WorldWideScience

Sample records for extinguishers aboard civil

  1. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 118.410 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.410 Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a vessel must be approved by...

  2. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 181.410 Section... Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a... approved for the system by the Commandant. (4) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system may protect more...

  3. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  4. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must be... 6 501 through 600 7 601 through 700 8 (2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be...

  5. Gender aspects of civil marriage risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khrustalova

    2014-07-01

    In comparison with the representatives of matrimonies the civil ones value significantly higher the equality of spent forces for family and «save» on the development of relations extinguishing personal development of both.

  6. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in the... least one hand fire extinguisher located conveniently in the passenger compartment— (1) Of each...

  7. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  8. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  9. An Evaluation of Aerosol Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues

  10. Extinguishing ELMs in detached radiative divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarov, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Rognlien, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In order to avoid deleterious effects of ELMs on PFCs in next-step fusion devices it has been suggested to operate with small-sized ELMs naturally extinguishing in the divertor. Our modeling effort is focusing at extinguishing type-I ELMs: conditions for expelled plasma dissipation; efficiency of ELM power handling by detached radiative divertors; and the ELM impact on detachment state. Here time-dependent modeling of a sequence of many ELMs was performed with 2-D edge plasma transport code UEDGE-MB-W which incorporates the Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. Three cases were modeled, in which extinguishing ELMs are achieved due to: (i) intrinsic impurities via graphite sputtering, (ii) extrinsic impurity gas puff (Ne), and (iii) =(i) +(ii). For each case, we performed a series of UEDGE-MB-W runs scanning the deuterium and impurity inventories, pedestal losses and ELM frequency. Temporal variations of the degree of detachment, ionization front shape, recombination sink strength, radiated fraction, peak power loads, OSP, impurity charge states, and in/out asymmetries were analyzed. We discuss the onset of extinguishing ELMs, conditions for not burning through and enhanced plasma recombination as functions of scanned parameters. Efficiencies of intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in ELM extinguishing are compared.

  11. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...

  12. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  13. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  14. Reinstatement of an Extinguished Fear Conditioned Response in Infant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revillo, Damian A.; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G.; Arias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant…

  15. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  16. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  17. Incidental Reflector Comparison of Containerized Dry Fire Extinguishing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-14

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized fire extinguishing agents authorized for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze dry fire extinguishing agent that remains in a container and is not actively being used in a fire emergency. The incidental reflector reactivity worth is determined by comparison to various thicknesses of close fitting water reflection which is commonly used to bound incidental reflectors in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that even in unlimited quantities, when containerized the authorized dry fire extinguishing agents are bound by 0.4 inches of close fitting water.

  18. 46 CFR 118.420 - Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 118... gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system must: (1) Be... manufacturer's instructions. (b) A vessel on which a pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... they are used. (2) The employer may not mix together dry chemical extinguishing agents of different... assure that the dry chemical supply is free of moisture which may cause the supply to cake or form...

  20. Reinstatement of extinguished fear by an unextinguished conditional stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R Halladay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are often treated using extinction-based exposure therapy, but relapse is common and can occur as a result of reinstatement, whereby an aversive trigger can reinstate extinguished fear. Animal models of reinstatement commonly utilize a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which subjects are first trained to fear a conditional stimulus (CS by pairing it with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US, and then extinguished by repeated presentations of the CS alone. Reinstatement is typically induced by exposing subjects to an aversive US after extinction, but here we show that exposure to a non-extinguished CS can reinstate conditional fear responding to an extinguished CS, a phenomenon we refer to as conditional reinstatement. Rats were trained to fear two CSs (light and tone and subsequently underwent extinction training to only one CS (counterbalanced. Presenting the unextinguished CS (but not a novel cue immediately after extinction reinstated conditional fear responding to the extinguished CS in a test session given 24h later. These findings indicate that reinstatement of extinguished fear can be triggered by exposure to conditional as well as unconditional aversive stimuli, and this may help to explain why relapse is common following clinical extinction therapy in humans. Further study of conditional reinstatement using animal models may prove useful for developing refined extinction therapies that are more resistant to reinstatement.

  1. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...... of technology and of law. If such a field can be established, the answers to those questions might be relevant to such contemporary issues as inter-ethnic, religious, and -cultural conflict or reconciliation, migration and nationality, civil rights and surveillance, security and privacy, bureaucracy and inter...

  2. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  3. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  4. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens......In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of technology and of law. If such a field can be established, the answers to those questions might be relevant to such contemporary issues as inter-ethnic, religious, and -cultural conflict or reconciliation, migration and nationality, civil rights and surveillance, security and privacy, bureaucracy and inter...

  5. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... lockers. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, a fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 181.420 - Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 181... § 181.420 Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire... (a)(3) of this section. (c) Only one pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system is allowed...

  7. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  8. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the foam system shall be as set forth in part 95 of Subchapter I (Cargo and Miscellaneous Vessels) of this chapter. (f) Where an enclosed ventilating system is installed for electric propulsion motors... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required §...

  9. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  10. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic sprinkler systems which are covered by § 1910.159. (2) This section also applies to fixed systems not... discharge area prior to system discharge. (4) The employer shall provide automatic actuation of...

  12. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  13. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thick flammable substances where a blanketing effect is essential; and (3) “C” for fires in electrical... set forth in table 149.405. Table 149.405—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers Classification type-size Foam liters(gallons) Carbon dioxidekilograms (pounds) Dry chemical kilograms(pounds) A-II 9.5...

  14. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  15. Assessment of latest technology in coal refuse fire extinguishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneval, D.R.

    1976-05-01

    It is easier, cheaper, and less hazardous to prevent fires in coal refuse banks than to extinguish them. This can be done by compacting in thin layers (to reduce air and air flow), sealing edges with various materials (crushed linestone is good, it gives off CO/sub 2/ when heated), etc. In particular the tippler form of pile construction should be avoided. Once these piles do ignite (by spontaneous combustion or other means), it is often difficult and hazardous (gases, explosions, unsafe regions, etc) to work at extinguishing them. Various methods are given. Once the fire is put out, the pile should be reworked, compacting and sealing it, so the process does not start again. (LTN)

  16. Responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalanhol, André

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. 1. INTRODUÇÃO - aborda o tema Responsabilidade Civil - Reparação do Dano Moral Ambiental, de forma sucinta, justificando sua aplicabilidade no direito brasileiro, discorrendo acerca de cada etapa do trabalho; 2. MEIO AMBIENTE - CONCEITO - proposta de um conceito mais amplo de meio ambiente, que melhor se coadune com a realidade atual, uma vez que os con...

  17. Public access defibrillators and fire extinguishers: are comparisons reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K; Sayre, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of mortality in the United States of America (Circulation 2008;117:e25-146) with approximately 310000 deaths related to coronary heart disease occurring in emergency departments or in the prehospital environment annually. Several organizations have directed resources toward the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest through a paradigm that has come to be known as the "chain of survival"-prompt activation of emergency response by telephone 911, early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation, and timely advanced cardiac life support (Circulation 1991;83:1832-1847). The ready availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has been advocated as a key component of this chain. Some authors have suggested a "fire extinguisher model" for AED deployment (Circulation 1998;98:2334-2351; Resuscitation 1995;30:151-156; Ann Intern Med 2001;135:990-998). In this model, AEDs are prominently displayed in public places for use by laypersons, much like fire extinguishers. For example, in Chicago's O'Hare Airport, AEDs are placed alongside fire extinguishers in the public concourse (N Engl J Med 2002;347:1242-1247). Advocates of this model suggest that advancing this practice would be a means to widely disbourse life-saving technology that is easy to use. Several experts have questioned this model, suggesting that the cost-effectiveness of distributing AEDs this widely would be prohibitive (BMJ 2002;325:515; Curr Opin Cardiol 2007;22:5-10; BMJ 2003;326:162; Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23:362-367) and may not be more effective than more targeted distribution of AEDs. This literature review will examine the available data on both AEDs and fire extinguishers to determine if these comparisons are reasonable as a means of guiding public policy.

  18. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  19. Binary fire-extinguishing agent composed of halocarbons and inert gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    C3H2F3Br (1323) is a new kind of Halon replacements developed by our research group. In order to improve the disperse capability of 1323, nitrogen was mixed with 1323 to form the binary fire-extinguishing agent. In this work, the binary fire-extinguishing agent of nitrogen and 1323 was used in experiment and the fire extinguishing efficiency was discussed. In addition, the fire suppression mechanism was investigated and the fire-extinguishing concentration of nitrogen and 1323 was also studied.

  20. Observational signatures of self-destructive civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Forgan, Duncan; James, Jack O'malley

    2016-10-01

    We address the possibility that intelligent civilizations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilizations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof). Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilization. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of signatures is rapid compared with humanity's communication lifetime. In others, the signatures persist on far longer timescales.

  1. Water evaporation particularities in the process of forest fire extinguishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strizhak Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of water massif motion through the high temperature gases corresponding to the typical conditions of forest fires was carried out. Maximal values of part by volume of liquid evaporating from water massif under its motion through the flaming burning area were determined when solving the heat and mass transfer problem under the conditions of endothermic phase transformations. Influence of liquid phase transition heat on the heat and mass transfer conditions on the track of water massif was determined. The expediency of polydisperse interspaced in time and space atomization of water massifs under the large-scale (especially, forest fires fire extinguishing was proved.

  2. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  4. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  6. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  7. Suicide by Fire Extinguisher Powder Ingestion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohammadi Kojidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man committed suicide by swallowing the contents of a fire extinguisher. A few hours after his suicide attempt, he was referred to the medical center for poisoning. At the time of admission, the patient was conscious with stable vital signs. The patient complained of burning lips and mouth, mentioning diarrhea. Initial treatments included gastric lavage with activated charcoal, while paraclinical measures were requested. The patient had undergone hypernatremia (Na: 152 mEq/l and metabolic alkalosis. Treatment focused on the adjustment of sodium level and alkalosis. On the first day of hospitalization, the patient experienced recurrent episodes of tonic-clonic seizure along with the loss of consciousness. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient developed respiratory arrest followed by cardiac arrest and death.

  8. Fear of the unexpected: hippocampus mediates novelty-induced return of extinguished fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate an important role for the hippocampus in the recovery of fear memory after extinction. For example, hippocampal inactivation prevents the renewal of fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) when it is presented outside the extinction context. Renewal of extinguished responding is accompanied by associative novelty (an unexpected occurrence of a familiar CS in a familiar place), the detection of which may require the hippocampus. We therefore examined whether the hippocampus also mediates the recovery of extinguished fear caused by other unexpected events, including presenting a familiar CS in a novel context or presenting a novel cue with the CS in a familiar context (e.g., external disinhibition). Rats underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction using an auditory CS and freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, conditioned freezing to the extinguished CS was renewed in a novel context and this was eliminated by intra-hippocampal infusions of the GABAA agonist, muscimol, prior to the test. In Experiment 2, muscimol inactivation of the hippocampus reduced the external disinhibition of conditioned freezing that occurred when a novel white noise accompanied the extinguished tone CS. Collectively, these results suggest that the hippocampus mediates the return of fear when extinguished CSs are unexpected, or when unexpected stimuli accompany CS presentation. Ultimately, a violation of expectations about when, where, and with what other stimuli an extinguished CS will occur may form the basis of spontaneous recovery, renewal, and external disinhibition.

  9. Geophylosophy of circumpolar civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zhuvaka

    2014-09-01

    Under the influence of colonization occurred the interpenetration of civilizations, indigenous peoples have largely lose its image, the traditional way of life and culture. Arctic civilization has appeared in a crisis and facing the threat of extinction.

  10. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  11. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  12. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  13. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  14. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  15. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    1990-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  16. Experimental study on fire extinguishing with a newly prepared multi-component compressed air foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiShi; LIAO YaoJian; LIN Lin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-component compressed air foam system (MCAFS) was developed with newly prepared multi-component foaming agents. Extinguishing of wood crib and oil pool fires was performed under different conditions, such as foam concentration, mixing chamber forepart structure and working pressure. It was found that the foam concentration had sufficient effects on fire extinguishing efficiency, and an optimized concentration value exists. For instance, for diesel oil pool fires, this value is about 2.2% while it is about 4.0% for wood crib fires. The results also show that the system with a coaxial mixing chamber has greater efficiency than a T-shape. The effects of working pressure on fire extin-guishing are evident in experiments, i.e., the higher the working pressure is, the more readily the fire is extinguished.

  17. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System with Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    extinguisher reservoir the propellant gas occupies a progressively larger volume, which causes the internal pressure to drop, thereby causing the...valves used in the prototype UHP extinguisher. In addition, the nozzle had relatively high recoil at pressures above 2000 psi, making it difficult for...utilize system pressures of 2100 and 1500 psi, respectively, due to the orifice diameter of these nozzles. As described above, this relatively high

  19. A Novel Camera Based Mobile Robot With Obstacle Avoidance And Fire Extinguish Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vivekanadan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The project is based on mobile wireless robot technology that performs the dual operation as obstacle avoidance and fire extinguish. The sensors used here are ultrasonic sensor for obstacle avoidance and flame sensor to detect the fire. Here, the signals are received by an Arduino board for controlling the robot. The motor drives are used to drive the robot. A wireless monitoring system is used to display the present scenario.in detail It is a robot that autonomously detects and extinguish fire. It uses flame sensor for detection of fire, also ultrasonic sensor to detect obstacles and Arduino board for processing. The Fire extinguisher along with actuator is used to extinguishing the fire which is been detected. The robot continuously scans for fire. This scanning is performed by Flame sensors placed on the sides When a fire is detected, it moves in the direction of fire and stops in front of it and trigger the extinguisher to turn out the fire.In order to achieve the extinguish process a robot has arm with Electronic valve and a motor is used along with the body to change the angle of the arm. This arm and motor can be controlled by the Arduino. The power source for the robot comes from a battery.

  20. Wireless Sensor Network based Fire Monitoring and Extinguishing System in Real Time Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Narendra Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Firefighting is one of the most dangerous professions in which people are employed. The dangers associated are the result of a number of factors such as lack of information regarding the location, size and spread of the fire. The use of wireless sensor networks may be one way of reducing the risks faced by the firefighters and assist in the process of rapid extinguishment of the fire. The standards, such as IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee, stimulated the development of numerous commercial products. Moving from early research in military applications, sensor networks now are widely deployed in diverse applications including home automation, building automation, and others. This paper mainly presents the design and the implementation of wireless sensor network based fire monitoring and extinguishing system. Fire monitoring system continuously monitors the surroundings and keeps a track of the temperature recorded and the intruders detected, performed by monitoring node. Fire extinguishing system switches the extinguisher as soon as it detects the fire or when the temperature crosses a certain threshold level, performed by extinguishing node. Results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed approach is very good. The usage of zigbee monitored fire extinguishers in a hospital building has been demonstrated.

  1. Modification of ADP extinguishing powder by siliconization in spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Zhang; Zhigang Shen; Chujiang Cai; Xiaozheng Yu; Jun Du; Yushan Xing; Shulin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Superfine spherical fire-extinguishing powder,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP,NH4H2PO4),was prepared by spray drying and modified in situ with methyl hydrogen silicone oil (MHSO) emulsion and the fluorinated surfactant FK-510.The influences of the MHSO mass ratio on the hydrophobicity,surface composition,surface morphology,dispersion and particle-size distribution of the NH4H2PO4 were studied,and the influence of the drying air temperature on the decomposition of the NH4H2PO4 was also researched.The results indicate that the MHSO and FK-510 congregate on the particle surfaces and then form a hydrophobic shell.This shell improves the particle hydrophobicity and leads to a fine dispersion of the particles.During the process of preparing the precursor solution,3 wt% (based on the weight of NH4H2PO4) was chosen as the optimum value of the MHSO mass ratio.During the spray drying,a low absolute humidity of the air should be maintained,and it is very important to keep the exit-air temperature below 100℃ to avoid decomposition.

  2. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  3. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  4. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  5. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  6. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social...

  7. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  8. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  9. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  10. EUROPEIZAREA DREPTULUI PROCESUAL CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union increases the judiciary cooperation in civil and comercial cases with trans-border incidence, based on the principle of mutual recognition of judiciary rulings. The aim of adopting frame-legislation is to ensure the developement of civil procedures. The Council Regulations no. 44/2001 on the competence, the recognition and the enforcement of judiciary rulings in civil and commercial cases is a “real” Code of civil procedure in this matter, to be applied in the member states, thus ensuring the free circulation of the judiciary rulings according to the principles of mutual recognition, mutual trust and reinforcement of juridical security in the union. The community civil procedural code prevails over the national procedural code. The Regulations ensure the administration of the community justice and through their rules avoid the pronunciation, in the member states, of rulings that are irreconcilable with each other, the direct beneficiaries being legal and natural persons.

  11. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  12. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  13. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  14. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  15. Relapse of Extinguished Fear after Exposure to a Dangerous Context Is Mitigated by Testing in a Safe Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous"…

  16. Application of Taguchi Method In Health And Safety (Fire Extinguishing Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharthi A. A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Taguchi method is widely used for optimizing the process parameters of a single response problem. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to study the effects of five control variables – training, experience, response to alarm, age, and qualification on extinguishing time and percent damage. An L16 orthogonal array (OA was used to accommodate the experiment. ANOVA and F-tests and regression are used to analyze the results. The study indicated that training and experience have the largest effect on the on extinguishing time and percent damage

  17. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  18. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  19. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  20. 46 CFR 34.05-5 - Fire-extinguishing systems-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of fire prevention or inerting of cargo tanks. For vessels under 100 feet in length, the semiportable... ventilating system is installed for electric propulsion motors or generators, a carbon dioxide extinguishing...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING...

  1. Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitland, I.; Klumpers, F.; Oosting, R.S.; Evers, D.J.; Leon Kenemans, J.; Baas, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Failure to extinguish fear can lead to persevering anxiety and has been postulated as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of human anxiety disorders. In animals, it is well documented that the endogenous cannabinoid system has a pivotal role in the successful extinction of fear, most importan

  2. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On September 9, 2008, Cirrus Design Corporation... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23...

  3. Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitland, I.; Klumpers, F.; Oosting, R.S.; Evers, D.J.; Leon Kenemans, J.; Baas, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Failure to extinguish fear can lead to persevering anxiety and has been postulated as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of human anxiety disorders. In animals, it is well documented that the endogenous cannabinoid system has a pivotal role in the successful extinction of fear, most

  4. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....160. This section does not apply to automatic sprinkler systems which are covered under § 1910.159. (b... working and that no emergency egress is permitted through the drainage path. Other Fire Protection Systems ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam....

  5. Experimental investigation of foam spread and extinguishment of the large-scale methanol pool fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Lu; Bi, Yixing; Xu, Dajun; Zhi, Huiqiang; Qiu, Peifang

    2015-04-28

    A steel channel with the size of 30m×2 m×1.2m has been made to simulate the full surface fire of a 50,000m(3) methanol tank. Several large-scale methanol fire extinguishment experiments have been conducted under different foam application rates and foam concentrations in order to investigate the flow length, flow velocity and fire extinguishing effectiveness of the alcohol-resistant foam. The result showed that the alcohol-resistant aqueous film forming foam (AFFF/AR) and alcohol-resistant fluoro-protein foam (FP/AR) could flow beyond 30m on the burning methanol surface and extinguish the fire successfully even with the foam application rate of 4Lmin(-1)m(-2). Under the same condition, the fire extinguishing performance of AFFF/AR was better than FP/AR, and the flow velocity of AFFF/AR on the burning methanol surface was 0.203ms(-1), while the value of FP/AR was 0.082ms(-1).

  6. Mechanisms of Resurgence II: Response-Contingent Reinforcers Can Reinstate a Second Extinguished Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted,…

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  8. Spontaneous Recovery But Not Reinstatement of the Extinguished Conditioned Eyeblink Response in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Reinstatement, the return of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) after reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US), and spontaneous recovery, the return of an extinguished CR with the passage of time, are two of four well-established phenomena which demonstrate that extinction does not erase the conditioned stimulus (CS)-US association. However, reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs has never been demonstrated and spontaneous recovery of extinguished eyeblink CRs has not been systematically demonstrated in rodent eyeblink conditioning. In Experiment 1, US reexposure was administered 24 hours prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 2, US reexposure was administered 5 min prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 3, a long, discrete cue (a houselight), present in all phases of training and testing, served as a context within which each trial occurred to maximize context processing, which in other preparations has been shown to be required for reinstatement. In Experiment 4, an additional group was included that received footshock exposure, rather than US reexposure, between extinction and test, and contextual freezing was measured prior to test. Spontaneous recovery was robust in Experiments 3 and 4. In Experiment 4, context freezing was strong in a group given footshock exposure but not in a group given eyeshock US reexposure. There was no reinstatement observed in any experiment. With stimulus conditions that produce eyeblink conditioning and research designs that produce reinstatement in other forms of classical conditioning, we observed spontaneous recovery but not reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs. This suggests that reinstatement, but not spontaneous recovery, is a preparation- or substrate-dependent phenomenon. PMID:21517145

  9. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  10. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  11. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  12. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  13. On Automatic Fire Extinguishing Sprinkler System%浅谈自动喷水灭火系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 吕兆毅; 张小洁

    2013-01-01

    Having the function of fire prevention, fire control and fire extinguishing, the automatic fire extinguishing sprinkler system is internationally recognized as the most effective automatic fire extinguishing facility and is an important component of modern building fire prevention technology. This article briefly analyzes the automatic fire extinguishing sprinkler system and discusses the common problems in design.%自动喷水灭火系统同时具备了防火、控火、灭火的功能,是国际上公认的最为有效的自动灭火设施,是现代建筑防火技术的重要组成部分。文章简单对自动喷水灭火系统进行分析,对设计中常见问题进行讨论。

  14. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  15. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  16. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  17. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration...

  18. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  19. Handheld Delivery System for Modified Boron-Type Fire Extinguishment Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    TMB reduces this reaction; however, during storage the agent must still be isolated from any moisture source. The white precipitate is oily and gummy to...final design was goverened by the characteristics of the agent itself. Since Boralon will form a white, gummy percipitate when exposed to atmospheric...MIL-F-2261A Fire Extinguishing Agent, Liquid, Boron-Type, for Metal Fires MIL-B-26195 Box, Wood, Cleated, Skidded, Load Bearing Base 37 MIL-F-XXXX

  20. Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic Camera and Wi-Fi Network Controlled with Android Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Purba, H. A.; Efendi, S.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-03-01

    Fire disasters can occur anytime and result in high losses. It is often that fire fighters cannot access the source of fire due to the damage of building and very high temperature, or even due to the presence of explosive materials. With such constraints and high risk in the handling of the fire, a technological breakthrough that can help fighting the fire is necessary. Our paper proposed the use of robots to extinguish the fire that can be controlled from a specified distance in order to reduce the risk. A fire extinguisher robot was assembled with the intention to extinguish the fire by using a water pump as actuators. The robot movement was controlled using Android smartphones via Wi-fi networks utilizing Wi-fi module contained in the robot. User commands were sent to the microcontroller on the robot and then translated into robotic movement. We used ATMega8 as main microcontroller in the robot. The robot was equipped with cameras and ultrasonic sensors. The camera played role in giving feedback to user and in finding the source of fire. Ultrasonic sensors were used to avoid collisions during movement. Feedback provided by camera on the robot displayed on a screen of smartphone. In lab, testing environment the robot can move following the user command such as turn right, turn left, forward and backward. The ultrasonic sensors worked well that the robot can be stopped at a distance of less than 15 cm. In the fire test, the robot can perform the task properly to extinguish the fire.

  1. AT89S52 microcontroller Based A Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic and Ultraviolet Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Sapto Aji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire often takes many victims. Fire detection system sometime can not prevent this from happening. Therefore, it is essential to develop a robot that can detect the present of fire as well as extinguish it. This research aimed to design a fire extinguisher robot using AT89S52 microcontroller as its controller. A DC fan controlled by a relay is utilized to put out the fire and a fire sensor (UV-Tron is used to detect the presence of fire. The movement of the robot is driven by motor DC. The robot can detect the surrounding obstacles and possess an ultrasound-based navigation system. If the ultrasound system detects an obstacle, the robot will automatically turn without colliding the obstacle or other things around it. The result has shown that this fire extinguisher robot can be built using hardware and software controlled by an AT89S52 microcontroller. It can be concluded from the tests that the robot can detect fire as far as 5 meter distance and able to successfully put out the fire.

  2. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  3. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    , enforcement in Denmark of judgments pronounced by Danish or foreign courts, as well as arbitration in Danish and international arbitral cases, based on the extensive Danish arbitral reform 2005, taking the Uncitral pattern arbitration law as its model. The book is written parly based on traditional legal...... on the author's extensive personal experience as arbitrator in numerous Danish and international arbitral proceedings.......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  4. Civil Engineering Dispute Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2001-01-01

    Construction work on the civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. A dispute resolution procedure has been included in the contract, whereby a Panel of Adjudicators may be called upon to make a decision in the case of a difference or dispute between the parties. The aim of this paper is to present CERN's first experience of civil engineering Adjudication arising from problems encountered with the ground freezing technique employed to allow construction of two new shafts.

  5. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  6. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the communicative practice of a Tanzanian NGO, Femina. Based on a tripartite model of engagement (Madianou, 2012) integrating speech, action and understanding, and drawing on fieldwork on the communication practices of Femina, I critically assess the forms of civic engagement...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  7. [Civil status and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  8. Damage as the principal element for the exigency of civil reponsability caused by crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Gálvez Puebla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural perspective that is followed with the investigation, part of the suggestive matters about damage as the central axle of the civil responsibility produce from crime, just like the nature and the functions of the excrime civil obligation, taking into account three fundamental hypothesis that aboard its pure civil nature as also a valuation as a criminal matter, concluding with the analysis of a mix essence of the institution, in base of the social and political bases of the punishment impositions that accomplishes the victims satisfaction, with the juridical codification imposition in front of a damage that confirms the interrelation of the efficiens cause and the finalis cause elements of the specific obligation, which birth from a functional organize juridical relation.

  9. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  10. How persistent is civilization growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  12. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  14. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  15. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  16. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  17. How Effective Was Civil Affairs in Bosnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    50 Planning the Deployment of the Implementation Force...Allied Rapid Reaction Corps BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina CA Civil Affairs CAO Civil Affairs Operations CIM Civil Information Management CIMIC Civil...and replaced a 2003 version. This publication serves as a guideline for planning and conducting civil military operations in the joint (multi

  18. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  19. Código civil colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Secretaria del Senado Colombia

    2005-01-01

    El Código Civil como lo indica su articulo primero,comprende las disposiciones legales sustantivas que determinan especialmente los derechos de los particulares, por razón del estado de las personas, de sus bienes, obligaciones, contratos y acciones civiles.

  20. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  1. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  2. Código civil colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Secretaria del Senado Colombia

    2005-01-01

    El Código Civil como lo indica su articulo primero,comprende las disposiciones legales sustantivas que determinan especialmente los derechos de los particulares, por razón del estado de las personas, de sus bienes, obligaciones, contratos y acciones civiles.

  3. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  4. Social Science and Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an overview of key social science approaches to civil society. It addresses in turn civil society organizations, volunteering, and philanthropy. For each, it looks at how they are defined, their scope, how social science approaches the study of them, and how social policy has sought to encourage or coordinate them.

  5. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  6. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.

  7. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  8. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations,...

  9. Extinguishing trace fear engages the retrosplenial cortex rather than the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Jarome, Timothy J.; Lee, Jonathan L.; Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Extinction learning underlies the treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders. Most of what is known about the neurobiology of extinction is based on standard “delay” fear conditioning, in which awareness is not required for learning. Little is known about how complex, explicit associations extinguish, however. “Trace” conditioning is considered to be a rodent model of explicit fear because it relies on both the cortex and hippocampus and requires explicit contingency awareness in humans. Here, we explore the neural circuit supporting trace fear extinction in order to better understand how complex memories extinguish. We first show that the amygdala is selectively involved in delay fear extinction; blocking intra-amygdala glutamate receptors disrupted delay, but not trace extinction. Further, ERK phosphorylation was increased in the amygdala after delay, but not trace extinction. We then identify the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) as a key structure supporting trace extinction. ERK phosphorylation was selectively increased in the RSC following trace extinction and blocking intra-RSC NMDA receptors impaired trace, but not delay extinction. These findings indicate that delay and trace extinction require different neural circuits; delay extinction requires plasticity in the amygdala whereas trace extinction requires the RSC. Anxiety disorders linked to explicit memory may therefore depend on cortical processes that have not been traditionally targeted by extinction studies based on delay fear. PMID:24055593

  10. Flammability of self-extinguishing kenaf/ABS nanoclays composite for aircraft secondary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, S.; Majid, D. L.; Mohd Tawil, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the flammability properties of kenaf fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with nanoclays composites. Natural fiber is one of the potential materials to be used with thermoplastic as a composite due to its attractive properties such as lightweight and strong. In this paper, flammability properties of this material are evaluated through Underwriters Laboratory 94 Horizontal Burning (UL94 HB), which has been conducted for both controlled and uncontrolled conditions, smoke density and limiting oxygen index tests (LOI). These flammability tests are in compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) requirement. The results from UL94 HB and smoke density tests show that the presence of nanoclays with effective composition of kenaf fiber reinforced ABS has enhanced the burning characteristics of the material by hindering propagation of flame spread over the surface of the material through char formation. Consequently, this decreases the burning rate and produces low amount of smoke during burning. On contrary, through LOI test, this material requires less oxygen to burn when exposed to fire, which hinders the enhancement of burning characteristics. This is due to burning mechanism exhibited by nanoclays that catalyzes barrier formation and flame propagation rate over the surface of the biocomposite material. Overall, these experimental results suggest that this biocomposite material is capable of self-extinguishing and possesses effective fire extinction. The observed novel synergism from the result obtained is promising to be implemented in secondary structures of aircraft with significant benefits such as cost-effective, lightweight and biodegradable self-extinguishing biocomposite.

  11. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  12. How persistent is civilization growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions will continue to grow exponentially at an average rate of about 2.3% per year.

  13. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study......Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...

  14. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  15. 三相泡沫灭火剂热稳定性及灭火性能实验研究%The Experimental Study on Thermal Stability and Oil Fire Extinguishing Performance of Three-phase Foam Extinguishing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕科宗; 蒋新生; 翟琰; 魏树旺

    2016-01-01

    Thermal stability and comprehensive fire⁃fighting experimental platform of foam are designed to test thermal stabil⁃ity and the fire extinguishing performance of the mixed powder three⁃phase foam extinguishing agent, and the foam generator proto⁃type is designed to integrate three⁃phase foam stirring, mixing and foaming. With the platform, the experiment is carried out in the setting of aviation kerosene and 0# diesel. The results show that three⁃phase foam is much more stable than two⁃phase foam and the fire extinguishing efficiency of fire extinguishing agent designed in this paper has a desired comprehensive performance;the foam stabilization time under high temperature can be extended more than 3~5 times, and the fire⁃extinguishing efficiency is improved by 20%.%为研究含复配粉体三相泡沫灭火剂的热稳定性及其灭火性能,搭建了泡沫热稳定性和综合灭火实验台架,制作了泡沫发生器实验样机,实现了三相泡沫搅拌、混合、发泡一体化。利用实验台架,以航空煤油与0号柴油为对象,进行了实验研究。结果表明,三相泡沫灭火剂在高温环境下的热稳定性较两相泡沫灭火剂有较大提升,对油料的有效覆盖时间约为两相泡沫灭火剂的3~5倍,灭火性能较两相泡沫灭火剂提升20%左右。

  16. Credit and civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  17. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide and Helium as Fire Extinguishing Agents for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation heat transfer in microgravity compared to convection heat transfer in earth gravity for opposed-flow (downward) over thermally-thick fuel using low density foam fuel were investigated. Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally-thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large flame spread rate compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. And thereby valid microgravity results were obtained even in 2.2 second drop-tower experiments not to mention for the longer duration tests in Zero Gravity Facility. Contrast to the conventional understanding, it was found that steady flame spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when radiatively-active diluent gases such as CO2 were employed. This is proposed to result from radiative heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface, which could lead to steady spread even when the amount of the heat transfer via conduction from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant at microgravity conditions because the flame is thicker and thus the volume of radiating combustion products is larger as well. These results suggested that helium may be a better inert or extinguishment agent on both a mass and a mole bases at microgravity even though CO2 is much better on a mole bases at earth gravity, and these are relevant to studies of fire safety in manned spacecraft, particularly the International Space Station that uses CO2 fire extinguishers. CO2 may not be as effective as an extinguishing agent at microgravity as it is at earth gravity in some conditions because of the differences in spread mechanisms between the two cases. In particular, the difference between conduction-dominated heat transport to the fuel bed at earth gravity and radiation-dominated heat transport at microgravity indicates that radiatively-inert diluent such as helium could be preferable in

  18. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  19. The Effects of Context Changes on the Reinstatement of Extinguished Conditioned Behavior in a Conditioned Suppression Task with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Reinstatement refers to the return of previously extinguished conditioned responses to test trials of a conditional stimulus (CS) when presentations of the unconditional stimulus (US) alone are given following extinction. Four experiments were conducted to determine whether reinstatement could be found in a conditioned suppression task with humans…

  20. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... (IASFPWG) to draft a revision to the current AC 20-42C, issued on March 1984, by incorporating...

  1. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  2. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  3. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  4. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  5. Possibility of increasing the fire-suppression efficiency of the foam in automatic extinguishing installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanov, I. V.; Veremenyuk, V. V.; Karpenchuk, I. V.; Pavlyukov, S. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanics of movement of a liquid in the diffuser of the injector of an automatic extinguishing installation with preaeration of the fire-fighting substance was theoretically investigated. An integral solution of the equation for movement of the preaerated fire-fighting gas-liquid mixture in the indicated diffuser has been obtained. A mathematical model of two-phase liquid flow in this diffuser, which allows one to calculate the distribution of the average pressure in the diffuser along its length and to determine the loss in this pressure, has been developed. This model can be used for designing the output region of a hydraulic system with a hydrodynamic drag providing the operation of its injector in a definite regime.

  6. Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolchenko Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the size of water drops, process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation. The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid (FL surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam-air mixture becomes nonflammable. As a result of solve of a heat balance equation it was made the following conclusion: water drops which size is equal to 100 μm will completely evaporate in a zone of combustion with extent of 1 m if the flying speed of drops is even 16 mps (acc. to Stokes v = 3 mps; whereas drops of larger size will evaporate only partially.

  7. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  8. Ciencia y sociedad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziman, John

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and the societies in which it is produced. After considering the diverse societal roles science has performed in different types of society, the discussion focuses on science’s role in democratic and pluralistic societies. Opposite to the increasing instrumental role knowledge production plays nowadays, for which it has been named «post-academic science» or «technoscience», non instrumental roles of traditional academic research are defended. It is argued that only if academic science keeps its autonomy and integrity from political and corporate interests, it may serve civil society by offering impartial and trustworthy knowledge to balance biases produced by the features of post-academic science.

    En este artículo se analizan las relaciones del conocimiento científico con las sociedades en las que se produce. Tras repasar sus diversas funciones en tipos distintos de sociedades, la discusión se centra en los fines de la ciencia en las sociedades democráticas pluralistas. Frente al cada vez mayor rol instrumental de la ciencia, por el que ha recibido los nombres de «ciencia postacadémica» o «tecnociencia», se defienden los roles no instrumentales tradicionales de la investigación académica clásica. Se argumenta que sólo si la ciencia académica mantiene su autonomía y su integridad frente a intereses políticos o empresariales podrá ser de utilidad al público al ofrecerle conocimiento imparcial y fidedigno frente a los sesgos producidos por la naturaleza propia de la ciencia postacadémica.

  9. Intelligence in the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    warship and reported what he had seen. The fleet, waiting to attack Fernandina, moved swiftly before the damage was done and captured the port. In another...city, with its girdle of encampments, presents a superb scene….” It was the first wartime air-to-ground communication ever recorded in America. By...After a delay caused by an outbreak of yellow fever aboard, she headed for Mobile, Alabama. Because of a bungled installation, her guns could not fire

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  11. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...... to develop a technically advanced form of aesthetics. The Master Class in low energy buildings was led by civil engineer, Svend Svendsen, a Professor at DTU Byg. Together with colleagues and students, he has achieved an extensive knowledge of Integrated Design. In fact, the situation is that our knowledge...

  12. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  14. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  15. Sociedad civil y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernández Santillán

    2009-01-01

    Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de nov...

  16. Tendencias del Derecho civil (2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    Durante el año 2.002 han dado a luz, en el campo del Derecho Civil, un conjunto de leyes que suponen una importante actualización normativa ante determinadas necesidades presentadas por la dinámica realidad socio-económica de España, en un contexto de acelerada tecnificación, creciente vitalidad y fluidez de tejido social, y de progresiva armonización legislativa con los países de nuestro entorno. Para este informe de Derecho Civil hemos preferido seguir, por razón de mejor carácter sistemáti...

  17. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with respect to employees rendering watchman or similar service aboard a vessel in port. Members of the crew... crew rendering watchman or similar services aboard the vessel during this period would not appear to...

  18. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  19. A compact aerosol fire extinguishing device%一种紧凑型气溶胶灭火装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋效忠; 何新能; 罗文培; 关宏

    2012-01-01

    通过对气溶胶灭火装置及气溶胶灭火机理的研究,充分了解现有气溶胶灭火装置的优缺点,在经过系统试验的基础上,介绍一种集落地、悬挂、壁挂、嵌入4种安装方式的紧凑型气溶胶灭火装置,讨论了该装置的优越性,并给出了应用建议.%The advantages and disadvantages of existing aerosol fire extinguishing device were concluded through analyzing its component and mechanism. Based on system test, a compact aerosol fire extinguishing device was proposed, which could be installed by floor mounted, hanged, wall mounted and embedded, the advantages were described and application suggestions were proposed.

  20. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  1. Review of Portable, Manually Operated, and Non-Total Flooding Fire Extinguishing Technologies for Use on Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    requires that the process be self -sustainable. An uninhibited chemical chain reason is necessary for this to happen. Portable fire extinguishers need...application of the inert gas be monitored or fire fighting personnel exposed to these gases (at the area of localized use) are equipped with self - contained...Halons for Aircraft Fire Suppression Systems—2011 Update” 2011-03-07. http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/DraftHalonOptionsReport2011-03-15.pdf [58] Estee

  2. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  3. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  4. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  5. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  6. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  7. Etica civile e beatitudini evangeliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme.  Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.

  8. 17 CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE AND DEMOCRATIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    government businesses were halted for about a week and the government of. President ... Unlike the understanding of civil disobedience in the postmodern world, ... 7 David Lefkowit, “On a Moral Right to Civil Disobedience,” Ethics Vol. 117,.

  9. Method for Increasing the Efficiency of Automatic Fire Extinguish System at Objects Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of energy facilities requires compliance with all safety standards, and especially fire safety. Emergency situations that arise when operated the power equipment damage not only the objects of the technosphere but also the environment. In recent years, can be noted a trend of quite intensive development of technological bases of technology water mist fire extinguishing. Using the methods of optical panoramic imaging PIV, IPI and the method of high-speed video recording were performed the experimental studies of the characteristics of evaporation of large single water droplets as they pass through the flames of oil and oil products with varying parameters of the processes (the initial size of 2–6 mm, the rate of 2–4 m/s and the temperature of water drops 290–300 K, the temperature of the combustion products 185–2073 K. Was established decisive influence droplet size, velocities at which droplets enter the gaseous medium, the initial water temperature on heating rate and evaporation of droplets in a stream of high-temperature combustion products.

  10. Molecular-beam sampling study of extinguishment of methane-air flames by dry chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, E.L.; Ni, W.F.; Seeger, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NaHCO/sub 3/, KHCO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and KCl powders for the inhibition of a methane/oxygen diffusion flame is studied through measurement of composition and temperature profiles, using a molecular beam mass spectrometer sampling system. In order to obtain significant inhibition without extinguishing the flame, a powder feeding rate of 2 mg/liter of gas was used for KCl and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and of 3 mg/liter of gas for the remaining powders. CH/sub 4/, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured by the mass spectrometer, while temperature was measured by the time-of-flight technique. For the powder feeding rates used, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was the least and KCl and NH/sub 2/H/sub 4/PO/sub 2/ the most effective in reducing temperature. In reaction-inhibition effectiveness, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was again lowest while KCl was superior to all others. Because the KCl concentration was only 2/3 that of NH/sub 4/H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, it is recommended as the most effective temperature reducer and reaction inhibitor.

  11. Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Reduced-Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey Scott

    1996-01-01

    Extinction of a diffusion flame burning over horizontal PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders in low-gravity was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations. Low-gravity conditions were obtained using the NASA Lewis Research Center's reduced-gravity aircraft. The effects of velocity and pressure on the visible flame were examined. The flammability of the burning solid was examined as a function of pressure and the solid-phase centerline temperature. As the solid temperature increased, the extinction pressure decreased, and with a centerline temperature of 525 K, the flame was sustained to 0.1 atmospheres before extinguishing. The numerical simulation iteratively coupled a two-dimensional quasi-steady, gas-phase model with a transient solid-phase model which included conductive heat transfer and surface regression. This model employed an energy balance at the gas/solid interface that included the energy conducted by the gas-phase to the gas/solid interface, Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, surface radiation, and the energy conducted into the solid. The ratio of the solid and gas-phase conductive fluxes Phi was a boundary condition for the gas-phase model at the solid-surface. Initial simulations modeled conditions similar to the low-gravity experiments and predicted low-pressure extinction limits consistent with the experimental limits. Other simulations examined the effects of velocity, depressurization rate and Phi on extinction.

  12. Pharmacogenetic reactivation of the original engram evokes an extinguished fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Takahiro; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    Fear memory extinction has several characteristic behavioral features, such as spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement, suggesting that extinction training does not erase the original association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, it is unclear whether reactivation of the original physical record of memory (i.e., memory trace) is sufficient to produce conditioned fear response after extinction. Here, we performed pharmacogenetic neuronal activation using transgenic mice expressing hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) under the control of the activity-dependent c-fos gene promoter. Neuronal ensembles activated during fear-conditioned learning were tagged with hM3Dq and subsequently reactivated after extinction training. The mice exhibited significant freezing, even when the fear memory was no longer triggered by external CS, indicating that the artificial reactivation of a specific neuronal ensemble was sufficient to evoke the extinguished fear response. This freezing was not observed in non-fear-conditioned mice expressing hM3dq in the same brain areas. These results directly demonstrated that at least part of the original fear memory trace remains after extinction, and such residual plasticity might reflect the persistent memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  14. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920...

  15. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  16. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section...

  17. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  18. CIVILIZATION SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kharin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world plays an important role civilization factor. In this connection beforeRussiaa task stands forming of civilization identity. A problem consists in that, that exists a few scenarios of civilization development. To their consideration and this article is devoted.

  19. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  2. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  3. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  4. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  5. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  6. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Index About Us Filing with OCR Civil Rights Health Information Privacy Newsroom HHS Home > Office for Civil ... Civil Rights Filing with OCR File a civil rights or health information privacy complaint. Newsroom Read the latest OCR ...

  7. Asiasat launch aboard Long March 3 from Xichang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maack, Lou

    The history of the flight of Asiasat on April 7, 1990 aboard the Long March 3 launch vehicle from Xichang, China, is briefly reviewed. The discussion focuses on the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, and the on-site launch campaign. The discussion of the launch campaign includes the facilities at Xichang, the Hughes on-site organization, technology transfer prevention, transportation and logistics, and telecommunications.

  8. Bubble Behavior in Nucleate Boiling Experiment Aboard the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Koeln, Justin P.; Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Boiling dynamics in microgravity need to be better understood before heat transfer systems based on boiling mechanism can be developed for space applications. This paper presents the results of a nucleate boiling experiment aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS- 108). The experiment utilized nickel-chromium resistance wire to boil water in microgravity, and the data was recorded with a CCD camera and six thermistors. This data was analyzed to determine the behavior of bubble formation, detachmen...

  9. The Introduction of Custom Earplugs Aboard LCS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    satisfaction with your custom earplugs?” The Neitzel et al. industry study cited previously also asked workers about HPD comfort. On a 5- point scale, foam...98 dB—definitely in the harmful range. If customs are worn longer than other HPDs as would be expected based on the crew survey above, then they...The Introduction of Custom Earplugs aboard LCS-1 by Lynne Marshall, Ph.D. Paul Weathersby, Ph.D. Jennifer McCluskey Heather Huebner

  10. El proceso civil de "civil law": Aspectos fundamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Taruffo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor analiza los sistemas procesales civiles de civil law y de common law desmarcándose de las tradicionales contraposiciones que la doctrina ha acostumbrado utilizar para la explicación de las diferencias fundamentales existentes entre uno y otro modelo. En efecto, a partir de la constatación de la insuficiencia y en ocasiones inutilidad de estas explicaciones para describir la situación actual de ambos modelos procesales, ensaya el autor un discurso que termina por dar luz a la evolución experimentada por estos sistemas y que, como bien apunta, se ha traducido en un acercamiento que se manifiesta de diversas formas como se ocupa de explicarIn this article the author analyses the procedural law systems of civil law and common law outlining the traditional objections that the doctrine is accustomed to using to explain the existing fundamental differences between one and the other model. In fact, it is from the constatation of the insufficiency and, in occasion the uselessness of these explanations in describing the actual situation of both procedural models, that the author attempts a discourse that in the end sheds light on the evolution experienced by these systems and, as he clearly indicates, has translated into an approximation that manifests in different forms

  11. 某泥塑殿消防设施方案选择分析%Analysis on the design plan of some clay hall's fire extinguishing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍

    2013-01-01

    Against the decision of fire extinguishing system for some clay hall of national key cultural relics protection units,choose 4 index including fire extinguishing effect,secondary disaster,difficulty of installation and maintain,quantity of structural renovation project,and use risk assessment and fuzzy mathematics to analyze 4 common fire extinguishing system.Results showed that the most suitable one is ABC fine dry powder fire extinguishing system,and then IG541 gas fire extinguishing system,automatic sprinkler system,and ordinary ABC dry powder fire extinguishing system.After considering the protection of cultural relics,decide to choose cabinet fine dry powder fire extinguishing system,and fire control methods were put forward.%针对某全国重点文物保护单位泥塑殿拟选用的灭火系统,选择灭火效果、灭火系统产生的次生灾害、安装维护难度、结构改造工程量4个指标,应用风险评价方法和模糊数学理论对4种常见灭火系统进行分析得知,最适用于大殿的灭火系统是ABC超细干粉灭火系统,其次是IG541气体灭火系统、自动喷水预作用系统、普通ABC干粉灭火系统.进一步考虑文物保护等因素,指出大殿宜选择柜式ABC超细干粉灭火装置,并提出了现阶段大殿火灾防控措施.

  12. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  13. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  14. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  15. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  16. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  17. Sociedad civil y capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández Santillán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989, cuando se dijo que el fac tor fun da men tal de la liberación de los países del Este europeo fue, precisamente, la sociedad civil. Lo que aquí se hace es abordar el tema desde una perspectiva teórica que toca lo mismo a los clásicos del pensamiento político como Hegel, Tocqueville, Marx y Gramsci, que a autores contemporáneos como Jean Co hen, An drew Arato, Marc War ren y Axel Honneth. Respecto al tema del cap i tal so cial se aborda particularmente el pensamiento de Rob ert D. Putnam, quien sostiene que la base de la democracia y el desarrollo económico es el fortalecimiento de las redes de confianza en la sociedad civil. Este ensayo es crítico tanto del mencionado neoinstitucionalismo como del comunitarismo y del patrimonialismo.

  18. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  19. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  20. A Neural Network based Path Planning Algorithm for Extinguishing Forest Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Sivaram Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work an algorithm for automatic detection and suppression of Forest fires is proposed. The algorithm is implemented using parallel distributed model of neural network with three activation functions to determine the next consecutive moves to the cells for the actor. The algorithm uses reinforcement learning with weights determined dynamically in each iteration. The Entire forest is decomposed into grid of square cells with initial position of the Actor is assumed to be the cell 1 and the goal cell is the cell where the fire has occurred. The neural network model uses starting cell, goal cell and number of cells in each row or column and three activation functions to determine the next consecutive cells in which the robot has to travel. It uses only three movements LEFT, DIAGONAL and UP to reach the target cell. After calculating next cell, the check will be made for presence of obstacles in that cell. If there is any obstacle in that cell, then one cell from other two cells obtained using other two movements, which is free from obstacle will be chosen for next move. Then the cell number is stored in memory. This process is repeated till the next cell computed is same as the goal cell. The Actor will begin to move from start cell and reach the goal cell using the cell numbers available in the memory to extinguish Forest fire. This algorithm is designed keeping in mind only static obstacles and hence it works well for Forest environment with static obstacles. Computer simulation results show that path has been found successfully without collision with obstacles.

  1. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  2. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  3. On the Security of the Gas Fire Extinguishing System%气体灭火系统的安全性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继明; 邢占芳

    2012-01-01

    Gas fire extinguishing system is being widely used due to its good fire extinguishing performance and lower pollution. However, the security of gas fire extinguishing system is worth noting. This paper offers seven ways to address some problems with the security of gas fire extinguishing system in terms of the component strength, the chronic leak, the false alarm from alarm systems, designing and installing defects, the pressure strength of maintenance structure resistance, the improper, maintenance and the fire extinguishing agent toxicity.%气体灭火系统由于本身具有的良好灭火性能和灭火后污染小等特点,其应用日趋广泛,但气体灭火系统安全性问题也日益突出,对气体灭火系统的安全性从组件强度、慢性泄漏、报警系统误动作、设计安装缺陷、维护结构耐压强度、维护保养不当、灭火剂毒性等七个方面进行了分析,并提出了解决办法。

  4. 某项目气体灭火系统的选择%Selection of Gas Fire Extinguishing System in A Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜卓; 温润刚

    2015-01-01

    气体灭火的系统形式分为组合分配式和单元独立式,所选用的灭火剂有七氟丙烷、二氧化碳、IG541等多种形式.近年来随着房地产业的飞速发展,气体系统得到了广泛应用.如何根据具体项目特点,选择合适的系统形式及灭火剂成为设计者需要考虑的首要问题.该文针对某大型数据中心项目气体灭火系统的选择设计作了专项研究.%The gas fire extinguishing system contains combined distribution type and independent unit type, and the fire extinguishing agent chosen are heptafluoropropane, carbon dioxide, IG541 and likewise. With the soaring development of real estate industry apllied in recent years, the gas fire extin-guishing system has been widely used. The selection of an appropriate system mode and fire extinguishing agent, in accordance with features of specific projects, is a priority for the designer. This paper makes a special study on the selection and design of gas fire extinguishing system in a large data center project.

  5. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history.

  6. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T.; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one’s drug use history. PMID:26241170

  7. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC.

    The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2–C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1 and 6% for C7–C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 d were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span many orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  8. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  9. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days.

  10. Measures Improving the Reliability of Automatic Spraying Extinguishing System%提高自动喷淋灭火系统可靠性的措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正

    2011-01-01

    Sprinkler system occupies an important position in fire extinguishing system, known as the most effective means of fire. This paper analyzed related factors influencing the reliability of automatic spraying extinguishing system, proposed several measures on improving the reliability of automatic spraying extinguishing system.%自动喷淋系统在消防灭火系统中占据着重要位置,被称为最有效的灭火手段.本文在时影响自动喷淋灭火系统可靠性的相关因素进行分析的基础上,提出了提高自动喷淋灭火系统的可靠性的几项措施..

  11. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  12. Gandhi, Civilization, Non-Violence and Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Söyler

    2010-01-01

    How should we understand Gandhi’s commitment to nonviolence?After discussing and refuting the idea that Gandhi’s conceptionof non-violence can be treated merely as a method to stand up toaggression, its embedment in a concept of true civilization is examined. It is argued that the important nuances between the definitions of civilization in the Gujarati and the English versions of Gandhi’s seminal work Hind Swaraj (1909) reveal Gandhi’s conception of civilization.

  13. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  14. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, M.; I. Semenchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  15. Civil service reform and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Nunberg, Barbara; Nellis, John

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis placed by the World Bank in recent years on the major overhaul of developing country economies has accentuated the importance of adequate public sector administrative capacity, especially within the central core of government, that is, the civil service. This paper surveys recent Bank experience in civil service reform, and begins to assess the progress made. The paper focuses on two separate but related aspects of civil service reform work. One deals with the shorter term, emerg...

  16. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  17. Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, Marcus; Abu-Odeh, Anas A; Rohmer, Sarah C; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-10-05

    Polyester-cotton (PECO) blends are widely used in the textile industry because they combine the softness of cotton and the strength and durability of polyester. Unfortunately, both fiber types share the disadvantage of being flammable. The layer-by-layer coating technique was used to deposit a highly effective flame retardant (melamine polyphosphate) from water onto polyester-cotton fabric. Soluble melamine and sodium hexametaphosphate form this water-insoluble flame retardant during the coating procedure. This unique nanocoating imparts self-extinguishing properties to PECO with only 12% relative coating weight. Vertical flame testing, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the quality of the coating as well as its flame retardant performance. A combination of both condensed and gas-phase activity appears to be the reason for this effective flame retardancy. Degradation pathways of both cotton and polyester are affected by the applied coating, as shown by PCFC and TGA. Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing.

  18. Potential production of palm oil-based foaming agent as fire extinguisher of peatlands in Indonesia: Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, P.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Suryadarma, P.

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the potential aplication of of palm oil-based foaming agent as peat fires fighter in Indonesia. From literature review, it has been known that the foaming agent able to form foam to extinguish fire, wrap and refrigerate the burning peat. It is necessary to develop the production and application of foaming agent in Indonesia because peat fires occur almost every year that caused smoke haze. Potential raw material for the production of environmental friendly foaming agent as foam extinguishing for peat fires in Indonesia aong other is palm oil due to abundant availability, sustainable, and foam product easily degraded in the environment of the burnt areas. Production of foaming agent as fire-fighting in Indonesia is one alternative to reduce the time to control the fire and smog disaster impact. Application of palm oil as a raw material for fire-fighting is contribute to increase the value added and the development of palm oil downstream industry.

  19. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body.

  20. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  1. Active Center of Islamic Dialogue Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.

  2. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  3. Public health and the civilizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsblom, J

    1986-01-01

    Since the Middle Ages, European society has passed through two successive stages in the "civilizing process." Each has been attended by profound changes in psychological and social codes. These are examined in relation to a greater concern with health and hygiene in response to four waves of epidemics: leprosy, plague, syphilis, and cholera. Speculations are offered about AIDS and the "civilizing process".

  4. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  5. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...

  6. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  7. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For...

  8. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  9. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  10. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty....

  11. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  12. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits and on equal employment opportunity including 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b; and 45 CFR part 90, as... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  14. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...

  15. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  16. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  17. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on...

  18. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... Rights Act of 1964; (2) Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, as amended; (3) Section...

  19. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer...

  20. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies and recipient agencies shall comply with the Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21...

  1. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  2. Group 12 ASCANs Davis and Jemison during zero gravity training aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Class, candidates (ASCANs) N. Jan Davis (left) and Mae C. Jemison freefloat during the seconds of microgravity created aboard the KC-135 NASA 930 aircraft's parabolic flight. Davis and Jemison two of the recently-named ASCANs take a familiarization flight aboard the KC-135 'zero gravity' aircraft.

  3. Expanding advanced civilizations in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, C

    2005-01-01

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way \\cite{Webb}. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  4. UNJUST LAW AS A JUSTIFICATION FOR CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAUL

    be, the citizens cannot be blamed if they decide to take to civil disobedience. Civil .... organization and peace maintenance and, therefore, require obedience. .... In his work, Concerning Civil Government, John Locke tells us the essence of the.

  5. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los más desarrollados en la cultura jurídica “neorománica”.

  6. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  7. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  8. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los m...

  9. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los m...

  10. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  11. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  12. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  13. DAMPING COMPUTATION OF LIQUID SLOSHING IN CONTAINERS ABOARD SPACECRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宝音贺西; 李俊峰; 高云峰; 王照林

    2003-01-01

    Under the non-rotating assumption, a method for the calculation of damping of fuel sloshing with small amplitude in containers aboard spacecraft is proposed in the present paper. And we have presented an eigen-value equation for sloshing damping and frequency computation. This equation may be solved by Ritz or Galerkin methods for a container of simple geometry or by finite element method for a container of arbitrary geometric shape even with rigid baffles. The simulated results show that the equivalent damping coefficients is directly proportional to fuel's viscosity, whereas it almost exhibits no influence on sloshing frequencies. The drawback of the proposed method lies in expensive computation cost. Thus far, it hasn't yet be applied to a container with elastic baffles.

  14. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  15. 空间站手提式细水雾灭火器的研究%Research on the Portable Water Mist Extinguisher for Space Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卓; 刘银水; 毛旭耀; 唐辉; 朱玉泉

    2011-01-01

    火灾是载人航天器运行过程中最重大的危险之一,目前载人航天器中各种灭火方式均有其弊端。细水雾灭火具有环境友好、灭火效率高等优点。通过分析对比现有国内外细水雾灭火器,针对空间站的特殊环境要求,研究了一种活塞式手提细水雾灭火器,其具有结构和制造工艺简单,喷射剩余率小,寿命长,可靠性高等特点。%Fire is one of the fatal dangers on manned spacecraft. Every existing fire extinguishing manner has its own drawback, whereas the water mist fire extinguisher possesses the advantages of environment-friendliness and high efficiency. Through the analysis and comparison of water mist fire extinguishers home and abroad, a piston portable water mist fire extinguisher is studied under the special environment requirement of microgravity. It qualifies such advantages as compact configuration, simple manufacturing process, low remain rate, long life span and high reliability.

  16. Measurements of total odd nitrogen (NOy aboard MOZAIC in-service aircraft: instrument design, operation and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Raak

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A small system for the unattended measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy, i.e., the sum of NO and its atmospheric oxidation products aboard civil in-service aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC is described. The instrument employs the detection of NO by its chemiluminescence with O3 in combination with catalytic conversion of the other NOy compounds to NO at 300°C on a gold surface in the presence of H2. The instrument has a sensitivity of 0.4–7 cps/ppt and is designed for unattended operation during 1–2 service cycles of the aircraft (400–800 flight hours. The total weight is 50 kg, including calibration system, compressed gases, mounting, and safety measures. The layout and inlet configuration are governed by requirements due to the certification for passenger aircraft. Laboratory tests are described regarding the conversion efficiency for NO2 and HNO3 (both >98%. Interference by HCN and NH3 is 100% and <1%, respectively. The time response (90% time of the instrument is <1 s for NO2 and 150 s for HNO3, the latter being caused by memory effects in the 80 cm long inlet line.

  17. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.

  18. Politicization of Senior Civil Servants in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea NAHTIGAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.

  19. Standards of Islamity in Islamic civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei Habibollah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the criterion for Islamity in Islamic civilization theory? Is it faith (internal feature or Islam (external aspect? Emphasizing Islam as an external issue could result in hypocrisy, and highlighting faith (iman might lead to excommunication (takfir from the civilization. In order to respond to this question, I will argue that Islamic civilization (in both theory and practice starts from minimum Islam to include majority of people as Muslim Ummah, then it develops by faith-training to reduce hypocrisy. Faith-based civilization could be the peak point of Islamic civilization but faith per se (without external signs cannot be evaluated on individual and social scale. Based on this, and contrary to excommunicators, Islam is the single way for recognition of religiosity and Islamity in the civilization. And iman is the way for a rapid and successful development of humanity, morality, and rationality with the aim of creating the greatest humanized communication system that is the hard core of every civilization.

  20. Solid State Digital Propulsion "Cluster Thrusters" For Small Satellites Using High Performance Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellants (ECESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Wayne N.; Katzakian, Arthur; Grix, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellants (ESCSP) are capable of multiple ignitions, extinguishments and throttle control by the application of electrical power. Both core and end burning no moving parts ECESP grains/motors to three inches in diameter have now been tested. Ongoing research has led to a newer family of even higher performance ECESP providing up to 10% higher performance, manufacturing ease, and significantly higher electrical conduction. The high conductivity was not found to be desirable for larger motors; however it is ideal for downward scaling to micro and pico- propulsion applications with a web thickness of less than 0.125 inch/ diameter. As a solid solution propellant, this ECESP is molecularly uniform, having no granular structure. Because of this homogeneity and workable viscosity it can be directly cast into thin layers or vacuum cast into complex geometries. Both coaxial and grain stacks have been demonstrated. Combining individual propellant coaxial grains and/or grain stacks together form three-dimensional arrays yield modular cluster thrusters. Adoption of fabless manufacturing methods and standards from the electronics industry will provide custom, highly reproducible micro-propulsion arrays and clusters at low costs. These stack and cluster thruster designs provide a small footprint saving spacecraft surface area for solar panels and/or experiments. The simplicity of these thrusters will enable their broad use on micro-pico satellites for primary propulsion, ACS and formation flying applications. Larger spacecraft may find uses for ECESP thrusters on extended booms, on-orbit refueling, pneumatic actuators, and gas generators.

  1. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  2. THE POETIC VECTOR OF CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards poetry as the type of a world view that has profound effect on the social and technical development of civilization. Contrary to popular belief about the decline of poetry in the technological age, poetry, as the desire for imaginative comprehension and transformation of the world, remains the most powerful engine of civilization. There are new, non-linguistic forms of existence of poetry (outside of verses and books that are explored in the article: anthropoeia, biopoeia, kosmopoeia, noopoeia, sociopoeia, technopoeia… For example, the technique is no less metaphorical and symbolic than poetry is, but it embodies the energy of creation not in words, but in the poetically transfigured matter where each element is „playing” with nature, overcomes the force of gravity, the distances of time and space. Tehnopoeia as realized in aviation, rocketry, electronics, Internet, new means of communication, allows to see clearly the invisible, to hear the inaudible, to speak many languages. Technopoeia is the poetic aspect of technology as an activity that implements the creative aspirations of humans and the symbolic vision of the world. The article examines the „physics of poetry,” as it was understood by Surrealists, and shows that the poetic perception of things is not opposed to its utilitarian functions, but both can be harmoniously combined. Contemporatry science and technology aspire to implement a number of fundamental biopoetic and cosmopoetic metaphors: the universe — a computer, a planet — a living organism, the computer — the brain, the Internet — the nervous system, infectious viruses — computer and genes, the language of life — the process of writing… The metaphor becomes an integral part of the scientific outlook and the driving force behind the new discovery. Philology and poetics need to develop new methods of analysis of poetic phenomena as embodied not in verses, but in scientific thinking and

  3. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  4. Developing marketing system for civil engineering firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper intention was to reveal insufficient connection between theory and practice in civil engineering as indispose condition for more efficient solving problems which products unstable environment of engineering firms. Successful connection between theory and practice, when we talk about marketing in civil engineering, did not develop at satisfied way. Civil engineering is, in aspect of implementation of modern philosophy of marketing, in big residue related to the other spices of economy. In that order we want to appoint on possibility to resolve this discrepancy.

  5. Precautionay Seizure of Civil Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Alexandrescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Noting that many pending cases in the maritime and river sections of the courts concern the seizureof commercial ships, we intend to study in detail this institution of maritime law. This approach is due to thefact that the few Romanian law-writers, and especially the practitioners, who have approached the subject,have referred in particular to comment and interpretation of existing rules in the Commercial Code and theCivil Procedure Code, not considering the relationship between other institutions of maritime law and seizingthe ship. In our opinion the mentioned institution of law can not be examined thoroughly without priorinvestigation of what is the ship which is subject to seizure. Moreover, the ship is at the heart of all legalresearch on shipping. The concept of ship has been controversial since the seventeenth century, with the firstregulations that led to the development and adoption of commercial codes, and it is still controversial today.We can say that the diversity of opinions, expressed both in the legal literature and legal practice, on theconcept of ship, is largely due to the technical progress of shipping in modern times, this transport meanbenefiting from exceptional facilities to ensure a safely water transport of goods and people.

  6. [The civil liability of obstetricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, R; Hindemith, J

    2011-12-01

    The number of maternal and child deaths associated with delivery in Germany has reached a historically low level. Even so, the number of claims for damages arising from birth complications is continuously increasing. The reasons for this apparent paradox are analysed in the present contribution. Basic principles of the present situation concerning legal precedents with regard to birth damages are illustrated. The legal instrumentarium which the courts use to reach their decisions is presented. The interactions of the reasons for liability are demonstrated for the five most frequently occurring critical obstetric situations (intrauterine asphyxia, premature amniorrhexis, danger of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, birth of a depressed child).From an analysis of court decisions on liability questions that result from an objective failure of obstetric management in critical situations, four general empirical rules can be derived and observation of these rules could markedly reduce the number of patient claims. The function of civil court rulings as a necessary control instance is positively accepted.

  7. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.

  8. A Mathematics Lesson from the Mayan Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Morales-Aldana, Leonel

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can infuse culture into the curriculum and develop students' competence and confidence by using ethnomathematics. Examines the mathematics of the Mayan civilization. Contains 22 references. (ASK)

  9. Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerald H. Haug; Detlef Günther; Larry C. Peterson; Daniel M. Sigman; Konrad A. Hughen; Beat Aeschlimann

    2003-01-01

    .... A seasonally resolved record of titanium shows that the collapse of Maya civilization in the Terminal Classic Period occurred during an extended regional dry period, punctuated by more intense...

  10. Rhetorical Alliances in the Civil Rights Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Molefi Kete

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetorical mode of the civil rights movement and gives some attention to the problematic convergence of white and Black progressive writers. Focuses on two recurring metaphors used to describe the condition of Blacks: invisibility and Black Power. (KH)

  11. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (m)(4) of this section, the Hearing Officer may receive any oral or documentary evidence, but... the civil penalty on the person's ability to do business; (iv) Any history of prior violations;...

  12. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  13. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  14. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonović Ivana; Lazić Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual) civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been ...

  15. Civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals which consists of an obligation to repair eventual damages in their professional practice. Firstly, this study presents a historical rescue, the conceptualization of civil responsibility , the differentiation of that criminal responsibility, and also of the assumed ones. Secondly, the conditions for the imputation of a damage and the differentiation between obligation of means and obligation of ...

  16. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  17. Civil Society, Democratic Space, and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Jaysawal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.

  18. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  19. Environmental and ecological citizenship in civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, David

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the work of Andrew Dobson, two notions of citizenship in civil society can be distinguished: environmental citizenship, which focuses on environmental rights and seeks to redefine the relationship between the state and the citizen; and ecological citizenship, which goes beyond a rights-based notion of citizenship to advocate the fair usage of ecological space across international borders. Using civil society initiatives to conserve forests, this article argues that these two noti...

  20. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in § 375.10...

  1. Features of personnel motivation in the civil service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Artemenko

    2016-06-01

    The problems and the current state of civil servants motivation are investigated. The author reveals the contents of the new Law of Ukraine «On Civil Service» in the context of civil servants motivation and determines the ways of improving civil servants motivation in Ukraine.

  2. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  3. 24 CFR 81.83 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...

  4. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...

  5. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  6. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  7. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  8. Education for civil society or democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a scholarly debate on theses which equate the concepts of "civil society" and "democracy". The main objection put forward against the concept of education for civil society is its ideological nature. The paper analyses theoretical and empirical difficulties of the concept. In the first place, "civil society" concept is not identical to "democracy" concept. The author contests the claim that a good citizen ideal is a general ideal of modern society. A claim is put forward that there is no significant pedagogical or didactic difference between a civil education teacher and teachers of other subjects. The paper also points out some outstanding problems in school practice of civil education as a proof that the concept does not have a valid theoretical foundation. The call for civil education not to be limited to a single subject has been contested by the argument that a single vision of a desirable society can lead into doctrinal and ideological bigotry and not democratic pluralistic society. .

  9. The space environment monitor aboard FY-2 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guangwu; LI; Baoquan; WANG; Shijin; LIN; Hua'an; LIAN

    2005-01-01

    The space environment monitor (SEM) aboard FY-2 satellite consists of the high energy particle detector (HEPD) and the solar X-ray flux detector (SXFD). The SEM can provide real-time monitoring of flare and solar proton event for its operation at geostationary orbit and is also the first Chinese space system for monitoring and alerting solar proton event. During the 23rd solar maximum cycle, almost all the solar proton events that took place in this period are monitored and some of them are predicted successfully by analyzing the characteristics of X-ray flare monitored by the SEM. Some basic variation characteristics of particle at geostationary orbit are found such as day-night periodic variation of particle flux, the electron flux with energy >1.4 MeV in the scope from 10 to 200/cm2.s-sr and the proton flux with energy >1.1 MeV in the scope from 600 to 8000/cm2-s.sr during the time with no magnetic storm and solar eruption.

  10. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  11. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  12. Using flight simulators aboard ships: human side effects of an optimal scenario with smooth seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Eric R; Lawson, Ben

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Navy is considering placing flight simulators aboard ships. It is known that certain types of flight simulators can elicit motion adaptation syndrome (MAS), and also that certain types of ship motion can cause MAS. The goal of this study was to determine if using a flight simulator during ship motion would cause MAS, even when the simulator stimulus and the ship motion were both very mild. All participants in this study completed three conditions. Condition 1 (Sim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator situated on land. Condition 2 (Ship) involved riding aboard a U.S. Navy Yard Patrol boat. Condition 3 (ShipSim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator while riding aboard a Yard Patrol boat. Before and after each condition, participants' balance and dynamic visual acuity were assessed. After each condition, participants filled out the Nausea Profile and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Following exposure to a flight simulator aboard a ship, participants reported negligible symptoms of nausea and simulator sickness. However, participants exhibited a decrease in dynamic visual acuity after exposure to the flight simulator aboard ship (T[25] = 3.61, p flight simulators can be used aboard ship. As a minimal safety precaution, these simulators should be used according to current safety practices for land-based simulators. Optimally, these simulators should be designed to minimize MAS, located near the ship's center of rotation and used when ship motion is not provocative.

  13. 谈自动喷水灭火系统的设计%On design for automatic sprinkling fire extinguishing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔冰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了自动喷水灭火系统的优点,结合该系统的组成要素,从喷头布置、管网布置、报警阀组设置、末端试水装置设置等方面,总结了该系统的设计要点,有利于促进自动喷水灭火系统的优化设计。%The paper introduces the advantages of the automatic sprinkling fire extinguishing system,combining with the elements of automatic sprinkling fire extinguishing system,and sums up its design points from the sprinkler allocation,pipeline network allocation,alert valve units lay-out,and end water-test equipment,so as to have the optimal design for the system.

  14. Evaluation of SF6-alternative gas C5-PFK based on arc extinguishing performance and electric strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Murphy, Anthony Bruce; Li, Tianwei; Zhong, Jianying; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunpin

    2017-09-01

    C5-PFK (C5-perfluoroketone, C5F10O) is under wide consideration as an environmentally-friendly alternative gas to SF6 in high-voltage applications, because of its superior insulation performance. The aim of this work is to study theoretically the arc extinguishing performance and electric strength of C5-PFK. The arc extinguishing performance of C5-PFK was evaluated by analyzing and comparing the thermophysical properties of C5-PFK, SF6, CF4, CO2 and N2 plasmas. It was difficult to obtain the species formed in C5-PFK plasmas because of the complex C5-PFK molecular decomposition process. In this work, the decomposition process of C5-PFK and the related species were analyzed by the bond energy analysis method. For the species for which parameters such as the partition function and the enthalpy of formation were not available, computational chemistry methods were used to obtain the required data. The collision integrals were calculated using the phenomenological potential model. Using these results, the local thermodynamic equilibrium composition at temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K at 1-10 atm of pure C5-PFK was calculated by the method of minimization of the Gibbs free energy, and the corresponding transport coefficients were calculated by Chapman-Enskog method. Through the comparison of the thermophysical properties, it was found that C5-PFK had similar characteristics to SF6, with large peaks in specific heat below 4500 K, indicating potentially good thermal interruption capability. However, the specific heat peak at 7000 K corresponding to CO decomposition may detract from the thermal interruption capability. Specific heat peaks at higher temperatures are associated with the breaking of double or triple bonds, and should be avoided if possible in the new alternative gases. The electric strength of C5-PFK was assessed using the molecular electrostatic potential, which can be accurately calculated or measured, and gives strong insights into important

  15. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes.

  16. Test and Evaluation of Commercially Available Halon 1211 Hand-Portable Fire Extinguishers for Use in Habitable and Cargo Compartments of USAF Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    in this portion of the valve head. The flat spring inside the head was slightly corroded. The safety pin was stiff to remove. Valve operation was...assembly. Salt deposits were present here and the flat valve spring was slightly corroded. The safety pin was stiff to remove. Valve oper- ation was...light chain to prevent loss. These devices were easily removed for extinguisher operation. Although the Ansul safety pin , when in place, did prevent

  17. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  18. Research on combustion character during extinguishing of paraffin wax fire%石蜡火灾扑救过程中的燃烧特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌; 李玉; 高扬; 康青春

    2012-01-01

    An experimental model for simulating the paraffin wax fire was designed and set up, which consists of burning device, data acquisition and processing system and extinguishing system. As a benefit, the tests of the combustion characteristics of paraffin wax were performed in the period of extinguishing. Both the thermal radiation and the temperature variation were acquired and analyzed, as well as the descriptions of their trend in the flame combustion and extinguishing. The experiments showed that the paraffin wax was not easy to be ignited, and the fluidity was the main character and risk of paraffin wax.%设计制作了由燃烧装置、数据采集处理系统和灭火系统3部分组成的石蜡火灾试验模型,对石蜡火灾扑救过程中的燃烧特性进行试验研究,采集分析了石蜡火灾的热辐射和温度变化数据,描述了火焰燃烧和火焰扑灭过程中的变化趋势.通过实验发现,石蜡并不容易被点燃,流动性是石蜡火灾最重要的特点和危险因素.

  19. Global justice and transnational civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temi Ogunye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all accounts of global justice recognise that the world, as it is, is unjust, and that something ought to be done about this. But what? In this paper, I argue that wealthy individuals have a duty grounded in the natural duty of justice to engage in civil disobedience against the currently unjust global order with the aim of pressuring for institutional reform. In particular, I argue that those who subscribe to the two main views on global justice—cosmopolitanism and statism—can agree that the conditions which give rise to the duty to engage in civil disobedience obtain in global society today. I then explain why I focus on transnational civil disobedience, argue that only the wealthy have the duty to engage in it, and give an example of how this duty has been discharged in the real world.

  20. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  1. Exposure to a novel context after extinction causes a renewal of extinguished conditioned responses: implications for the treatment of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L; Kitlertsirivatana, Edward

    2010-06-01

    Renewal gives an experimental model for the relapse of fear symptoms following exposure therapy. While renewal of extinguished fear in humans has been observed following a return to the original context in which fear was acquired (ABA design), it has been more difficult to show upon presentation of a novel context (ABC design). The present experiment used a particularly strong context manipulation in a fear conditioning procedure. Context was manipulated by using large photographs of real environments taken from various angles and was present throughout the entire experiment. A renewal of cognitive expectancy was found in both ABA and ABC renewal designs, although it was larger in the former than in the latter. Response times in making the expectancy judgments increased when there was a change to a new context. The results demonstrate consistency in fear renewal effects between human and animal studies and suggest that relapse following exposure therapy via renewal remains a danger when people encounter a previously feared object in a novel context. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. UKIRT microlensing surveys as a pathfinder for $WFIRST$: The detection of five highly extinguished low-$|b|$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Gould, A; Henderson, C B; Howell, S B; Beichman, C

    2016-01-01

    Optical microlensing surveys are restricted from detecting events near the Galactic plane and center, where the event rate is thought to be the highest, due to the high optical extinction of these fields. In the near-infrared (NIR), however, the lower extinction leads to a corresponding increase in event detections and is a primary driver for the wavelength coverage of the $WFIRST$ microlensing survey. During the 2015 and 2016 bulge observing seasons we conducted NIR microlensing surveys with UKIRT in conjunction with and in support of the $Spitzer$ and $Kepler$ microlensing campaigns. Here we report on five highly extinguished ($A_H=0.81-1.97$), low-Galactic latitude ($-0.98\\le b\\le -0.36$) microlensing events discovered from our 2016 survey. Four of them were monitored with an hourly cadence by optical surveys but were not reported as discoveries, likely due to the high extinction. Our UKIRT surveys and suggested future NIR surveys enable the first measurement of the microlensing event rate in the NIR. This...

  3. Oleophobic Modification of Hollow Glass Microspheres and Its Effect on the Foaming Capacity and Stability of Foam Extinguishing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilized tridecafluorooctyltriethoxysilane (F8261 for the surface modification of hollow glass microspheres (HGM. We then measured the contact angles and the residing time of oil droplets on the HGM surface under different conditions and investigated the effects of the modifier concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature, and other factors on the outcomes of the modification reaction. We also compared the effects of HGM on the expansion ratio and 25% drainage time of protein foam liquid before and after the modification treatment and investigated the effects of HGM surface oleophobic modification on the foaming capacity and stability of foam extinguishing agent. The results showed that when the F8261 concentration was 1.0%, the temperature was 60°C, and the ultrasound treatment time was 2.0 h, the contact angle was up to 132.5°, the oleophobic property of HGM could be significantly enhanced, and the foaming capacity and the oil surface stability were significantly improved by the oleophobic modification.

  4. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  5. Preaching in the perspective of civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kroczek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preaching the word of God is the part of the ministry of the divine word. The activity belongs exclusively to the Church and is regulated by the church law, but it is also under regime of Polish law. The article focuses on the Polish civil law and treats about: copyright law, the protection of secret information in labor law and in educational law, the obligation of silence before election day, and protection of personal interests. The catholic ministers must be aware of the civil liability for the preaching.

  6. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  7. La responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza un análisis de la procedencia de pronunciamiento sobre responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal en referencia a la cuota tributaria defraudada. Se toma como punto de partida la posición del tribunal supremo que admite la configuración de la deuda tributaria defraudada como responsabilidad civil, y se subraya las dificultades técnicas de la misma, tomando en consideración la naturaleza ex lege que en todo caso ostenta la obligación de hacer efectivo el pago de la deuda tributaria,...

  8. Fundamentos del seguro de responsabilidad civil

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez del Prado Simons, Alfonso; Universidad de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Luego de una pequeña introducción en que comenta algunos problemas del Seguro Obligatorio de Accidente de Tránsito (SOAT) y de los seguros oncológicos en relación a los médicos, el autor hace una revisión de los fundamentos legales de la responsabilidad civil, especialmente la extracontractual, a partir de la legislación peruana y luego explica los alcances del seguro de responsabilidad civil general.

  9. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  10. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an

  11. Disfuncionalidades del servicio civil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta las características del servicio civil colombiano y argumenta que este existe en un nivel formal, pero sufre de una brecha de implementación que ha conducido a la creación de una serie de disfuncionalidades en el sistema. Esta situación explica la discrepancia entre la imagen positiva que existe fuera del país frente a su servicio civil y la imagen que existe dentro, basada en el mal funcionamiento práctico del mismo.

  12. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    OpenAIRE

    Eiroa, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from th...

  13. La responsabilidad civil medioambiental por productos defectuosos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La tesis cuestiona por una parte la exhaustividad del marco regulador de la responsabilidad Civil por productos defectuosos y, por la otra, la singularidad de los daños medioambientales. Así, pretende, entre otros objetivos, contribuir en la construcción del Derecho Civil medioambiental, buscando, dentro del ámbito de protección de la legislación sobre productos defectuosos, el posible anclaje de los daños medioambientales. Gira en torno a la cuestión del régimen aplicable a supuesto...

  14. Social Movements, Civil Society and Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bakker, Frank; Hond, Frank den; King, Brayden

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between social movements and civil society on the one hand, and the corporate world on the other hand, are often shaped by conflict over the domination of economic, cultural and social life. How this conflict plays out, in current as well as in historical times and places......, is the central question that unites the papers in this special issue. In this essay, we review the differences and points of contact between the study of social movements, civil society and corporations, and offer an agenda for future research at this intersection that also frames the papers in the special issue...

  15. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...... providing for the safety and integrity of the structure, and in some cases also providing for a measure of comfort for the occupants during such loading which the structure and its occupants must endure. Due to these uncertainties, the civil engineering community has traditionally adopted a very...

  16. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil monetary... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties...

  17. Civil Discourse or Civil War? The Influence of Civil-Military Relations on Iraq and Afghanistan War Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Hopkins Univ. Press, 2009), 44. 10 Mackubin T. Owens (professor, Naval War College, Newport, RI), interview by the author, 5 April 2011. 11 Risa A...www.esquire.com/features/fox-fallon (accessed 18 March 2011). Brooks, Risa A. Shaping Strategy: The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment

  18. El derecho civil, los derechos civiles forales o especiales y el derecho civil autonómico

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza Penadés, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Para poder comprender el concepto y significado del Derecho Civil conviene previamente delimitar su contenido y comprender su consideración como Derecho Privado y como Derecho común, que es fruto de su evolución histórica.

  19. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  20. Electrochemical deposition of silver crystals aboard Skylab 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.; Johnston, M. H.; Gates, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Silver crystals were grown aboard Skylab 4 by an electro-chemical reaction and subsequently returned to earth for comparison with crystals grown at 1- and 5-g. Both the Skylab and earth-grown crystals show a variety of structures. Certain tendencies in structure dependency on gravity level, however, can be discerned. In addition, downward growing dendrite streamers; upward growing chunky crystal streamers; growth along an air/liquid interface; and ribbon, film, and fiber crystal habits were observed in experiments conducted on the ground with solutions of varying concentrations. It was also observed that the crystal structures of space and ground electro-deposited silver crystals were very similar to the structures of germanium selenide and germanium telluride crystals grown in space and on the ground by a vapor transport technique. Consideration of the data leads to the conclusions that: (1) the rate of electrochemical displacement of silver ions from a 5 percent aqueous solution by copper is predominantly diffussion controlled in space and kinetically controlled in 1- and higher-g because of augmentation of mass transport by convection; (2) downward and upward crystal streamers are the result of gravity-driven convection, the flow patterns of which can be delineated. Lateral growths along an air/liquid interface are the result of surface-tension-driven convection, the pattern of which also can be delineated; (3) electrolysis in space or low-g environments can produce either dendritic crystals with more perfect microcrystalline structures or massive, single crystals with fewer defects than those grown on ground or at higher g-levels. Ribbons or films of space-grown silicon crystals would find a ready market for electronic substrate and photocell applications. Space-grown dendritic, metal crystals present the possibility of unique catalysts. Large perfect crystals of various materials are desired for a number of electronic and optical applications; and (4) vapor

  1. CIVIL LIABILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marica

    2008-09-01

    é un dommage ou un préjudice. Le droit à un environnement écologique, sain et équilibré, est reconnu et garanti par la législation nationale, ainsi que par celle internationale.L’article 35 de la Constitution de la Roumanie, tel qu’il a été modifié par la Loi no. 429/2003, affirme, entre autres droits fondamentaux, le droit à un environnement sain, qui est une partie d’une troisième génération de droits, appelés droits de solidarité, qui peuvent être respectés non seulement par des efforts internes de l’Etat, mais aussi par la coopération entre l’Etat et les citoyens. Par la conclusion d’un accord d’association entre la Roumanie et l’Union Européenne, entré en vigueur en 1995, la Roumanie a assumé l’acquis communautaire de l’environnement, avec ses trois droits fondamentaux (le droit d’être informé au sujet de l’environnement, le droit de participer au processus de prise de décision concernant l’environnement et le droit de solliciter la réparation des dommages écologiques, ou l’annulation d’actes administratifs illégaux a joué un rôle important dans ce processus.Mots-clé: biodiversité, la protection de l’environnement, pollution, la réparation des dommages écologiques, responsabilité civile

  2. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cristina RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  3. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  4. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  5. A Changing Climate for Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward B.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies trends likely to influence civil rights issues in the 1980s: new emphases on entrepreneurial thinking, self-reliance, and meritocracy; a new socioeconomic agenda; and growing expectations that business will fill the gap left by shrinking government budgets and will support efforts to end discrimination against minorities and women. (CMG)

  6. Civil Technology. Surveying. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Beverley J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary civil technology--surveying education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in surveying in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

  7. Civil Litigation in China and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bratković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book: Civil Litigation in China and Europe: Essays on the Role of the Judge and the Parties (= 31 Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice (C.H. (Remco van Rhee & Fu Yulin, eds. (Springer 2014.

  8. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, NON-VIOLENCE AND CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forceful resistance (and not civil disobedience) would be an appropriate re- sponse.2 ... and non-violent methods of social change is not absolute and may, in fact, share remarkable ... ently non-violent action has been obstructive of the economic interests of others (in ..... self-advantage or for political subversion. By and ...

  9. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  10. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutio...... participatory democracy through active involving of all citizens....

  11. State Education Agency Civil Rights Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter

    This memorandum addresses the responsibility of State Education Agencies (SEAs) for insuring that local educational agencies do not violate students' civil rights. The SEA's duty is said to arise from two sources. First, in most if not all States, State law mandates that State education officials supervise and regulate the conduct of local school…

  12. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  13. Global civil society and its discontents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, T. Olaf

    2006-01-01

    by grafting the idea of civil society onto the global by way of an unhelpful domestic analogy. This paper examines the role the concept is playing in perpetuating/reconfiguring statism. First it summarizes current criticism by identifying three basic accusations: the ambiguity of the term, the "domestic...

  14. Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Trivero

    Full Text Available No hace mucho tiempo apareció en el mercado anticuario italiano un libro extremadamente raro e interesante para el mundo chileno y, particularmente mapuche. Se trata de la primera edición del "Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili", del jesuita Giovanni Ignazio Molina, publicado en Bologna en el año 1787.

  15. Civil society responds to protection gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Jackson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of mechanisms to protect the populationof the OPT, and the reluctance or impotence of the‘international community’, global civil society activists andhuman rights campaigners – working with Palestinianand Israeli actors – have stepped into the breach.

  16. Civil and Military Bureaucracy in Pakistan,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Mohammad Ali Jinnah and maintained by his successors until 1958. During the Ayub period (1958-69), the basic framework of adminis- tration was maintained...civil services. * As opposed to the refugees who came from India at Partition . By_ Distribut il/ October 1981 Avallal-ility Codes Avn il and/or Dist special

  17. Construction contracting and civil-military interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Jasper; Rietjens, S.J.H.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; de Boer, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for improved insights into the contracting process for construction projects that the military contract out to civil contractors in the specific setting of civil–military interaction (CMI) in regions that are suffering from instability and armed conflict. The core questions are: what

  18. Civil Rights and Japanese-American Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Hojo, Samantha; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Yoda, Steven

    Students may not be as familiar with the Asian American struggle for equal rights as they are with the black struggle for equal rights. But Asian Americans' civil rights have also been challenged and/or denied throughout their history in the United States. This curriculum module contains six lessons and can be used as a supplement to history…

  19. China To Boost Civil Aerospace Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced on January 30,2008 that it had approved the overall development planning of three national aerospace industrial bases.Building a civil aerospace industry base serves to optimize and integrate aerospace resources to further increase the potential for technological innovation and product R&D in China's aerospace industry.

  20. The language of architecture and civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Riejos, Ana Ma Roldan

    2011-01-01

    This book not only provides unique and in-depth information to understand the language of architecture and civil engineering, it is also helpful for students and professionals who need to improve their linguistic skills. The LACE book includes plenty of

  1. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  2. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  3. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  4. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common f

  5. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  6. The civilized sacred in contemporary China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Recent policies set by the Government renewed the urgency of being civilized (wenming): behavior in public parks needs to be wenming, and also rituals in Buddhist and Daoist temples have to be wenming. The next step has been to encourage citizens to avoid burning incense or visiting temples, and to

  7. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... offense; (ii) Any history of prior offenses by the Respondent (including offenses occurring prior to the... proposed civil money penalty, including documentary evidence to support any of Respondent's arguments or... argument in mitigation, the Respondent shall provide documentary evidence as part of its response....

  8. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cristina RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  9. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  10. Nigerian Federal Civil Service: Employee Recruitment, Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study delved into the recruitment and retention of employees in the ... Civil Service (NFCS), to establish their impact on the effectiveness of the service. ... the study found that the service lagged behind in providing adequate incentives to ... its application should also pay attention to the merit of prospective employees.

  11. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the type...

  12. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Наумов

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  13. Civil Rights in the Third Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Alvin

    1982-01-01

    Current political and legal institutions must be restructured to accommodate the new, higher levels of social diversity brought about by technological progress. Those who are committed to civil rights should recognize the need to tolerate and even encourage diversity, instead of attempting to recreate the homogeneity of yesterday's mass society.…

  14. CIVIL ENGINEERS' ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  15. Beyond Western Civilization: Rebuilding the Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, William H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Seven college professors give personal views about why courses in Western civilization and national history are declining in popularity. Because students seem to be oriented toward the present and away from foreign affairs, history courses must be relevant to students' lives in order to be of interest. (AV)

  16. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21... penalty. Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  18. European standards of the civil service integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-09-01

    It was offered for further implementation of the European standards of integrity to develop a new Code of integrity for civil servants and take measures, which contain Anti-Corruption Strategy: adopt a law on the protection of persons who honestly reported regarding corruption offenses (denunciators, in particular a law concerning conducting the inspection of public servants on integrity.

  19. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  20. Forensic Medical Examination in Civil Cases: Status, Problems, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kh. Barinov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of forensic medical examinations in civil cases related to health harm while rendering medical services is not shown to meet the need for a legal procedure. Key words: forensic medical examination, civil procedure, medical cases.

  1. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  2. Civil society and the ‘commanding heights’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Paton, Rob

    Civil society associations, including voluntary and community groups, trade unions, faithbased organisations, co-operatives and mutuals, have long influenced the economy. Civil society associations can run businesses and they can run organisations that aim to influence businesses. Together...

  3. Should Bad Civil Servants Be Chosen by Voting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote good service from civil servants, Anqiu City in Shandong Province recently issued the Appraisal Methods for Best-and Worst-Performing Civil Servants. Based on the regulation, the city government

  4. ICAO Assistance to Civil Aviation in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes the cost advantages of air transportation over road, rail, and river transportation in many circumstances which prevail today in developing countries. Presents accounts of International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) efforts supporting civil aviation programs in these countries. (DS)

  5. Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The civil engineering program of Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil is described, with emphasis on recent trends within the Hydraulics Department’s coastal engineering unit.

  6. 17 Human Resource Development and the Productivity of the Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Problem of the Study ... find a solution to the problems of the civil service and also successive .... perform current job assignments and tasks effectively. ... Table 1: Frequency Distribution of Civil Employees' Response and.

  7. 食用油火灾灭火剂的研究现状与发展趋势%Current state and development trend of cooking oil fire extinguishing agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣基; 宋波; 傅学成; 包志明; 陈涛; 张宪忠

    2012-01-01

    在分析食用油火灾特性的基础上,详细分析目前常见的灭火剂品种在扑救食用油火时的特点和适用性,提出具备皂化反应性质的食用油灭火剂是较为适宜的食用油灭火剂.介绍了厨房灭火技术相关技术标准的现状,进一步提出未来的食用油灭火剂应具备灭火效率高、灭火时基本无飞溅、灭火后不易复燃、对人和环境无显著毒性危害、不会污染厨房内的其他食品及器具、火灾后现场易于清理等特点.%The characteristics of cooking oil fire were analyzed, and the fire extinguishing characteristics and applicability of different fire extinguishing agents were compared. It was proposed that the extinguishing agents with saponification reaction are the proper agents to suppress cooking oil fire. The status of relevant standards on kitchen fire extinguishing technologies was introduced, and it was further pointed out that the cooking oil fire extinguishing agent in the future should have the features as follows: high fire extinguishment efficiency, no oil splash when extinguishing the fire, difficult to recrudescence after fire, no significant toxicity on human and environment, no pollution on other food and apparatus, easy to clean after the fire is suppressed.

  8. Stato e società civile in Gramsci (State and Civil Society in Gramsci)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guido LIGUORI

    2016-01-01

    Gramsci is not, as at times has been said, the “theoretician of civil society”. Central to his reflections in the Prison Notebooks is instead the concept of the “integral State” or “extended State...

  9. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-01-01

    The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  10. DOCTRINAL FOUNDATIONS OF PLURALITY OF PERSONS IN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolayev A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical basis of the multiplicity of individual and joint ownership of civil rights and conscientious objection to civilian duties. The author explores the state of development of scientific problems of completely plurality of persons in civil law, proves the necessity to consider the multiplicity not through teaching about the object of civil rights, but through the subject of civil rights

  11. Civil reconnaissance; separating the insurgent from the population

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Kevin P.

    2007-01-01

    Civil Information Management is one of the main tools in conducting effective counter insurgency operations, yet there is no definitive doctrine that explains how to collect, analyze, or warehouse Civil Information. This thesis provides a methodology for collecting civil information in a counter insurgency environment. The proposed methodology provides a foundation for the creation of standard operating procedures and tactics to enhance the US Military's capability to conduct Civil Recon...

  12. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  13. Personnel of Civil Aviation as a Systematic Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation is considered in the article. During the research the author presents scientific views on the definition of «system», reveals the essence of the organization of personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation. Essential characteristics of the integral system of personnel of civil aviation and its systematic qualities are determined.English abstractThe personnel of civil aviation is a system organized formation of trained workers of c...

  14. ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Civil society organizations, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), are important stakeholders of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010 presents an overview of the year’s work in cooperating with civil society organizations, including NGOs, in country and regional programming work, project operations, as well as in policy and strategy development. Through ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center, ADB is strengthening its partnership with ...

  15. ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Biennial Report 2011 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Civil society organizations, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), are important stakeholders of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This report is a compilation of ADB’s engagement with civil society organizations, including NGOs, at the policy and strategy, country and regional programing, and project operations. ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center, ADB focal points throughout the Bank, and the institution as one entity, seek to strengthen cooperation with civil society in the understa...

  16. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  17. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Lack

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...

  18. 7 CFR 2.25 - Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. 2.25 Section 2... Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries § 2.25 Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. (a) The following delegations of authority are made by the Secretary to the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights: (1) Provide...

  19. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  20. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Govinda

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  1. Opportunities in Civil Engineering. [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Heer, John E., Jr.

    This book presents information on career opportunities in civil engineering. Chapter 1 focuses on the scope of civil engineering, discussing: role of scientist, engineer, and technologists; engineering and engineering technology; civil engineer's role and obligations; and other information. Chapter 2 considers such aspects of the education for…

  2. 77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted dollar amount for civil monetary penalties... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 143 RIN 3038-AD76 Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation AGENCY... and orders thereunder. The rule, as amended, implements the Federal Civil Penalties...

  3. 42 CFR 460.46 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties. 460.46 Section 460.46 Public...) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.46 Civil money penalties. (a) CMS may impose civil money penalties up to the following maximum amounts: (1) For each violation regarding enrollment or...

  4. 12 CFR 509.103 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 509.103 Section 509.103... PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Local Rules § 509.103 Civil money penalties. (a) Assessment. In the... may serve an order of assessment of civil money penalty upon the party concerned. The assessment order...

  5. 12 CFR 1250.3 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 1250.3 Section 1250.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES FLOOD INSURANCE § 1250.3 Civil money... to § 1250.2, the Director of FHFA, or his or her designee, may assess civil money penalties against...

  6. 12 CFR 908.6 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 908.6 Section 908.6... Proceedings § 908.6 Civil money penalties. (a) Notice of assessment—(1) Grounds. The Finance Board may issue and serve a notice of assessment of a civil money penalty on any Bank or any executive officer or...

  7. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  8. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1834 - Civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act...

  10. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  11. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  12. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  13. 触头灭弧系统短路分断调试方法的技术研究%Technical Study of Short-Circuit Breaking Debugging Method for Contact Arc Extinguishing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺雅洁; 黄世泽; 郭其一; 胡景泰; 朱奇敏

    2012-01-01

      介绍了控制与保护开关(CPS)触头灭弧系统的各种出厂调试方法以及调试现象。阐述了触头灭弧系统的工作原理,分析了触头灭弧系统的触头受力情况,针对分断试验过程中出现的三种情况,分析了其对KBO触头灭弧系统短路分断能力的影响,通过试验验证了理论分析的正确性,并对触头灭弧系统的调试提出了建议。%  Introduction was made to various kinds of ex-works debugging methods and debugging phenomena for contact arc extinguish-ing system of control and protective switching device (CPS). Description was made to the working principle of contact arc extinguishing sys-tem and analysis was made to contact stress situation of the system. Aiming at three situations in breaking test process, this paper analyzed its impacts on short-circuit breaking capability of KBO contact arc extinguishing system. The test verifies the correctness of theoretical analysis and suggestions are made for debugging of contact arc extinguishing system.

  14. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de guerra civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Calleja, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the phenomenon of war as the highest intensity point in an armed conflict. The work looks over his juridical typification, the special dialectical relation established between situations of war and peace, and the ethiology, characteristics and consequences of civil war as a big scale political conflict whose aim is the preservation or conquest of state power.

    El artículo describe el fenómeno de la guerra como un conflicto armado de máxima intensidad. Estudia su caracterización jurídica, la peculiar relación dialéctica que se establece entre el estado de guerra y el de paz, y la etiología, características y efectos de la guerra civil como conflicto político en gran escala dirigido a la conservación o conquista del poder estatal.

  15. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  16. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  17. Family Enterprise in Czech Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades the family business enterprises of the first generation (generation of founders are more and more dominating in the category of today’s small and medium–sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The necessary legal background defining the legal relationships and rights of all participating persons was, however, limited to general provisions in the Commercial Code that has not solved many of the problems associated thereto. Only in 2012 the new Czech Civil Code, Act. No 89/2012 Coll., introduced the institute of family enterprise as completely new term in the Czech Civil law. The presented paper aims to analyse the key rules of this new legal regulation, focusing on significant aspects of the institute in the context of commercial law and family law, as well as, to highlight the potential weaknesses and gaps existing in the regulation.

  18. 泡沫类灭火剂在化工企业火灾的应用%Application of Foam Extinguishers in the Fire of Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬勇

    2011-01-01

    针对化工企业复杂多变的火灾情况,分析了不同种类的泡沫灭火剂灭火原理、性质以及适应扑救的化工火灾场所,为化工企业火灾扑救起到了一定的指导作用。%Focused on fire suppression principle, nature and applying areas of different kinds of foam extinguishers. It would be give some guidance to fight the chemical industry fire.

  19. 氟碳表面活性剂环境风险控制措施初探%Environment risks control of fluorocarbon surfactants in foam extinguishing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江

    2012-01-01

    统计分析了山西省大中型石油化工企业数量以及2007-2011年全省油类火灾发生的时间、地点,由此估算出泡沫灭火剂储备量及含氟碳表面活性剂(主要是C8类氟碳表面活性剂)的用量.从中分析氟碳表面活性剂排入大气中、直接进入土壤、直接流入河流和通过下水道进入污水处理厂对环境造成的污染风险.介绍国际发达国家相关处理措施,提出我国消防领域解决控制氟碳表面活性剂的建议:一是大力开发和选用环境友好型泡沫灭火剂,把对环境的影响降至最低;二是积极应对,加强管理,妥善回收处理消防灭火剂使用后的残液;三是鼓励污水处理厂开发能降解氟碳表面活性剂的处理工艺,最终达到降低此类风险对人类的危害;四是提出研制新型泡沫灭火剂的思路.%In order to investigate the reserves of foam extinguishing agents and usage of fluorocarbon surfactants in fire fighting field of Shanxi Province, we made a statistics of the number of large and medium petrochemistry industries and the occurring time and sites of oil (ire during 2007 - 2011. And there existed environment risks for the fluorocarbon surfactants (especially C8). The control measures of fluorocarbon surfactants' pollution include utilize the green foam extinguishing agents without or with as few as C8 fluorocarbon surfactants such as perfluo-rooctane sulfonate (PFOS)and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). collection of the used foam extinguishing agents, and development of the degradation techniques for them and new foam extinguishing agent.

  20. Understanding civil society before and after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Miszlivetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrapped in the ambiguities of the Realpolitik of the Yalta system, East and Central European societies had to proceed on a long path of learning in order to find the right modes of self-organization and articulation to defend their values and identities vis-à-vis dictatorship and authoritarian rule. These bitter lessons contributed to the emergence of a new «strategy», a new vision which materialized in the emerging political philosophy and the political and social practice of civil society. This development would not have been possible without a gradual and fundamental change in political thinking and goal-setting, expressed in the development of a new concept of civil society.Atrapados en las ambigüedades de la Realpolitik del sistema de Yalta, las sociedades del Centro y Este de Europea han tenido que proceder a un largo camino de aprendizaje a fin de encontrar formas correctas de autoorganización y la articulación de la defensa de sus valores e identidades vis-à- vis con una dictadura y una administración autoritaria. Estas amargas lecciones contribuyeron a la emergencia de una nueva «estrategia», una nueva visión materializada en la emergente filosofía política y la práctica social y política de la sociedad civil. Este desarrollo no hubiera sido posible sin el gradual y fundamental cambio en el pensamiento político y el establecimiento de metas, expresadas en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de sociedad civil

  1. Trauma Narratives of the English Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the psychological impact and aftereffects of the English Civil War. Its main \\ud points of focus are the expressions of personal as well as collective trauma caused by this intestine \\ud conflict and the intersections between these two areas of experience. In this context, the discussion \\ud places the ways in which war experiences were narrated in relation to wider conceptualizations of \\ud traumatic damage to the mind. The essay identifies and analyses evidence of (wha...

  2. Judicial considerations with regard to civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelli, S D; Muñoz, D R

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the doctrinaire position of a judge in terms of the civil liability objective and subjective theories and the results of their decisions in terms of "acquittal/against judgments". A system of classification of matter of fact results is proposed and the influence on the result of the decision of each category is also tested. The material consists of 71 records of judicial procedures from São Paulo State Court of Justice.

  3. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  4. The Civil Side of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    operational environment; identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within civil society ; or involve the application of functional...Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, the Islamic Resistance Movement, seeks an Islamic state within Palestine . Unique to HAMAS as compared to Islamists...an embodiment of the Muslim Brotherhood’s missionary work in Palestine , established schools and social safety nets within Gaza. This social safety

  5. Civil Society as a Network of Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo Castro Henriques

    2007-01-01

    According to a political philosophy approach, civil society may be defined as the network of institutions of private origin and a public purpose in which communities share goods, meanings and values, significantly contributing to the progress or decline of governance. Its empowering role is growing as cooperation networks spread across the local, national, supranational and global levels, strengthening both the communities they serve and the governance procedures they legitimize. Those instit...

  6. Civil liability for ecologic damage and repairing

    OpenAIRE

    Basílio, Patrícia Droeber; Faculdades de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses how civil liability takes position regarding situations connected to damages caused to the environment, defined ways in our legislation reprimanding damages caused and existent ways of prevention and repairing. The text contemplates how law disciplines such issue, looking for efficient and effective solutions and also checking evolution and modification from law which are relevant to the environment, the environmental law, whereas we observe it is a serious issue that ha...

  7. Legal Officer Civil Law Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    it may be more pr&udent to utilize black-and-white film . Pnlaroid prints offer instant review to ensure that the desired picture is obtain-ed, hut...dimensions. The investigative report should include the negatives plus complete tichnical rdetails relating to the camera tused (e.g., type, settings, film ...Act or the Act] which is- largely a reenactment of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of -1918. Except for specific relief provisions deemed

  8. Civil Society Organizations: Development and Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    One has not to be worried about civil society organizations because they have already received an important role to play in social activities, in the development and the defense of human rights. Therefore, they represent a key partner for the state, alongside with which they participate in economic and social development. In fact, nowadays, it is no longer possible for the state alone to vouch for social development and to assume responsibility for all social problems. The relations between t...

  9. Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  10. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  11. Civil Society and Paths to Abolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour DRESCHER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to present an overview of British, French, Russian, American and Brazilian abolitionist action, between the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. Indicating the struggles of pro-abolition civil associations, the paths taken in Britain, France, the US and Brazil are presented in parallel - either to emphasize approaches, either to highlight the undeniable peculiarities - revealing the marks of violence and negotiation present in the emancipation process.

  12. Hacia un bosquejo de la sociedad civil global: Un referente para la sociedad civil en el mundo árabe

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Tarbush, José

    2012-01-01

    La emergencia de la sociedad civil transnacional o global fue precedida por el desarrollo de las sociedades civiles en sus respectivos ámbitos nacionales o estatales. A su vez, la creciente transnacionalización de las organizaciones de las sociedades civiles nacionales sentó las bases de la sociedad civil global. Por su parte, la emergencia del tejido asociativo de la sociedad civil en el mundo árabe ha transcurrido de manera paralela ―e incluso previamente― a la formación de su s...

  13. Self powered system for civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat A.

    2009-03-01

    Globally, civil infrastructures are deteriorating at an alarming rate caused by overuse, overloading, aging, damage or failure due to natural or man-made hazards. With such a vast network of deteriorating infrastructure, there is a growing interest in continuous monitoring technologies. In order to provide a true distributed sensor and control system for civil structures, we are developing a Structural Nervous System that mimics key attributes of a human nervous system. This nervous system is made up of building blocks that are designed based on mechanoreceptors as a fundamentally new approach for the development of a structural health monitoring and diagnostic system that utilizes the recently developed piezo-fibers capable of sensing and actuation. In particular, our research has been focused on producing a sensory nervous system for civil structures by using piezo-fibers as sensory receptors, nerve fibers, neuronal pools, and spinocervical tract to the nodal and central processing units. This paper presents up to date results of our research, including the design and analysis of the structural nervous system.

  14. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  15. Questioning civil society / La sociedad civil en cuestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguzki Urteaga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War, the notion of civil society has become part of the scientific discourse, the media discourse as well as the discourse of international organizations. And it has done so despite having different meanings. Indeed, the concept of civil society may refer to the actor of a protest, the project of a mobilization, the open up of a political system dealing with a problem of representation. In other cases, it may also refer to political actors, socio-economic agents, associations or labour unions. In any case, it appears as an ambiguous concept, plural and poorly defined. The aim of this article is to highlight the long historical course of this notion, from the former times and its link to civilization, the modern times and its perceptions as a counter-power, to the contemporary period in which this notion is identified with the third sector. Nowadays, civil society is related to problems of citizenship, citizen participation and public space. Lastly, it poses a fundamental question in all continents, as a consequence of the new information and communication technologies and the globalization of commercial exchanges: is there an international civil society?

  16. Desobediencia civil: la autoridad de la reflexión vs la autoridad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Urteaga Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Puede la desobediencia civil justificarse moralmente? Este trabajo intenta dar una respuesta afirmativa a esta pregunta. Para dar cuenta de por qué la desobediencia civil es moralmente justificable, primero se describen algunos rasgos esenciales de la desobediencia civil. Después se explica la manera en la que tensión entre el poder civil y el poder del individuo –tensión que se asume como la fuente de la desobediencia civil–, bajo la consideración de algunos pasajes de la Fundamentación metafísica de las costumbres, resulta sólo aparente. Una vez disuelta la tensión se defiende que las fuentes normativas individuales y sociales no sólo no se contraponen, sino que su complementariedad es necesaria para justificar la desobediencia civil. Aunque suene paradójico: sólo se puede abrir espacio a la desobediencia a partir de resaltar la importancia de la obediencia y de la ley.

  17. Living at Sea: Learning from Communal Life Aboard Sail Training Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers features of domestic and social life aboard sail training vessels, exploring the particular character of life at sea, and how these features contribute to the distinctive character of sail training experience as a context for learning. Methodologically, the study lies in the sociological tradition of ethnography, focusing on…

  18. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  19. Investigation into noise exposure of engine room personnel aboard MS Trident Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Aartsen, H.

    1979-01-01

    The noise exposure in terms of equivalent continuous sound level Leq of engine room personnel was determined aboard the freighter m.s. "Trident Amsterdam" during ordinary trade voyages by means of two methods: the first by making use of dosimeters, the second by measuring the sound levels in the eng

  20. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  1. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison with LBNP device in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (left) and MS Mae C. Jemison prepare the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device for the LBNP experiment in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Displayed on the aft end cone in the background is an Auburn University banner.

  2. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Solibacillus kalamii, Isolated from an Air Filter Aboard the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuylemezian, Arman; Singh, Nitin K; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2017-08-31

    We report here the draft genome of Solibacillus kalamii ISSFR-015, isolated from a high-energy particulate arrestance filter aboard the International Space Station. The draft genome sequence of this strain contains 3,809,180 bp with an estimated G+C content of 38.61%. Copyright © 2017 Seuylemezian et al.

  4. Application research of gas fire extinguishing system in building fire-fighting design%气体灭火在建筑消防设计中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子焱

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces features of three kinds of common gas fire extinguishing system including IG541 ,heptafluoropropane and aerosol extinguishing gas,analyzes their safety,and illustrates the high efficiency and timeliness of gas fire extinguishing system through examples.%介绍了IG541、七氟丙烷、热气溶胶气体三种常见气体灭火系统的特点,从大气环境、人体、保护对象等角度,分析了三种气体灭火系统的安全性,并通过实例说明了使用气体灭火系统具有高效性、及时性。

  5. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  6. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  7. Information systems for civil engineering; Sistemas de informacion para ingenieria civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buen R, Pablo R; Alvarado G, Alonso; Alaniz Q, Felipe de J; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since its beginnings, in the Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the interest has existed to take advantage of and to promote the advantages that the appropriate use of the computerizing systems in the different tasks of civil engineering in the power sector represent. Either as a part of its infrastructure or at the request of their clients, at the GIC have been developed calculation systems for the analysis and design of special structures such as turbo-generators foundations, poles for transmission and distribution and transmission towers, in addition the information systems for the consultation and the analysis of diverse information, such as the related to the Manuals of Civil Works of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) or the relative to the existing instruments in the large dams of our country. In this article are briefly described some of the computer systems developed by the GIC in recent years. [Spanish] Desde sus inicios, en la Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha existido el interes por aprovechar y promover las ventajas que representa el uso adecuado de los sistemas de computo en las diferentes tareas de ingenieria civil en el sector energetico. Ya sea como parte de su infraestructura o a solicitud de sus clientes, en la GIC se han desarrollado sistemas de calculo para el analisis y diseno de estructuras especiales como lo son las cimentaciones de turbogeneradores, los postes para transmision y distribucion y las torres de transmision, ademas de sistemas de informacion para la consulta y el analisis de informacion diversa, como es la relacionada con los manuales de obras civiles de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) o a la relativa a los instrumentos existentes en las grandes presas de nuestro pais. En este articulo se describen brevemente algunos de los sistemas de computo desarrollos por la GIC en anos recientes.

  8. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP.

  9. De la responsabilidad civil de los maestros a la responsabilidad civil del titular del centro docente

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Esta obra analiza los cambios que se han producido en el ámbito de la responsabilidad extracontractual o aquiliana, a través de un caso bien concreto: la responsabilidad civil de los maestros o profesores por los actos de sus alumnos. Este supuesto, regulado originariamente en el párrafo sexto del art. 1903 del Código civil , fue modificado por medio de la Ley 1/1991 de 7 de enero, pasando a ocupar el actual párrafo quinto de ese mismo articulo. En esa modificación influyó la presencia en la ...

  10. Extinguishing a Permian World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of les

  11. Extinguishing a Permian World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of

  12. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan

    2007-01-15

    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  13. The theoretical justification of civil service professional space management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Terentiev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article develops the basic theoretical principles concerning the practical aspects of a civil service professional space. Development of the theoretical foundations of civil service professional space management provides for Public Administration new, more comprehensive methodological tools for adequately analysis and management of both social and professional processes in the public service, and ongoing process in the subspaces, fields and environments of all professions. Civil service professional space defines the main parameters and directions of public service, and professional environment of public authorities. As a space of common activity it requires special development and management. The author describes the content of functions for civil service professional space management, and provides appropriate practical recommendations. It is concluded that the civil service professional space should be the top point for analysis, forecasting, planning, implementation and decision-making in the civil service management in Ukraine.

  14. CIVIL SOCIETY AS A RESOURSE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Makarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research on civil society in Russia conducted for the Committee of Civil Initiatives by the Centre of Political Technologies in June-July 2013. It compares the Western model of civil society with its understanding in non-Western nations. The author analyses historical evolution of the Russian society and provides assessment of its current standing. He concludes that non-governmental organisations and civil activities in Russia develop under conditions of low mutual trust among the population and between society and state. The lack of trust of governmental bodies to civil initiatives is clearly reflected in the latest legislation on “foreign agents”. The remaining unfavourable conditions are likely to continue to hinder progress of Russian civil society for the years to come. The foundation for the research created the data from surveys, in-depth interviews and group discussions.

  15. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Мirko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation. Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as methodological paradigm, and the concept of cultural landscape as the essence of classical geography of culture and civilization. After this part are researched specific characteristics of certain academic schools and methodological perspectives in cultural geography. Postmodern paradigm and essence of "new" cultural geography are in the main focus. Postmodernism is changing the meaning of the basic concepts in cultural geography, which are analyzed in the introduction, such as space, culture, cultural region, cultural landscape and others. "New" cultural geography reassessed social and moral issues associated with the characteristics of the postmodern era. In this regard, methodological paradigm must be changed. This ascertainment is based on the interpretation of humanistic geography, where the emphasis is on the interpretation of cultural symbols, causal link and the "spirit of place" (Spiritus Loci. In accordance with modern conceptions of human in psychological notion, there are at least three theoretical directions, which find resonance in the appropriate cultural geography: behaviorism, psychoanalytic concept and cognitive concept - gestaltism and geography of perception. In conclusion is emphasized the need of finding a dialectical unity in "classical" and "new" cultural geography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  16. Italia civile:Associazionismo, partecipazione e politica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Una profonda trasformazione politica e sociale ha investito il nostro paese negli ultimi vent’anni. Un cambiamento che non poteva non coinvolgere il mondo dell’associazionismo, la parte più attiva e sensibile della società civile. Impegnate in molteplici attività, le reti associative favoriscono la diffusione della cultura democratica e della solidarietà sociale, rafforzando i legami fra le persone e l’efficacia delle politiche pubbliche. Fino agli anni novanta, la loro azione era strettament...

  17. Probability, statistics, and decision for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Jack R

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a primary text for civil engineering courses, as a supplementary text for courses in other areas, or for self-study by practicing engineers, this text covers the development of decision theory and the applications of probability within the field. Extensive use of examples and illustrations helps readers develop an in-depth appreciation for the theory's applications, which include strength of materials, soil mechanics, construction planning, and water-resource design. A focus on fundamentals includes such subjects as Bayesian statistical decision theory, subjective probability, and

  18. Sociedad Civil y combate a la pobreza

    OpenAIRE

    López Salazar, Ricardo; Ortega, Isabel; Sandoval, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Una de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil que ha adquirido gran relevancia en el combate a la pobreza alimentaria en el estado de Sonora es el Banco de Alimentos de Hermosillo (BAH). Su objetivo es combatir el hambre y la desnutrición mediante la distribución de alimentos a zonas marginadas. Pesqueira,  es una de las localidades en situación crítica de pobreza alimentaria y que ha sido beneficiada por los apoyos que otorga el BAH. Sin embargo, a pesar de que esos apoyos son reconocidos c...

  19. A responsabilidade civil no direito ambiental brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes,Silviana L.

    2009-01-01

    O Direito assumiu papel preponderante na gestão dos riscos na sociedade contemporânea definida, por muitos autores, como de Risco; com isso, novos direitos foram instituídos e novos instrumentos e meios de tutela foram criados. A responsabilidade civil ambiental tornou-se um dos principais instrumentos criado para a gestão do risco ambiental e tem-se harmonizado com a nova realidade marcada por incertezas científicas, riscos e danos globais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a responsabi...

  20. Ley de paternidad responsable y Registro Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Montarano Lacayo; Luis Antonio Bolaños Bolaños

    2007-01-01

    Con la promulgación de la Ley de Paternidad Responsable en abril del 2001, los derechos de las madres de hijos extramatrimoniales y de los propios menores han cambiado en lo que a filiación se refiere. El artículo explica ampliamente el procedimiento administrativo que lleva el Registro Civil para la inscripción de nacimientos extramatrimoniales, desde la declaración de paternidad, citatorio, prueba de marcadores genéticos, hasta concluir con la declaración de la paternidad vía administrativa...

  1. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  2. Ley de paternidad responsable y Registro Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montarano Lacayo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Con la promulgación de la Ley de Paternidad Responsable en abril del 2001, los derechos de las madres de hijos extramatrimoniales y de los propios menores han cambiado en lo que a filiación se refiere. El artículo explica ampliamente el procedimiento administrativo que lleva el Registro Civil para la inscripción de nacimientos extramatrimoniales, desde la declaración de paternidad, citatorio, prueba de marcadores genéticos, hasta concluir con la declaración de la paternidad vía administrativa.

  3. Tocqueville: la sociedad civil y la democracia

    OpenAIRE

    Saínz Vidal, Lambra

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de las últimas décadas, hemos asistido a un renovado interés por la participación asociativa. Son muchos los teóricos, en filosofía política y en ciencias sociales, que han afirmado que la viabilidad y la salud de nuestras democracias dependen de una sociedad civil fuerte y vibrante. En la tesis analizamos las interpretaciones liberales, comunitaristas, republicanas y deliberativas de los cuerpos intermedios en la obra de Alexis de Tocqueville, De la démocratie en Amérique. Estudia...

  4. Ley de paternidad responsable y Registro Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Montarano Lacayo; Luis Antonio Bolaños Bolaños

    2007-01-01

    Con la promulgación de la Ley de Paternidad Responsable en abril del 2001, los derechos de las madres de hijos extramatrimoniales y de los propios menores han cambiado en lo que a filiación se refiere. El artículo explica ampliamente el procedimiento administrativo que lleva el Registro Civil para la inscripción de nacimientos extramatrimoniales, desde la declaración de paternidad, citatorio, prueba de marcadores genéticos, hasta concluir con la declaración de la paternidad vía administrativa...

  5. "Doing Business" come scopo della giustizia civile

    OpenAIRE

    Caponi

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the paper is to shed light on some problems arising from the use of indicators for evaluating and comparing the performance of national judicial systems in a cross-country perspective, taking cue from assessing the impact of indicators on the reforms of the Italian civil justice system in the last ten years. I have written this paper as a sort of by-product in the framework of a wider research project I am carrying out as a Senior Global Research Fellow at NYU School of Law in the acad...

  6. Arquitectura civil segoviana en el Plateresco

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Antonio, Francisco de Paula

    2015-01-01

    El tema de tesis es la arquitectura civil segoviana en el Plateresco. El trabajo se estructura en tres partes: una primera, el marco teórico, que, a su vez, se divide en tres capítulos, que se ocupan de aspectos urbanos, formales, tipológicos y constructivos. La segunda, que analiza y caracteriza los edificios platerescos, donde se estudian las viviendas individualmente y, una tercera, dedicada a la conservación patrimonial de los edificios. Como principal conclusión del trabajo, se constata ...

  7. The Novation - Means of Transformation Civil Obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica VĂLEANU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at the application, in concreto, of the new provisions on novation, providing a useful working tool for private legal practitioners. It is the result of practical experience and the interpretation approach dedicated to new provisions in the field of civil liabilities. Through the analysis of the multitude of works in this field I have highlighted the legislative evolution as well as the new orientations in the doctrine and jurisprudence concerning the processing of obligations. Far from being exhaustive, the comment wants to offer solutions to the challenges posed by the complexity and the continuous need to adapt to the

  8. Estrategia competitiva del Ingeniero Civil de Chiclayo

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza Rivas, Carlos Adolfo; Mondragón Castañeda, Carlos Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    Al inicio del presente trabajo se formula la hipótesis que la competitividad del ingeniero civil de Chiclayo es de nivel desfavorable el año 2004 en su ejercicio profesional, debido principalmente a que no planifica su vida y carrera, que son escasos los ingenieros que poseen postgrados y especialización, que dominen principalmente el idioma inglés, que conozcan de las tecnologías de la información y de las comunicaciones, y que apliquen adecuadamente software de ingeniería, entre otras comp...

  9. Efficiency of the Current Methods of Stimulating Civil Servants’ Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Ladygin

    2011-01-01

    The article makes an attempt to identify link between the models of public service and some effective methods of stimulating civil servants performance. Making use of the basic elements of the institutional theory helps draw a conclusion that development of the public civil service in accordance with the NPM models does not only take into account any positive externals for modeling informal relations, but ignores their historical, social and cultural role in the country. Key words: civil serv...

  10. Civil Service Reforms in Thailand: Political Control and Corruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto

    2012-01-01

    After the 1973 student demonstration marked a changing in Thai political history. The principle of Weberian bureaucracy such as political neutrality becomes the legal framework of the Civil Service under democratic environment. However, given the cultural values and their impact on the bureaucracy, any serious change must came from the top leadership.Another characteristic of the Thai's civil service is corruption practices. The close personal connections between politician, civil service, an...

  11. ADB and Civil Society Partnership: Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) values contribution from civil society organizations (CSOs) to country-level and global development efforts. This report provides highlights of ADB and CSOs working together to overcome the region’s development challenges. A selected sample of projects from across Asia and the Pacific are represented as examples of how CSOs contribute to development. Throughout ADB, civil society focal points cooperate with the Nongovernment Organization and Civil Society Cent...

  12. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  13. The socialization potential of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrant KOSTANYAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses socialization in the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum, an institutionalized civil society cooperation consisting of nongovernmental organizations from the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries: Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The article argues that uniting the literature on socialization and on Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum adds considerably to scholarly knowledge about the role of the institutionalized civil society in the world. The analysis of the activities of the Civil Society Forum shows that the conditions for socialization are largely fulfilled. We conclude that the organisation and functioning of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum not only provides a passive framework for transmitting European values and norms, but also results in a middle degree of socialization between civil society organizations of the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries. There is a large degree of internalization of European Union-sponsored norms and values among the participants of the Civil Society Forum: they fervently promote and defend such norms and values. The little-politicized environment in which discussions take place also allows civil society organisations to make ambitious statements, often more straightforward than political representatives (can make.

  14. Let's be civil: Elaborating the link between civility climate and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Eva-Maria; Mohr, David C; Benzer, Justin K

    2017-08-23

    The importance of interpersonal behavior at the workplace is increasingly recognized in the health care industry and related literature. An unresolved issue in the existing health care research is how a climate of courteous interpersonal behavior may form the foundation for strong hospital care performance. The aim of this study was to test the link between a climate of courteous interpersonal behavior, termed "civility climate," and hospital care performance. We conceptualize a multidimensional model of care performance by contrasting two dimensions: performance as perceived by employees and performance as perceived by patients. Furthermore, for both performance perspectives, we test an intermediate variable (error orientation climate) that may explain the relationship between civility climate and hospital care performance. The 2011 study sample comprised responses from 6,094 nurses and 38,627 patients at 123 Veterans Health Administration acute care inpatient hospitals in the United States. We developed and empirically tested a theoretical model using regression modeling, and we used a bootstrap method to test for mediation. The results indicate a direct effect of civility climate on employee perceptions of care performance and an indirect effect mediated by error orientation climate. With regard to patient perceptions of care performance, the analyses reveal a direct effect of civility climate. The indirect effect mediated by error orientation climate was not supported. Our findings point to the importance of strengthening interpersonal interactions for ensuring and improving both employees' and patients' perceptions of care, which constitute key success factors in the increasingly competitive hospital market. The insights may further stimulate discussion regarding interventions to foster a strong civility climate in hospitals.

  15. Active IR-applications in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, H.

    2002-06-01

    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  16. Civil Society and Democratic Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibitoye, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is quite intriguing that fifty-two years after Nigeria attained her nominal independence from her colonial masters and twelve years into her democratic dispensation following a protracted and most challenging struggle against a rapacious military hegemony, the dividends of good governance have largely eluded the majority who wallow in abject poverty in the midst of abundant resources. Thus, the current democratic experiment appears to be fraught with similar imperfections that plagued the past democratic attempts thereby making transformation a myth rather than reality in Nigeria. The dire need to institutionalize the culture of good governance in Nigeria so as to improve the quality of life of the Nigerian people informs the position of this study. Hence, civil society has been adopted as a veritable tool for achieving good governance. This paper, therefore, attempts to carry out a thorough exposition of civil society organization vis- a- vis its transformatory role as an arbiter to redeem the Nigeria society from imminent total collapse as the country is yet to arrive at the ultimate destination of democracy as the government of the people, duly elected by the people, in the service of the people.

  17. Information Practices in Contemporary Cosmopolitan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature of information?  What is its role in Contemporary Cosmopolitan Civil Society? What is the basis for the widespread current belief that we live in an ‘information society’? The present article will examine these questions through an examination of the historical origins of established ‘scientized’ views of information in the philosophy of the Enlightenment. It describes how postmodern and poststructuralist critique of such positivist approaches led to profound paradigmatic and methodological shifts in the social and information studies fields in recent decades. It consider how the emergence of social constructivist approaches to information research drawing on discourse analysis, practice theory and ethnographic theories and methodologies has led to a have led researchers to a radically different understanding of central concepts such as: the influence of emergent information and communication technologies on contemporary society; the relationship between knowledge and power, the nature of expertise and authoritative information; a re-thinking of community and consensus; a re-interpretation of notions of space and place in information dissemination, sharing and use and a reconsideration of the role of the researcher. The article illustrates this changing research landscape through reference to the work of scholars in the Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre at the University of Technology, Sydney, published in the Centre’s journal.

  18. Russian civil society, 20 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Greene

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By the time Vladimir Putin began his first term as president of Russian, in early 2000, most analysts were lamenting the demise of Russian civil society. In late 2011, as he prepared to return to the Kremlin for a third term, the same analysts were surprised by the resurgence of grassroots protest. A narrative expressed in terms of success and failure, relying on a normative vocabulary and static analytical concepts, cannot, I argue, make sense of that progression. A more coherent narrative –which this article attempts to present– would look to concepts of interaction, in which citizens and the state are seen as constituting one another through a complex series of social and political engagements. Such a narrative, moreover, must not begin in 2000, but must look further back into history, elucidating the co-evolution of Soviet and then post-Soviet state and society over the past twenty years. In this view, then, the decline of civil society in the 1990s can be seen as accompanying the disintegration of the institutions of state-society interaction, while the reemergence of civic activism in more recent years comes hand in hand with the consolidation of authoritarian governance.

  19. Mathematical activities in Spain during Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Redondo, Francisco A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of convergence of Spanish Mathematics with European science had reached its highest moment towards the beginning of the summer of 1936. The civil war consequent to the 18th of July military plot caused a rupture in such a fruitful process. In this paper different remarks are introduced about the mathematical activities that, surprisingly enough, were developed by our scientists during those complicated years.

    El proceso de convergencia con la ciencia europea de la Matemática española había logrado situarla en su momento de mayor esplendor de la historia a las puertas del verano de 1936. La Guerra Civil consecuencia de la rebelión militar del 18 de julio supondrá la brutal ruptura de ese proceso tan fructífero. En este trabajo se presentan diferentes consideraciones en torno a la actividad matemática que, sorprendentemente, consiguieron mantener nuestros científicos durante esos complicados años.

  20. Nivel operacional de la sociedad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Mendiwelso Bendek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Walzer (2002 afirma que las organizaciones de la sociedad civil se generan en procesos de auto organización pero que existen algunas organizaciones con mayor capacidad que otras para organizarse y que también es necesario que el estado provea la asistencia que requiere la vida en asociación en donde primero que todo se debe proteger a los más débiles. En este artículo, desde una visión sistémica, se intenta reflexionar sobre las competencias requeridas para un efectivo proceso de auto-organización en la construcción de lo público. Se sostiene que esto hace necesario observar las estructuras que apoyan el aprendizaje y participación ciudadana.Michael Walzer (2002 claims that self-organization underpins the emergence of civil society organizations and that some of these organizations have more opportunities than others to be effective, suggesting that it is necessary for the State to support those associations that operate in weaker contexts. In this paper, from a systemic perspective, the author reflects upon the required competencies to enable effective self-organizing processes in the construction of the public sphere, in particular she advocates the need to observe the emerging organization structures supporting citizens' learning and participation.

  1. A Brief History of Mind and Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rational mind is the highest evolved status of human consciousness. The evolution of mind and civilization has proceeded hand in hand for millennia. The development of new capacities of mind made possible the development of tools, language, agriculture, permanent settlements, towns, cities, religion, trade, transportation, communication, government, law, money, literature and the arts, education, nation states, scientific and technological research. So too, each stage in the development of civilization has shaped the evolution of the human mind and its faculties and the way they are applied in life. The limits to our knowledge and accomplishment reflect limits to our rationality and the utilization of our mental potential. Our knowledge consists of fragmented, piecemeal, compartmentalized theories, when the reality we seek to understand is inclusive, complex and integrated. Our conceptions are based on mechanistic, static, inflexible equilibrium models, whereas the world we live in is alive, dynamic, organic, conscious, responsive, creative and continuously evolving. Our science assumes the poise of an impartial observer of objective reality, whereas all knowledge without exception is colored by the subjective perspective of the observer. Our science strives to be neutral and value-free, whereas the knowledge we need should help us realize universal values. We need to evolve ways of thinking that reunite the objective and subjective dimensions of reality and reflect the integrality, dynamism and vibrancy of evolutionary nature. That is the challenge and adventure before us.

  2. El litisconsorcio en el proceso civil de conocimiento tras el nuevo código procesal civil boliviano

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Francisco, Diana

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto estudiar y analizar el fenómeno procesal del litisconsorcio en el proceso civil de cognición o conocimiento boliviano a la luz de sus normas reguladoras y, especialmente, a la luz del nuevo Código Procesal Civil, aprobado por la Ley núm. 439 de 19/11/2013. This article explains and analyses the main changes concerning the initial plurality of parties in civil proceedings introduced and established by the new Civil Procedure Code (Law number 439...

  3. Swimming classroom. Environmental education aboard a solar powered boat; Schwimmendes Klassenzimmer. Umweltbildungsangebote an Bord einer Solarfaehre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerk, M. [Bodensee-Stiftung, Radolfzell (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Summary: The swimming classroom is a particular environmental education programme. Since 2002 school classes are taught aboard the solar ferry Helio at the Lower Lake Constance. Schoolboys and girls as well as teachers have the opportunity to enlarge their knowledge about Lake Constance, its natural environment and the solar ferry Helio. They also get informed about photovoltaic systems, water pollution control and environment-friendly tourism in the Lake Constance region. Solar ferry is most suitable for nature and adventure pedagogy as well as experimental instruction. School classes and advanced training groups can easily carry out a comprehensive programme aboard the Helio and experience nature and solar technology cruising on the lake. Issues are - Energy/Photovoltaic - Limnology - Life in and on the water - Water pollution control - Geography/Landscape development. (orig.)

  4. 含氟灭火剂受热释放HF及抑制技术研究进展%Research progress of Hydrogen Fluoride Releasing of Heated Fluoride Containing Extinguishing and the Suppression Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 杜建科; 牛世栋

    2015-01-01

    含氟灭火剂已成为目前最常用的清洁气体灭火剂,但含氟灭火剂在灭火过程中HF释放的问题严重。综合分析了几种含氟灭火剂热解和遇火时的HF释放量及其影响因素,结合理论分析结果讨论了含氟灭火剂的HF释放机理,探讨了抑制含氟灭火剂HF释放量的技术措施,从而有效减少含氟灭火剂使用时HF的释放量,保证火场中人员和精密仪器的安全。%At present fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent has become the most commonly used clean gas fire extinguishing agent. But the HF releasing problem is becoming more and more serious when fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent works. This paper analyzes some influencing factors when fluorine-containing fire agents start to fire. And HF releasing mechanism is discussed combining the result of certain theories. Also it studies some techni-cal measures to restrain HF releasing. So,to ensure the safety of personnel and precision instruments in the fire,we should reduce the HF releasing from the fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent.

  5. STS-56 Earth observation of a Canadian sunrise taken aboard Discovery, OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of a Canadian sunrise. Low clouds on the eastern horizon are blocking most of the direct sunlight as the sun climbs over the northern Atlantic in this Canadian sunrise scene. Bright yellow colors are sun rays which penetrate through the cloud-free areas while the reds in the scene are primarily illuminated clouds in the troposphere.

  6. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  7. STS-47 MS Jemison works in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison appears to be clicking her heels in zero gravity in the center aisle of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Making her first flight in space, Dr. Jemison was joined by five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for eight days of research in support of the SLJ mission, a joint effort between Japan and United States.

  8. STS-47 crew in SLJ module make notes during shift changeover aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    During STS-47 aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, six of the seven crewmembers supporting the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission share this shift changeover scene in the spacelab science module. From the foreground, are Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, Commander Robert L. Gibson, MS N. Jan Davis, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Photo was taken by MS Jerome Apt.

  9. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse-Purpan (France))

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed.

  10. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  11. Civility: The Right Thing to Teach in Contentious Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2008-01-01

    Drawing attention to widespread instances of discourteous speech and hate discourse that permeate US and world culture, Alleen Pace Nilsen maintains that our imperative as educators is to teach "students the benefits of being civil to each other." She proposes some avenues for enriching students' understanding of the power of civil language.

  12. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... of DOC small modular reactor report 5. Discussion of subcommittees' work and progress on their... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade...

  13. Using Ken Burns's "The Civil War" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    When it aired in 1989, Ken Burns's epic documentary about America's Civil War garnered the largest audience in PBS history. Viewers who had little interest or knowledge of the Civil War were attracted to the powerful images and sounds as well as the narration by David McCullough and commentary by Shelby Foote--the combination of which served to…

  14. The colonial 'civilizing process' in Dutch Formosa 1624-1662

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, Hsin-hui

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa (Present-day Taiwan) between 1624 and 1662. Drawing inspiration from Norbert Elias, this study stresses on ‘the colonial “civilizing process” ’ which is applied to the inexorable process of retreat from the era of ‘Aboriginal

  15. Ordinary People, Ordinary Places: The Civil Rights Movement. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Martin Luther King, Jr. framed the goals and strategies of the Civil Rights Movement for a national audience, and with his message of nonviolent protest, he inspired ordinary African Americans to demand equal rights as American citizens. This lesson focuses on the individual men and women who embraced King's message and advanced the Civil Rights…

  16. Climate changes may lead to the collapse of ancient civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Studies of an international research consortium indicate that severe monsoon changes might have simultaneously accelerated the fall of two great ancient civilizations, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), one of the most prosperous reigns in Chinese history, and the Maya civilization in Meso-America that ended in 830 AD.

  17. Capitalizing on emergence: The 'new' civil security market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has supported the development of a new civil security market, capable of providing security technology for new and global security challenges. This article analyses the emerging growth market for civil security in relation to contemporary notions of potential cris

  18. Corrective justice as a principle of civil liability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the principle of corrective justice as one of the basic principles of civil liability in the context of the modern living and increasing risks. The question that is raised with this paper is the influence the modern living and increasing risks have on the established bases of civil liability and tort law in general.

  19. The Civil War: Its Impact on a Border Community. Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of eight, provides a view of the impact of war on everyday life and commerce during the Civil War. The unit will supplement teaching the Civil War in U.S. history, economics, or business classes. The unit includes an overview, objectives, class activities, vocabulary, student handouts, and ways to use economic…

  20. Introduction to Civil and Criminal Litigation: Roles for the Paralegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsky, William P.

    Part of the curriculum materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institute under a Federal grant, the document focuses on the paralegal, or legal assistant, role in civil and criminal litigation. Chapter 1 outlines and describes procedures governing both criminal and civil cases for stages of: (1) agency, (2) pre-trial, (3) trial, (4) appeal,…

  1. 42 CFR 408.44 - Deduction from civil service annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Deduction From Monthly Benefits § 408.44 Deduction from civil service annuities. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from civil service annuities....

  2. 7 CFR 400.454 - Disqualification and civil fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disqualification and civil fines will be imposed against: (i) Participants and other persons, except insurance... provision affects the approved insurance provider's responsibilities with respect to the service of existing... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disqualification and civil fines. 400.454 Section...

  3. New Civil Rights Act Coverages - Progress or Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Galen

    1975-01-01

    The growing list of added coverages in state and local civil rights laws is diluting the fight against racial discrimination by weakening enforcement through loading civil rights agencies with many new areas of coverage which are diverting them from their original purpose of ending discrimination against racial and religious minorities. (EH)

  4. State-Phobia, Civil Society, and a Certain Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar; Dean, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    , in viewing it as a binary in the first place? Can we escape from the positive valorization of civil society found in more mainstream approaches? Or do attempts to overcome the state/civil society binary effect a dissolution or deconstruction of the state only at the cost of reinventing a sphere external...

  5. Conceptual Framework of Business Process Reengineering for Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfaye Deb

    of management training programs to enhance the capacities of civil ... different civil service agencies under the influence of change. Since 2004, based on .... analyzing, simplifying and redesigning the business process to radically .... competition - are the driving forces in reengineering a corporation ... who elect this body.

  6. Sociedad civil y movimientos sociales en El Salvador de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín Álvarez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un acercamiento de carácter descriptivo y preliminar a algunas de las principales transformaciones experimentadas por la sociedad civil salvadoreña en el periodo de postguerra.  Dos rasgos fundamentales sobresalen al analizar la dinámica de la sociedad civil de este país en las últimas dos décadas. De una parte, la emergencia de nuevas identidades políticas que habían sido opacadas por la preminencia del discurso de clase del movimiento revolucionario. De otra, la emergencia de amplias movilizaciones estructuradas en base a coaliciones multisectoriales de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, como respuesta a la implementación de políticas neoliberales.Palabras Clave: Sociedad civil, movimientos sociales, El Salvador, postguerra._____________________Abstract:This paper offers a descriptive and preliminary approach to some of the major changes experienced by Salvadoran civil society in the postwar period. Two main features stand out when analyzing the dynamics of civil society in this country in the last two decades. On one hand, the emergence of new political identities that had been overshadowed by the prominence of the classist discourse of the revolutionary movement. On the other, the emergence of large mobilizations structured around multisectoral coalitions of civil society organizations, in response to the implementation of neoliberal policies.Keywords: Civil society, social movements, El Salvador, postwar

  7. Austerity’s Effect on English Civil Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sorabji (John)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis article considers the effect of austerity-induced public spending cuts on the English civil justice system. In doing so it initially examines two fundamental changes engendered by the effect austerity has had on civil court fees and legal aid: first, a challenge to the traditional c

  8. Civil Liberties Attitudes and Personality Measures: Some Exploratory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalkind, Sheldon S.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Presents data from the administration of questionnaires containing civil liberties and personality measures in two different years to adults in the metropolitan New York City area, finding that attitudes towards civil liberties issues correlated with flexibility, self-reliance, independence, anomie, and fate control measures. Anxiety scores did…

  9. When to Shut Students Up: Civility, Silencing, and Free Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Eamonn

    2011-01-01

    Teachers sometimes shut students up for the sake of civility. My question is whether silencing for the sake of civility can be morally justified when a student derogates fellow students as members of some widely stigmatized group, and the offending speech is not for any further reason to be deplored, for example, as a personally targeted insult.…

  10. Toward an Afrocological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1997-01-01

    The study of controversies about the legitimacy and historical groundedness of assertions about African civilization is used to support an Afrocological teaching approach to African civilization, exploring the content of the American college curriculum. There is a historically factual basis for a holistic pedagogical approach to African…

  11. The Birth of the Citizen in Civil Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to provide a conceptual framework of civil society. I conceptualize civil society as a distinctive type of social organization that has been described by classical sociologists. In classical sociology, there seems to be a widespread agreement about the elements and boundaries o

  12. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency service. (a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is an FCC-licensed primary, club, or...

  13. 42 CFR 457.130 - Civil rights assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.130 Civil rights assurance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights assurance. 457.130 Section 457.130...

  14. Simple, Complex, Innovative: Design Education at Civil Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nederveen, G.A.; Soons, F.A.M.; Suddle, S.I.; De Ridder, H.

    2011-01-01

    In faculties such as Civil Engineering, design is a not a core activity. Core activities at Civil Engineering are structural engineering, structural analysis, mechanics, fluid dynamics, etc. Design education has a relatively small share in the curriculum, compared to faculties such as Industrial

  15. Structural and Topology Optimization of Complex Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the use of topology optimization for finding an optimized form for civil engineering structures. Today topology optimization and shape optimization have been integrated in several commercial finite element codes. Here, the topology of two complex civil engineering structures...

  16. 42 CFR 38.8 - Criminal and civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal and civil penalties. 38.8 Section 38.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS DISASTER ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.8 Criminal and civil...

  17. The colonial 'civilizing process' in Dutch Formosa 1624-1662

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, Hsin-hui

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa (Present-day Taiwan) between 1624 and 1662. Drawing inspiration from Norbert Elias, this study stresses on ‘the colonial “civilizing process” ’ which is applied to the inexorable process of retreat from the era of ‘Aboriginal Taiw

  18. The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krieken, R

    1999-06-01

    Norbert Elias suggested that 'civilization' involves the transformation of human habitus so that violence of all sorts is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control, whereas 'decivilization' encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of on-going social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which 'civilizing offensives', the self-conscious attempts to bring about 'civilization', have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices. This paper examines the systematic removal of indigenous Australian children from their families, largely for the social engineering purpose of the gradual and systematic annihilation of Aboriginal cultural identity. At the time, these policies and practices were constructed by most observers as contributing to the 'welfare' of Australian Aborigines, and this intersection of welfare and violence raises the possibility that civilization and decivilization, rather than being different processes which may or may not run alongside each other, interpenetrate each other so that, under certain circumstances, societies are 'barbaric' precisely in their movement towards increasing civilization. It may also be possible to describe the move away from the systematic removal of Aboriginal children since the 1970s as itself part of a civilizing process, an increasing recognition of the human rights of Australian Aborigines and of the inhumanity of those policies and practices. The paper concludes by addressing the implications for theories of civilization and decivilization, as well as more generally for our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a 'civilized' modern citizen.

  19. Civil Liberties Attitudes and Personality Measures: Some Exploratory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalkind, Sheldon S.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Presents data from the administration of questionnaires containing civil liberties and personality measures in two different years to adults in the metropolitan New York City area, finding that attitudes towards civil liberties issues correlated with flexibility, self-reliance, independence, anomie, and fate control measures. Anxiety scores did…

  20. Esquemas de derecho procesal civil. Bloque 2. Sujetos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Daudí, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Inclou: I. El órgano jurisdiccional. Tema 6: Límites de la jurisdicción civil. Tema 7: La competencia objetiva y funcional. Tema 8: La competencia territorial. II. Las partes. Tema 9: La condición de parte y el proceso civil con par... Tema 10: Pluralidad de partes. Los terceros.