material used and the power density of the incident particles. A systematic consideration and evaluation of alternative explanations for the observed spectral deformation has been made. A number of plausible interpretations has been considered and discarded as e.g. Bremsstrahlung radiation, or assigned a low probability as the luminescence effect. The possible partial transparency of the material has also been considered at some length, but finally discarded because the low thermal conductivity of the graphite materials under consideration does not permit a strong enough temperature gradient to cause the observed deformation. The possible explanation is reduced to the non uniform surface temperature due to the presence of hot spots during particle bombardment. This hypothesis implies that the measured luminance is the contribution of several temperatures. The measured spectral luminance deformation, basing on hot spots hypothesis, is simulated. This hypothesis allows to asses the surface temperature, the hot spots temperature and the hot spots coverage on the surface. These results are validated using a thermal model of dust in radiate equilibrium. This model allows us to deduce an average size of the dust

  1. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  2. Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms for improved spectral deconvolution of overlapped signals in 1H NMR analysis: application to foods and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Tsikin, Alexey M; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

    2014-05-01

    The major challenge facing NMR spectroscopic mixture analysis is the overlapping of signals and the arising impossibility to easily recover the structures for identification of the individual components and to integrate separated signals for quantification. In this paper, various independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms [mutual information least dependent component analysis (MILCA); stochastic non-negative ICA (SNICA); joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices (JADE); and robust, accurate, direct ICA algorithm (RADICAL)] as well as deconvolution methods [simple-to-use-interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS)] are applied for simultaneous (1)H NMR spectroscopic determination of organic substances in complex mixtures. Among others, we studied constituents of the following matrices: honey, soft drinks, and liquids used in electronic cigarettes. Good quality spectral resolution of up to eight-component mixtures was achieved (correlation coefficients between resolved and experimental spectra were not less than 0.90). In general, the relative errors in the recovered concentrations were below 12%. SIMPLISMA and MILCA algorithms were found to be preferable for NMR spectra deconvolution and showed similar performance. The proposed method was used for analysis of authentic samples. The resolved ICA concentrations match well with the results of reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as the MCR-ALS algorithm used for comparison. ICA deconvolution considerably improves the application range of direct NMR spectroscopy for analysis of complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cosmology With Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, J

    2005-01-01

    We review several properties of models that include extra dimensions, focusing on aspects related to cosmology and particle physics phenomenology. The properties of effective four dimensional inflationary geometry are studied in two distinct frameworks: (i) in Kaluza- Klein (KK) compactifications and (ii) in braneworld scenarios. From numerical simulations we find that inflationary braneworlds are unstable if the scale of inflation is too large in comparison with the stabilization scale of the interbrane distance. The analysis of perturbations confirms the existence of a tachyon associated with the volume modulus of the extra dimensions both in braneworlds and KK compactifications. With the numerical program BRANECODE non- perturbative properties of braneworlds are studied. We fully understand the non-perturbative consequences of this instability. Generic attractors are (i) an increase of the interbrane distance and the formation of a naked singularity, (ii) the brane colli...

  4. Bayesian regression models outperform partial least squares methods for predicting milk components and technological properties using infrared spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; de los Campos, G; Vazquez, A I; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Bayesian models commonly used for genomic selection to predict "difficult-to-predict" dairy traits, such as milk fatty acid (FA) expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, and technological properties, such as fresh cheese yield and protein recovery, using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral data. Our main hypothesis was that Bayesian models that can estimate shrinkage and perform variable selection may improve our ability to predict FA traits and technological traits above and beyond what can be achieved using the current calibration models (e.g., partial least squares, PLS). To this end, we assessed a series of Bayesian methods and compared their prediction performance with that of PLS. The comparison between models was done using the same sets of data (i.e., same samples, same variability, same spectral treatment) for each trait. Data consisted of 1,264 individual milk samples collected from Brown Swiss cows for which gas chromatographic FA composition, milk coagulation properties, and cheese-yield traits were available. For each sample, 2 spectra in the infrared region from 5,011 to 925 cm(-1) were available and averaged before data analysis. Three Bayesian models: Bayesian ridge regression (Bayes RR), Bayes A, and Bayes B, and 2 reference models: PLS and modified PLS (MPLS) procedures, were used to calibrate equations for each of the traits. The Bayesian models used were implemented in the R package BGLR (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/BGLR/index.html), whereas the PLS and MPLS were those implemented in the WinISI II software (Infrasoft International LLC, State College, PA). Prediction accuracy was estimated for each trait and model using 25 replicates of a training-testing validation procedure. Compared with PLS, which is currently the most widely used calibration method, MPLS and the 3 Bayesian methods showed significantly greater prediction accuracy. Accuracy increased in moving from

  5. SCONUL Research Extra

    OpenAIRE

    John Hall

    2006-01-01

    SCONUL Research Extra is a cooperative access and borrowing scheme for staff and research students in UK and Irish higher education institutions. Under the terms of the scheme, eligible researchers may visit any participating library and register as an external borrower. The scheme is run on behalf of SCONUL, the Society of College, National and University Libraries which represents the directors of the library and information services in all the universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland...

  6. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, J; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Rigolin, S; Salvatori, M

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we study the symmetry breaking pattern induced by a background magnetic flux living on extra dimensions, with the four-dimensional scalar fields being gauge boson components in full space. For SU(N) and two compact, toroidal, extra dimensions, we determine analytically the possible field configurations of stable vacua and their symmetries. From the four-dimensional point of view, the system responds dynamically to the magnetic background by an infinite chain of vacuum expectation values so as to reach a stable vacuum. The equivalence between flux compactification and constant boundary conditions - either Scherk-Schwarz or twisted - is established.

  7. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this review we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergencies by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include non-perturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime for various extra-dimensional models.

  8. Pure component spectral reconstruction from mixture data using SVD, global entropy minimization, and simulated annealing. Numerical investigations of admissible objective functions using a synthetic 7-species data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Effendi; Garland, Marc

    2002-07-15

    A combination of singular value decomposition, entropy minimization, and simulated annealing was applied to a synthetic 7-species spectroscopic data set with added white noise. The pure spectra were highly overlapping. Global minima for selected objective functions were obtained for the transformation of the first seven right singular vectors. Simple Shannon type entropy functions were used in the objective functions and realistic physical constraints were imposed in the penalties. It was found that good first approximations for the pure component spectra could be obtained without the use of any a priori information. The present method out performed the two widely used routines, namely Simplisma and OPA-ALS, as well as IPCA. These results indicate that a combination of SVD, entropy minimization, and simulated annealing is a potentially powerful tool for spectral reconstructions from large real experimental systems. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. GMOSS: All-sky model of spectral radio brightness based on physical components and associated radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Mayuri Sathyanarayana; Shankar, N Udaya; Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We present Global MOdel for the radio Sky Spectrum (GMOSS) -- a novel, physically motivated model of the low-frequency radio sky from 22 MHz to 23 GHz. GMOSS invokes different physical components and associated radiative processes to describe the sky spectrum over 3072 pixels of $5^{\\circ}$ resolution. The spectra are allowed to be convex, concave or of more complex form with contributions from synchrotron emission, thermal emission and free-free absorption included. Physical parameters that describe the model are optimized to best fit four all-sky maps at 150 MHz, 408 MHz, 1420 MHz and 23 GHz and two maps at 22 MHz and 45 MHz generated using the Global Sky Model of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008). The fractional deviation of model to data has a median value of $6\\%$ and is less than $17\\%$ for $99\\%$ of the pixels. Though aimed at modeling of foregrounds for the global signal arising from the redshifted 21-cm line of Hydrogen during Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization (EoR) - over redshifts $150\\lesssim z ...

  10. Discriminating between cultivars and treatments of broccoli using mass spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthria, Devanand L; Lin, Long-Ze; Robbins, Rebecca J; Finley, John W; Banuelos, Gary S; Harnly, James M

    2008-11-12

    Metabolite fingerprints, obtained with direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) with both positive and negative ionization, were used with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA) to discriminate between cultivars and growing treatments of broccoli. The sample set consisted of two cultivars of broccoli, Majestic and Legacy, the first grown with four different levels of Se and the second grown organically and conventionally with two rates of irrigation. Chemical composition differences in the two cultivars and seven treatments produced patterns that were visually and statistically distinguishable using ANOVA-PCA. PCA loadings allowed identification of the molecular and fragment ions that provided the most significant chemical differences. A standardized profiling method for phenolic compounds showed that important discriminating ions were not phenolic compounds. The elution times of the discriminating ions and previous results suggest that they were common sugars and organic acids. ANOVA calculations of the positive and negative ionization MS fingerprints showed that 33% of the variance came from the cultivar, 59% from the growing treatment, and 8% from analytical uncertainty. Although the positive and negative ionization fingerprints differed significantly, there was no difference in the distribution of variance. High variance of individual masses with cultivars or growing treatment was correlated with high PCA loadings. The ANOVA data suggest that only variables with high variance for analytical uncertainty should be deleted. All other variables represent discriminating masses that allow separation of the samples with respect to cultivar and treatment.

  11. Ship-borne rotating shadowband radiometer observations for determination of components of spectral irradiance and aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Jonas; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas; Bernhard, Germar

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been established as a sub-project of AERONET and a long-term program to collect ship-borne aerosol optical depth measurements over ocean. Its purpose is to serve as reliable reference database for the evaluation of models and satellite products. Data are currently collected by handheld Microtops II photometers, as the automated acquisition of data from sun photometers on stabilized platforms is so far too expensive for wide-spread use. A promising alternative to the sun photometer is the rotating shadowband radiometer, whose principle of operation allows the determination of the direct-beam component of solar radiation without stabilizing the instrument, if the orientation of the detector horizontal is known. OCEANET, a project to investigate the exchange fluxes of energy and matter between the atmosphere and ocean, has contributed aerosol observations to MAN on several of its cruises on RV Polarstern during the transit between the hemispheres. On the recent cruise (PS 83) from Cape Town to Bremerhaven, TROPOS has operated for the first time a 19 channel rotating shadowband radiometer (GUVis-3511) built by the company Biospherical, as a possible means to provide automated irradiance and aerosol optical depth measurements. Calibration and processing of the raw data will be described, and an initial evaluation of the instrumental performance will be given. Aerosol optical depths derived from Microtops II measurements and the rotating shadowband radiometer will be compared. We show that the standard deviation of Aerosol optical depths observed with Microtops II and the shadowband radiometer is about 0.02 for matching channels, and an aerosol type classification based on Angstrom exponent shows good agreement. Also the influence of ship smoke and ocean swell is studied. The suitability of the instrument to automate MAN observations is discussed, and an outlook to the use of the instrument to also derive cloud optical properties is

  12. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  13. Use of portable devices and confocal Raman spectrometers at different wavelength to obtain the spectral information of the main organic components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit samples, in two ripening stages, ripe (red) and unripe (green), collected from a cultivar in the North of Spain (Barrika, Basque Country), were analyzed directly, without any sample pretreatment, with two different Raman instruments (portable spectrometer coupled to a micro-videocamera and a confocal Raman microscope), using two different laser excitation wavelengths (514 and 785 nm, only for the confocal microscope). The combined use of these laser excitation wavelengths allows obtaining, in a short period of time, the maximum spectral information about the main organic compounds present in this fruit. The major identified components of unripe tomatoes were cutin and cuticular waxes. On the other hand, the main components on ripe tomatoes were carotenes, polyphenoles and polysaccharides. Among the carotenes, it was possible to distinguish the presence of lycopene from β-carotene with the help of both excitation wavelengths, but specially using the 514 nm one, which revealed specific overtones and combination tones of this type of carotene.

  14. An interpretation of fluctuations in enzyme catalysis rate, spectral diffusion, and radiative component of lifetimes in terms of electric field fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Meher K; Marcus, R A

    2007-10-09

    Time-dependent fluctuations in the catalysis rate (deltak(t)) observed in single-enzyme experiments were found in a particular study to have an autocorrelation function decaying on the same time scale as that of spectral diffusion deltaomega(0)(t). To interpret this similarity, the present analysis focuses on a factor in enzyme catalysis, the local electrostatic interaction energy (E) at the active site and its effect on the activation free energy barrier. We consider the slow fluctuations of the electrostatic interaction energy (deltaE(t)) as a contributor to deltak(t) and relate the latter to deltaomega(0)(t). The resulting relation between deltak(t) and deltaomega(0)(t) is a dynamic analog of the solvatochromism used in interpreting solvent effects on organic reaction rates. The effect of the postulated deltaE(t) on fluctuations in the radiative component (deltagamma(r)(-1)(t)) of the fluorescence decay of chromophores in proteins also is examined, and a relation between deltagamma(r)(-1)(t) and deltaomega(0)(t) is obtained. Experimental tests will determine whether the correlation functions for deltak(t), deltaomega(0)(t), and deltagamma(r)(-1) are indeed similar for any enzyme. Measurements of dielectric dispersion, epsilon(omega), for the enzyme discussed elsewhere will provide further insight into the correlation function for deltaE(t). They also will determine whether fluctuations in the nonradiative component gamma(nr)(-1) of the lifetime decay has a different origin, fluctuations in distance for example.

  15. Principal Component Analysis Coupled with Artificial Neural Networks—A Combined Technique Classifying Small Molecular Structures Using a Concatenated Spectral Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Lucian Birsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present several expert systems that predict the class identity of the modeled compounds, based on a preprocessed spectral database. The expert systems were built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and are designed to predict if an unknown compound has the toxicological activity of amphetamines (stimulant and hallucinogen, or whether it is a nonamphetamine. In attempts to circumvent the laws controlling drugs of abuse, new chemical structures are very frequently introduced on the black market. They are obtained by slightly modifying the controlled molecular structures by adding or changing substituents at various positions on the banned molecules. As a result, no substance similar to those forming a prohibited class may be used nowadays, even if it has not been specifically listed. Therefore, reliable, fast and accessible systems capable of modeling and then identifying similarities at molecular level, are highly needed for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. In order to obtain the expert systems, we have preprocessed a concatenated spectral database, representing the GC-FTIR (gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry spectra of 103 forensic compounds. The database was used as input for a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The scores of the forensic compounds on the main principal components (PCs were then used as inputs for the ANN systems. We have built eight PC-ANN systems (principal component analysis coupled with artificial neural network with a different number of input variables: 15 PCs, 16 PCs, 17 PCs, 18 PCs, 19 PCs, 20 PCs, 21 PCs and 22 PCs. The best expert system was found to be the ANN network built with 18 PCs, which accounts for an explained variance of 77%. This expert system has the best sensitivity (a rate of classification C = 100% and a rate of true positives TP = 100%, as well as a good selectivity (a rate of true negatives TN

  16. Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC

    2006-11-07

    If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.

  17. Qubits from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lévay, Péter

    2011-01-01

    We link the recently discovered black hole-qubit correspondence to the structure of extra dimensions. In particular we show that for toroidal compactifications of type IIB string theory simple qubit systems arise naturally from the geometrical data of the tori parametrized by the moduli. We also generalize the recently suggested idea of the attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure of GHZ-like entangled states on the event horizon, to moduli stabilization for flux attractors in F-theory compactifications on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds. Finally using a simple example we show that the natural arena for qubits to show up is an embedded one within the realm of fermionic entanglement of quantum systems with indistinguishable constituents.

  18. SCONUL Research Extra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hall

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SCONUL Research Extra is a cooperative access and borrowing scheme for staff and research students in UK and Irish higher education institutions. Under the terms of the scheme, eligible researchers may visit any participating library and register as an external borrower. The scheme is run on behalf of SCONUL, the Society of College, National and University Libraries which represents the directors of the library and information services in all the universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and in most other UK institutions of higher education, and the directors of the national libraries; it is for all institutions in membership of SCONUL able to lend library materials and, with 158 institutions signed up, it is now the largest reciprocal borrowing scheme in the UK and Ireland, serving almost the entire membership of SCONUL.

  19. Extra-dimensional confinement of quantum particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    A basic theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions. This model postulates an extension of the Schrodinger equation to include a 4th and 5th spatial component. A higher-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space, characterizing the brane tension which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold. Quantum effects allow a non-zero probability for a particle's evanescent existence in the higher dimensions, and suggest an experimental test for the validity of this model via particles being temporarily excited into the first excited state of the extra-dimensional potential well, in which their probability of existing in 3-d space transiently drops to zero. Several consistency checks of the outcomes of this extra-dimensional model are included in this paper. Among the outcomes of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of zitterbewegung; the pr...

  20. Using Extra Credit to Facilitate Extra Learning in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muztaba Fuad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving students extra credit work is a hotly debated pedagogical issue. This paper shares experience of using extra credit quizzes to push students to think critically and beyond the boundaries. This particular type of quizzes are not announced before and presented to students as a surprise quiz. A certain percentage of the grade earned in these quizzes was included in student’s final grade calculations. With a well-developed model of questions, quiz structure and grade calculation, the presented model of extra credit eliminates negativity related to extra credit work and also motivates students into course work. Our findings showed that by relieving students from the mental pressure of test taking and by making those tests/quizzes as extra credit; students actually performs better in solving harder problems and eventually learns more of the advanced course topics.

  1. Suzaku view of X-ray Spectral Variability of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus A : Partial Covering Absorber, Reflector, and Possible Jet Component

    CERN Document Server

    Fukazawa, Y; Yamazaki, S; Mizuno, M; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, K; Nishino, S; Takahashi, H; Ohno, M

    2011-01-01

    We observed a nearby radio galaxy, the Centaurus A (Cen A), three times with Suzaku in 2009, and measured the wide-band X-ray spectral variability more accurately than the previous measurements. The Cen A was in the active phase in 2009, and the flux became higher by a factor of 1.5--2.0 and the spectrum became harder than that in 2005. The Fe-K line intensity increased by 20--30% from 2005 to 2009. The correlation of the count rate between the XIS 3--8 keV and PIN 15--40 keV band showed a complex behavior with a deviation from a linear relation. The wide-band X-ray continuum in 2--200 keV can be fitted with an absorbed powerlaw model plus a reflection component, or a powerlaw with a partial covering Compton-thick absorption. The difference spectra between high and low flux periods in each observation were reproduced by a powerlaw with a partial covering Compton-thick absorption. Such a Compton-thick partial covering absorber was for the first time observed for the Cen A. The powerlaw photon index of the diff...

  2. Extra Low ENergy Antiproton

    CERN Multimedia

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (110 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPCS-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposal ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton)ring also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to acommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPCS, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is prese...

  3. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio Zwirner

    2004-02-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.

  4. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Higaki, Tetsutaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing $T^2/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  5. Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

    2006-10-01

    In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

  6. Results from DROXO IV. EXTraS discovery of an X-ray flare from the Class I protostar candidate ISO-Oph 85

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzocaro, Daniele; Paladini, Roberta; Tiengo, Andrea; Lisini, Gianni; Novara, Giovanni; Vianello, Giacomo; Belfiore, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Salvetti, David; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Sciortino, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Daniele; Haberl, Frank; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Salvaterra, Ruben; De Luca, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is crucial to understand star formation. A very limited amount of X-ray results is available for the protostellar (ClassI) phase. A systematic search of transient X-ray phenomena combined with a careful evaluation of the evolutionary stage offer a widely unexplored window to our understanding of YSOs X-ray properties. Within the EXTraS project, a search for transients and variability in the whole XMM-Newton archive, we discover transient X-ray emission consistent with ISO-Oph 85, a strongly embedded YSO in the rho Ophiuchi region, not detected in previous time-averaged X-ray studies. We extract an X-ray light curve for the flare and determine its spectral parameters from XMM-Newton/EPIC (European Photon Imaging Camera) data using quantile analysis. The X-ray flare ($2500\\,s$), the only one detected in the XMM-Newton archive for ISO-Oph 85, has a luminosity of $LogL_X[erg/s]=31.1$ and a spectrum consistent with a highly-absorbed one-component thermal model ($N_H...

  7. Extra Stimulation in Intermediate Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George E.

    Three types of extra stimulation in reading are discussed: extra teacher time devoted to teaching reading, extra student time devoted to practice in reading, and extra motivation and reinforcement leading to greater amounts of student reading outside the school. Problems are created (1) when teaching time spent on reading is increased in the…

  8. Collider searches for extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

    2004-12-01

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

  9. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  10. Signatures of Large Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossenfelder, S; Stöcker, H

    2004-01-01

    String theory suggests modifications of our spacetime such as extra dimensions and the existence of a mininal length scale. In models with addidional dimensions, the Planck scale can be lowered to values accessible by future colliders. Effective theories which extend beyond the standart-model by including extra dimensions and a minimal length allow computation of observables and can be used to make testable predictions. Expected effects that arise within these models are the production of gravitons and black holes. Furthermore, the Planck-length is a lower bound to the possible resolution of spacetime which might be reached soon.

  11. 基于BP神经网络和主元分析法的数码相机光谱重构算法%Spectral Reconstruction Algorithm of Digital Camera Based on BP Neural Network and Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 陈梅

    2014-01-01

    从数码相机的RGB信号重构物体表面的光谱反射率是光谱颜色管理研究中的重要课题之一.提出了一种基于误差反向传播前馈神经网络(BP)和主元分析法(PCA)实现色卡的表面光谱反射率重构的新算法.通过对三种色卡进行光谱重构实验研究了BP神经网络的最优结构和主元数的最佳选择,验证了算法的精度.实验结果表明,采用适当的BP神经网络和主元分析相结合的新算法能够精确重构同类色卡的表面光谱反射率.%Reconstructing the spectral reflectence of the object surface from RGB signals of digital camera is one of the important studies of spectral color managament.A new algorithm based on back propagation (BP) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to realize the spectral reflectence reconstruction of color atlas.The optimal structure of BP neural network and the number of principal components are studied in the spectral reflectence reconstruction experiments of three color atlases and the accuracy of the algorithm is also testified.The experimental results show that the new algorithm of appropriate BP neural network combined with PCA is satisfied to accurately reconstruct the spectral reflectence of the same kind of color atlas.

  12. Cosmology With Dynamical Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, J K

    2005-01-01

    Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non- minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some qu...

  13. Wormholes leading to extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, K A

    2016-01-01

    In 6D general relativity with a scalar field as a source of gravity, a new type of static wormhole solutions is presented: such wormholes connect our universe with a small 2D extra subspace with a universe where this extra subspace is large, and the whole space-time is effectively 6-dimensional. We consider manifolds with the structure M0 x M1 x M2 , where M0 is 2D Lorentzian space-time while each of M1 an M2 can be a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. After selecting possible asymptotic behaviors of the metric functions compatible with the field equations, we give two explicit examples of wormhole solutions with spherical symmetry in our space-time and toroidal extra dimensions. In one example, with a massless scalar field (it is a special case of a well-known more general solution), the extra dimensions have a large constant size at the "far end"; the other example contains a nonzero potential $V(\\phi)$ which provides a 6D anti-de Sitter asymptotic, where all spatial dimensions are infinite.

  14. Origin of the 'Extra Entropy'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R.

    2008-01-01

    I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.

  15. Cosmology with dynamical extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Joel K.

    Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non-minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some quintessence models from a cosmological constant. In certain dark energy models the speed of sound is much less than the speed of light. We calculate how this affects the cosmic microwave background and show that the speed of sound may be measurable, provided dark energy is sufficiently dense at decoupling. This is another possible signature of quintessence. Dynamical extra dimensions may have consequences for the early universe. In the cyclic model, the universe is described in terms of a series of contractions and expansions of an extra dimension. The big bang is preceded by a big crunch and quantum fluctuations of the scalar field produce structure in universe. We consider how the fluctuations evolve and build over many cycles and show that there are no observable instabilities or adverse effects. In the cyclic model extra dimensions act as both dark energy and as an agent to cause contraction and a big crunch. Previous theorems suggested that contraction

  16. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  19. Gauge symmetries emerging from extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Kepuladze, Z.

    2016-09-01

    We argue that extra dimensions with a properly chosen compactification scheme could be a natural source for emergent gauge symmetries. Actually, some proposed vector field potential terms or polynomial vector field constraints introduced in five-dimensional Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theory are shown to smoothly lead to spontaneous violation of an underlying 5D spacetime symmetry and generate pseudo-Goldstone vector modes as conventional 4D gauge boson candidates. As a special signature, there appear, apart from conventional gauge couplings, some properly suppressed direct multiphoton (multiboson, in general) interactions in emergent QED and Yang-Mills theories whose observation could shed light on their high-dimensional nature. Moreover, in emergent Yang-Mills theories an internal symmetry G also occurs spontaneously broken to its diagonal subgroups once 5D Lorentz violation happens. This breaking originates from the extra vector field components playing a role of some adjoint scalar field multiplet in the 4D spacetime. So, one naturally has the Higgs effect without a specially introduced scalar field multiplet. Remarkably, when being applied to grand unified theories (GUTs) this results in a fact that the emergent GUTs generically appear broken down to the Standard Model just at the 5D Lorentz violation scale M .

  20. Doppler Frequency Shift in Ocean Wave Measurements: Frequency Downshift of a Fixed Spectral Wave Number Component by Advection of Wave Orbital Velocity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Paul

    2006-01-01

    ... expected intrinsic frequency in the frequency spectrum measured by a stationary probe. The advection of the wave number component by the orbital current of background waves produces a net downshift in the encounter frequency...

  1. Search for extra space dimensions with ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambreesh Gupta; ATLAS Collaboration

    2004-03-01

    If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ATLAS Collaboration on the sensitivity of the detector to various extra dimension models are reported in this document.

  2. Revealing a hard X-ray spectral component reverberating within one light hour of the central Supermassive Black Hole in Ark 564

    CERN Document Server

    Giustini, M; Reeves, J N; Miller, L; Legg, E; Kraemer, S B; George, I M

    2015-01-01

    Ark 564 (z=0.0247) is an X-ray bright NLS1. By using advanced X-ray timing techniques, Legg et al. (2012) discovered an excess of "delayed" emission in the hard X-ray band (4-7.5 keV) following about 1000 seconds after "flaring" light in the soft X-ray band (0.4-1 keV). We report on the X-ray spectral analysis of eight XMM-Newton and one Suzaku observation of Ark 564. High-resolution spectroscopy was performed with the RGS in the soft X-ray band, while broad-band spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn and XIS/PIN instruments. We analysed time-averaged, flux-selected, and time-resolved spectra. Despite the large variability in flux, the broad band spectral shape of Ark 564 is not dramatically varying and can be reproduced either by a superposition of a power law and a blackbody emission, or by a Comptonized power law emission model. High resolution spectroscopy revealed the presence of ionised gas along the line of sight at the systemic redshift of the source, with a low column density and a range of ioni...

  3. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, Jorge [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Broncano, Alicia [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Belen Gavela, Maria [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, Stefano [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salvatori, Matteo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we consider theories with two extra dimensions in which the four-dimensional scalar fields are components of gauge boson in full space. We explore the Nielsen-Olesen instability for SU(N) on a torus, in the presence of a magnetic background. A field theory approach is developed, computing explicitly the minimum of the complete effective potential, including tri-linear and quartic couplings and determining the symmetries of the stable vacua. We also develop appropriate gauge-fixing terms when both Kaluza-Klein and Landau levels are present and interacting, discussing the interplay between the possible six and four dimensional choices. The equivalence between coordinate dependent and constant Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions - associated to either continuous or discrete Wilson lines - is analyzed.

  4. Curvature of the spectral energy distribution, the dominant process for inverse Compton component and other jet properties in Fermi 2LAC blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, R; Du, L M; Wang, Z R; Xie, Z H; Yi, T F; Xiong, D R; Xu, Y B; Liu, W G; Yu, X L

    2016-01-01

    We fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of members of a large sample of Fermi 2LAC blazars to synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) models. Our main results are as follows. (i) As suggested by previous works, the correlation between peak frequency and curvature can be explained by statistical or stochastic particle acceleration mechanisms. For BL Lacs, we find a linear correlation between synchrotron peak frequency and its curvature. The slope of the correlation is consistent with the stochastic acceleration mechanisms and confirm previous studies. For FSRQs, we also find a linear correlation, but its slope cannot be explained by previous theoretical models. (ii) We find a significant correlation between IC luminosity and synchrotron luminosity. The slope of the correlation of FSRQs is consistent with the EC process. And the slope of the correlation of BL Lac is consistent with the SSC process. (iii) We find several significant correlations between IC curvature and several basic parameters of blazars (...

  5. Correlation between the spectral features and electric field changes for natural lightning return stroke followed by continuing current with M-components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Xue, Simin

    2016-07-01

    According to the high time-resolved spectra of two first and a subsequent return strokes and the following continuing current processes overlapped with M-components in three natural cloud-to-ground lightning, the correlation between the total intensity of ionic lines in the spectra and the corresponding amplitude of electric field change and that between the total intensity of the spectra and the apparent diameter of the discharge channel have been investigated. Linear correlations have been found for the above two sets of parameters. The luminous properties along the channel show that the total intensity of ionic lines in the spectra for both the return stroke and M-components decreases with increasing height along the channel. The total intensity of the spectra and the apparent diameter for the return stroke also go down with increase of the height, while those for M-components do the reverse.

  6. Absolute kinematics of radio-source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample. IV. Proper motions of the radio cores over a decade and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Abellán, F. J.; Marcaide, J. M.; Guirado, J. C.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Ros, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out a high-precision astrometric analysis of two very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) epochs of observation of the 13 extragalactic radio sources in the complete S5 polar cap sample. The VLBI epochs span a time baseline of ten years and enable us to achieve precisions in the proper motions of the source cores up to a few micro-arcseconds per year. The observations were performed at 14.4 GHz and 43.1 GHz, and enable us to estimate the frequency core-shifts in a subset of sources, for which the spectral-index distributions can be computed. We study the source-position stability by analysing the changes in the relative positions of fiducial source points (the jet cores) over a decade. We find motions of 0.1-0.9 mas among close-by sources between the two epochs, which imply drifts in the jet cores of approximately a few tens of μas per year. These results have implications for the standard Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jet model (where the core locations are supposed to be stable in time). For one of our sources, 0615+820, the morphological and spectral properties in year 2010, as well as the relative astrometry between years 2000 and 2010, suggest the possibility of either a strong parsec-scale interaction of the AGN jet with the ISM, a gravitational lens with 1 mas diameter, or a resolved massive binary black hole. Reduced images as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A27

  7. Light Stops from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Pepin, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric models the mass of the stops can be considered as the naturalness measure of the theory. Roughly, the lighter the stops are, the more natural the theory is. Both, the absence of supersymmetric signals at experiment and the measurement of the Higgs mass, put scenarios with light stops under increasing tension. I will present a supersymmetry breaking mechanism of the Scherk-Schwarz type that, by introducing extra $SU(2)_L$ triplets in the Higgs sector, is able to generate the correct Higgs mass while keeping stops light.

  8. Higgs Bosons in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the LHC with a mass m_H\\simeq 126 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS_5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS_5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave-function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custod...

  9. Absolute kinematics of radio-source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample. IV. Proper motions of the radio cores over a decade and spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Marcaide, J M; Guirado, J C; Perez-Torres, M A; Ros, E

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a high-precision astrometric analysis of two very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) epochs of observation of the 13 extragalactic radio sources in the complete S5 polar cap sample. The VLBI epochs span a time baseline of 10 years and enable us to achieve precisions in the proper motions of the source cores up to a few micro-arcseconds per year. The observations were performed at 14.4 GHz and 43.1 GHz, and enable us to estimate the frequency core-shifts in a subset of sources, for which the spectral-index distributions can be computed. We study the source-position stability by analysing the changes in the relative positions of fiducial source points (the jet cores) over a decade. We find motions of 0.1-0.9 mas among close-by sources between the two epochs, which imply drifts in the jet cores of approximately a few tens of micro-as per year. These results have implications for the standard Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jet model (where the core locations are supposed to be stable in time)....

  10. Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Li-Lian

    2011-01-01

    Along with finite differences and finite elements, spectral methods are one of the three main methodologies for solving partial differential equations on computers. This book provides a detailed presentation of basic spectral algorithms, as well as a systematical presentation of basic convergence theory and error analysis for spectral methods. Readers of this book will be exposed to a unified framework for designing and analyzing spectral algorithms for a variety of problems, including in particular high-order differential equations and problems in unbounded domains. The book contains a large

  11. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  12. Materia extraña

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Cadenas, J J

    2008-01-01

    Enero, 1999. Unas extrañas burbujas se han colocado en el acelerador de particulas del CERN (Ginebra). Ante el riesgo de que esto desencadene una catástrofe a escala mundial, el centro ordena detener el experimento. Años después, Irene, una joven y promotedora científica, es contratada en la división de Física Teórica del CERN. Allí coincide con el mayor Espinosa, destinado a la sede suiza de la ONU para trabajar en un proyecto contra la proliferación de armas nucleares. La misión de Espinosa resulta ser mucho más arriesgada de lo que parecía. Irene ambiciosa y rebelde, toma una decisión de efectos imprevisibles.

  13. Exploring Extra Dimensions in Spectroscopy Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; LIU Hong-Ya

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose an idea in spectroscopy to search for extra spatial dimensions as well as to detect the possible deviation from Newton's inverse-square law at small scale, and we take high-Z hydrogenic systems and muonic atoms as illustrations. The relevant experiments might help to explore a more than two extra dimensions scenario in the brane world model proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali (ADD) and to set constraints for fundamental parameters such as the size of extra dimensions.

  14. Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s Quasi Periodic Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Inam, S C; Swank, J H; Stark, M J

    2004-01-01

    XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and spin-up rate at the date of XMM-Newton observations were found to be $\\simeq 354.794$ s and $\\simeq 7.4\\times 10^{-13}$ Hz/s, respectively. The XMM-Newton observation revealed a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) corresponding to a mean period of 22.7s, the first QPO reported for this source, enabling us to estimate the Keplerian frequency at the inner radius of the disk to be $\\simeq 4.40\\times 10^{-3}$ Hz or $\\simeq 4.12\\times 10^{-3}$ Hz using a Keplerian or a beat frequency model. Using these frequencies, and a simple accretion disk model, for which the total accretion torque is similar to the material torque, we found the magnetic field of the neutron star to be $\\sim 7\\times 10^{12}$ Gauss and and the distance to the source to be $\\sim 3.2$ kpc. We also discovered a soft component modeled as a blackbody with kT $\\sim 1.90$ ...

  15. Quantitative Raman spectral changes of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into islet-like cells by biochemical component analysis and multiple peak fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Fang, Shaoyin; Zhang, Daosen; Zhang, Qinnan; He, Yingtian; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into islet-like cells, providing a possible solution for type I diabetes treatment. To search for the precise molecular mechanism of the directional differentiation of MSC-derived islet-like cells, biomolecular composition, and structural conformation information during MSC differentiation, is required. Because islet-like cells lack specific surface markers, the commonly employed immunostaining technique is not suitable for their identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Combining Raman spectroscopic data, a fitting accuracy-improved biochemical component analysis, and multiple peaks fitting approach, we identified the quantitative biochemical and intensity change of Raman peaks that show the differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells. Along with increases in protein and glycogen content, and decreases in deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid content, in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, it was found that a characteristic peak of insulin (665 cm-1) has twice the intensity in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, indicating differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells was successful. Importantly, these Raman signatures provide useful information on the structural and pathological states during MSC differentiation and help to develop noninvasive and label-free Raman sorting methods for stem cells and their lineages.

  16. Extra and intradural spinal Hemangioblastoma Hemangioblastoma espinal extra e intradural Hemangioblastoma espinhal extra e intradural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Campos Moraes Amato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system (CNS are low-grade highly vascularized tumors that may be sporadic or associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Extradural hemangioblastomas are uncommon and those located extra and intradurally are even rarer. This study uses an illustrative case and literature review to discuss the difficulties to consider the correct diagnosis and to select the best surgical approach. A 57 years-old white male patient presented with myelopathy and right C5 radiculopathy. The images showed a lobulated, hourglass shaped, highly enhanced extra/intradural lesion that occupied the spinal canal and widened the C4-C5 right intervertebral foramen. Total resection of the intradural lesion was achieved through a posterior approach, but the extradural part could only be partially removed. Complete improvement was observed after four months of follow-up and the residual tumor has been followed up clinically and radiologically. Even though the preoperative impression was of a spinal schwannoma, the histopathological examination revealed grade I hemangioblastoma as per WHO. Despite their rarity, current complementary exams allow considering the diagnosis of hemangioblastoma preoperatively. That is essential to a better surgical planning in view of the particular surgical features of this lesion.Hemangioblastomas del sistema nervioso central (SNC son tumores altamente vascularizados, de grado bajo, que pueden ser esporádicos o vinculados a la enfermedad de Von Hippel-Lindau. Hemangioblastomas extradurales no son comunes, y aquellos localizados extra e intraduralmente son aún más raros. Este estudio usa un caso ilustrativo y la revisión de la literatura para analizar las dificultades cuanto a considerar el diagnóstico correcto y para seleccionar el mejor abordaje quirúrgico. Un paciente, hombre blanco de 57 años de edad, presentaba mielopatía con radiculopatía C5 derecha. Las imágenes mostraban lesión extra

  17. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  18. Visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy by an integrating sphere and optical fibers for quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil from Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna Grazia; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Conte, Lanfranco; Marega, Milena; Cichelli, Angelo; Attilio, Cristina; Cimato, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Because of its high price, extra virgin olive oil is frequently targeted for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. An original set-up for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1,700 nm spectral range was experimented. It made use of an integrating sphere containing the oil sample and of optical fibers for illumination and detection; it provided intrinsically scattering-free absorption spectroscopy measurements. This set-up was used to collect spectroscopic fingerprints of authentic extra virgin olive oils from the Italian Tuscany region, adulterated by different concentrations of olive-pomace oil, refined olive oil, deodorized olive oil, and refined olive-pomace oil. Then, a straightforward multivariate processing of spectroscopic data based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis was applied which was successfully capable of predicting the fraction of adulterant in the mixture, and of discriminating its type. The results achieved by means of optical spectroscopy were compared with the analysis of fatty acids, which was carried out by standard gas chromatography.

  19. Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cecconi, Jaures

    2011-01-01

    G. Bottaro: Quelques resultats d'analyse spectrale pour des operateurs differentiels a coefficients constants sur des domaines non bornes.- L. Garding: Eigenfuction expansions.- C. Goulaouic: Valeurs propres de problemes aux limites irreguliers: applications.- G. Grubb: Essential spectra of elliptic systems on compact manifolds.- J.Cl. Guillot: Quelques resultats recents en Scattering.- N. Schechter: Theory of perturbations of partial differential operators.- C.H. Wilcox: Spectral analysis of the Laplacian with a discontinuous coefficient.

  20. Extra informatie op matrixborden : mogelijkheden en effecten.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de & Niet, M. de

    2002-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of displaying extra safety information on Dynamic Message Signs (DMSs) are explored. The technical possibilities for placing extra information on the signs are looked at, and the road safety effects are examined. The information to be displayed can be divided into t

  1. Extra dimensions at particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvergsnes, Erik Wolden

    2004-08-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction where we consider different aspects of theories involving extra dimensions, together with four research publications (Papers I-IV) attached at the end. The introductional chapters should serve as background material for better understanding the models on which the articles are based. In Chap. 4 we also present some plots not included in the papers. The topic of Papers I-III is graviton induced Bremsstrahlung. In Paper I we consider the contribution to this process from graviton exchange through gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC, compared to the QED background. Only final-state radiation is considered in Paper I, whereas in Paper II we extend this work to include also the quark-antiquark annihilation with graviton exchange, as well as initial-state radiation for both graviton and Standard Model exchange. Paper III is a study of graviton-induced Bremsstrahlung at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, including both initial- and final-state radiation. Paper IV is devoted to a study of the center-edge asymmetry at hadron colliders, an asymmetry which previously had been studied for e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The center-edge asymmetry can be used as a method of distinguishing between spin-1 and spin-2 exchange, something which will be of major importance if a signal is observed.

  2. Extra cellular matrix features in human meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, S; Castaldo, C; Di Meglio, F; Sciorio, S; Giordano-Lanza, G

    2000-01-01

    We collected human fetal and adult normal meninges to relate the age of the tissue with the presence of collagenous and non-collagenous components of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Immunohistochemistry led us to observe some differences in the amount and in the distribution of these proteins between the two sets of specimens. In particular, laminin and tenascin seem to be expressed more intensely in fetal meninges when compared to adult ones. In order to investigate whether the morphofunctional characteristics of fetal meninges may be represented in pathological conditions we also studied meningeal specimens from human meningiomas. Our attention was particularly focused on the expression of those non-collagenous proteins involved in nervous cell migration and neuronal morphogenesis as laminin and tenascin, which were present in lesser amount in normal adult specimens. Microscopical evidences led us to hipothesize that these proteins which are synthesized in a good amount during the fetal development of meninges can be newly produced in tumors. On the contrary, the role of tenascin and laminin in adult meninges is probably only interesting for their biophysical characteristics.

  3. Paraganglioma funcional extra-adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas funcionales son tumores raros, se originan del tejido cromafín extraadrenal productor de catecolaminas, con frecuencia son malignos y tienen alta incidencia de enfermedad persistente o recurrente¹. Se les conoce como: glomus, quemodectomas, paragangliomas cromafines y glomerulocitomas. La localización es diversa y refleja la distribución paraganglionar en el cuerpo, desde la base del cráneo hasta el piso pélvico. Los paragangliomas se encuentran en donde hay ganglios del sistema autónomo, sin embargo, aproximadamente el 90% de estos tumores aparecen en las glándulas suprarrenales (y constituyen los feocromocitomas y el 10% restante tienen una ubicación extraadrenal, mas se ha dicho que su incidencia puede ser subestimada, variando del 18% al 22% en adultos, y en niños hasta un 30%. Los extra-adrenales se originan con mayor frecuencia en el abdomen (85%, otros en el tórax (12% y más raramente en la cabeza y el cuello (3% ². Los estudios de imágenes y la medición de la producción no fisiológica de catecolaminas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. Presentamos aquí el caso de una paciente de 32 años, primigesta con HTAIE que requirió cesárea, quien tuvo un postparto tórpido y pese a múltiples tratamientos antihipertensivos su patología fue de difícil manejo, con complicaciones oftálmicas. Tiempo después la paciente se estudia por hiperhidrosis, se solicitan exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes y se le documenta incidentalmente, una tumoración retroperitoneal izquierda, se le amplían los estudios, y se llega al diagnóstico correcto. La tumoración requirió resección quirúrgica. Tuvo un postoperatorio satisfactorio y la paciente egresó con control en la Consulta Externa.Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumors that produce catecholamines. They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequentIy malignant and are associated

  4. Emergent Yang-Mills Theories from Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L

    2016-01-01

    We study emergent Yang-Mills theories which could origin from universal extra dimensions. Particularly, some vector field potential terms or polynomial vector field constraints introduced into five-dimensional non-Abelian gauge theory is shown to lead to spontaneous violation of an underlying spacetime symmetry and generate vector pseudo-Goldstone modes as conventional 4D gauge boson candidates. As a special signature, apart from conventional gauge couplings, there appear an infinite number of the properly suppressed direct multi-boson (multi-photon in particular) interaction couplings in emergent Yang-Mills theories whose observation could shed light on their high-dimensional nature. Moreover, in these theories an internal symmetry is also appeared spontaneously broken to its diagonal subgroups. This breaking origins from the extra vector field components playing a role of some adjoint scalar field multiplet in the 4D spacetime. So, one naturally has the Higgs effect without a specially introduced scalar fie...

  5. Spectral Ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vigna, Sebastiano

    2009-01-01

    This note tries to attempt a sketch of the history of spectral ranking, a general umbrella name for techniques that apply the theory of linear maps (in particular, eigenvalues and eigenvectors) to matrices that do not represent geometric transformations, but rather some kind of relationship between entities. Albeit recently made famous by the ample press coverage of Google's PageRank algorithm, spectral ranking was devised more than fifty years ago, almost exactly in the same terms, and has been studied in psychology and social sciences. I will try to describe it in precise and modern mathematical terms, highlighting along the way the contributions given by previous scholars.

  6. Mean Spectral Energy Distributions and Bolometric Corrections for Luminous Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Coleman M; Mehta, Sajjan S; Vogeley, Michael S; Gallagher, S C; Leighly, Karen M; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; 10.1088/0067-0049/206/1/4

    2013-01-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.0641.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope, a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis (PCA) trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extream-UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possib...

  7. Estudo do método da extração da camada leucoplaquetária na produção de hemocomponentes: avaliação laboratorial A study of the Buffy-coat extraction method for blood component processing: laboratorial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Serinolli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos para a obtenção de hemocomponentes destaca-se o método do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP e o método da extração da camada leucoplaquetária (ECLP. Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar os métodos do PRP e da ECLP na produção de hemocomponentes. Foram processadas 88 bolsas de sangue total (ST pelo método do PRP, 130 bolsas triplas pelo método da ECLP (ECLPT e 215 bolsas coletadas em bolsas quádruplas pelo método da ECLP (ECLPQ com o uso de extrator automático. Encontramos diferença estatisticamente significante na quantidade de Hb total /unidade entre ECLPT e ECLPQ (p=0,005 e entre ECLPT e PRP (p=0,007 no ST. Houve diferença estatisticamente entre ECLPT e ECLPQ (pThe most commonly used methods for blood component processing are the "plasma rich in platelets method" (PRP, and the Buffy-coat extraction method (BC.The purpose of this study was to compare these two methods in the processing of blood components. Eighty-eight whole blood units (WB were processed by the PRP method, 130 blood units were processed by the BC triple blood bag method (BCT and 215 blood units were collected in quadruple blood bags by the BC method (BCQ using an automatic extractor. A statistically significant difference was observed in the number in the total Hb per unit of WB between the BCT and BCQ methods (p=0.005 and between the BCT and PRP methods (p=0.007. There were also statistically significant differences between the BCT and BCQ methods (p<0.001 and between BCQ and PRP methods (p<0.001 in relation to leukocytes/mL. In the RBC concentrates, we found statistically significant differences between the PRP method and both the BCT and BCQ methods in respect to hematocrit levels, Hb recovery, total Hb, leukocytes, leukocyte depletion, platelets and platelet depletion (p<0.001 in all cases. We also found statistically significant differences between the PRP, BCT and BCQ methods for the volume, platelet recovery, and leukocyte depletion (p<0

  8. Paraganglioma funcional extra-adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas funcionales son tumores raros, se originan del tejido cromafín extraadrenal productor de catecolaminas, con frecuencia son malignos y tienen alta incidencia de enfermedad persistente o recurrente¹. Se les conoce como: glomus, quemodectomas, paragangliomas cromafines y glomerulocitomas. La localización es diversa y refleja la distribución paraganglionar en el cuerpo, desde la base del cráneo hasta el piso pélvico. Los paragangliomas se encuentran en donde hay ganglios del sistema autónomo, sin embargo, aproximadamente el 90% de estos tumores aparecen en las glándulas suprarrenales (y constituyen los feocromocitomas y el 10% restante tienen una ubicación extraadrenal, mas se ha dicho que su incidencia puede ser subestimada, variando del 18% al 22% en adultos, y en niños hasta un 30%. Los extra-adrenales se originan con mayor frecuencia en el abdomen (85%, otros en el tórax (12% y más raramente en la cabeza y el cuello (3% ². Los estudios de imágenes y la medición de la producción no fisiológica de catecolaminas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. Presentamos aquí el caso de una paciente de 32 años, primigesta con HTAIE que requirió cesárea, quien tuvo un postparto tórpido y pese a múltiples tratamientos antihipertensivos su patología fue de difícil manejo, con complicaciones oftálmicas. Tiempo después la paciente se estudia por hiperhidrosis, se solicitan exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes y se le documenta incidentalmente, una tumoración retroperitoneal izquierda, se le amplían los estudios, y se llega al diagnóstico correcto. La tumoración requirió resección quirúrgica. Tuvo un postoperatorio satisfactorio y la paciente egresó con control en la Consulta Externa.

  9. Spectral Tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

    2003-05-01

    This research examines the feasibility of spectral tagging, which involves modifying the spectral signature of a target, e.g. by mixing an additive with the target's paint. The target is unchanged to the human eye, but the tag is revealed when viewed with a spectrometer. This project investigates a layer of security that is not obvious, and therefore easy to conceal. The result is a tagging mechanism that is difficult to counterfeit. Uniquely tagging an item is an area of need in safeguards and security and non-proliferation. The powdered forms of the minerals lapis lazuli and olivine were selected as the initial test tags due to their availability and uniqueness in the visible to near-infrared spectral region. They were mixed with paints and applied to steel. In order to verify the presence of the tags quantitatively, the data from the spectrometer was input into unmixing models and signal detection algorithms. The mixture with the best results was blue paint mixed with lapis lazuli and olivine. The tag had a 0% probability of false alarm and a 100% probability of detection. The research proved that spectral tagging is feasible, although certain tag/paint mixtures are more detectable than others.

  10. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extra dimensions in space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics

  12. Pasta de azeite versus azeite virgem extra

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Susana Marisa da Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Innovative products of high nutritional quality, with healthy benefits and extended conservation are an asset to the food sector. With beneficial health properties and high nutritional quality, extra virgin olive oil is an extraordinary fat, thanks to its unique chemical composition. The olive oil spread, subject of this study, is an innovative product, created from extra virgin olive oil, with a consistency ...

  13. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

    2010-07-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  14. Correction of the recording artifacts and detection of the functional deviations in ECG by means of syndrome decoding with an automatic burst error correction of the cyclic codes using periodograms for determination of code component spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenie D. Adamoviс

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims This paper describes a novel approach to the analysis of electrocardiographic data based on the consideration of the repetitive P, Q, R, S, T sequences as cyclic codes. In Part I we introduce a principle similar to the syndrome decoding using the control numbers, which allows correcting the noise combinations. Materials and methods We propose to apply the burst-error-correcting algorithms for automatic detection of the ECG artifacts and the functional abnormalities, including those compared to the reference model. Our approach is compared to the symbolic dynamics methods in cardiology practice. During the automated search of the code components (i.e. point values and spectral ranges one-to-one corresponding to P, Q, R, S, T considered in Part II, the authors apply the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method with the phase control which allows to determine the code components not only from the main harmonics, but also using the sidebands, avoiding the phase errors. Results The results of the method testing on rats with the heart failure using a simplified telemetric recording from the implantable chips are given in Part III. A complete independence of the results of the determination of the code points (fingerprints from the variables for which the calculation is performed is shown. We also prove the robustness of the above approach with respect to the most types of the non-adaptive filtration. Conclusion The above method can be useful not only for experimental medicine, but also for veterinary and clinical diagnostic practice. This method is adequately reproducable both on animals and human ECG, except for some constant values.

  15. Resolving the Large Scale Spectral Variability of the Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577: Evidence for a New Emission Component and Absorption by Cold Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below -1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission can be attributed to re- combination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuum source in a luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy.

  16. Novel pure component contribution, mean centering of ratio spectra and factor based algorithms for simultaneous resolution and quantification of overlapped spectral signals: An application to recently co-formulated tablets of chlorzoxazone, aceclofenac and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubar, Safaa S.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Elshahed, Mona S.; Helmy, Marwa I.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, resolution and quantitation of spectral signals are achieved by several univariate and multivariate techniques. The novel pure component contribution algorithm (PCCA) along with mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and the factor based partial least squares (PLS) algorithms were developed for simultaneous determination of chlorzoxazone (CXZ), aceclofenac (ACF) and paracetamol (PAR) in their pure form and recently co-formulated tablets. The PCCA method allows the determination of each drug at its λmax. While, the mean centered values at 230, 302 and 253 nm, were used for quantification of CXZ, ACF and PAR, respectively, by MCR method. Partial least-squares (PLS) algorithm was applied as a multivariate calibration method. The three methods were successfully applied for determination of CXZ, ACF and PAR in pure form and tablets. Good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 2-50, 2-40 and 2-30 μg mL- 1 for CXZ, ACF and PAR, in order, by both PCCA and MCR, while the PLS model was built for the three compounds each in the range of 2-10 μg mL- 1. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with a reported one. PCCA and MCR methods were validated according to ICH guidelines, while PLS method was validated by both cross validation and an independent data set. They are found suitable for the determination of the studied drugs in bulk powder and tablets.

  17. Resolving the large scale spectral variability of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577: Evidence for a new emission component and absorption by cold dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pounds, K A; Page, K L; O'Brien, P T

    2004-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below ~1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was `X-ray bright' indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable `soft excess' then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the `core' soft emission can be attributed to recombination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuu...

  18. Spectral Predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  19. Shallow extra mixing in solar twins inferred from Be abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, M Tucci; Castro, M; Asplund, M; Ramírez, I; Monroe, T R; Nascimento, J D do; Yong, D

    2015-01-01

    Lithium and beryllium are destroyed at different temperatures in stellar interiors. As such, their relative abundances offer excellent probes of the nature and extent of mixing processes within and below the convection zone. We determine Be abundances for a sample of eight solar twins for which Li abundances have previously been determined. The analyzed solar twins span a very wide range of age, 0.5-8.2 Gyr, which enables us to study secular evolution of Li and Be depletion. We gathered high-quality UVES/VLT spectra and obtained Be abundances by spectral synthesis of the Be II 313 nm doublet. The derived beryllium abundances exhibit no significant variation with age. The more fragile Li, however, exhibits a monotonically decreasing abundance with increasing age. Therefore, relatively shallow extra mixing below the convection zone is necessary to simultaneously account for the observed Li and Be behavior in the Sun and solar twins.

  20. Inflation with an extra light scalar field after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Vennin, Vincent; Wands, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian inference techniques are used to investigate situations where an additional light scalar field is present during inflation and reheating. This includes (but is not limited to) curvaton-type models. We design a numerical pipeline where $\\simeq 200$ inflaton setups $\\times\\, 10$ reheating scenarios $= 2000$ models are implemented and we present the results for a few prototypical potentials. We find that single-field models are remarkably robust under the introduction of light scalar degrees of freedom. Models that are ruled out at the single-field level are not improved in general, because good values of the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can only be obtained for very fine-tuned values of the extra field parameters and/or when large non-Gaussianities are produced. The only exception is quartic large-field inflation, so that the best models after Planck are of two kinds: plateau potentials, regardless of whether an extra field is added or not, and quartic large-field inflation with an ext...

  1. Extra-oral halitosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

    2010-03-01

    Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets, where anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfur-containing amino acids to produce the foul smelling volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). Tongue coating is considered to be the most important source of VSCs. Oral malodor can now be treated effectively. Special attention in this overview is given to extra-oral halitosis. Extra-oral halitosis can be subdivided into non-blood-borne halitosis, such as halitosis from the upper respiratory tract including the nose and from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. The majority of patients with extra-oral halitosis have blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is also frequently caused by odorous VSCs, in particular dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Extra-oral halitosis, covering about 5-10% of all cases of halitosis, might be a manifestation of a serious disease for which treatment is much more complicated than for intra-oral halitosis. It is therefore of utmost importance to differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Differences between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis are discussed extensively. The importance of applying odor characterization of various odorants in halitosis research is also highlighted in this article. The use of the odor index, odor threshold values and simulation of bad breath samples is explained.

  2. Extra loss due to Fano resonances in inhibited coupling fibers based on a lattice of tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetti, L; Setti, V

    2012-06-18

    Confinement loss of inhibited coupling fibers with a cladding composed of a lattice of tubes of various shapes is theoretically and numerically investigated. Both solid core and hollow core are taken into account. It is shown that in case of polygonal shaped tubes, confinement loss is affected by extra loss due to Fano resonances between core modes and cladding modes with high spatial dependence. This explains why hollow core Kagome fibers exhibit much higher confinement loss with respect to tube lattice fibers and why hypocycloid core cladding interfaces significantly reduce fiber loss. Moreover it is shown that tube deformations, due for example to fabrication process, affect fiber performances. A relationship between the number of polygon sides and the spectral position of the extra loss is found. This suggests general guide lines for the design and fabrication of fibers free of Fano resonance in the spectral range of interest.

  3. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  4. Dark Energy as Evidence for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that fluctuations of quantum fields in four-dimensional space do not give rise to dark energy, but are rather a negligible contribution to dark matter. By (relativistic) dark matter we mean that the relation between pressure and energy density is $p=\\frac13 u$, while dark energy is characterized by $p=-u$. A possible source of dark energy are the fluctuations in quantum fields, including quantum gravity, inhabiting extra compactified dimensions. These fluctuations have been computed for some simple geometries, such as $S^2$, $S^4$, and $S^6$. If the extra dimensions are too small, they would give rise to a dark energy larger than that observed, whereas if they are too large they would be in conflict with experimental tests of Newton's law. This notion suggests that the size of the extra dimensions is of order 100 $\\mu$m. If the limit on the size of extra dimensions becomes lower than this bound, extra dimensions probably do not exist, and another source for cosmological dark energy will have to b...

  5. Study of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with peanut oil using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis, was developed to monitor adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with peanut oil (PEO. Principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed quantification of percentage of adulteration based on spectral data of 192 samples. Wavenumbers associated with the biochemical differences among several types of edible oils were investigated by principal component analysis. Two sets of frequencies were selected in order to establish a robust regression model. Set A consisted on the frequency regions from 600 to 1,800 cm−1 and from 2,750 to 3,050 cm−1. Set B comprised 17 discrete peak absorbance frequencies for which the communality value was higher than 0.6. Analysis of an external set of 25 samples allowed the validation and evaluation of the predictability of the models. When using a specific set of discrete peak absorbance frequencies, the R2 coefficients for the prediction were 0.960 and 0.977, and the root mean square error (RMSE were 1.49 and 1.05% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively. LDA was successful in the binary classification presence/absence of PEO in adulterated EVOO (with 5% V/V of less of PEO. LDA provided 92.3% correct classification for the calibration set and 88.3% correct classification when cross-validated. The lowest detectable concentration of PEO in EVOO was the lowest adulteration level studied, 0.5% V/V.

  6. Compact Extra Dimensions in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Deutschmann, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Extra-dimensions are a common topic in popular descriptions of theoretical physics with which undergraduate student most often have no contact in physics courses. This paper shows how students could be introduced to this topic by presenting an approach to two basic consequences of the presence of compact extra-dimensions based on undergraduate-level physics. The insensibility of low-energy physics to compact extra dimensions is illustrated in the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the prediction of Kaluza-Klein excitations of particles is discussed in the framework of relativistic wave-equations. An exercise that could be used as a follow-up to the "particle in a box" is proposed.

  7. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardhanabhuti, V. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N. [St Michael' s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8 (Canada); Bhatnagar, G.; Maviki, M.; Iyengar, S.; Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Suresh, P., E-mail: sureshpriya2000@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Although, the diagnosis and evaluation of sarcoidosis has traditionally remained confined to the chest, its multi-system nature has been widely recognized. Radiological features of pulmonary sarcoidosis are well known but extra-pulmonary manifestations can produce a plethora of non-specific imaging findings that can affect subcutaneous tissue, and the neurological, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urological, liver, spleen, and skeletal systems. In the literature, there are various case reports and specific system reviews but there are few reviews that encompass all the extra-pulmonary manifestations. In this paper, we comprehensively review the imaging features of extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis with characteristic features as well as atypical presentations. In addition, we discuss the emerging role of nuclear medicine in sarcoidosis.

  8. Mediation of supersymmetry breaking in extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Scrucca, C A

    2004-01-01

    I review the mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking mediation that occur in sequestered models, where the visible and the hidden sectors are separated by an extra dimension and communicate only via gravitational interactions. By locality, soft breaking terms are forbidden at the classical level and reliably computable within an effective field theory approach at the quantum level. I present a self-contained discussion of these radiative gravitational effects and the resulting pattern of soft masses, and give an overview of realistic model building based on this set-up. I consider both flat and warped extra dimensions, as well as the possibility that there be localized kinetic terms for the gravitational fields.

  9. Electromagnetism from extra space multi connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, C. [Moncton Univ., Moncton (France). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Statistique

    2001-09-01

    In a unified field theory of the Kaluza-Klein type, it is used a multi connected extra space to interpret geometrically the quantum properties of physics. This paper presents a pure geometric interpretation of electromagnetism. The electric change of a body is identified with its cross-section for interaction of twisted waves due to the extra space multi connectivity. A by-product of this interpretation is an expression for the permittivity of free space as an integral of the flux of these waves over their frequencies.

  10. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  11. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner, E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Zhang, He, E-mail: he.zhang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-10-07

    We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  12. The Higgs Mechanism from an extra dimension

    CERN Document Server

    A., Yu

    2016-01-01

    The standard $SU(2) \\times U(1)$ fields are considered in 4D plus one extra compact dimension. As a result two basic effects are obtained. First, four Goldstone-like scalars are produced, three of them are used to create longitudinal modes of the $W,Z$ fields, while the fourth becomes the Higgs-like scalar. Second, $W$ and $Z$ get their masses from the extra compact dimension with the standard pattern of symmetry violation. The resulting theory has the same fields as in the standard model, but without the Higgs vacuum average. The properties of the new Higgs scalar and its interaction with fermions are briefly discussed.

  13. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2012-07-10

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  14. Relation of sulfur with hydrocarbons in Brazilian heavy and extra-heavy crude oil; Relacao do enxofre com os hidrocarbonetos em petroleos pesados e extra pesados brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Sonia Maria Badaro Mangueira; Guimaraes, Regina Celia Lourenco; Silva, Maria do Socorro A. Justo da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Alexander Vinicius Moraes da [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the occurrence of heavy and extra-heavy oils increases sensitively, their participation in the refineries feeding also becomes greater. Heavy oils usually have lower price than a light one, because they produce lower quality derivatives and it's more difficult to meet the specifications. Crude oils are a complex mixture, mostly compounded by carbon and hydrogen and also by impurities like sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals. Sulfur is the third most abundant component of crude oils, following carbon and hydrogen. In general there is a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of polar compounds (aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), and the sulfur content. This work presents graphically sulfur content and polar compounds concentrations for Brazilian and foreign heavy and extra-heavy oils (< 20 deg API). The results of the data analysis indicate that Brazilian crude oils behave differently from foreign heavy and extra-heavy oils. (author)

  15. Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Escalera, Sandra; Lin, Eric C; Maranets, Inna; Kain, Zeev N

    2008-09-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques have been used as adjuncts for perioperative anesthesia management. We examined whether acupressure in the Extra-1 (Yin-Tang) point would result in decreased preprocedural anxiety and reduced intraprocedural propofol requirements in a group of children undergoing endoscopic procedures. Fifty-two children were randomized to receive acupressure bead intervention either at the Extra-1 acupuncture point or at a sham point. A Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor was applied to all children before the onset of the intervention. Anxiety was assessed at baseline and before entrance to the operating room. Anesthetic techniques were standardized and maintained with IV propofol infusion titrated to keep BIS values of 40-60. We found that after the intervention, children in the Extra-1 group experienced reduced anxiety whereas children in the sham group experienced increased anxiety (-9% [-3 to -15] vs 2% [-6 to 7.4], P = 0.012). In contrast, no significant changes in BIS values were observed in the preprocedural waiting period between groups (P = ns). We also found that total intraprocedural propofol requirements did not differ between the two study groups (214 +/- 76 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs 229 +/- 95 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.52). We conclude that acupressure bead intervention at Extra-1 acupoint reduces preprocedural anxiety in children undergoing endoscopic procedures. This intervention, however, has no impact on BIS values or intraprocedural propofol requirements.

  16. Gauge coupling unification with extra Higgs doublets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Junpei [Research Center for Higher Education, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Gauge coupling unification is studied within the framework where there are extra Higgs doublets and E{sub 6} exotic fields. Supersymmetric models and nonsupersymmetric models are investigated, and a catalog of models with gauge coupling unification is presented. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  18. Probing Extra Dimensions with Neutrino Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, P.A.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nunokawa, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, C. P. 38071, 22452-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zukanovich Funchal, R., E-mail: zukanov@fma.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    We consider a model where sterile neutrinos can propagate in a large compactified extra dimension (a) giving rise to Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes and the Standard Model left-handed neutrinos are confined to a 4-dimensional spacetime brane. The KK modes mix with the standard neutrinos modifying their oscillation pattern. We examine current experiments in this framework obtaining stringent limits on a.

  19. Extra-oral halitosis : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal

  20. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    1999-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannom

  1. Extra dimensions and violations of Lorentz symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Overduin, James M

    2016-01-01

    We use experimental limits on Lorentz violation to obtain new constraints on Kaluza-Klein-type theories in which the extra dimensions may be large but do not necessarily have units of length. The associated variation in fundamental quantities such as rest mass must occur slowly, on cosmological scales.

  2. The Night Of Hennessy Paradis Extra Cognac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The world-known Hennessy Paradis Extra Cognaclaunched its"dazzling night"on the evening of May 22 tolet guests enjoy to their hearts’content the fine wine andthe charming glamour of the diamond evening dress. A liquid,dating back to the 18th century,was called

  3. Fast sparse Raman spectral unmixing for chemical fingerprinting and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Mehrdad; Wu, Di; Clewes, Rhea J.; Davies, Mike E.

    2016-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a well-established spectroscopic method for the detection of condensed phase chemicals. It is based on scattered light from exposure of a target material to a narrowband laser beam. The information generated enables presumptive identification from measuring correlation with library spectra. Whilst this approach is successful in identification of chemical information of samples with one component, it is more difficult to apply to spectral mixtures. The capability of handling spectral mixtures is crucial for defence and security applications as hazardous materials may be present as mixtures due to the presence of degradation, interferents or precursors. A novel method for spectral unmixing is proposed here. Most modern decomposition techniques are based on the sparse decomposition of mixture and the application of extra constraints to preserve the sum of concentrations. These methods have often been proposed for passive spectroscopy, where spectral baseline correction is not required. Most successful methods are computationally expensive, e.g. convex optimisation and Bayesian approaches. We present a novel low complexity sparsity based method to decompose the spectra using a reference library of spectra. It can be implemented on a hand-held spectrometer in near to real-time. The algorithm is based on iteratively subtracting the contribution of selected spectra and updating the contribution of each spectrum. The core algorithm is called fast non-negative orthogonal matching pursuit, which has been proposed by the authors in the context of nonnegative sparse representations. The iteration terminates when the maximum number of expected chemicals has been found or the residual spectrum has a negligible energy, i.e. in the order of the noise level. A backtracking step removes the least contributing spectrum from the list of detected chemicals and reports it as an alternative component. This feature is particularly useful in detection of chemicals

  4. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  5. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Spectral problems for operator matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bátkai, A.; Binding, P.; Dijksma, A.; Hryniv, R.; Langer, H.

    2005-01-01

    We study spectral properties of 2 × 2 block operator matrices whose entries are unbounded operators between Banach spaces and with domains consisting of vectors satisfying certain relations between their components. We investigate closability in the product space, essential spectra and generation of

  8. Experimental investigation of micro heat pipe with extra fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Ioan; Sprinceana, Siviu

    2016-12-01

    The thermal micro pipes which were aimed to the cooling of the electrical systems, were realized until the present day in different constructive ways. If the first thermal pipes had had at the base the thermo-siphon system [1], afterwards it had been developed the thermal micro pipes [2], thanks to their increased capacity of heat dissipation of the surfaces covered by big densities of the thermal flow. The article, presents in the first part, the physical characteristics of the elements which embody a thermal micro pipe and which generates an excess of liquid. For this it has been realized an experimental setup. Measurements were taken by aid of a laser profilometer of the coverage material in two cases. The first one considered the material without being soaked in the liquid, and for the second one, the measurements were taken when the material was supersaturated with liquid. Since the setup allows for temperature monitoring, determinations were effectuated in the vaporization, adiabatic and condensation areas. The temperature field was determined along a thermal micro pipe in the case of extra fluid. The experimental determinations allowed verifying if the method proposed by Mihai and Olariu [3], for cooling of the electronic components, through a semi active method with the share of extra fluid in the vaporization area of the thermal micro pipe, works. It was studied how the temperature modifies in the vaporization and condensation areas and by the contrast of the theoretical results obtained through the evaluation with the experimental ones.

  9. Emergent Yang-Mills theories from universal extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Kepuladze, Z.

    2017-02-01

    We study emergent Yang-Mills theories which could origin from universal extra dimensions. Particularly, some vector field potential terms or polynomial vector field constraints introduced into five-dimensional (5D) non-Abelian gauge theory is shown to lead to spontaneous violation of an underlying spacetime symmetry and generate vector pseudo-Goldstone modes as conventional four-dimensional (4D) gauge boson candidates. As a special signature, apart from conventional gauge couplings, there appear an infinite number of the properly suppressed direct multi-boson (multi-photon in particular) interaction couplings in emergent Yang-Mills theories whose observation could shed light on their high-dimensional nature. Moreover, in these theories, an internal symmetry also appeared spontaneously broken to its diagonal subgroups. This breaking originates from the extra vector field components playing the role of some adjoint scalar field multiplet in the 4D spacetime. So, one naturally has the Higgs effect without a specially introduced scalar field multiplet. Remarkably, when applied to Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), this results in an automatic breakdown of emergent GUTs down to the Standard Model (SM) just at the 5D Lorentz violation scale M.

  10. A theory of extra radiation in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@post.kek.j [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-03-14

    Recent cosmological observations, such as the measurement of the primordial {sup 4}He abundance, CMB, and large scale structure, give preference to the existence of extra radiation component, {Delta}N{sub {nu}>}0. The extra radiation may be accounted for by particles which were in thermal equilibrium and decoupled before the big bang nucleosynthesis. Broadly speaking, there are two possibilities: (1) there are about 10 particles which have very weak couplings to the standard model particles and decoupled much before the QCD phase transition; (2) there is one or a few light particles with a reasonably strong coupling to the plasma and it decouples after the QCD phase transition. Focusing on the latter case, we find that a light chiral fermion is a suitable candidate, which evades astrophysical constraints. Interestingly, our scenario predicts a new gauge symmetry at TeV scale, and therefore may be confirmed at the LHC. As a concrete example, we show that such a light fermion naturally appears in the E{sub 6}-inspired GUT.

  11. Construction Process Control of Large Extra Caissons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shaowei; WANG Hongxia; FAN Jiansheng

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of geotechnical engineering and variability in construction circumstances of large extra caissons make the problem of maintaining appropriate sink attitude quite difficult, especially in keeping sink uniformity and achieving the expected final sink depth. A new construction control method is presented using (H∞) theory, considering uncertainties in the mechanics model and external noise in the construction site parameters. The design method of an (H∞) controller has consequently been obtained for large extra caissons. Control results using only constructor experiences are compared with simulation results using the (H∞) controller for a practical engineering situation, which indicates that the (H∞) controller is successful in maintaining sink uniformity, avoiding sink as well as in achieving the expected final sink depth.

  12. Brane modeling in warped extra-dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Aqeel

    2012-01-01

    Five-dimensional scenarios with infinitesimally thin branes replaced by appropriate configurations of a scalar field were considered. A possibility of periodic extra dimension was discussed in the presence on non-minimal scalar-gravity coupling and a generalized Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde sum rule was found. In order to avoid constraints imposed by periodicity, a non-compact spacial extra dimension was introduced. A five dimensional model with warped geometry and two thin branes mimicked by a scalar profile was constructed and discussed. In the thin brane limit the model corresponds to a set-up with two positive-tension branes. The presence of two branes allows to address the issue of the hierarchy problem which could be solved by the standard warping of the four dimensional metric. Stability of the background solution was discussed and verified in the presence of the most general perturbations of the metric and the scalar field.

  13. Indirect Collider Signals for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L

    1999-01-01

    A recent suggestion that quantum gravity may become strong near the weak scale has several testable consequences. In addition to probing for the new large (submillimeter) extra dimensions associated with these theories via gravitational experiments, one could search for the Kaluza Klein towers of massive gravitons which are predicted in these models and which can interact with the fields of the Standard Model. Here we examine the indirect effects of these massive gravitons being exchanged in fermion pair production in \\epem\\ annihilation and Drell-Yan production at hadron colliders. In the latter case, we examine a novel feature of this theory, which is the contribution of gluon gluon initiated processes to lepton pair production. We find that these processes provide strong bounds, up to several TeV, on the string scale which are essentially independent of the number of extra dimensions. In addition, we analyze the angular distributions for fermion pair production with spin-2 graviton exchanges and demonstrat...

  14. Celulitis por cuerpo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel B. Carrasco Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de la piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo surgen como un grupo importante de afecciones con una alta morbilidad en edades pediátricas, generalmente relacionada con traumatismo y cuerpos extraños. Se presenta el caso de una escolar femenina de 6 años de edad, con síntomas y signos clínicos que sugieren celulitis en el muslo derecho,  por su evolución tórpida se le realizó el estudio ultrasonográfico que confirmó el diagnóstico etiológico de una celulitis secundaria a un traumatismo, provocada por la introducción de un gran cuerpo extraño, que pasó inadvertido para a familia de la menor.

  15. Neutrino anomalies and large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dighe, A S; Dighe, Amol S.; Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2001-01-01

    Theories with large extra dimensions can generate small neutrino masses when the standard model neutrinos are coupled to singlet fermions propagating in higher dimensions. The couplings can also generate mass splittings and mixings among the flavour neutrinos in the brane. We systematically study the minimal scenario involving only one singlet bulk fermion coupling weakly to the flavour neutrinos. We explore the neutrino mass structures in the brane that can potentially account for the atmospheric, solar and LSND anomalies simultaneously in a natural way. We demonstrate that in the absence of a priori mixings among the SM neutrinos, it is not possible to reconcile all these anomalies. The presence of some structure in the mass matrix of the SM neutrinos can solve this problem. This is exemplified by the Zee model, which when embedded in extra dimensions in a minimal way can account for all the neutrino anomalies.

  16. Origin of extra chromosome in Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikiriyama, S; Niikawa, N

    1984-01-01

    Five live-born infants with Patau syndrome were studied for the nondisjunctional origin of the extra chromosome. Transmission modes of chromosomes 13 from parents to a child were determined using both QFQ- and RFA-heteromorphisms as markers, and the origin was ascertained in all of the patients. The extra chromosome had originated in nondisjunction at the maternal first meiotic division in two patients, at the maternal second meiosis in other two, and at the paternal first meiosis in the remaining one. Summarizing the results of the present study, together with those of the previous studies on a liveborn and abortuses with trisomy 13, nondisjunction at the maternal and the paternal meiosis occurred in this trisomy in the ratio of 14:3. This ratio is not statistically different from that inferred from the previous studies for Down syndrome. These findings suggest that there may be a fundamental mechanism common to the occurrence of nondisjunction in the acrocentric trisomies.

  17. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  18. LAMOST spectral survey—An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhao; Yong-Heng Zhao; Yao-Quan Chu; Yi-Peng Jing; Li-Cai Deng

    2012-01-01

    LAMOST(Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope)is a Chinese national scientific research facility operated by National Astronomical Observatories,Chinese Academy of Sciences(NAOC).After two years of commissioning beginning in 2009,the telescope,instruments,software systems and operations are nearly ready to begin the main science survey.Through a spectral survey of millions of objects in much of the northern sky,LAMOST will enable research in a number of contemporary cutting edge topics in astrophysics,such as discovery of the first generation stars in the Galaxy,pinning down the formation and evolution history of galaxies-especially the Milky Way and its central massive black hole,and looking for signatures of the distribution of dark matter and possible sub-structures in the Milky Way halo.To maximize the scientific potential of the facility,wide national participation and international collaboration have been emphasized.The survey has two major components:the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Survey(LEGAS)and the LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration(LEGUE).Until LAMOST reaches its full capability,the LEGUE portion of the survey will use the available observing time,starting in 2012.An overview of the LAMOST project and the survey that will be carried out in the next five to six years is presented in this paper.The science plan for the whole LEGUE survey,instrumental specifications,site conditions,and the descriptions of the current on-going pilot survey,including its footprints and target selection algorithm,will be presented as separate papers in this volume.

  19. A spectral invariant representation of spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelhameed; Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2011-03-01

    Spectral image acquisition as well as color image is affected by several illumination factors such as shading, gloss, and specular highlight. Spectral invariant representations for these factors were proposed for the standard dichromatic reflection model of inhomogeneous dielectric materials. However, these representations are inadequate for other characteristic materials like metal. This paper proposes a more general spectral invariant representation for obtaining reliable spectral reflectance images. Our invariant representation is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for dielectric materials and the extended dichromatic reflection model for metals. We proof that the invariant formulas for spectral images of natural objects preserve spectral information and are invariant to highlights, shading, surface geometry, and illumination intensity. It is proved that the conventional spectral invariant technique can be applied to metals in addition to dielectric objects. Experimental results show that the proposed spectral invariant representation is effective for image segmentation.

  20. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past there has been renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak (EW) precision constraints, in particular in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for the increased activity regarding extra families and analyze them in view of the latest EW precision data.

  1. Extra gauge symmetries in BHT gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, M

    2011-01-01

    We study the canonical structure of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, linearized around a maximally symmetric background. At the critical point in the space of parameters, defined by $\\Lambda_0/m^2=-1$, we discover an extra gauge symmetry, which reflects the existence of the partially massless mode. The number of the Lagrangian degrees of freedom is found to be 1. We show that the canonical structure of the theory at the critical point is unstable under linearization.

  2. Extra gauge symmetries in BHT gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, M.; Cvetković, B.

    2011-03-01

    We study the canonical structure of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, linearized around a maximally symmetric background. At the critical point in the space of parameters, defined by Λ 0/ m 2 = -1, we discover an extra gauge symmetry, which reflects the existence of the partially massless mode. The number of the Lagrangian degrees of freedom is found to be 1. We show that the canonical structure of the theory at the critical point is unstable under linearization.

  3. Quantum simulation of an extra dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, O; Celi, A; Latorre, J I; Lewenstein, M

    2012-03-30

    We present a general strategy to simulate a D+1-dimensional quantum system using a D-dimensional one. We analyze in detail a feasible implementation of our scheme using optical lattice technology. The simplest nontrivial realization of a fourth dimension corresponds to the creation of a bi-volume geometry. We also propose single- and many-particle experimental signatures to detect the effects of the extra dimension.

  4. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  5. Collider Implications Of Extra Dimensions At Lhc

    CERN Document Server

    Reema

    2005-01-01

    Scope and method of study. The intent of this research is to consider multiple TeV-1-size extra compact dimensions in an asymmetric string compactification scenario in which the SM gauge bosons can propagate into the TeV-1-size extra dimensions while the SM fermions are confined to the usual SM D3-brane. The contributions that the KK excitations of the gluons, g*'s, make to the multijet cross sections in proton- proton collisions at the LHC energy are calculated. Fortran was used to do the calculations. Findings and conclusions. At very high pT, the dijet signal will either be enhanced significantly due to virtual g* exchanges or place a lower bound on the compactification scale of about 8 TeV. It is found that the dijet signal is very sensitive to three parameters—the compactification scale, the string scale, and the number of extra dimensions. Thus, although the dijet signal is much more sensitive to KK effects, the dijet signal alone does not provide sufficient information to deduce the number of...

  6. MR findings of extra abdominal fibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Sung Moon; Rhee, Chang Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kyung Jin [Suh Joo MRI center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Kil Ho [Youngnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of extra-abdominal fibromatosis and the role of MRI in primary diagnosis Fifteen cases in of histologically proven extra-abdominal fibromatosis in 13 patients were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained in axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Gd-enhancement was performed in 14 cases, and dynamic enhancement studies in two. All lesions were evaluated for mass shape and margin definition. Among the 15 cases, tumors of the buttock accounted for five, and tumor of the thigh for two. in eight cases tumors were intermuscular and in six cases were intramuscular. In ten cases (67%) the mass extended along the long axis of the body and in 14 of 15 cases (93%) focal infiltration of adjacent structures was visible. The signal intensity of the lesion was in all cases inhomogeneous on both T1 and T2 weighted images. As seen on Gd-DTPA enhanced scans, the masses were inhomogeneously enhanced. In all cases MRI revealed star-shaped linear strands or a band-like low signal area in the mass. These features were not enhanced and were arranged along the long axis of the mass. MR findings of extra-abdominal fibromatosis were relatively characteristic and helpful for primary diagnosis of the condition.

  7. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, N.; Muir, L.; Vincent, E. M.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in this project). Our study investigates the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis confirms that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific translate into a cold equatorial SST bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extended extra-tropical Pacific, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs - a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias is to improve the representation of cloud albedo in mid-latitudes.

  8. Extra-galactic magnetic fields and the second knee in the cosmic-ray spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M

    2004-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the cosmic ray spectrum may be dominated by Galactic sources up to ~10^{17.5} eV, and by an extra-Galactic component beyond, provided this latter cuts off below the transition energy. Here it is shown that this cut-off could be interpreted as a signature of extra-galactic magnetic fields with equivalent average strength B and coherence length l_c such that B\\sqrt{l_c}~2.10^{-10} G.Mpc^{1/2}, assuming l_c < r_L (Larmor radius at 10^{17} eV) and continuously emitting sources with density 10^{-5}/Mpc^3. The extra-Galactic flux is suppressed below 10^{17} eV as the diffusive propagation time from the source to the detector becomes larger than the age of the Universe.

  9. Gravity with extra dimensions and dark matter interpretation: A straightforward approach

    CERN Document Server

    Coimbra-Araujo, C H

    2013-01-01

    Any connection between dark matter and extra dimensions can be cognizably evinced from the associated effective energy-momentum tensor. In order to investigate and test such relationship, a higher dimensional spacetime endowed with a factorizable general metric is regarded to derive a general expression for the stress tensor -- from the Einstein-Hilbert action -- and to elicit the effective gravitational potential. A particular construction for the case of six dimensions is provided, and it is forthwith revealed that the missing mass phenomenon may be explained, irrespective of the dark matter existence. Moreover, the existence of extra dimensions in the universe accrues the possibility of a straightforward mechanism for such explanation. A configuration which density profile coincides with the Newtonian potential for spiral galaxies is constructed, from a 4-dimensional isotropic metric plus extra-dimensional components. A Miyamoto-Nagai \\emph{ansatz} is used to solve Einstein equations. The stable rotation c...

  10. On higher dimensional Einstein spacetimes with a warped extra dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravdova, Alena

    2010-01-01

    We study higher dimensional Einstein spacetimes that can be mapped conformally on other Einstein spacetimes. These admit a simple warped line element (with one extra dimension) that was originally introduced by Brinkmann and that has subsequently appeared in various contexts to describe, e.g., different braneworld models or warped black strings. After clarifying the relation between the general Brinkmann metric and other more specific coordinate systems, we analyze the algebraic type of the Weyl tensor of the solutions. In particular, we describe the relation between Weyl aligned null directions (WANDs) of the lower dimensional Einstein slices and of the full spacetime, which in some cases can be algebraically more special. Possible spacetime singularities introduced by the warp factor are determined via a study of scalar curvature invariants and of Weyl components measured by geodetic observers. Finally, we illustrate how Brinkmann's metric can be employed to generate new solutions by presenting the metric o...

  11. Who Does Extra-Credit Work in Introductory Science Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2005-01-01

    On the first day of classes, 81% of students in an introductory biology course claimed that they would submit extra-credit work if given the opportunity. When given two chances for extra-credit work, fewer than one-fourth of students submitted one or both assignments. Students who submitted extra-credit work were more likely to attend class,…

  12. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  13. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  14. Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male with symptoms of headache and diaphoresis presented to the emergency department. He had eight months of noted hypertension attributed to medications. On arrival his blood pressure was 229/117mmHg, and he was ill-appearing. His blood pressure was managed aggressively, and he was diagnosed with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma by computed tomography. He eventually underwent resection of the mass. Children with severe, symptomatic hypertension should be evaluated for pheochromocytoma. Although rare, it is curable. Failure to diagnose carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:258-261.

  15. Aneurisma micotico de origem extra-vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com três anos de idade portadora de oftalmoplegia completa unilateral e aneurisma da artéria carótida interna, em sua porção intra-cavernosa. A etiologia infecciosa extra-vascular, na vigência de tromboflebite de seio cavernoso, foi considerada. As informações da literatura são discutidas, sendo comentada a infrequência da patologia. A indicação de ligadura da artéria carótida interna, no tratamento desses aneurismas, merece ulterior comprovação.

  16. Enhanced gravitational scattering from large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Wands, D; Koyama, Kazuya; Piazza, Federico; Wands, David

    2005-01-01

    We show that enhanced gravitational scattering on small scales (< 0.1 mm), which becomes possible in models with large extra dimensions, can establish statistical equilibrium between different particle species in the early Universe. Ultra-light WIMPs (e.g., axions) can be thermalized by such a mechanism and therefore are not viable CDM candidates in models with a fundamental Planck scale below about 10 TeV. More generally we note that the energy transfer rate is sensitive to trans-Planckian physics

  17. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  18. Fixed Delay Birefringence Imaging Interferometry for Spectral Drifting Surveys of an Astrocomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Xiao, Dong

    2015-08-01

    Astrocomb has been developed for exploring and investigation of extrasolar planets via radial velocity measurement based on Doppler spectroscopy. The energy loss, modal and speckle noise as well as non-linear output drift would degenerate the precision of astrocomb after coupling with multimode fiber. Due to its ultra-narrow spectral line space, traditional dispersion spectrometer and instrument are inapplicable investigating the beam quality and spectrum from the astrocomb. In this paper, we present a new technique based on fixed delay birefringence imaging interferometry with high throughput, high resolution and large field-of-view surveys for the spectral drift of astrocomb. This coherence system utilizes multi-optical Savart splitter and large interferometric delays to achieve the required spectral resolution. Such large interferometric delay scan usually causes a significant curvature of fringe pattern, so we update this Savart component with an extra sandwiched half-wave plate as a field-of-view compensator that enables target image and near-straight fringes for Fourier analysis can be obtained and captured by a two-dimensional CCD at the same time. Also, the instrumental design employs a secondary set of birefringent plates with opposite thermal properties to passively stabilize the system from phase drifting error caused by temperature fluctuations. Under the compensation, the spectral resolution could reach 105~106 in a narrow-band target region and the field-of-view will extend 3-5 times as large as a common interference imaging spectrometer and throughput will raise 1-2 orders of magnitude. The ultra-high spectral resolutions and field-of-view compensation principle are demonstrated experimentally.

  19. Optical Spectral Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haritma Gaur

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here, we report the review of optical flux and spectral variability properties of different classes of blazars on IDV and STV time-scales. Our analysis show HSPs are less variable in optical bands as compared to LSPs. Also, we investigated the spectral slope variability and found that the average spectral slopes of LSPs showed a good agreement with the synchrotron self-Compton loss-dominated model. However, spectra of the HSPs and FSRQs have significant additional emission components. In general, spectra of BL Lacs get flatter when they become brighter, while for FSRQs the opposite trend appears to hold.

  20. Extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Giuliani, M.; Bufi, E.; Fubelli, R.; Distefano, D.; Romani, M.; Bonomo, L. [Catholic University - Policlinic A. Gemelli, Department of Bio-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be benign in nature, but may also represent a metastasis or another important lesion. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and clinical relevance of these unexpected findings. A retrospective review of 1535 breast MRIs was conducted. Only axial sequences were reassessed. Confirmation examinations were obtained in all cases. 285 patients had a confirmed incidental finding, which were located in the liver (51.9%), lung (11.2%), bone (7%), mediastinal lymph nodes (4.2%) or consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (15.4%). 20.4% of incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant. Positive predictive value for MRI to detect a metastatic lesion was high if located within the bone (89%), lymph nodes (83%) and lung (59%), while it was low if located within the liver (9%) or if it consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (6%). The axial enhanced sequence showed superior sensitivity to unenhanced images in detecting metastatic lesions, especially if only smaller ({<=}10 mm.) lesions were considered. The prevalence of metastatic incidental extra-mammary findings is not negligible. Particular attention should be to incidental findings located within the lung, bone and mediastinal lymph nodes. (orig.)

  1. Neutrino Mass Models in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, J N

    2003-01-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in many areas of physics from very short distances to astrophysics and cosmology. It is a long held believe that they are good probes of physics at the GUT scale. Recent developments have made it clear that they can also be of fundamental importance for the physics of extra dimensions if these exist. Here we pedagogically review the construction of neutrino mass models in extra dimensions within the brane world scenarios. These models are usually nontrivial generalizations of their four dimensional counterparts. We describe the theoretical tools that have been forged and the new perpectives gained in this rapidly developing area. In particular we discuss the issues involve in building models without the use of right-handed singlets. It is very difficult to directly test the origin of neutrino masses in different models be it in four or more dimensions. We point out that different models give very different indirect signatures in the TeV region and in precision measurements.

  2. Neptune migration model with one extra planet

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Lun-Wen; 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.06.008

    2009-01-01

    We explore conventional Neptune migration model with one additional planet of mass at 0.1-2.0 Me. This planet inhabited in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune during planet migration epoch, and then escaped from the Kuiper belt when Jovian planets parked near the present orbits. Adding this extra planet and assuming the primordial disk truncated at about 45 AU in the conventional Neptune migration model, it is able to explain the complex structure of the observed Kuiper belt better than the usual Neptune migration model did in several respects. However, numerical experiments imply that this model is a low-probability event. In addition to the low probability, two features produced by this model may be inconsistent with the observations. They are small number of low-inclination particles in the classical belt, and the production of a remnant population with near-circular and low-inclination orbit within a = 50-52 AU. According to our present study, including one extra planet in the conventional Neptune ...

  3. Exploring extra dimensions with scalar waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Verostek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a pedagogical introduction to the physics of extra dimensions focussing on the ADD, Randall-Sundrum and DGP models. In each of these models, the familiar particles and fields of the standard model are assumed to be confined to a four dimensional space-time called the brane; the brane is a slice through a higher dimensional space-time called the bulk. The geometry of the ADD, Randall-Sundrum and DGP space-times is described and the relation between Randall-Sundrum and Anti-de-Sitter space-time is explained. The necessary differential geometry background is introduced in an appendix that presumes no greater mathematical preparation than multivariable calculus. The ordinary wave equation and the Klein-Gordon equation are briefly reviewed followed by an analysis of the propagation of scalar waves in the bulk in all three extra-dimensional models. We also calculate the scalar field produced by a static point source located on the brane for all three models. For the ADD and Randall-Sundrum model...

  4. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, M; Yamawaki, K; Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the $D (=6,8,...)$-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D=8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, $m_t=173-180$ GeV, and the Higgs mass, $m_H=181-211$ GeV, for D=8, where we took the universal compactification scale $1/R = 1-100$ TeV.

  5. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.

  6. Extra-Galactic Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Kaper, Lex; Spaans, Marco; Foing, Bernard

    Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) have been observed ubiquitously along many sight-lines probing the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Despite extensive efforts, their carrier(s) have not yet been identified, although they are very likely of a carbonaceous nature and reside in the gas phase. Possible candidates include, but are not limited to, polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons (PAHs), fullerenes and carbon chains. To advance our understanding of DIB behaviour and thus DIB carrier properties we need to study environments inherently different from those observed in the Milky Way. Only recent advances in instrumentation and telescope capabilities are providing us with new exciting possibilities for extra-galactic DIB research. We present here a selection of our recent observational results for (extra)-galactic DIBs in the Local Group and beyond. In particular, DIBs in the Magellanic Clouds and in the spiral galaxy NGC1448. These first results show surprising similarities between certain DIB profiles as well as differences in DIB behaviour. Understanding diffuse cloud chemistry, in particular with respect to complex (carbonaceous) molecules, is crucial to any DIB carrier identification. In this respect, external galaxies offer a unique window as they exhibit local interstellar conditions (such as metallicity, UV-field and gas-to-dust ratio) very different from those observed in the Milky Way. We discuss briefly the effect of metallicity and the gas-to-dust ratio on the physi-chemical properties of diffuse clouds and the subsequent effects on the PAH charge state distribution and the DIB carriers.

  7. [Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative spondylarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammelli, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Seronegative spondylarthritis are frequently characterised by extra-articular manifestations. They are frequently in recurrent uveitis. Between the cutaneous manifestations should be mentioned erythema nodosum, typical of inflammatory bowel diseases, and keratoderma blenorrhagicum, in the Reiter's syndrome. Cardiac complications in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) include aortic valvular regurgitation and arrhythmia and, more rarely, mitral valvulopathy, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. Pulmonary involvement in AS includes ventilatory restrictive syndrome and fibro-bullous disease of the apex. Vertebral osteoporosis is a very important extra-articular manifestation because of the possibility of spontaneous fractures of the vertebrae. Central neurological manifestations include medullary compression from cervical sub-luxation while the most important peripheral involvements are lumbar stenosis and the cauda equina syndrome. Type AA amyloidosis is a rare late complication of the AS, possible cause of death especially in patients with aggressive disease. Kidney complications can be observed as consequences of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy, but the most frequent renal complications are amyloidosis and mesangial IgA segmental and focal glomerulonephritis.

  8. The Universe’s extra bits

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Parallel universes, unknown forms of matter, extra dimensions….This is not cheap science fiction but very concrete physics theories that the scientists are trying to confirm with the LHC and other ongoing experiments. Although it's enough to make us dream about going to a parallel world for the weekend, let’s keep our feet firmly on the ground and try to work out what all these things really are…   Given the astonishing fact that 96% of the Universe is actually unknown, we can think of filling it with all sorts of weird and exotic things. Extra dimensions and parallel universes may indeed be real, that is, their existence is accepted by a large community of scientists who have worked out mathematical models and physical constraints. “The idea of a fifth dimension was first introduced by Kaluza and Klein at the beginning of the last century in an attempt to unify gravity and electromagnetism”, confirms Ignatios Antoniadis from CERN’s Th...

  9. Quantum Spectral Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina

    2017-02-01

    Quantum symmetries of spectral lattices are studied. Basic properties of spectral order on A W ∗-algebras are summarized. Connection between projection and spectral automorphisms is clarified by showing that, under mild conditions, any spectral automorphism is a composition of function calculus and Jordan ∗-automorphism. Complete description of quantum spectral symmetries on Type I and Type II A W ∗-factors are completely described.

  10. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity stability of phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oils during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnella, Caterina; Minichino, Patrizia; D'Andrea, Anna Maria; Monteleone, Erminio

    2007-10-17

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenols from 10 extra-virgin olive oil samples was assessed. Extra-virgin olive oil phenols were totally extracted in the aqueous phase, which reproduces gastric fluids during the digestion procedure. A linear bioaccessibility model, based on tyrosol behavior in model oil samples, was used to estimate the bioaccessibility index (BI%) of extra-virgin olive oil phenols. The BI% varied amongst samples from a maximum of 90% to a minimum of 37%, thus indicating that only a fraction of phenols can be considered bioaccessible. The specific antioxidant activity of olive oil phenols proved to be negatively affected by the digestion procedure. By computing a principal component analysis, it was possible to show that differences in the potential bioactive effect of extra-virgin olive oil samples were related to different phenolic profiles.

  11. The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non

  12. Temporal and spectral evolution in X- and gamma-rays of magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 since its October 2008 outburst: the discovery of a transient hard pulsed component after its January 2009 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiper, L; Hartog, P R den; Urama, J O

    2012-01-01

    The magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 exhibited outbursts in October 2008 and January 2009. In this paper we present in great detail the evolution of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the persistent total and pulsed emission of 1E 1547.0-5408 between ~1 and 300 keV starting in October 3, 2008, and ending in January 2011. We analyzed data collected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and the Swift satellite.

  13. Higgs Phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakizaki Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal model of Universal Extra Dimensions (MUED is briefly reviewed. We explain how the cross-sections for Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into photons are modified, relative the the Standard Model (SM values, by KK particles running in loops, leading to an enhancement of the gg → h → γγ and gg → h → W+W− cross-sections. ATLAS and CMS searches for the SM Higgs in these channels are reinterpreted in the context of MUED and used to place new limits on the MUED parameter space. Only a small region of between 1 and 3 GeV around mh = 125 GeV for 500 GeV < R−1 < 1600 GeV remains open at the 95 % confidence level.

  14. Celulitis por cuerpo extraño

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Las infecciones de la piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo surgen como un grupo importante de afecciones con una alta morbilidad en edades pediátricas, generalmente relacionada con traumatismo y cuerpos extraños. Se presenta el caso de una escolar femenina de 6 años de edad, con síntomas y signos clínicos que sugieren celulitis en el muslo derecho,  por su evolución tórpida se le realizó el estudio ultrasonográfico que confirmó el diagnóstico etiológico de una celulitis secundaria a un traumat...

  15. Black holes, cosmology and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    Assuming foundational knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader on issues surrounding black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and the most relevant of alternative theories: scalar-tensor, f(R) and multidimensional theories. The second part is on cosmology, including inflation and a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation, while the original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted. Much of the content is new in book publications, because it was previously found only in journal publications, e.g. regarding regular bl...

  16. Dynamic Extra Buses Scheduling Strategy in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

  17. Cosmologically safe QCD axion as a present from extra dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a QCD axion model where the origin of PQ symmetry and suppression of axion isocurvature perturbations are explained by introducing an extra dimension. Each extra quark–antiquark pair lives on branes separately to suppress PQ breaking operators. The size of the extra dimension changes after inflation due to an interaction between inflaton and a bulk scalar field, which implies that the PQ symmetry can be drastically broken during inflation to suppress undesirable axion isocurvature fluctuations.

  18. Cosmologically safe QCD axion as a present from extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yamada, Masaki, E-mail: yamadam@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    We propose a QCD axion model where the origin of PQ symmetry and suppression of axion isocurvature perturbations are explained by introducing an extra dimension. Each extra quark–antiquark pair lives on branes separately to suppress PQ breaking operators. The size of the extra dimension changes after inflation due to an interaction between inflaton and a bulk scalar field, which implies that the PQ symmetry can be drastically broken during inflation to suppress undesirable axion isocurvature fluctuations.

  19. Compact extra dimensions in cosmologies with f(T) structure

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Franco; Vasquez, Yerko

    2013-01-01

    The presence of compact extra dimensions in cosmological scenarios in the context of f(T)-like gravities is discussed. For the case of toroidal compactifications, the analysis is performed in an arbitrary number of extra dimensions. Spherical topologies for the extra dimensions are then carefully studied in six and seven spacetime dimensions, where the proper vielbein fields responsible for the parallelization process are found.

  20. Science with the EXTraS Project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will characterise the temporal behaviour of the largest ever sample of objects in the soft X-ray range (0.1-12 keV) with a complex, systematic and consistent analysis of all data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. We will search for, and characterize variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. We will also search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Our analysis will be completed by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries and phenomenological classification of variable sources. All results and products will be made available to the community in a public archive, serving as a reference for a broad range of astrophysical investigations.

  1. Extra relativistic degrees of freedom without extra particles using Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Mastache, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A recent number of analysis of cosmological data have shown indications for the presence of extra radiation beyond the standard model at equality and nucleosynthesis epoch, which has been usually interpreted as an effective number of neutrinos, Neff > 3.046. In this work we establish the theoretical basis for a particle physics-motivated model (Bound Dark Matter, BDM) which explain the need of extra radiation. The BDM model describes dark matter particles which are relativistic at a scale below aac due to non-perturbative methods, as protons and neutrons do, this process is described by a time dependent equation of state, w_bdm(a). We compute the range of values of the BDM model, xc=ac*vc, that explain the values obtain for the 4He at BBN and Neff at equality. Combining different analysis we conclude that this may happen in xc = 5.01 (^{+6.01}_{-5.01}) x 10^{-5} with a vc = 0.56 \\pm 0.39. We conclude that we can account for the apparent extra radiation Nex using phase transition in the dark matter with a time...

  2. Influence of extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and kidney angiotensinase activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Ana Belén; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The efficacy of the current strategies of treatment is still not entirely satisfactory, and new approaches are being considered. To analyze the beneficial effects of extra virgin olive oil as a major component of the Mediterranean diet, we studied systolic blood pressure and angiotensinase activities, since this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of angiotensins, in the kidney of hypertensive rats fed during 12 weeks with a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil compared with a standard diet. As a reflex of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostanes and nitric oxide were quantified in urine. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure until the end of the feeding period in both groups. However, this increase was delayed in the extra virgin olive oil group until week six, with the systolic blood pressure being always lower in this group. Nitric oxide and 8-isoprostanes were lower in the extra virgin olive oil group. While we can deduce a higher formation of angiotensin 2-10 in the renal cortex, a higher availability of angiotensin II may be presumed in the renal medulla of animals fed an extra virgin olive oil diet than in animals fed a standard diet. Our results support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular function and suggest that the Mediterranean diet may be beneficial in itself but it may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  3. The Extra-Solar Planet Imager (ESPI)

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenson, P; Geary, J; Holman, M; Korzennik, S G; Noyes, R W; Papaliolios, C; Sasselov, D D; Fischer, D; Gezari, D; Lyon, R G; Gonsalves, R; Hardesty, C; Harwit, M; Marley, M S; Neufeld, D A; Ridgway, S T

    2002-01-01

    ESPI has been proposed for direct imaging and spectral analysis of giant planets orbiting solar-type stars. ESPI extends the concept suggested by Nisenson and Papaliolios (2001) for a square aperture apodized telescope that has sufficient dynamic range to directly detect exo-planets. With a 1.5 M square mirror, ESPI can deliver high dynamic range imagery as close as 0.3 arcseconds to bright sources, permitting a sensitive search for exoplanets around nearby stars and a study of their characteristics in reflected light.

  4. Higgs Pair Production in Models with Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    de Sandes, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we study the process of gluon fusion into a pair of Higgs bosons in a model with one universal extra dimension. We find that the contributions from the extra top quark Kaluza-Klein excitations lead to a Higgs pair production cross section that can be significantly altered compared to the Standard Model value for small values of the compactification scale.

  5. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may...

  6. Direct Detection of Extra-Solar Comets is Possible

    OpenAIRE

    Jura, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dust tails of comets similar to Hale-Bopp can scatter as much optical light as does the Earth. Space-based observatories such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin that will detect extra-solar terrestrial planets also will be able to detect extra-solar comets.

  7. Fundamental and composite scalars from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Alfredo [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx; Diaz-Cruz, J.L. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Apdo. Postal 1364, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue (Mexico)], E-mail: lorenzo.diaz@fcfm.buap.mx; Hernandez-Sanchez, J. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)], E-mail: jaimeh@uaeh.edu.mx; Noriega-Papaqui, R. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: rnoriega@fisica.unam.mx

    2007-12-13

    We discuss a scenario consisting of an effective 4D theory containing fundamental and composite fields. The strong dynamics sector responsible for the compositeness is assumed to be of extra dimensional origin. In the 4D effective theory the SM fermion and gauge fields are taken as fundamental fields. The scalar sector of the theory resembles a bosonic topcolor in the sense there are two scalar Higgs fields, a composite scalar field and a fundamental gauge-Higgs unification scalar. A detailed analysis of the scalar spectrum is presented in order to explore the parameter space consistent with experiment. It is found that, under the model assumptions, the acceptable parameter space is quite constrained. As a part of our phenomenological study of the model, we evaluate the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson and find that our model predicts a large FCNC mode h{yields}tc, which can be as large as O(10{sup -3}). Similarly, a large BR for the top FCNC decay is obtained, namely BR(t{yields}c+H){approx_equal}10{sup -4}.

  8. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  9. Diphoton Resonance from a Warped Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with O(1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the S->\\gamma\\gamma, WW, ZZ, Z\\gamma, t\\bar t and dijet decay rates. We find that the S->Z\\gamma decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br(S->Z\\gamma)Br(S->\\gamma\\gamma)S->\\gamma\\gamma signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, in perfect agreement with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  10. Gravitation, holographic principle, and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of Newton's theory of gravitation, restricted to point-like test particles and central bodies, stable circular orbits in ordinary space are related to stable circular paths on a massless, unmovable, undeformable vortex-like surface, under the action of a tidal gravitational field along the symmetry axis. An interpretation is made in the light of a holographic principle, in the sense that motions in ordinary space are connected with motions on a selected surface and vice versa. Then ordinary space is conceived as a 3-hypersurface bounding a $n$-hypervolume where gravitation takes origin, within a $n$-hyperspace. The extension of the holographic principle to extra dimensions implies the existence of a minimum distance where test particles may still be considered as distinct from the central body. Below that threshold, it is inferred test particles lose theirs individuality and "glue" to the central body via unification of the four known interactions and, in addition, (i) particles can no long...

  11. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  12. Brane Stabilization and Regionality of Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Tolley, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Extra dimensions are a common feature of beyond the Standard Model physics. In a braneworld scenario, local physics on the brane can depend strongly on the brane's location within the bulk. Generically, the relevant properties of the bulk manifold for the physics on/of the brane are neither local nor global, but depend on the structure of finite regions of the bulk, even for locally homogeneous and isotropic bulk geometries. In a recent work, various mechanisms (in a braneworld context) were considered to stabilize the location of a brane within bulk spaces of non-trivial topology. In this work we elaborate on and generalize that work by considering additional bulk and brane dimensionalities as well as different boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field that provides a Casimir force on the brane, providing further insight on this effect. In D=2+1 (D=5+1) we consider both local and global contributions to the effective potential of a 1-brane (4-brane) wrapped around both the 2-dimensional hyperbolic horn an...

  13. LHC Signals from Warped Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, K.; Belyaev, A.; Krupovnickas, T.; Perez, G.; Virzi, J.

    2006-12-06

    We study production of Kaluza-Klein gluons (KKG) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the framework of a warped extra dimension with the Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in the bulk. We show that the detection of KK gluon is challenging since its production is suppressed by small couplings to the proton's constituents. Moreover, the KK gluon decaysmostly to top pairs due to an enhanced coupling and hence is broad. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that for MKKG<~;; 4 TeV, 100 fb-1 of data at the LHC can provide discovery of the KK gluon. We utilize a sizeable left-right polarization asymmetry from the KK gluon resonance to maximize the signal significance, and we explore the novel feature of extremely highly energetic"top-jets." We briefly discuss how the detection of electroweak gauge KK states (Z/W) faces a similar challenge since their leptonic decays ("golden" modes) are suppressed. Our analysis suggests that other frameworks, for example little Higgs, which rely on UV completion via strong dynamics might face similar challenges, namely (1) Suppressed production rates for the new particles (such as Z'), due to their"lightfermion-phobic" nature, and (2) Difficulties in detection since the new particles are broad and decay predominantly to third generation quarks and longitudinal gauge bosons.

  14. Grand Symmetry, Spectral Action, and the Higgs mass

    CERN Document Server

    Devastato, Agostino; Martinetti, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the spectral action and noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model, we build a model based on a larger symmetry. This symmetry satisfies all the conditions to have a noncommutative manifold, and mixes gauge and spin degrees of freedom and does not introduce extra fermions. With this "grand symmetry" it is natural to have the scalar field necessary to obtain the Higgs mass in the vicinity of 126 GeV. The spectral action breaks the grand symmetry to the standard model algebra. This breaking also gives the spin structure of spacetime as broken symmetry.

  15. Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losdat, Sylvain; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2015-09-01

    1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild populations, impeding evolutionary inference. 2. We first show that EPRS can be decomposed into the product of three life-history subcomponents: the number of broods available to a focal male to sire EPO, the male's probability of siring an EPO in an available brood and the number of offspring in available broods. This decomposition of EPRS facilitates estimation from field data because all subcomponents can be quantified from paternity data without need to quantify extra-pair matings. Our decomposition also highlights that the number of available broods, and hence population structure and demography, might contribute substantially to variance in male EPRS and fitness. 3. We then used 20 years of complete genetic paternity and pedigree data from wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to partition variance in each of the three subcomponents of EPRS, and thereby estimate their additive genetic variance and heritability conditioned on effects of male coefficient of inbreeding, age and social status. 4. All three subcomponents of EPRS showed some degree of within-male repeatability, reflecting combined permanent environmental and genetic effects. Number of available broods and offspring per brood showed low additive genetic variances. The estimated additive genetic variance in extra-pair siring probability was larger, although the 95% credible interval still converged towards zero. Siring probability also showed inbreeding depression and increased with male age

  16. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  17. Spectral density correction of a signal at frequency variable transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel NICOLAU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine analytical expression for the spectral density function of a signal, affected by a known frequency transformation, which do not modify the process energy. Such transformations of frequency variable can frequently appear on spectral density function of a signal, due to physical events (e.g. Doppler effect or mathematical considerations (e.g. changing the coordinate system. In this case, all components of the spectral density function are modified. The formulas are valid for every spectral component and can be used in signal processing, for model simulation or implementation of advanced algorithm. A case study is illustrated on wave spectrum correction.

  18. The other spectral flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Rosado, Jose Ignacio

    1995-01-01

    Recently we showed that the spectral flow acting on the N=2 twisted topological theories gives rise to a topological algebra automorphism. Here we point out that the untwisting of that automorphism leads to a spectral flow on the untwisted N=2 superconformal algebra which is different from the usual one. This "other" spectral flow does not interpolate between the chiral ring and the antichiral ring. In particular, it maps the chiral ring into the chiral ring and the antichiral ring into the antichiral ring. We discuss the similarities and differences between both spectral flows. We also analyze their action on null states.

  19. Could We Detect Molecular Oxygen in the Atmosphere of a Transiting Extra-Solar Earth-Like Planet?

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, J K; Webb, John K.; Wormleaton, Imma

    2001-01-01

    Although the extra-solar planets discovered so far are of the giant, gaseous, type, the increased sensitivity of future surveys will result in the discovery of lower mass planets. The detection of O2 in the atmosphere of a rocky extra-solar planet would be a potential indicator of a life. In this paper we address the specific issue of whether we would be able to detect the O2 A-band absorption feature in the atmosphere of a planet similar to the Earth, if it were in orbit around a nearby star. Our method is empirical, in that we use observations of the Earth's O2 A-band, with a simple geometric modification for a transiting extra-solar planet, allowing for limb-darkening of the host star. We simulate the spectrum of the host star with the superposed O2 A-band absorption of the transiting planet, assuming a spectral resolution of 7 km/s (typical of current echelle spectrographs), for a range of spectral signal-to-noise ratios. The main result is that we could reliably detect the O2 A-band of the transiting pla...

  20. National extra heavy crude oil upgrade; Melhoramento de petroleos extra pesados nacionais no ambiente de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Lilian Camen; Zilio, Evaldo L.; Guimarae, Regina C.; Tosta, Luiz C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Barros, Ricardo S. de [Fundacao Universitaria Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leite, Luiz Fernando T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-ES

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian petroleums are becoming increasingly heavy, reaching values of up to 7 deg API, which classifies them as extra heavy. They are also very viscous, sometimes presenting values as 10184 mm{sup 2}/s to 50 deg C. These two factors affect production operations like lifting, flow assurance and primary processing, with implications on transporting and refining. Trading these kinds of oils is also difficult; once there are not many refineries in the world able to process them. Due to these facts and also to the lower yield on premium products, the international market value is lower than the reference oil, for example, oil 'Brent'. Studies indicate that in some heavy oils fields the process of well lifting and also the flow in pipelines is almost impracticable in a first analysis, mainly offshore field, impacting both technically and economically the development of the production of a new field. Therefore it becomes necessary implement efforts to develop alternatives to increase oil's API density and at the same time reduce the viscosity of extra heavy oil inside the well, i.e. through a process of upgrading assuring its flow and consequently their production, primary processing and refining, increasing, the value of marketing. (author)

  1. Extra-safe tractor-trailer coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, W. P.; Sparks, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Built-in safety mechanism for tractor-trailer "fifth-wheel" coupling keeps rig together in case kingpin failure. Modified coupling utilizes all standard components, such as two wear plates, kingpin, and kingpin latch. It is modified by adding semicircular lip to top wear plate, matching semicircular slot to bottom wear plate, and two latching stop mechanisms.

  2. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Dielectron and Diphoton Production

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L R; Baden, A; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Bantly, J; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G C; Blessing, S; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G M; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W S; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Dahl, O I; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D S; Denisov, S P; Desai, S V; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; DiLoreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D L; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J K; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Fehér, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Yu; Flattum, E M; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M R; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E J; Galjaev, A N; Gartung, P E; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gibbard, B; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González-Solis, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L S; Grudberg, P M; Grünendahl, S; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Ito, A S; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A M; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D E; Karmgard, D J; Kehoe, R; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G L; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Lundstedt, C; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mincer, A; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Oesch, L H; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M T; Rubinov, P M; Ruchti, R C; Rutherfoord, John P; Santoro, A F S; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Scully, J R; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shankar, H C; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M A; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V I; Slattery, P F; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G A; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbruck, G; Stephens, R W; Stevenson, M L; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Streets, K; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V D; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M E; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zhu, Z H; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-01-01

    We report a search for effects of large extra spatial dimensions in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV with the DZero detector, using events containing a pair of electrons or photons. The data are in good agreement with the expected background and do not exhibit evidence for large extra dimensions. We set the most restrictive lower limits to date, at the 95% confidence level, on the effective Planck scale between 1.0 TeV and 1.4 TeV for several formalisms and numbers of extra dimensions.

  3. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Dielectron and Diphoton Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hou, S.; Huang, Y.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2001-02-01

    We report a search for effects of large extra spatial dimensions in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV with the D0 detector, using events containing a pair of electrons or photons. The data are in good agreement with the expected background and do not exhibit evidence for large extra dimensions. We set the most restrictive lower limits to date, at the 95% C.L. on the effective Planck scale between 1.0 and 1.4 TeV for several formalisms and numbers of extra dimensions.

  4. Intersection democracy for winding branes and stabilization of extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Rador, Tonguc

    2005-01-01

    We show that, in the context of pure Einstein gravity, a democratic principle for intersection possibilities of branes winding around extra dimensions in a given partitioning yield stabilization, while what the observed space follows is matter-like dust evolution . Here democracy is used in the sense that, in a given decimation of extra dimensions, all possible wrappings and hence all possible intersections are allowed. Generally, the necessary and sufficient condition for this is that the dimensionality $m$ of the observed space dimensions obey $3\\leqm \\le N$ where $N$ is the decimation order of the extra dimensions.

  5. La inquietante extrañeza en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    La inquietante extrañeza en el cine parte de considerar la experiencia cinematográfica como un acontecimiento de la sensibilidad. La sala oscura proporciona una intimidad con extraños, y el silencio y la oscuridad evocan lo ‘infantil inextinguible’ de la angustia, descubierto por Sigmund Freud, cuando se atreve a penetrar la comarca de la estética y teoriza lo Unheimlich como lo extraño que invade lo familiar. Un afecto estético. Esta tesis muestra que el cine es Unheimlich pues acosa la real...

  6. La inquietante extra??eza en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    La inquietante extra??eza en el cine parte de considerar la experiencia cinematogr??fica como un acontecimiento de la sensibilidad. La sala oscura proporciona una intimidad con extra??os, y el silencio y la oscuridad evocan lo ???infantil inextinguible??? de la angustia, descubierto por Sigmund Freud, cuando se atreve a penetrar la comarca de la est??tica y teoriza lo Unheimlich como lo extra??o que invade lo familiar. Un afecto est??tico. Esta tesis muestra que el cine es Unheimlich pues aco...

  7. Finite temperature Casimir effect in spacetime with extra compactified dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, L.P. [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my

    2009-02-16

    In this Letter, we derive the explicit exact formulas for the finite temperature Casimir force acting on a pair of parallel plates in the presence of extra compactified dimensions within the framework of Kaluza-Klein theory. Using the piston analysis, we show that at any temperature, the Casimir force due to massless scalar field with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the plates is always attractive and the effect of extra dimensions becomes stronger when the size or number of the extra dimensions increases. These properties are not affected by the explicit geometry and topology of the Kaluza-Klein space.

  8. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  9. ARE SPECTRAL AND TIMING CORRELATIONS SIMILAR IN DIFFERENT SPECTRAL STATES IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalamkar, M.; Klis, M. van der [Astronomical Institute, “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Altamirano, D., E-mail: maithili@oa-roma.inaf.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The bandpass of the XRT has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states (HIMSs); most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the HIMS (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard state (in GX 339-4 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127). Also, the responses of the individual frequency components to changes in the disk temperature are markedly different from one component to the next. Hence, the spectral-timing evolution cannot be explained by a single correlation that spans both these spectral states. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

  10. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  11. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  12. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2016-11-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  13. TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X- AND {gamma}-RAYS OF MAGNETAR 1E 1547.0-5408 SINCE ITS 2008 OCTOBER OUTBURST: THE DISCOVERY OF A TRANSIENT HARD PULSED COMPONENT AFTER ITS 2009 JANUARY OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W. [SRON-National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Den Hartog, P. R. [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC Physics, 382 via Pueblo Mall Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Urama, J. O., E-mail: L.M.Kuiper@sron.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2012-04-01

    The magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 exhibited outbursts in 2008 October and 2009 January. In this paper, we present in great detail the evolution of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the persistent total and pulsed emission of 1E 1547.0-5408 between {approx}1 and 300 keV starting on 2008 October 3 and ending in 2011 January. We analyzed data collected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), and the Swift satellite. We report the evolution of the pulse frequency, and the measurement at the time of the onset of the 2009 January outburst of an insignificant jump in frequency, but a major frequency derivative jump {Delta}{nu}-dot of +(1.30 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} Hz s{sup -1} ({Delta}{nu}-dot/{nu}-dot of -0.69 {+-} 0.07). Before this {nu}-dot glitch, a single broad pulse is detected, mainly for energies below {approx}10 keV. Surprisingly, {approx}11 days after the glitch a new transient high-energy (up to {approx}150 keV) pulse appears with a Gaussian shape and width 0.23, shifted in phase by {approx}0.31 compared to the low-energy pulse, which smoothly fades to undetectable levels in {approx}350 days. We report the evolution of the pulsed-emission spectra. For energies 2.5-10 keV all pulsed spectra are very soft with photon indices {Gamma} between -4.6 and -3.9. For {approx}10-150 keV, after the {nu}-dot glitch, we report hard non-thermal pulsed spectra, similar to what has been reported for the persistent pulsed emission of some anomalous X-ray pulsars. This pulsed hard X-ray emission reached maximal luminosity 70 {+-} 30 days after the glitch epoch, followed by a gradual decrease by more than a factor of 10 over {approx}300 days. These characteristics differ from those of the total emission. Both, the total soft X-ray (1-10 keV) and hard X-ray (10-150 keV) fluxes, were maximal already 2 days after the 2009 January outburst, and decayed by a factor of {approx}>3 over {approx}400

  14. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined.

  15. Retrieval of Extra-Solar Planetary Spectra Using Evolutionary Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, R. J.; Fink, W.; Huntsberger, T.; Lee, S.; Tisdale, E. R.; Tinetti, G.; von Allmen, P.

    2005-12-01

    The spectral information provided by the next generation of extra-solar planet exploration missions will be averaged over the visible disk and the exposure time. Most probably, the interpretation of the observed spectra will not be unique, but families of solutions will provide equally good explanations of the spectral features (degeneracy). Traditional retrieval techniques developed to study the environments of planets in our solar system are inadequate to analyze disk/time-averaged spectra because they assume homogeneous environments, short observational time scales and search only for solutions belonging to the local domain of the initial conditions. We developed an innovative technique that couples evolutionary computational methods to a 3D model that simulates the spectral response of the planet rotating (Tinetti et al., 2005). We have performed a set of preliminary experiments in retrieving the earthshine spectrum recorded by Woolf et al. (2002): nine weighting parameters were retrieved, corresponding to different surface/cloud types (ocean, forest, grass, ground, tundra, ice, high/medium/low clouds) uniformly distributed over 48 planetary pixels. Two distinct retrieval experiments were run: i) evolution of one large solution population with 1000 individuals and ii) evolution of multiple solution islands with 100 individuals in each island. These two experiments returned over 2700 automatically generated retrievals satisfying the error criterion (fitness) of 10% least squares match to the observed spectra. The spectral retrieval procedure with this reduced set of parameters already resulted in a high quality fit of the earthshine spectrum, in agreement with ground truth. The retrieved solutions were divided into classes of spectral fit using clustering tools, which helped visualize the degeneracy in the set of solutions. As a next step we are repeating the experiment using non-uniformly distributed 9 surface/cloud types in 12 planetary pixels (108 retrieved

  16. Retrieval of Earthshine Spectra Using Evolutionary Computational Methods as Analogs for Extra-Solar Planetary Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, R. J.; Tinetti, G.; Lee, S.; Fink, W.; Huntsberger, T.; von Allmen, P.; Tisdale, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    The spectral information provided by the next generation of extra-solar planet exploration missions will be averaged over the visible disk and the exposure time. Most probably, the interpretation of the observed spectra will not be unique, but families of solutions will provide equally good explanations of the spectral features (degeneracy). Traditional retrieval techniques developed to study the environments of planets in our solar system are inadequate to analyze disk/time-averaged spectra because they assume homogeneous environments, short observational time scales and search only for solutions belonging to the local domain of the initial conditions. We developed an innovative technique that couples evolutionary computational methods to a 3D model that simulates the spectral response of the planet rotating (Tinetti et al., 2005). We have performed a set of preliminary experiments in retrieving the earthshine spectrum recorded by Woolf et al. (2002): nine weighting parameters were retrieved, corresponding to different surface/cloud types (ocean, forest, grass, ground, tundra, ice, high/medium/low clouds) uniformly distributed over 48 planetary pixels. Two distinct retrieval experiments were run: i) evolution of one large solution population with 1000 individuals and ii) evolution of multiple solution islands with 100 individuals in each island. These two experiments returned over 2700 automatically generated retrievals satisfying the error criterion (fitness) of 10% least squares match to the observed spectra. The spectral retrieval procedure with this reduced set of parameters already resulted in a high quality fit of the earthshine spectrum, in agreement with ground truth. The retrieved solutions were divided into classes of spectral fit using clustering tools, which helped visualize the degeneracy in the set of solutions. We have also repeated the experiment using non-uniformly distributed 3 cloud types over ground- truth surface types in 22 illuminated pixels

  17. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...

  18. Spectral geometry of spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    2000-01-01

    Spacetime, understood as a globally hyperbolic manifold, may be characterized by spectral data using a 3+1 splitting into space and time, a description of space by spectral triples and by employing causal relationships, as proposed earlier. Here, it is proposed to use the Hadamard condition of quantum field theory as a smoothness principle.

  19. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  20. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  1. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  2. Kuu plaat : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Metsatöll "Terast mis hangund me hinge 10218", Ursula "Annamemenõu", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Depeche Mode "Playing the Angel"

  3. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  4. Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaili, Arman [Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies and School of Liberal Arts, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra, E-mail: arman@ipm.ir, E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: tabrizi.physics@ipm.ir [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.

  5. Kuu plaat : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Metsatöll "Terast mis hangund me hinge 10218", Ursula "Annamemenõu", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Depeche Mode "Playing the Angel"

  6. ExTrA: Exoplanets in Transit and their Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfils, X; Jocou, L; Wunsche, A; Kern, P; Delboulbé, A; Delfosse, X; Feautrier, P; Forveille, T; Gluck, L; Lafrasse, S; Magnard, Y; Maurel, D; Moulin, T; Murgas, F; Rabou, P; Rochat, S; Roux, A; Stadler, E

    2015-01-01

    The ExTrA facility, located at La Silla observatory, will consist of a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph fed by three 60-cm telescopes. ExTrA will add the spectroscopic resolution to the traditional differential photometry method. This shall enable the fine correction of color-dependent systematics that would otherwise hinder ground-based observations. With both this novel method and an infrared-enabled efficiency, ExTrA aims to find transiting telluric planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright nearby M dwarfs. It shall have the versatility to do so by running its own independent survey and also by concurrently following-up on the space candidates unveiled by K2 and TESS. The exoplanets detected by ExTrA will be amenable to atmospheric characterisation with VLTs, JWST, and ELTs and could give our first peek into an exo-life laboratory.

  7. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-02-25

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  8. Spectral Geometry and Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    1996-01-01

    For a physical interpretation of a theory of quantum gravity, it is necessary to recover classical spacetime, at least approximately. However, quantum gravity may eventually provide classical spacetimes by giving spectral data similar to those appearing in noncommutative geometry, rather than by giving directly a spacetime manifold. It is shown that a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold can be given by spectral data. A new phenomenon in the context of spectral geometry is observed: causal relationships. The employment of the causal relationships of spectral data is shown to lead to a highly efficient description of Lorentzian manifolds, indicating the possible usefulness of this approach. Connections to free quantum field theory are discussed for both motivation and physical interpretation. It is conjectured that the necessary spectral data can be generically obtained from an effective field theory having the fundamental structures of generalized quantum mechanics: a decoherence functional and a choice of...

  9. Digital staining for histopathology multispectral images by the combined application of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduced a digital staining method for histopathology images captured with an n-band multispectral camera. The method consisted of two major processes: enhancement of the original spectral transmittance and the transformation of the enhanced transmittance to its target spectral configuration. Enhancement is accomplished by shifting the original transmittance with the scaled difference between the original transmittance and the transmittance estimated with m dominant principal component (PC) vectors;the m-PC vectors were determined from the transmittance samples of the background image. Transformation of the enhanced transmittance to the target spectral configuration was done using an nxn transformation matrix, which was derived by applying a least square method to the enhanced and target spectral training data samples of the different tissue components. Experimental results on the digital conversion of a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained (MT) equivalent shows the viability of the method.

  10. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  11. Extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitnovetski, Sergei; Almeida, Aubrey A; Barr, Althea; Peters, William S; Milsom, F Paget; Ho, Betty; Smith, Julian A

    2008-06-01

    Extra-aortic counterpulsation for the management of chronic heart failure is a novel approach. We report the use of an extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump in the management of a 73-year-old patient with severe heart failure refractory to medical therapy. The implantable counterpulsation pump prolonged his life and greatly improved its quality. The patient lived almost 7 months after the implantation of the device and died of septic complications secondary to gas line infection.

  12. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Calvert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

  13. Kaluza-Klein Theory without Extra Dimensions: Curved Clifford Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pavsic, M

    2005-01-01

    A theory in which 16-dimensional curved Clifford space (C-space) provides realization of Kaluza-Klein theory is investigated. No extra dimensions of spacetime are needed: "extra dimensions" are in C-space. It is shown that the covariant Dirac equation in C-space contains Yang-Mills fields of the U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3) group as parts of the generalized spin connection of the C-space.

  14. Scale Factor in Very Early Universe with the Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohsenzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is presentation an expanding scenario of 5-dimensional space-time in the very early universe. We introduce the 5-dimensional generalized FRW metric and obtain the evolution of the bulk scale factor with space-like and time-like extra dimensions. It is shown that, additional space-like dimensions can produce an exponentially expansion for the bulk scale factor under repulsive strong gravitational force in the empty very early universe with the extra dimension.

  15. [On mistakes in contemporary literatures of extra points in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Xiang; Huang, You-Min

    2013-06-01

    Contemporary literatures which are taken as the base of literature study of extra points are insufficient and lack of reliability. The foundation of study is very weak. Based on abundant firsthand materials, analyses are made on the major problems of confounded names and locations, unclear quotation and source of reference in the study of contemporary literatures of extra points. Meanwhile, methods and way of thinking for solving the above mentioned problems are discussed in this article as well.

  16. Snapshot spectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund

    2010-02-01

    Spectral imaging is the combination of spectroscopy and imaging. These fields are well developed and are used intensively in many application fields including industry and the life sciences. The classical approach to acquire hyper-spectral data is to sequentially scan a sample in space or wavelength. These acquisition methods are time consuming because only two spatial dimensions, or one spatial and the spectral dimension, can be acquired simultaneously. With a computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) it is possible to acquire two spatial dimensions and a spectral dimension during a single integration time, without scanning either spatial or spectral dimensions. This makes it possible to acquire dynamic image scenes without spatial registration of the hyperspectral data. This is advantageous compared to tunable filter based systems which need sophisticated image registration techniques. While tunable filters provide full spatial and spectral resolution, for CTIS systems there is always a tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolution as the spatial and spectral information corresponding to an image cube is squeezed onto a 2D image. The presented CTIS system uses a spectral-dispersion element to project the spectral and spatial image information onto a 2D CCD camera array. The system presented in this paper is designed for a microscopy application for the analysis of fixed specimens in pathology and cytogenetics, cell imaging and material analysis. However, the CTIS approach is not limited to microscopy applications, thus it would be possible to implement it in a hand-held device for e.g. real-time, intra-surgery tissue classification.

  17. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrunn Eliassen

    Full Text Available A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  18. Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Extra Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Ben-Bong; WU Hou-Wen; YANG Hai-Tang

    2011-01-01

    @@ We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle(GUP)model,the parameter β0 whose square root,minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories,we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension,compactified with radius p.We obtain an inspiring quantum mechanics scale.We also estimate the application range of the GUP model.It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactification radius of the extra dimension.%We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) model, the parameter 0o whose square root, multiplied by Planck length tv, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since the minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius p. We obtain an inspiring relation βolp/p ~ 0(1). This relation is also consistent with the predictions at Planck scale and the usual quantum mechanics scale. We also estimate the application range of the GUP model. It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactiScation radius of the extra dimension.

  19. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  20. 近红外在线检测硝胺推进剂主要固体组分含量%Real-time detection of the main solid components concentration in RDX-CMDB with NIR spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹权; 邓国栋; 郭效德; 姜炜; 宋丹; 李凤生

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the feasibility of real-time detecting the main solid components concentration of composite modified double base propellant containing RDX (RDX-CMDB). A batch of liquid mixtures including RDX,NC and water were prepared at laboratory, which were scanned directly with a fiber-optical probe of FT-NIR spectrophotometer on condition of stirring constantly. Two quantitative calibration models were constructed based on partial least squares regression for RDX and NC. Their correlation coefficient (R) is 0.997 1 and 0.989 5,and root mean square error of predicted (RMSEP) is 0.096 8 and 0. 1ll 0 respectively, which proves that the calibration models is accurate. It only took less than 30 seconds from scanning samples to obtaining result when calibration models have been generated. The results show that it is feasible to apply NIR analysis to on-line detection of the main solid constituents in CMDB.%研究了近红外方法对硝胺推进剂主要固体组分含量进行在线检测的可行性.参照吸收药制备过程的搅拌分散条件,配制黑索金、硝化棉和水的混合体系并用光纤探头直接采集近红外光谱,以偏最小二乘法分别对黑索金、硝化棉建立定量校正模型,模型相关系数R分别为0.9971、0.9895;预测标准偏差RMSEP分别为0.0968、0.1110.运用上述模型对单个样品进行检测,从光谱采集到得出结果耗时小于30 s.实验表明,近红外方法快速、准确,具备在线检测硝胺推进剂主要固体组分含量的可行性.

  1. Definition of ACLF and inclusion criteria for extra-hepatic organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Ning, Qin

    2015-07-01

    A prominent characteristic of ACLF is rapid hepatic disease progression with subsequent extra-hepatic organ failure, manifesting as either hepatic coma or hepatorenal syndrome, which is associated with a high mortality rate in a short time. The APASL definition mainly emphasizes recognizing patients with hepatic failure. These patients may subsequently develop extra-hepatic multisystem organ failure leading to high mortality. It is therefore worthwhile to identify the short interim period between the development of liver failure and the onset of extra-hepatic organ failure, the potential therapeutic 'golden window.' Interventions during this period may prevent the development of complications and eventually change the course of the illness. Organ failure is suggested to be a central component of ACLF and may behave differently from chronic decompensated liver disease. Clear and practical criteria for the inclusion of organ failure are urgently needed so that patients with these life-threatening complications can be treated in a timely and appropriate manner. Recent studies suggested that the scoring systems evaluating organ failure [acute physiology, age and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores] work better than those addressing the severity of liver disease [Child-Pugh and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores] in ACLF. However, a key problem remains that the former scoring systems are reflective of organ failure and not predictive, thus limiting their value as an early indication for intervention.

  2. Pre-electrocoalescer unit adapted to the extra-heavy oil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noik, C.; Dalmazzone, C. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Glenat, P. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a dehydration process that can break water oil emulsions to mobilize extra heavy oils and bitumen extra heavy oils. The dehydration process is based on solvent mixture with additives injection. It involves large amount of additives, fairly high operating temperatures, solvent addition, and long retention time inside the vessels. The process could be improved by electrocoalescence, thereby reducing the amount of additive and reducing the retention times of vessels to reach oil export specifications. However, commercial electrocoalescence processes are not suitable for extra heavy oils because of the presence of polar heavy components limiting the electrocoalescence effect and therefore, limiting the efficiency of electrostatic coalescer. This paper presented a study whose objective was to determine the most efficient electrocoalescence parameters considering the characteristics of two types of heavy crude oils issued from cold and thermal productions. The paper presented experimental results for electrocoalescence additive selection and for the optimization of electrical parameters. The paper described the materials and methods, including fluids characterization; viscosity; differential scanning calorimetry; dispersion rig; electrical stability tester; and electrocoalescer rig. It was concluded that crude oils produced by thermal production schemes seemed more sensitive to the temperature effect than crudes produced by cold production. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  3. Extra-cellular matrix changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Claudia Maria da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivity of snails against parasites exhibits a primitive focal reaction, with encapsulation, phagocytosis and destruction of parasite larvae by macrophage-like cells - the hemocytes. This reaction mimics granulomatous inflammation seen in higher animals. However, different from the latter, little is known about the participation of extra-cellular matrix in such snail defense reactions. Normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata of different strains were submitted to cytological, histological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods in order to investigate the behavior of extra-cellular tissues at the site of anti-parasite reactions. In spite of the presence of two cell-types in peripheral hemolymph, only one cell-type was present at the sites of tissue reactions. Although pre-existent collagen and elastic fibers and microfibrils sometimes appeared slightly compressed around focal reactions, no evidences of duplication, synthesis or deposition of connective-tissue extra-cellular components were observed within or around the zones of reactive cell accumulations. Thus, tissue reactions against S. mansoni in the snail B. glabrata appeared exclusively dependent on one specific population of hemocytes.

  4. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  5. Sensitivity of aerosol radiative forcing calculations to spectral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, K.E.

    1996-10-01

    Potential impacts of aerosol radiative forcing on climate have generated considerable recent interest. An important consideration in estimating the forcing from various aerosol components is the spectral resolution used for the solar radiative transfer calculations. This paper examines the spectral resolution required from the viewpoint of overlapping spectrally varying aerosol properties with other cross sections. A diagnostic is developed for comparing different band choices, and the impact of these choices on the radiative forcing calculated for typical sulfate and biomass aerosols was investigated.

  6. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  7. Report by the ESA-ESO Working Group on Extra-Solar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Perryman, M; Dravins, D; Léger, A; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Rauer, H; Kerber, F; Fosbury, R; Bouchy, F; Favata, F; Fridlund, M; Gilmozzi, R; Lagrange, A M; Mazeh, T; Rouan, D; Udry, S; Wambsganss, J

    2005-01-01

    Various techniques are being used to search for extra-solar planetary signatures, including accurate measurement of radial velocity and positional (astrometric) displacements, gravitational microlensing, and photometric transits. Planned space experiments promise a considerable increase in the detections and statistical knowledge arising especially from transit and astrometric measurements over the years 2005-15, with some hundreds of terrestrial-type planets expected from transit measurements, and many thousands of Jupiter-mass planets expected from astrometric measurements. Beyond 2015, very ambitious space (Darwin/TPF) and ground (OWL) experiments are targeting direct detection of nearby Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone and the measurement of their spectral characteristics. Beyond these, `Life Finder' (aiming to produce confirmatory evidence of the presence of life) and `Earth Imager' (some massive interferometric array providing resolved images of a distant Earth) appear as distant visions. This r...

  8. Potential extra-ribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs), are essential components of the ribosomes, the molecular machines that turn mRNA blueprints into proteins, as they serve to stabilize the structure of the rRNA, thus improving protein biosynthesis. In addition, growing evidence suggests that RPs can function in other cellular roles. In the present review, we summarize several potential extra-ribosomal functions of RPs in ribosomal biogenesis, transcription activity, translation process, DNA repair, replicative life span, adhesive growth, and morphological transformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the future in-depth studies are needed to identify these novel secondary functions of RPs in S. cerevisiae.

  9. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Pan; J. H. Fan

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we revisited the relationship between the spectral index and the core-dominance parameter using a larger sample of blazars. Conclusively, we explain that the spectral index is associated with the core-dominance parameter using the two-component relativistic beaming model.

  10. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  11. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  12. Temporal Lorentzian spectral triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    We present the notion of temporal Lorentzian spectral triple which is an extension of the notion of pseudo-Riemannian spectral triple with a way to ensure that the signature of the metric is Lorentzian. A temporal Lorentzian spectral triple corresponds to a specific 3 + 1 decomposition of a possibly noncommutative Lorentzian space. This structure introduces a notion of global time in noncommutative geometry. As an example, we construct a temporal Lorentzian spectral triple over a Moyal-Minkowski spacetime. We show that, when time is commutative, the algebra can be extended to unbounded elements. Using such an extension, it is possible to define a Lorentzian distance formula between pure states with a well-defined noncommutative formulation.

  13. Spectral recognition of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At some time, in the childhood of spectral graph theory, it was conjectured that non-isomorphic graphs have different spectra, i.e. that graphs are characterized by their spectra. Very quickly this conjecture was refuted and numerous examples and families of non-isomorphic graphs with the same spectrum (cospectral graphs were found. Still some graphs are characterized by their spectra and several mathematical papers are devoted to this topic. In applications to computer sciences, spectral graph theory is considered as very strong. The benefit of using graph spectra in treating graphs is that eigenvalues and eigenvectors of several graph matrices can be quickly computed. Spectral graph parameters contain a lot of information on the graph structure (both global and local including some information on graph parameters that, in general, are computed by exponential algorithms. Moreover, in some applications in data mining, graph spectra are used to encode graphs themselves. The Euclidean distance between the eigenvalue sequences of two graphs on the same number of vertices is called the spectral distance of graphs. Some other spectral distances (also based on various graph matrices have been considered as well. Two graphs are considered as similar if their spectral distance is small. If two graphs are at zero distance, they are cospectral. In this sense, cospectral graphs are similar. Other spectrally based measures of similarity between networks (not necessarily having the same number of vertices have been used in Internet topology analysis, and in other areas. The notion of spectral distance enables the design of various meta-heuristic (e.g., tabu search, variable neighbourhood search algorithms for constructing graphs with a given spectrum (spectral graph reconstruction. Several spectrally based pattern recognition problems appear in many areas (e.g., image segmentation in computer vision, alignment of protein-protein interaction networks in bio

  14. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  15. Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DM DePoy; PM Fourspring; PF Baldasaro; JF Beausang; EJ Brown; MW Dashiel; KD Rahner; TD Rahmlow; JE Lazo-Wasem; EJ Gratrix; B Wemsman

    2004-06-09

    Spectral control is a key technology for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion systems because only a fraction (typically less than 25%) of the incident thermal radiation has energy exceeding the diode bandgap energy, E{sub g}, and can thus be converted to electricity. The goal for TPV spectral control in most applications is twofold: (1) Maximize TPV efficiency by minimizing transfer of low energy, below bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. (2) Maximize TPV surface power density by maximizing transfer of high energy, above bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. TPV spectral control options include: front surface filters (e.g. interference filters, plasma filters, interference/plasma tandem filters, and frequency selective surfaces), back surface reflectors, and wavelength selective radiators. System analysis shows that spectral performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system, and that low bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are considered. Lockheed Martin has focused its efforts on front surface tandem filters which have achieved spectral efficiencies of {approx}83% for E{sub g} = 0.52 eV and {approx}76% for E{sub g} = 0.60 eV for a 950 C radiator temperature.

  16. Component fragility research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S. (NCT Engineering, Inc., Lafayette, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Realistic Field Theories on Submanifolds of Compact Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabelli, E.

    2005-04-05

    In this thesis, they study various physical models which assume the existence of spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three. While everyday observation suggests only three dimensions, there is no shortage of potential explanations for how extra dimensions could have escaped detection for so long. For instance, the extra dimensions could be compact, curled into a microscopic volume so that you can never move far in the extra dimensions without ending up back where you started. Or, the elements of everyday experience could be trapped on a three-dimensional membrane floating in a higher dimensions space. The models studied in this thesis each use both of these mechanisms in tandem, with electrons, photons, quarks, and the like being confined to a three-dimensional membrane that sits in a space with compact extra dimensions. Gravitons (and perhaps other new types of particles) could travel beyond the three-dimensional membrane, so they can feel the effects of the higher-dimensional space, but because the extra dimensions are compactified on a small scale, the effects are subtle.

  18. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  19. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  20. Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy

    2010-07-15

    Spectral imaging requires rapid analysis of spectra associated with each pixel. A rapid algorithm has been developed that uses iterative matrix inversions to solve for the absorption spectra of a tissue using a lookup table for photon pathlength based on numerical simulations. The algorithm uses tissue water content as an internal standard to specify the strength of optical scattering. An experimental example is presented on the spectroscopy of portwine stain lesions. When implemented in MATLAB, the method is ~100-fold faster than using fminsearch().

  1. Quantum BCH Codes Based on Spectral Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    When the time variable in quantum signal processing is discrete, the Fourier transform exists on the vector space of n-tuples over the Galois field F2, which plays an important role in the investigation of quantum signals. By using Fourier transforms, the idea of quantum coding theory can be described in a setting that is much different from that seen that far. Quantum BCH codes can be defined as codes whose quantum states have certain specified consecutive spectral components equal to zero and the error-correcting ability is also described by the number of the consecutive zeros. Moreover, the decoding of quantum codes can be described spectrally with more efficiency.

  2. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Lu, X. P.

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing asteroid spectral and photometric data, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. With the training data derived from the taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, DeMeo, and Principal Component Analysis, we classify 48642 asteroids according to g, r, i, and z SDSS magnitudes. In this way, asteroids are divided into 8 spectral classes (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V).

  3. The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, David

    2011-01-01

    The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…

  4. Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; et al.

    2016-12-16

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56×1020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.

  5. Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μ m at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.

  6. Sidestepping the Cosmological Constant with Football-Shaped Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Guica, Monica M.

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact solution for a factorizable brane-world spacetime with two extra dimensions and explicit brane sources. The compactification manifold has the topology of a two-sphere, and is stabilized by a bulk cosmological constant and magnetic flux. The geometry of the sphere is locally round except for conical singularities at the locations of two antipodal branes, deforming the sphere into an American-style football. The bulk magnetic flux needs to be fine-tuned to obtain flat geometry on the branes. Once this is done, the brane geometry is insensitive to the brane vacuum energy, which only affects the conical deficit angle of the extra dimensions. Solutions of this form provide a new arena in which to explore brane-world phenomenology and the effects of extra dimensions on the cosmological constant problem.

  7. On a time-dependent extra spatial dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhfittig, P K F

    2006-01-01

    In the usual brane-world scenario matter fields are confined to the four-dimensional spacetime, called a 3-brane, embedded in a higher-dimensional space, usually referred to as the bulk spacetime. In this paper we assume that the 3-brane a de Sitter space; there is only one extra spatial dimension, assumed to be time dependent. By using the form of the brane-world energy-momentum tensor suggested by Shiromizu et al. in the five-dimensional Einstein equations, it is shown that whenever the bulk cosmological constant \\Lambda is negative, the extra spatial dimension rapidly shrinks during the inflation of the brane. When \\Lambda>0, on the other hand, the extra spatial dimension either completely follows the cosmological expansion of the brane or completely ignores it. This behavior resembles the all-or-nothing behavior of ordinary systems in an expanding universe, as recently demonstrated by R.H. Price.

  8. Rossby wave extra invariant in the Galerkin approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2017-08-01

    The non-linear system of Rossby waves or plasma drift waves is known to have a unique adiabatic-like extra invariant in addition to the energy and enstrophy. This invariant is physically significant because its presence implies the generation of zonal flow. The latter is known to slow down the anomalous transport of temperature and particles in nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement. However, the derivation of the extra invariant - unlike the energy and enstrophy - is based on the continuum of resonances, while in numerical simulations there are only finite number of resonances. We show that precisely the same invariant takes place in the Galerkin approximations (even of low order, with a few ODEs). To show this we make variation of boundary conditions, when the solution is periodic in different directions. We also simplify the derivation of the extra conservation.

  9. Generation of Curvature Perturbations with Extra Anisotropic Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Mathews, Grant J

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of curvature perturbations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum in the presence of an hypothesized extra anisotropic stress in the early universe. Such extra anisotropic stress terms might arise, for example, from the presence of the dark radiation term in brane-world cosmology. For the first time we evolve the scalar modes of such perturbations before and after neutrino decoupling and analyze their effects on the CMB spectrum. A novel result of this work is that the cancellation of the neutrino and extra anisotropic stress could lead to a spectrum of residual curvature perturbations which by themselves could reproduce the observed CMB power spectrum. This possibility may be testable as it would generate non-Gaussian fluctuations which could be constrained by future observations of density fluctuations.

  10. Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Carroll, T J; Castromonte, C M; Chen, R; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; de Rijck, S; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Flanagan, W; Frohne, M V; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Germani, S; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfützner, M M; Phan, D D; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sail, P; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Todd, J; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2016-01-01

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's NuMI beam exposure of $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than $0.45\\,\\mu\\text{m}$ at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for non-vanishing masses.

  11. Constraints on extra dimensions from precision molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Salumbides, E J; Gato-Rivera, B; Ubachs, W

    2015-01-01

    Accurate investigations of quantum level energies in molecular systems are shown to provide a test ground to constrain the size of compactified extra dimensions. This is made possible by the recent progress in precision metrology with ultrastable lasers on energy levels in neutral molecular hydrogen (H$_2$, HD and D$_2$) and the molecular hydrogen ions (H$_2^+$, HD$^+$ and D$_2^+$). Comparisons between experiment and quantum electrodynamics calculations for these molecular systems can be interpreted in terms of probing large extra dimensions, under which conditions gravity will become much stronger. Molecules are a probe of space-time geometry at typical distances where chemical bonds are effective, i.e. at length scales of an \\AA. Constraints on compactification radii for extra dimensions are derived within the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali framework, while constraints for curvature or brane separation are derived within the Randall-Sundrum framework. Based on the molecular spectroscopy of D$_2$ molecules an...

  12. Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Callin, P

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant natu...

  13. Results of extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, George A; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Lyras, Dimitrios N; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2012-06-01

    Grice-Green extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis is considered to be a valid surgical method which improves foot alignment in patients with spastic pes planovalgus deformity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term results of Grice-Green procedure and whether it can achieve significant correction of each of the components of pes planovalgus deformity. Eleven children (16 feet) with cerebral palsy who underwent Grice extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age of patients at the time of surgery was 9 years and 8 months (range, 6 years 5 months to 12 years 4 months). The mean followup was 3 years and 7 months (range, 2 years 1 month to 8 years 3 months). Seven radiographic parameters of each patient before surgery, after surgery and at the latest followup were used. In addition, position of the graft relative to the weightbearing axis of the tibia was evaluated. Most of the examined parameters showed statistically significant correction which was maintained in the long run. Moreover, the placement of the graft along the mechanical axis seemed to play an important role for stability and preservation of correction of the planovalgus deformity. On the other hand, there were three cases where the osseous graft was absorbed and two cases where triple arthrodesis was necessary due to recurrence of the deformity. Grice-Green extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis improves foot alignment in patients with spastic pes planovalgus deformity and can achieve significant correction, postoperatively as well as on a long-term basis, of each of the components of pes planovalgus deformity.

  14. (NDSI) and Normalised Difference Principal Component Snow Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phila Sibandze

    Snow is a common global meteorological phenomenon known to be a critical component .... This procedure generated eight spectrally independent principal components. ... therefore chosen for calculation of the NDPCSI as they showed high ...

  15. Nonminimal universal extra dimensional model confronts Bs→μ+μ-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup

    2016-03-01

    The addition of boundary localized kinetic and Yukawa terms to the action of a five-dimensional Standard Model would nontrivially modify the Kaluza-Klein spectra and some of the interactions among the Kaluza-Klein excitations compared to the minimal version of this model, in which these boundary terms are not present. In the minimal version of this framework, known as the universal extra dimensional model, special assumptions are made about these unknown, beyond the cutoff contributions to restrict the number of unknown parameters of the theory to be minimum. We estimate the contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes to the branching ratios of Bs (d )→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model, at one-loop level. The results have been compared to the experimental data to constrain the parameters of this model. From the measured decay branching ratio of Bs→μ+μ- (depending on the values of boundary localized parameters), the lower limit on R-1 can be as high as 800 GeV. We have briefly reviewed the bounds on nonminimal universal extra dimensional parameter space coming from electroweak precision observables. The present analysis (Bs→μ+μ-) has ruled out new regions of parameter space in comparison to the analysis of electroweak data. We have revisited the bound on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional model, which came out to be 454 GeV. This limit on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional framework is not as competitive as the limits derived from the consideration of relic density or Standard Model Higgs boson production and decay to W+W-. Unfortunately, the Bd→μ+μ- decay branching ratio would not set any significant limit on R-1 in a minimal or nonminimal universal extra dimensional model.

  16. A bi-component spectral analysis of 4 planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Armour

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un an alisis de cuatro nebulosas planetarias que muestran l neas de emisi on desdobladas en distintas componentes espectrales por efecto Doppler. Las componentes roja y azul se han analizado por separado para obtener el en- rojecimiento, la temperatura electr onica, la densidad electr onica y las abundacias i onicas y totales para cada objeto en dos regiones de cada nebulosa. Posteriormente comparamos las condiciones f sicas obtenidas con cada componente (roja y azul buscando variaciones que podr an indicar inhomogeneidades reales. Encontramos una variaci on de 1600K en Te[O III] para la regi on central de NGC 6309, con posibles variaciones en ne[O II], c(H y N/H entre las dos compo- nentes. Tambi en se observa una variaci on de 1500K en Te[O III] entre componentes para la regi on central de NGC 6751. A un tomando en cuenta estas variaciones al calcular los cocientes O2+/H+, persisten discrepancias entre los valores derivados de l neas de recombinaci on vs. l neas colisionales. Finalmente notamos que las velocidades de expansi on tanto para las l neas de recombinaci on como para l neas colisionales de O2+ son las mis

  17. Spectral components of cytosolic [Ca2+] spiking in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardos, J; Szilágyi, N; Juhász, G

    1998-01-01

    . Delayed complex responses of large [Ca2+]c spiking observed in cells from a different set of cultures were synthesized by a set of frequencies within the range 0.018-0.117 Hz. Differential frequency patterns are suggested as characteristics of the [Ca2+]c spiking responses of neurons under different...

  18. Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shigeki; Senami, Masato; Yamanaka, Masato

    2008-01-01

    Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.

  19. Phenomenology of S_4 Flavor Symmetric extra U(1) model

    CERN Document Server

    Daikoku, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We study several phenomenologies of an E_6 inspired extra U(1) model with S_4 flavor symmetry. With the assignment of left-handed quarks and leptons to S_4-doublet, SUSY flavor problem is softened. As the extra Higgs bosons are neutrinophilic, baryon number asymmetry in the universe is realized by leptogenesis without causing gravitino overproduction. We find that the allowed region for the lightest chargino mass is given by 100-140 GeV, if the dark matter is a singlino dominated neutralino whose mass is about 36 GeV.

  20. Bipolar spectral associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R G

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear spectral associative memories are proposed as quantized frequency domain formulations of nonlinear, recurrent associative memories in which volatile network attractors are instantiated by attractor waves. In contrast to conventional associative memories, attractors encoded in the frequency domain by convolution may be viewed as volatile online inputs, rather than nonvolatile, off-line parameters. Spectral memories hold several advantages over conventional associative memories, including decoder/attractor separability and linear scalability, which make them especially well suited for digital communications. Bit patterns may be transmitted over a noisy channel in a spectral attractor and recovered at the receiver by recurrent, spectral decoding. Massive nonlocal connectivity is realized virtually, maintaining high symbol-to-bit ratios while scaling linearly with pattern dimension. For n-bit patterns, autoassociative memories achieve the highest noise immunity, whereas heteroassociative memories offer the added flexibility of achieving various code rates, or degrees of extrinsic redundancy. Due to linear scalability, high noise immunity and use of conventional building blocks, spectral associative memories hold much promise for achieving robust communication systems. Simulations are provided showing bit error rates for various degrees of decoding time, computational oversampling, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Teutsch, J

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus ...

  2. EXTraS discovery of two pulsators in the direction of the LMC: a Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC and a candidate double-degenerate polar in the foreground

    CERN Document Server

    Haberl, F; Castillo, G A Rodriguez; Vasilopoulos, G; Delvaux, C; De Luca, A; Carpano, S; Esposito, P; Novara, G; Salvaterra, R; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Udalski, A

    2016-01-01

    The EXTraS project to explore the X-ray Transient and variable Sky searches for coherent signals in the X-ray archival data of XMM-Newton. XMM-Newton performed more than 400 pointed observations in the region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We inspected the results of the EXTraS period search to systematically look for new X-ray pulsators in our neighbour galaxy. We analysed the XMM-Newton observations of two sources from the 3XMM catalogue which show significant signals for coherent pulsations. 3XMM J051259.8-682640 was detected as source with hard X-ray spectrum in two XMM-Newton observations, revealing a periodic modulation of the X-ray flux with 956~s. As optical counterpart we identify an early-type star with Halpha emission. The OGLE I-band light curve exhibits a regular pattern with three brightness dips which mark a period of ~1350 d. The X-ray spectrum of 3XMM J051034.7-670356 is dominated by a super-soft blackbody-like emission component (kT ~ 70 eV) which is modulated by nearly 100% with a per...

  3. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  4. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  5. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, Milan; Richter, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    For diffraction effects inside photopolymer materials, which act as volume diffraction systems (e.g. gratings), refractive index modulation is one of the key parameters. Due to its importance it is necessary to study this parameter from many perspectives, one of which is its value for different spectral components, i.e. its spectral dispersion. In this paper, we discuss this property and present an approach to experimental and numerical extraction and analysis (via rigorous coupled wave analysis and Cauchy’s empirical relation) of the effective dispersion of refractive index modulation based on an analysis of transmittance maps measured in an angular-spectral plane. It is indicated that the inclusion of dispersion leads to a significantly better description of the real grating behavior (which is often necessary in various design implementations of diffraction gratings) and that this estimation can be carried out for all the diffraction orders present.

  6. Spectral Networks and Snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiotto, Davide; Neitzke, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We apply and illustrate the techniques of spectral networks in a large collection of A_{K-1} theories of class S, which we call "lifted A_1 theories." Our construction makes contact with Fock and Goncharov's work on higher Teichmuller theory. In particular we show that the Darboux coordinates on moduli spaces of flat connections which come from certain special spectral networks coincide with the Fock-Goncharov coordinates. We show, moreover, how these techniques can be used to study the BPS spectra of lifted A_1 theories. In particular, we determine the spectrum generators for all the lifts of a simple superconformal field theory.

  7. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.

  8. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  9. The epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolwijk, Carmen; Essers, Ivette; van Tubergen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and risks of common extra-articular manifestations (EAMs), that is, acute anterior uveitis (AAU), psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with population-based controls. METHODS: All incident patients...

  10. The blessing effect of an extra copy of chromosome 21

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-02-25

    Feb 25, 2014 ... The protective effect of the extra copy of chromosome against the ... genesis by decreasing the vascular endothelial growth factor. C (VEGF-C) levels in .... [8] Sun Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Song X, Zhang Y, Li K, et al. Results of.

  11. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  12. The ‘Deployment of Extra Processing’ Account of Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Nanay, Bence

    2015-01-01

    The paper formulates an alternative view about the core function of attention claiming that attention is not selection but the deployment of extra processing capacity. This way of thinking about attention has greater explanatory power, since it proposes a common implementation both for selection...

  13. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão

    OpenAIRE

    França,S.A.; Serakides,R.; Silva,A.E.; Rachid,M.A.; J.R.C. Moraes; Lavalle,G.E.; Ocarino,N.M.

    2004-01-01

    One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  14. Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Murgia, S

    2002-01-01

    In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it pre...

  15. Injuries in Children with Extra Physical Education in Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, Christina; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    (1) Examine the influence of extra physical education (EPE) on the number of musculoskeletal injuries in public schools accounting for organized sports participation (OSP) outside school. (2) Examine the major injury subgroup: growth-related overuse (GRO) through the overuse-related injury group....

  16. Search and investigation of extra-solar planets with polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, H. M.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Feldt, M.; Gisler, D.; Gratton, R.; Henning, Th.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Lenzen, R.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Stam, D. M.; Thalmann, C.; Tinbergen, J.; Verinaud, C.; Waters, R.; Wolstencroft, R.

    Light reflected from planets is polarized. This basic property of planets provides the possibility for detecting and characterizing extra-solar planets using polarimetry. The expected polarization properties of extra-solar planets are discussed that can be inferred from polarimetry of "our" solar system planets. They show a large variety of characteristics depending on the atmospheric and/or surface properties. Best candidates for a polarimetric detection are extra-solar planets with an optically thick Rayleigh scattering layer.Even the detection of highly polarized extra-solar planets requires a very sophisticated instrument. We present the results from a phase A (feasibility) study for a polarimetric arm in the ESO VLT planet finder instrument. It is shown that giant planets around nearby stars can be searched and investigated with an imaging polarimeter, combined with a powerful AO system and a coronagraph at an 8 m class telescope.A similar type of polarimeter is also considered for the direct detection of terrestrial planets using an AO system on one of the future Extremely Large Telescopes.

  17. Extra nodal growth as a prognostic factor in malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, SA; Tiebosch, ATMG; Daryanani, D; Plukker, JTM; Hoekstra, HJ

    Aim. Extra nodal growth (ENG) in lymph-node metastases may be an additional. indicator for poor prognosis and increased Loco-regional recurrence in patients with a cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Most studies analyzing prognostic factors tack a proper definition or description of the

  18. Search for extra-dimensions in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Brochu, F M

    2004-01-01

    We report on the most recent simulation studies performed in the ATLAS experiment, looking for new phenomena in proton--proton collisions predicted by different models involving extra space dimensions to solve the hierarchy problem. All studies performed here used the fast, parametrized simulation of the ATLAS detector, ATLFAST.

  19. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  20. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  1. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  2. Exploring the Universal Extra Dimension at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Majee, Swarup Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2009-01-01

    Besides supersymmetry, the other prime candidate of physics beyond the standard model (SM), crying out for verification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is extra-dimension. To hunt for effects of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of known fermions and bosons is very much in the agenda of the LHC. These KK states arise when the SM particles penetrate in the extra space-like dimension(s). In this paper, we consider a 5d scenario, called `Universal Extra Dimension', where the extra space coordinate, compactified on an orbifold $S^1/Z_2$, is accessed by {\\em all} the particles. The KK number ($n$) is conserved at all tree level vertices. This entails the production of KK states in pairs and renders the lightest KK particle stable, which leaves the detector carrying away missing energy. The splitting between different KK flavors is controlled by the zero mode masses and the bulk- and brane-induced one-loop radiative corrections. We concentrate on the production of an $n=1$ KK electroweak gauge boson in associa...

  3. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase,

  4. Overheden bereid extra te betalen voor auto's op alternatieve brandstof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    De elektrische auto en een auto op groen gas worden door overheden hoger gewaardeerd dan de auto met reguliere verbrandingsmotor. Bovendien zijn overheden bereid extra te betalen voor een auto op alternatieve brandstof. Dit blijkt uit een masteronderzoek van de Universiteit Utrecht in opdracht

  5. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  6. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  7. Dark Matter and Collider Phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Profumo, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    We review the phenomenology of models with flat, compactified extra dimensions where all of the Standard Model fields are allowed to propagate in the bulk, known as Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). UED make for an interesting TeV-scale physics scenario, featuring a tower of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states approximately degenerate in mass at the scale set by the inverse size of the compactification radius. KK parity, the four-dimensional remnant of momentum conservation in the extra dimensions, implies two basic consequences: (1) contributions to Standard Model observables arise only at loop level, and KK states can only be pair-produced at colliders, and (2) the lightest KK particle (LKP) is stable, providing a suitable particle dark matter candidate. After a theoretical overview on extra dimensional models, and on UED in particular, we introduce the model particle spectrum and the constraints from precision electroweak tests and current colliders data. We then give a detailed overview of the LKP dark matter phenom...

  8. Charged current unitarity and extra neutral gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.; Sirling, A.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental status of the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo (KMC) matrix is surveyed and shown to provide a precision test of the standard model at the level of its O(..cap alpha..) radiative corrections. Implications for new physics and constraints of extra neutral gauge bosons are described. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Signals of universal extra dimension at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplob Bhattacherjee

    2007-11-01

    In the minimal universal extra dimension model, single production of = 2 gauge bosons provides a unique discriminating feature from supersymmetry. We discuss how the proposed international linear collider can act as a = 2 factory, much in the same vein as LEP.

  10. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M A; Dijkstra, P U; Reintsema, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Werker, P M N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  11. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  12. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  13. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  14. Collider Implications of Multiple Non-Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavri, R; Nandi, S

    2006-01-01

    We consider multiple TeV scale extra compact dimensions in an asymmetric string compactification scenario in which the SM gauge bosons can propagate into the TeV scale extra dimensions while the SM fermions are confined to the usual SM D3 brane. We calculate the contributions that the KK excitations of the gluons make to the multijet cross sections in proton proton collisions at the LHC energy. At very high pT, the dijet signal will either be enhanced significantly due to virtual g star exchanges or place a lower bound on the compactification scale of about 8 TeV. We find that the dijet signal is very sensitive to three parameters: the compactification scale, the string scale, and the number of extra dimensions. Thus, although the dijet signal is much more sensitive to KK effects, the dijet signal alone does not provide sufficient information to deduce the number of extra dimensions nor the compactification scale. However, the three jet signal, which is not sensitive to the string scale, can be analyzed in co...

  15. Application of the Frequency Spectrum to Spectral Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several frequency-based spectral similarity measures, derived from commonly-used ones, are developed for hyperspectral image classification based on the frequency domain. Since the frequency spectrum (magnitude spectrum of the original signature for each pixel from hyperspectral data can clearly reflect the spectral features of different types of land covers, we replace the original spectral signature with its frequency spectrum for calculating the existing spectral similarity measure. The frequency spectrum is symmetrical around the direct current (DC component; thus, we take one-half of the frequency spectrum from the DC component to the highest frequency component as the input signature. Furthermore, considering the fact that the low frequencies include most of the frequency energy, we can optimize the classification result by choosing the ratio of the frequency spectrum (from the DC component to the highest frequency component involved in the calculation. In our paper, the frequency-based measures based on the spectral gradient angle (SAM, spectral information divergence (SID, spectral correlation mapper (SCM, Euclidean distance (ED, normalized Euclidean distance (NED and SID × sin(SAM (SsS measures are called the F-SAM, F-SID, F-SCM, F-ED, F-NED and F-SsS, respectively. In the experiment, three commonly-used hyperspectral remote sensing images are employed as test data. The frequency-based measures proposed here are compared to the corresponding existing ones in terms of classification accuracy. The classification results by parameter optimization are also analyzed. The results show that, although not all frequency-based spectral similarity measures are better than the original ones, some frequency-based measures, such as the F-SsS and F-SID, exhibit a relatively better performance and have more robust applications than the other spectral similarity measures.

  16. Noncommutative geometry, Grand Symmetry and twisted spectral triple

    CERN Document Server

    Devastato, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    In the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model we discuss the possibility to derive the extra scalar field sv- initially suggested by particle physicist to stabilize the electroweak vacuum - from a "grand algebra" that contains the usual standard model algebra. We introduce the Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples for the Grand Symmetry model, to cure a technical problem, that is the appearance, together with the field sv, of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking making the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with the 126 GeV experimental value.

  17. Noncommutative geometry, Grand Symmetry and twisted spectral triple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devastato, Agostino

    2015-08-01

    In the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model we discuss the possibility to derive the extra scalar field sv - initially suggested by particle physicist to stabilize the electroweak vacuum - from a “grand algebra” that contains the usual standard model algebra. We introduce the Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples for the Grand Symmetry model, to cure a technical problem, that is the appearance, together with the field sv, of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking making the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with the 126 GeV experimental value.

  18. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T. [Also at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by ∼0.6% ± 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% ± 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar 'continuum'. Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar 'continuum', the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at λ ≳ 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  19. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  20. Large Spectral Library Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  1. Quarkonium Spectral Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsy, Agnes [Department of Mathematics and Science, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY 11205 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this talk I summarize the progress achieved in recent years on the understanding of quarkonium properties at finite temperature. Theoretical studies from potential models, lattice QCD, and effective field theories are discussed. I also highlight a bridge from spectral functions to experiment.

  2. Spectral representation of fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Bazen, Asker M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Akkermans, Anton H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Most fingerprint recognition systems are based on the use of a minutiae set, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and directions suffering from various deformations such as translation, rotation and scaling. The spectral minutiae representation introduced in this paper is a novel m

  3. Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Simona

    In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it predicts an enhancement of production cross sections at high invariant mass. The goal of this work is to search for an excess in the 100 pb-1 of diphoton data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab at s = 1.8 TeV during the 1992--1996 run. No excess is observed and thus we place a 95% confidence level limit on the Planck scale in the bulk extra dimensions MS of 899 GeV for constructive interference and of 797 GeV for destructive interference (Hewett convention).

  4. Multiple snapshot colored compressive spectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Claudia V.; Hinojosa, Carlos A.; Arce, Gonzalo R.; Arguello, Henry

    2017-04-01

    The snapshot colored compressive spectral imager (SCCSI) is a recent compressive spectral imaging (CSI) architecture that senses the spatial and spectral information of a scene in a single snapshot by means of a colored mosaic FPA detector and a dispersive element. Commonly, CSI architectures allow multiple snapshot acquisition, yielding improved reconstructions of spatially detailed and spectrally rich scenes. Each snapshot is captured employing a different coding pattern. In principle, SCCSI does not admit multiple snapshots since the pixelated tiling of optical filters is directly attached to the detector. This paper extends the concept of SCCSI to a system admitting multiple snapshot acquisition by rotating the dispersive element, so the dispersed spatio-spectral source is coded and integrated at different detector pixels in each rotation. Thus, a different set of coded projections is captured using the same optical components of the original architecture. The mathematical model of the multishot SCCSI system is presented along with several simulations. Results show that a gain up to 7 dB of peak signal-to-noise ratio is achieved when four SCCSI snapshots are compared to a single snapshot reconstruction. Furthermore, a gain up to 5 dB is obtained with respect to state-of-the-art architecture, the multishot CASSI.

  5. Passive Component Network for Antenna Isolation in MIMO Systems for Handheld Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.;

    2011-01-01

    mechanism, the efficiency from the scattering parameters increases significantly and the envelope correlation coefficient decreases dramatically. Nevertheless, when choosing the components, the ohmic losses must receive extra consideration in order to maximize the system’s total efficiency. Furthermore...

  6. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  7. Spectral-collocation variational integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqun; Wu, Boying; Leok, Melvin

    2017-03-01

    Spectral methods are a popular choice for constructing numerical approximations for smooth problems, as they can achieve geometric rates of convergence and have a relatively small memory footprint. In this paper, we introduce a general framework to convert a spectral-collocation method into a shooting-based variational integrator for Hamiltonian systems. We also compare the proposed spectral-collocation variational integrators to spectral-collocation methods and Galerkin spectral variational integrators in terms of their ability to reproduce accurate trajectories in configuration and phase space, their ability to conserve momentum and energy, as well as the relative computational efficiency of these methods when applied to some classical Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we note that spectrally-accurate variational integrators, such as the Galerkin spectral variational integrators and the spectral-collocation variational integrators, combine the computational efficiency of spectral methods together with the geometric structure-preserving and long-time structural stability properties of symplectic integrators.

  8. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. França

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  9. Klinische betekenis van extra vitaminen uit supplementen en verrijkte voedingsmiddelen [Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g.

  10. An overview of the EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and Variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. This will include a search for fast transients, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community. A didactic program in selected High Schools in Italy, Germany and the UK will also be implemented. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), C...

  11. Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of LS PEG and TW PIC Using XMM-NEWTON Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebpour Sheshvan, Nasrin; Balman, Solen

    2016-07-01

    We report the analysis of archival XMM-Newton X-ray observations of LS Peg and TW Pic. These are Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) suggested as Intermediate Polars (IPs), but unconfirmed in the X-rays. Identification of several periodic oscillations in the optical band hint them as IPs. Unlike the previous spectral analysis on the EPIC-MOS data by fitting a hot optically thin plasma emission model with a single temperature for LS Peg, we simultaneously fitted all EPIC spectrum (pn+MOS) using a composite model of absorption for interstellar medium (tbabs) with two different partial covering absorbers (pcfabs) including a multitemperature plasma emission component (cevmkl) and a Gaussian emission line at 6.4 keV. TW Pic is best modeled in a similar manner with only one partial covering absorber and an extra Gaussian emission line at 6.7 keV. LS Peg has a maximum plasma temperature of ˜14.8 keV with an X-ray luminosity of ˜5×10^{32}ergs ^{-1} translating to an accretion rate of ˜1.27×10^{-10}M _{⊙}yr ^{-1}. TW Pic shows kT _{max} ˜38.7 keV with an X-ray luminosity around 1.6×10^{33}ergs ^{-1} at an accretion rate of ˜4×10^{-10}M _{⊙}yr ^{-1}. In addition, we discuss orbital modulations in the X-rays and power spectral analysis, and derive the EPIC pn spectra for orbital minimum and orbital maximum phases for both sources. We elaborate on the geometry of accretion and absorption in the X-ray emitting regions of both sources with articulation on the magnetic nature.

  12. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  13. Optimal material discrimination using spectral x-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, S J; Meyer, J; Watts, R

    2011-09-21

    Spectral x-ray imaging using novel photon counting x-ray detectors (PCDs) with energy resolving abilities is capable of providing energy-selective images. PCDs have energy thresholds, enabling the classification of photons into multiple energy bins. The extra energy information provided may allow materials such as iodine and calcium, or water and fat to be distinguishable. The information content of spectral x-ray images, however, depends on how the photons are grouped together. In this work, we present a model to optimize energy windows for maximum material discrimination. Multivariate statistics allows the confidence region of the correlated uncertainties to be mapped in the thickness space. Minimization of the uncertainties enables optimization of energy windows. Applications related to small animal imaging and breast imaging are considered.

  14. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction We have assembled a digital reflectance spectral library that covers the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to far infrared along with sample documentation. The library includes samples of minerals, rocks, soils, physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures, plants, vegetation communities, microorganisms, and man-made materials. The samples and spectra collected were assembled for the purpose of using spectral features for the remote detection of these and similar materials. Analysis of spectroscopic data from laboratory, aircraft, and spacecraft instrumentation requires a knowledge base. The spectral library discussed here forms a knowledge base for the spectroscopy of minerals and related materials of importance to a variety of research programs being conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey. Much of this library grew out of the need for spectra to support imaging spectroscopy studies of the Earth and planets. Imaging spectrometers, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Visible/Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) or the NASA Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) which is currently orbiting Saturn, have narrow bandwidths in many contiguous spectral channels that permit accurate definition of absorption features in spectra from a variety of materials. Identification of materials from such data requires a comprehensive spectral library of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials, and other subjects in the scene. Our research involves the use of the spectral library to identify the components in a spectrum of an unknown. Therefore, the quality of the library must be very good. However, the quality required in a spectral library to successfully perform an investigation depends on the scientific questions to be answered and the type of algorithms to be used. For example, to map a mineral using imaging spectroscopy and the mapping algorithm of Clark and others (1990a, 2003b

  16. Compressive spectral method for the simulation of the water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach for decreasing the computational effort required for the spectral simulations of the water waves is introduced. Signals with majority of the components zero, are known as the sparse signals. Like majority of the signals in the nature it can be realized that water waves are sparse either in time or in the frequency domain. Using the sparsity property of the water waves in the time or in the frequency domain, the compressive sampling algorithm can be used as a tool for improving the performance of the spectral simulation of the water waves. The methodology offered in this paper depends on the idea of using a smaller number of spectral components compared to the classical spectral method with a high number of components. After performing the time integration with a smaller number of spectral components and using the compressive sampling technique, it is shown that the water wave field can be reconstructed with a significantly better efficiency compared to the classical spectral method w...

  17. Context Dependent Spectral Unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Cape Town, South Africa , July 2009. HONORS AND AWARDS: 1. IEEE Outstanding CECS Student Award...COMMEND on the Usgs1C2M3 data across the 25 runs and at all noise levels: (a) SME , (b) SMAE, (c) AME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6.10 True (solid lines...identifying multiple sets of endmembers. In other words, the unmixing process is adapted to different regions of the spectral space. Another challenge with most

  18. Convection's enhancement in thermal micro pipes using extra fluid and shape memory material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Ioan; Sprinceana, Siviu

    2016-12-01

    Up to now, there have been developed various applications of thermal micro pipes[1-3], such as refrigerating systems, high heat flux electronics cooling, and biological devices etc., based on vacuum vaporization followed by a convective phenomenon that allows vapor transfer from the vaporization area to the condensation one. This article presents studies carried out on the enhancement of the convective phenomenon taking place in flat thermal micro pipes. The proposed method[4] is aimed at the cooling of power electronics components, such as microprocessors. The conducted research focused on the use of shape memory materials that allow, by a semi-active method, to bring extra fluid in the vaporization area of the thermal micro pipe. The conducted investigations analyzed the variation of the liquid layer thickness in the trapezoidal micro channels and the thermal flow change over time. The modification of liquid flow was studied in correlation with the capacity of the polysynthetic material to retain the most extra fluid in its pores. The enhancement of the convective heat transfer phenomenon in flat thermal micro pipes was investigated in correspondence to the increase of liquid quantity in the vaporization zone. The charts obtained by aid of Mathcad[5] allowed to represent the evolution during a period of time (or with the pipe's length) of the liquid film thickness, the flow and the thermal flow, as a function of the liquid supply variation due to the shape memory materials and the modification of the working temperature.

  19. Ossification in an extra-intradural spinal meningioma-pathologic and surgical vistas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky P; Mrak, Robert E; Mutgi, Sunil A; Medhkour, Azedine

    2013-12-01

    Intradural and intratumorous ossification in spinal meningiomas are rare compared to their cranial counterparts. Extradural extension of the spinal meningioma is not uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, the ossification in an extra-intradural spinal meningioma is not yet reported in the literature. The authors report a rare case of an extra-intradural spinal meningioma with ossification and calcification. The review of literature including the surgical challenges and the histologic variations as well as histogenesis of the ossified spinal meningioma is discussed. Case report and review of the literature. A 61-year-old woman presented with complaints of numbness and weakness for 3 years, and gait disturbances for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass compressing the spinal cord at the T4 level. Complete resection of the tumor was achieved with coagulation and partial resection of the dura. Histopathological examination demonstrated a psammomatous spinal meningioma with intratumorous and intradural mature lamellar bone formation, complete with marrow and hematopoietic cells. The patient is asymptomatic at 3-year postoperative follow-up. Despite adherence of the ossified mass to the dura, arachnoid, and spinal cord, complete atraumatic resection of the mass was possible with favorable surgical outcome. In addition to calcification as a likely forerunner of ossification in the psammomatous subtype of meningioma, metaplastic differentiation of neoplastic cells to osseous and hematopoietic component might play a crucial role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of extra training means on effectiveness of fencers’ technical tactic actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopatenko G.O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine influence of the worked out extra training means’ complex on effectiveness of realization of elite sportsmen’s competition functioning components. Material: in the research 12 fencers participated. The researches were conducted in the morning, against the background of organism’s recreation. Before sportsmen’s duel we applied two types of pre-competition warming up: traditional and experimental. Video recording was fulfilled with video camera Samsung HMX-S15. Results: we calculated volume, effectiveness and efficiency of sportsmen’s actions in fights with different opponents and in different situations of duel. We showed possibility of extra training complexes’ application, oriented on mobilization of workability in the process of direct pre-start preparation of elite sportsmen. Such exercises considered main actions and organism’s typical responses in the process of competition functioning. Conclusions: Consideration of typolical (for fencing organism’s responses and peculiarities of competition functioning structure influence positively on indicators of sportsmen’s competition functioning.

  1. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  2. Probing extra Yukawa couplings by precision measurements of Higgs boson properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Kikuchi, Mariko

    2017-07-01

    If one removes any ad hoc symmetry assumptions, the general two-Higgs-doublet model should have additional Yukawa interactions independent from fermion mass generation, in general involving flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings. These extra couplings can affect the discovered Higgs boson h through fermion loop contributions. We calculate the renormalized h Z Z coupling at the one-loop level and evaluate the dependence on heavy Higgs boson mass and extra Yukawa coupling ρt t. Precision measurements at future colliders can explore the parameter space, and can give stronger bounds on ρt t than the current bound from flavor experiments. As a side result, we find that if ρt tcos γ <0 , where cos γ is the exotic Higgs component of h , the ρt t-induced top loop contribution cancels against bosonic loop contributions, and one may have alignment without decoupling, namely sin (-γ )≃1 , but exotic scalar bosons could have masses of several hundred GeV.

  3. Warped Geometry in Higher Dimensions with an Orbifold Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2001-01-01

    We solve the Einstein equations in higher dimensions with warped geometry where an extra dimension is assumed to have orbifold symmetry, $S^{1}/Z_{2}$. The setup we consider here is an extension to (5+D)-dimensions of the 5-dimensional Randall-Sundrum model, and two hidden brane and observable brane are fixed on orbifold. Anisotropic cosmological constant on each brane with (4+D)-dimensional spacetime is assumed, and the warped metric of 4-dimensions is generally different from one of extra D-dimensions. It is pointed out that the form of metric depends on both the sign of bulk cosmological constant and initial condition of brane world. Furthermore, anisotropic cosmological constant on each brane can be realized due to the presence of brane.

  4. A bulk inflaton from large volume extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Thurston, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    The universe may have extra spatial dimensions with large volume that we cannot perceive because the energy required to excite modes in the extra directions is too high. Many examples are known of such manifolds with a large volume and a large mass gap. These compactifications can help explain the weakness of four-dimensional gravity and, as we show here, they also have the capacity to produce reasonable potentials for an inflaton field. Modeling the inflaton as a bulk scalar field, it becomes very weakly coupled in four dimensions, and this enables us to build phenomenologically acceptable inflationary models with tunings at the few per mil level. We speculate on dark matter candidates and the possibility of braneless models in this setting.

  5. Epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, C; Jacobsson, L T H

    2004-01-01

    Extra-articular RA (ExRA) includes a wide variety of disease manifestations. Although rheumatologists in general are aware that such events are clinically important, the heterogeneity of available data, including discrepancies in case definitions, has complicated constructive discussions on this aspect of the RA disease phenotype. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of co-morbidity in patients with RA. ExRA manifestations are not uncommon, explain excess mortality in RA and are predicted by smoking and autoantibodies. Further studies of the mechanisms underlying these associations are likely to be important in improving our understanding of the systemic nature of RA. This article discusses the methodological issues involved in the study of ExRA manifestations, presents suggested criteria that have been used in clinical studies, and reviews important surveys of the epidemiology of extra-articular RA.

  6. AdS/CFT in Virtual Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Dolce, Donatello

    2011-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant formalism of compact space-time dimensions with periodic boundary conditions provides a semi-classical quantization method in field theory. As shown in [arXiv:0903.3680], the Feynman path integral can be retrieved in terms of the interference between classical paths with different winding numbers. In this paper it is shown that such a purely four-dimensional field theory is manifestly dual to an extra-dimensional field theory. The resulting correspondence between extra-dimensional field theory and ordinary quantum field theory can be interpreted in terms of AdS/CFT phenomenology. In fact, the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary encodes the kinematical information of a particle and can be used to formalize interactions, similarly to linearized gravity. By applying this idea to a simple Quark-Gluon-Plasma freeze-out model, we obtain an analogy with basic aspects of AdS/QCD.

  7. A review on models for count data with extra zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Nik Sarah Nik; Zamzuri, Zamira Hasanah

    2017-04-01

    Typically, the zero inflated models are usually used in modelling count data with excess zeros. The existence of the extra zeros could be structural zeros or random which occur by chance. These types of data are commonly found in various disciplines such as finance, insurance, biomedical, econometrical, ecology, and health sciences. As found in the literature, the most popular zero inflated models used are zero inflated Poisson and zero inflated negative binomial. Recently, more complex models have been developed to account for overdispersion and unobserved heterogeneity. In addition, more extended distributions are also considered in modelling data with this feature. In this paper, we review related literature, provide a recent development and summary on models for count data with extra zeros.

  8. Higher-Dimensional Unified Theories with Fuzzy Extra Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Chatzistavrakidis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Theories defined in higher than four dimensions have been used in various frameworks and have a long and interesting history. Here we review certain attempts, developed over the last years, towards the construction of unified particle physics models in the context of higher-dimensional gauge theories with non-commutative extra dimensions. These ideas have been developed in two complementary ways, namely (i starting with a higher-dimensional gauge theory and dimensionally reducing it to four dimensions over fuzzy internal spaces and (ii starting with a four-dimensional, renormalizable gauge theory and dynamically generating fuzzy extra dimensions. We describe the above approaches and moreover we discuss the inclusion of fermions and the construction of realistic chiral theories in this context.

  9. Higher-Dimensional Unified Theories with Fuzzy Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; 10.3842/SIGMA.2010.063

    2010-01-01

    Theories defined in higher than four dimensions have been used in various frameworks and have a long and interesting history. Here we review certain attempts, developed over the last years, towards the construction of unified particle physics models in the context of higher-dimensional gauge theories with non-commutative extra dimensions. These ideas have been developed in two complementary ways, namely (i) starting with a higher-dimensional gauge theory and dimensionally reducing it to four dimensions over fuzzy internal spaces and (ii) starting with a four-dimensional, renormalizable gauge theory and dynamically generating fuzzy extra dimensions. We describe the above approaches and moreover we discuss the inclusion of fermions and the construction of realistic chiral theories in this context.

  10. Extra-pulmonary Pneumocystis jiroveciinfection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayesh Karam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In physical examination abdominal tenderness, gate disturbance and penile herpetic lesions were detected. Decreased disc height at T11-T12 level was detected in chest X-ray. Abdominal sonography and CT scan revealed hypo dense lesions in Lt left Lobe of liver and multiple hypo dense splenic and pancreatic lesions, ascitis, Lt left sided pleural effusion, thickening of jejuneal mucosa and edema of bowel wall. Vertebral body lesion and paravertebral abscess, bony calvarial involvement and adjacent extra axial brain lesion were observed in imaging were other findings. RNA analysis for HIV was positive. Vertebral lesion biopsy and aspiration of splenic lesion were performed and pathology revealed Pneumocystis jirovecii suggestive of extra pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii infection.

  11. CP phase from twisted Higgs VEV in extra dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Sakamoto, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for generating CP phase via Higgs vacuum expectation value originating from geometry of an extra dimension. Allowing a twisted boundary condition for the Higgs doublet drives us into an extra-dimension-coordinate-dependent vacuum expectation value containing a CP phase degree of freedom. With this mechanism, we construct a phenomenological model on S1 which can simultaneously and naturally explain the origin of fermion generation, quark mass hierarchy, and the structure of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix with the CP phase. By introducing point interactions, which are additional boundary points on S1, the 5D quarks realize the three generations. Our situation is phenomenologically-preferred one since all the flavor structures are realized with good precision and almost all dimensionless scaled parameters take values of natural O(10) magnitudes. An almost exponential vacuum expectation value profile of a scalar singlet, which appears in the Yukawa sector, helps the naturalness in...

  12. Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.

  13. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2015-01-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to th...

  14. Retroperitoneal extra-adrenal paraganglioma: a rare but important diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal paragangliomas of the retroperitonium are infrequently diagnosed. Their malignant behaviour cannot be predicted on initial clinical and histological assessment. These tumours have higher propensity for subsequent metastasis compared with pargangliomas at other sites. AIM: We aim to describe a case report of an incidental finding of left retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a young man who presented with right flank pain. We also aim to emphasize the importance of diagnosis and the malignant potential of these tumours. METHOD: Patient\\'s clinical notes, operative findings, imaging studies and laboratory investigations including histology results were reviewed. A literature search was done to look into the incidence, presentation, follow-up plan and treatment options for these tumours. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection is the only available curative option for extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Metastasis is observed years after surgery, hence long-term follow-up is required.

  15. Constraining Extra Space Dimensions using Precision Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Highly accurate measurements of quantum level energies in molecular systems provide a test ground for new physics, as such effects could manifest themselves as minute shifts in the quantum level structures of atoms and molecules. For the lightest molecular systems, neutral molecular hydrogen (H$_2$, HD and D$_2$) and the molecular hydrogen ions (H$_2^+$, HD$^+$ and D$_2^+$), weak force effects are several orders weaker than current experimental and theoretical results, while contributions of Newtonian gravity and the strong force at the characteristic molecular distance scale of 1 \\AA\\ can be safely neglected. Comparisons between experiment and QED calculations for these molecular systems can be interpreted in terms of probing large extra space dimensions, under which gravity could become much stronger than in ordinary 3-D space. Under this assumption, using the spectra of H$_2$ we have derived constraints on the compactification scales for extra dimensions within the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali (ADD) frame...

  16. Development and decay of extra-linguistic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, B G; Bucciarelli, M; Geminiani, G C

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive Pragmatics theory is concerned with analyzing the cognitive processes underlying communication. In previous works we have explained the emergence of communication in context, as revealed by very young children, and the communicative deficits shown by closed head injury patients. The aim of the present work is an extension of Cognitive Pragmatics to the emergence and the decay of extra-linguistic communication. In particular, we investigate the performance of 2- to 7-year-old children and that of Alzheimer's patients in standard and nonstandard (irony and deceit) pragmatic tasks. The predictions derived by Cognitive Pragmatics are confirmed. Comprehension of pragmatic phenomena which are more complex according to the theory emerges later in the development (Experiment 1), and their decay is most severe in Alzheimer's patients (Experiment 2). We conclude that the framework provided by Cognitive Pragmatics can accommodate both the development and the decay of extra-linguistic communication.

  17. Radiologic manifestations of extra-cardiac complications of infective endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colen, Teran W.; Gunn, Martin; Cook, Erin; Dubinsky, Theodore [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Ave, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbidity and a mortality rate of 9-30%, even with appropriate diagnosis and therapy. Septic emboli, caused by IE, can affect any organ or tissue in the body with an arterial supply and occur in 12-40% of IE cases. The most common extra-cardiac organ system involved in IE is the central nervous system. Other organs frequently involved are the lungs (especially in right-sided IE), spleen, kidneys, liver, and the musculoskeletal system. In addition, the arterial system itself is susceptible to the development of potentially fatal mycotic aneurysms. As extra-cardiac complications often antedate the clinical diagnosis of IE, it is important that the diagnosis is suggested when characteristic findings are encountered during imaging. In addition, imaging is often used to monitor the extent of complications in patients with a known diagnosis of IE. (orig.)

  18. Large extra dimensions, sterile neutrinos and solar neutrino data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D O; Mohapatra, R N; Yellin, S J

    2001-07-23

    Solar, atmospheric, and LSND neutrino oscillation results require a light sterile neutrino, nu(B), which can exist in the bulk of extra dimensions. Solar nu(e), confined to the brane, can oscillate in the vacuum to the zero mode of nu(B) and via successive Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein transitions to Kaluza-Klein states of nu(B). This new way to fit solar data is provided by both low and intermediate string scale models. From average rates seen in the three types of solar experiments, the Super-Kamiokande spectrum is predicted with 73% probability, but dips characteristic of the 0.06 mm extra dimension should be seen in the SNO spectrum.

  19. A bulk inflaton from large-volume extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Brian, E-mail: greene@physics.columbia.ed [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kabat, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kabat@lehman.cuny.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, CUNY, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Levin, Janna, E-mail: janna@astro.columbia.ed [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Thurston, Dylan, E-mail: dpt@cpw.math.columbia.ed [Department of Mathematics, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-01-03

    The universe may have extra spatial dimensions with large volume that we cannot perceive because the energy required to excite modes in the extra directions is too high. Many examples are known of manifolds with a large volume and a large mass gap. These compactifications can help explain the weakness of four-dimensional gravity and, as we show here, they also have the capacity to produce reasonable potentials for an inflaton field. Modeling the inflaton as a bulk scalar field, it becomes very weakly coupled in four dimensions and this enables us to build phenomenologically acceptable inflationary models with tunings at the few per mil level. We speculate on dark matter candidates and the possibility of braneless models in this setting.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidative enrichment of oak (Quercus robur) bark by rotation planar extraction using ExtraChrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrensek, Samo; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Fyhrquist, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia

    2004-04-15

    The multifunctional ExtraChrom instrument was used in the extraction of antimicrobial and radical scavenging components from oak (Quercus robur L.) bark. Milled and sieved oak bark was extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol solution in water on the ExtraChrom instrument using step-gradient in the preparative separation. Extracts were tested using agar diffusion method on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Candida albicans. Some extracts showed moderate bactericidal, fungicidal, bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity. The composition related to activity of the fractions and extracts was screened simultaneously by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) detected by UV and by spraying the plate with radical scavenging reagent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to detect antioxidant activity. Thus, we could demonstrate the antiradical and antimicrobial activity of oak beneficial in the storage of wine against the oxidation and human microbial exposure.

  1. Newton's law in braneworlds with an infinite extra dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2002-01-01

    We study the behavior of the four$-$dimensional Newton's law in warped braneworlds. The setup considered here is a $(3+n)$-brane embedded in $(5+n)$ dimensions, where $n$ extra dimensions are compactified and a dimension is infinite. We show that the wave function of gravity is described in terms of the Bessel functions of $(2+n/2)$-order and that estimate the correction to Newton's law. In particular, the Newton's law for $n=1$ can be exactly obtained.

  2. Detecting the polarization signatures of extra-solar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, J. H.; Lucas, P. W.; Bailey, J. A.; Tamura, M.; Hirst, E.

    2006-06-01

    Direct detection of the light scattered from extra-solar planets is important in establishing the planet's mass, radius, albedo and nature of the particles in the planetary atmosphere. We describe, and present results from, a new optical polarimeter (PlanetPol) designed to reach fractional polarizations of 10 -6 or better from ground-based telescopes, necessary to detect the polarization signature of unresolved hot-Jupiters.

  3. Tom Bissel, Voglia di vincere/Extra Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Agnoletto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leggere il libro di Tom Bissell Extra lives: Why Video Games Matter, tradotto in Italia con il titolo Voglia di vincere, è stata un’impresa. L’impresa di qualcuno abituato a muoversi in ambito cinematografico e musicale, ma che affronta con l’entusiasmo e le incertezze del neofita i videogames e tutto ciò che riguarda la sfera videoludica, nei suoi aspetti creativi, estetici, di design e meccanica di gioco.

  4. Lymphomas and metastases of the extra-ocular musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Behrmann, Curd; Koesling, Sabrina [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The involvement of extra-ocular muscles in malignant diseases has been described only sporadically. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of orbital muscle lymphoma and metastases and to analyse their radiological findings. In the time period from January 2000 to January 2010, 11 patients with extra-ocular muscle malignancies (EOMM) were retrospectively identified in the radiological database of our institution. There were four women and seven men with a median age of 58 years (range, 47 to 72 years). In three patients non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), in seven cases intramuscular metastases of solid tumours and in one patient plasmacytoma of orbital muscles were diagnosed. In all, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 11 patients using a 1.5-T MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision Sonata Upgrade, Siemens, Germany). The diagnosis of EOMM was confirmed histopathologically by muscle biopsy in all cases. The prevalence of orbital muscle involvement in plasmacytoma was 0.3%, in NHL 0.4% and in carcinomas 0.1%. Clinically, EOMM presented as painless proptosis and motility disturbance. Medial and lateral rectus muscles were involved in most patients. On T2-weighted images, the lesions were isointense or mixed iso-to-hyperintense in comparison to the unaffected musculature. On T1-weighted images, all tumours were homogeneously isointense. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, most lesions showed moderate heterogeneous enhancement. Lymphomas and metastases are rare lesions of the extra-ocular musculature with a prevalence below 0.5%. Their radiological and clinical signs are non-specific and include painless muscle enlargement or masses. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diseases of extra-ocular muscles. (orig.)

  5. Extra-intracranial standard bypass in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandow, Nora; von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Rosenbaum, Sverre;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic atherosclerotic vessel occlusion and cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency may benefit from extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Due to demographic changes, an increasing number of elderly patients presents with cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency. So far......, little data for EC-IC bypass surgery in elderly patients suffering occlusive cerebrovascular disease are available. We therefore designed a retrospective study to address the question whether EC-IC bypass is a safe and efficient treatment in a patient cohort ≥70 years....

  6. Experimental Signatures of Split Fermions in Extra Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Yuval

    2000-01-01

    The smallness and hierarchy of the fermion parameters could be explained in theories with extra dimensions where doublets and singlets are localized at slightly separated points. Scattering cross sections for collisions of such fermions vanish exponentially at energies high enough to probe the separation distance. This is because the separation puts a lower bound on the attainable impact parameter in the collision. The NLC, and in particular the combination of the e^+e^- and e^-e^- modes, can...

  7. Search for Extra Dimensions with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shmatov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional theories at TeV energies, as given in the brane world scenarios with large or compact extra spatial dimensions (ED), are discussed. One interesting feature of recent ED models is the rich low-energy phenomenology that originates from the Kaluza-Klein spectrum of various particles propagating in ED. A series of searches is addressed in the CMS experiment with different signatures.

  8. Searches for Dark Matter and Extra Dimensions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Demiragli, Z

    2015-01-01

    The $CMS^1$ and $ATLAS^2$ collaborations at the Large Hadron Coltider have collected approx­ imately $20fb^{-1}$ of pp collision data with center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and have performed targeted searches for Dark Matter and Extra Dimensions. No significant deviations from the standard model prediction have been observed. A summary of the latest experimental results is presented here.

  9. Achieving More with Less: Extra Milers’ Behavioral Influences in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Li, N.; Zhao, H; Walter, SL; Zhang, X; J. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Teams are composed of individual members who collectively contribute to team success. As a result, contemporary team research tends to focus on how team overall properties (e.g., the average of team personality and behavior) affect team processes and effectiveness while overlooking the potential unique influences of specific members on team outcomes. Drawing on minority influence theory (Grant & Patil, 2012), we extend previous teams research by demonstrating that an extra miler (i.e., a team...

  10. Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes.

  11. CERN gives Higgs hunters extra month to collect data

    CERN Multimedia

    Morton, O

    2000-01-01

    In August, scientists working on LEP's ALEPH dectector saw signs that the accelerator might be producing Higgs bosons. A reanalysis of data from DELPHI flagged something similar there. As a result LEP is to continue operating for an extra month to try and verify the results. After that though the accelerator must close to prevent unacceptable delays in the construction of the LHC, scheduled to start up in summer 2005 (2 pages).

  12. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Are spectral and timing correlations similar in different spectral states in black hole X-ray binaries?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamkar, M; van der Klis, M; Altamirano, D; Miller, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5--0127 and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope. The bandpass of the X-ray Telescope has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time, a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states; most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the hard-intermediate state (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard...

  14. Kaluza theory with zero-length extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the Kaluza theory and its relation to the gauge theory is presented. Two degenerate metrics on the $4+d$-dimensional total manifold are used, one corresponding to the spacetime metric and giving the fiber of the gauge bundle, and the other one to the metric of the fiber and giving the horizontal bundle of the connection. When combined, the two metrics give the Kaluza metric and its generalization to the non-abelian case, justifying thus his choice. Considering the two metrics as fundamental rather than the Kaluza metric explains why Kaluza's theory should not be regarded as five-dimensional vacuum gravity. This approach suggests that the only evidence of extra dimensions is given by the existence of the gauge forces, explaining thus why other kinds of evidence are not available. In addition, because the degenerate metric corresponding to the spacetime metric vanishes along the extra dimensions, the lengths in the extra dimensions is zero, preventing us to directly probe them. Therefore this ...

  15. XQCAT eXtra Quark Combined Analysis Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Barducci, D; Buchkremer, M; Marrouche, J; Moretti, S; Panizzi, L

    2015-01-01

    XQCAT (eXtra Quark Combined Analysis Tool) is a tool aimed to determine exclusion Confidence Levels (eCLs) for scenarios of new physics characterised by the presence of one or multiple heavy extra quarks (XQ) which interact through Yukawa couplings with any of the Standard Model (SM) quarks. The code uses a database of efficiencies for pre-simulated processes of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) pair production and on-shell decays of extra quarks. In the version 1.0 of XQCAT the efficiencies have been computed for a set of seven publicly available search results by the CMS experiment, and the package is subject to future updates to include further searches by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The input for the code is a text file in which masses, branching ratios (BRs) and dominant chirality of the couplings of the new quarks are provided. The output of the code is the eCL of the test point for each implemented experimental analysis considered individually and, when possible, in statistical combination.

  16. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496].

  17. Extra-framework aluminium species in hydrated faujasite zeolite as investigated by two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenhui; Zheng, Anmin; Su, Yongchao; Fang, Hanjun; Shen, Wanling; Yu, Zhiwu; Chen, Lei; Deng, Feng

    2010-04-21

    Extra-framework aluminium (EFAL) species in hydrated dealuminated HY zeolite were thoroughly investigated by various two-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques as well as density functional theoretical calculations. (27)Al MQ MAS NMR experiments demonstrated that five-coordinated and four-coordinated extra-framework aluminium subsequently disappeared with the increase of water loading, and the quadrupole interaction of each aluminium species decreased gradually during the hydration process. (1)H double quantum MAS NMR revealed that the EFAL species in the hydrated zeolite consisted of three components: a hydroxyl AlOH group, and two types of water molecule (rigid and mobile water). (1)H-(27)Al LG-CP HETCOR experiments indicated that both the extra-framework and the framework Al atoms were in close proximity to the rigid water in the fully rehydrated zeolite. The experimental results were further confirmed by DFT theoretical calculations. Moreover, theoretical calculation results further demonstrated that the EFAL species in the hydrated zeolite consisted of the three components and the calculated (1)H NMR chemical shift for each component agreed well with our NMR observations. It is the rigid water that connects the extra-framework aluminium with the four-coordinated framework aluminium through strong hydrogen bonds.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  19. Twisted spectral triple for the Standard Model and spontaneous breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Devastato, Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry have been introduced to explain how to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples to cure a technical problem of the grand symmetry, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutative geometry of the standard model, with two Higgs-like fields: scalar and vector.

  20. Constraints on the size of the extra dimension from KK gravitinos decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherson, David [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-I, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    We study the consequences of the gravitino decay into dark matter. We suppose that the lightest neutralino is the main component of dark matter. In our framework gravitino is heavy enough to decay before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis starts. We consider a model coming from a five dimensional supergravity compactified on S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} with gravity in the bulk and matter localized on tension-less branes at the orbifold fixed points. We require that the dark matter, which is produced thermally and in the decay of Kaluza-Klein modes of gravitino, has an abundance compatible with observation. We deduce from our model that there are curves of constraints between the size of the extra-dimension and the reheating temperature of the universe after inflation. (author)

  1. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  2. Markers of quality and genuineness of commercial extra virgin sacha inchi oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chasquibol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work tackles the study of the quality and authenticity of oils labeled and commercialized as extra virgin sacha inchi oil. Major and minor components as triglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, tocopherols, sterols and hydrocarbons are determined as well as other physicochemical parameters (density, viscosity, acidity and peroxide value. The results showed that some of the commercialized oils do not fulfill the basic requirement established in the regulation such as the content of α-linolenic acid, higher than 44.7 or 55.0% in the cases of P. volubilis and P. huayllabambana, respectively. The calculated stigmasterol/campesterol ratio for genuine sacha inchi oils should be around 4, however not all commercial oils analyzed comply with this requirement. The presence of the flavons sesamin and sesamolin indicates the addition of compounds from sesame oils. Finally, some of the commercial oils showed to contain trans fatty acids although this was not accompanied by the sterene hydrocarbon presence.

  3. Cosmic strings with twisted magnetic flux lines and wound-strings in extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We consider a generalization of the Nielsen-Olesen ansatz, in the abelian-Higgs model, which describes strings with twisted magnetic flux lines in the vortex core. The solution does not possess cylindrical symmetry, which leads to the existence of components of conserved momentum, both around the core-axis and along the length of the string. In addition, we consider a model of F-strings with rotating, geodesic windings in the compact space of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry and determine matching conditions which ensure energy and momentum conservation when loops chop off from the long-string network. We find that the expressions for the constants of motion, which determine the macroscopic string dynamics, can be made to coincide with those for the twisted flux line string, suggesting that extra- dimensional effects for F-strings may be mimicked by field-theoretic structure in topological defects.

  4. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  5. A NEW APPROACH FOR PREDICTING DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF EXTRA-HIGH SPEED DIGITAL VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜昌; 钟廷修; 许仰曾

    2002-01-01

    High-speed digital valves are devices ideally suited for the direct interface of fluid power components to digital computers due to their on/off characteristics. In this paper, a model of an extra-high speed digital valve applied in fuel injection system was presented. In order to get the ability of fast response and a simple construction, a new concept for designing and predicting the valve was presented herewith. A new predicting simulation model of the entire test stand was utilized in order to parameterize the model against measured data. The new model predicts transient valve behavior and the proper dynamic coupling between the electrical, magnetic, mechanical and fluid subsystems. Based on the model and simulation, a prototype valve with working pressure of 120 MPa and frequency of 2 kHz was designed and fabricated, its experimental and prediction results for armature motion show excellent agreement.

  6. A prospective comparison between Kapandji and percutaneous extra-focal fixation in extra articular distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhamidi, Seyed Mehdi; Bayat, Farzad Merrikh

    2013-01-01

    there are multiple methods of distal radius fractures treatments. Of these percutaneous wire insertion has yielded popular acceptance. These percutaneous wire insertions can be done through many different ways with their own advantages and disadvantages. One of these methods is Kapandji method and because of its inherent stability in biomechanical examinations we suppose that we can begin the range of motion sooner than other methods with the hope of better outcome. From 2010 to 2012 we studied 45 patients, of these 23 went under extra-focal technique and 22 went under Kapandji technique. After Kapandji we immobilized the limb in splint for 4 weeks and started partial motion thereafter and in the extra-focal group we immobilized them in for 6 weeks in long arm casts. After 3 months and 6 months we assess the Gartland and Warley score and find 39% and 73% excellent and good result in extra-focal and 45% and 86% excellent and good result in Kapandji group after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Although there were about 0.22 mm collapse in both groups, here were no statistically significant differences in functional score or radiologic and anatomic parameters between groups. we have find Kapandji technique a suitable method of distal radius fracture fixation in cases with no articular involvement and we think it is better to immobilize the limb for at least 6 weeks after Kapandji fixation, in order to better control the pain.

  7. Chelyabinsk meteorite explains unusual spectral properties of Baptistina Asteroid Family

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan; Bottke, William; Cloutis, Ed; Izawa, Matt; O'Brien, Dave; Mann, Paul; Cuddy, Matt; Corre, Lucille Le; Gaffey, Michael; Fujihara, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the spectral and compositional properties of Chelyabinsk meteorite to identify its possible parent body in the main asteroid belt. Our analysis shows that the meteorite contains two spectrally distinct but compositionally indistinguishable components of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material. Our X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the two lithologies of the Chelyabinsk meteorite are extremely similar in modal mineralogy. The meteorite is compositionally s...

  8. Nonlinear Spectral-Spatial Control and Localization of Supercontinuum Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshev, Dragomir N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Dreischuh, Alexander; Fischer, Robert; Ha, Sangwoo; Bolger, Jeremy; Bui, Lam; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-09-01

    We present the first observation of spatiospectral control and localization of supercontinuum light through the nonlinear interaction of spectral components in extended periodic structures. We use an array of optical waveguides in a LiNbO3 crystal and employ the interplay between diffraction and nonlinearity to dynamically control the output spectrum of the supercontinuum radiation. This effect presents an efficient scheme for optically tunable spectral filtering of supercontinua.

  9. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  10. Multicentric extra-abdominal desmoid tumors arising in bilateral lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Fukushima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors preferentially affect the shoulders, arms, backs, buttocks, and thighs of young adults. Multicentric occurrence is rather rare but seems to be another distinctive feature of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors. In this article we report a rare case of multicentric extra-abdominal desmoid tumors arising in bilateral lower limbs.

  11. 7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the...

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.

    2001-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to characterize approximately 7000 downwelling solar irradiance spectra retrieved at the Southern Great Plains site during an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) shortwave intensive operating period. This analysis technique has proven to be very effective in reducing a large set of variables into a much smaller set of independent variables while retaining the information content. It is used to determine the minimum number of parameters necessary to characterize atmospheric spectral irradiance or the dimensionality of atmospheric variability. It was found that well over 99% of the spectral information was contained in the first six mutually orthogonal linear combinations of the observed variables (flux at various wavelengths). Rotation of the principal components was effective in separating various components by their independent physical influences. The majority of the variability in the downwelling solar irradiance (380-1000 nm) was explained by the following fundamental atmospheric parameters (in order of their importance): cloud scattering, water vapor absorption, molecular scattering, and ozone absorption. In contrast to what has been proposed as a resolution to a clear-sky absorption anomaly, no unexpected gaseous absorption signature was found in any of the significant components.

  13. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  14. Spectral Variability of FSRQs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu; Y. L. Ai

    2011-03-01

    The optical variability of 29 flat spectrum radio quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 region are investigated by using DR7 released multi-epoch data. All FSRQs show variations with overall amplitude ranging from 0.24 mag to 3.46 mag in different sources. About half of FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend, which is commonly observed for blazars. However, only one source shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which implies it is rare in FSRQs. In this source, the thermal emission may be responsible for the spectral behaviour.

  15. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  16. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  17. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...... work is threefold as we 1) investigate the color distributions and construct a model to describe pork loins, 2) classify the different components in pork loins (meat, fat, membrane), and 3) detect foreign objects on the surface of pork loins. Our investigation shows that the color distributions can...... effectively be modeled using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). For the classification task we build a classifier using a GMM. For detecting foreign objects, we construct a novelty detector using a GMM. We evaluate our method on a small dataset with mixed results. While we are able to provide reasonable...

  18. Accuracy analysis of a spectral Poisson solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaldi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy)]. E-mail: rambaldi@bo.infn.it; Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Mattioli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Franchi, A. [GSI, Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, 64291 (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    We solve Poisson's equation in d=2,3 space dimensions by using a spectral method based on Fourier decomposition. The choice of the basis implies that Dirichlet boundary conditions on a box are satisfied. A Green's function-based procedure allows us to impose Dirichlet conditions on any smooth closed boundary, by doubling the computational complexity. The error introduced by the spectral truncation and the discretization of the charge distribution is evaluated by comparison with the exact solution, known in the case of elliptical symmetry. To this end boundary conditions on an equipotential ellipse (ellipsoid) are imposed on the numerical solution. Scaling laws for the error dependence on the number K of Fourier components for each space dimension and the number N of point charges used to simulate the charge distribution are presented and tested. A procedure to increase the accuracy of the method in the beam core region is briefly outlined.

  19. Correlation image velocimetry: a spectral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hild, François; Berthaud, Yves

    2002-01-01

    A method, believed to be new, is introduced to evaluate displacement fields from the analysis of a deformed image compared with a reference image. In contrast to standard methods, which determine a piecewise constant displacement field, the present method gives direct access to spectral decomposition of the displacement field. A minimization procedure is derived and used twice: first, to determine an affine displacement field and, then, the spectral components of the residual displacement. Although the method is applicable to any space dimension, only cases dealing with one-dimensional signals are reported: First, a purely synthetic example is discussed to estimate the intrinsic performance of the method, and a second case deals with a profile extracted from a sample of compressed glass wool.

  20. An enhanced relative spectral processing of speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Bin; WU Xihong; LIU Zhimin; CHI Huisheng

    2002-01-01

    An enhanced relative spectral (E_RASTA) technique for speech and speaker recognition is proposed. The new method consists of classical RASTA filtering in logarithmic spectral domain following by another additive RASTA filtering in the same domain. In this manner,both the channel distortion and additive noise are removed effectively. In speaker identification and speech recognition experiments on TI46 database, the E_RASTA performs equal or better than J_RASTA method in both tasks. The E_RASTA does not need the speech SNR estimation in order to determinate the optimal value of J in J_RASTA, and the information of how the speech degrades. The choice of E_RASTA filter also indicates that the low temporal modulation components in speech can deteriorate the performance of both recognition tasks. Besides, the speaker recognition needs less temporal modulation frequency band than that of the speech recognition.