WorldWideScience

Sample records for externalizing child behaviors

  1. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior.

  2. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  3. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  4. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Persona

  5. Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…

  6. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; van der Sluis, Cathy M; de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja

    2010-08-01

    Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, children rated their externalizing behavior. Mediational analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects. Higher levels of Extraversion and lower levels of Benevolence were related directly to higher levels of child externalizing behavior. Higher levels of paternal authoritative parenting and lower levels of maternal overreactivity were related to lower scores on externalizing behavior. In addition, the relation between Benevolence, Emotional Stability, and externalizing behavior was partially mediated by parental overreactivity. Conscientiousness had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through paternal authoritative parenting. Relations were not moderated by child gender. This study is of theoretical interest because the results demonstrate that parenting is a mediating mechanism that accounts for associations between personality and externalizing behavior.

  7. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  8. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, chi...

  9. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

  10. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  11. Child neglect and the development of externalizing behavior problems: associations with maternal drug dependence and neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2013-02-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.

  12. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ad...

  13. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  14. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  15. The Association of Externalizing Behavior and Parent-Child Relationships: An Intergenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…

  16. A Mediation Model of Interparental Collaboration, Parenting Practices, and Child Externalizing Behavior in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjobli, John; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined maternal and paternal parenting practices as mediators of the link between interparental collaboration and children's externalizing behavior. Parent gender was tested as a moderator of the associations. A clinical sample consisting of 136 children with externalizing problems and their families participated in the study.…

  17. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  18. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  19. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  20. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  1. Levels of adult alcohol consumption induced by interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal versus externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Johnston, C; Gelernter, S

    1989-08-01

    Investigated levels of distress and alcohol consumption in Ss interacting with problematic vs non-problematic child confederates. Social drinkers were randomly assigned to interact with boys trained to enact behaviors characteristic of either normal or attention-deficit disorder/conduct disorder (ADD/CD) children. Mood data were collected before and after the interaction. Ss engaged in ad lib beer consumption for 20 min, while anticipating another interaction with the same boy. Children in the ADD/CD role produced comparably distressed moods for both male and female Ss. However, only men drank to higher blood-alcohol levels in the ADD/CD vs. normal child condition. Results suggest that higher rates of drinking observed in fathers of ADD/CD children may be partly a function of their particular response to the distress associated with interactions with such children.

  2. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  3. Externalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Child and Parental Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, A.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    According to recent theories, both person characteristics and environmental characteristics have to be taken into account in order to understand individual development. In line with these theories, the present thesis focused on the ways in which child characteristics and parental characteristics int

  4. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  5. Child Development & Behavior Topics

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    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  6. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting.

  7. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Change in parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors among substance abusing runaways: the effects of family and individual treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study compared three empirically supported psychotherapy interventions, Motivational Interviewing (MI), the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT) with 179 substance abusing runaway adolescents (47 % female, 74 % minority) and their primary caretaker recruited through a Midwestern runaway crisis shelter. Examining both child and primary caretaker reports, each treatment was associated with significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing behaviors to 24 months post-baseline. However, the trajectory of change differed among the treatments. Adolescents receiving MI showed a quicker reduction in internalizing and externalizing behaviors but also a quicker increase in these behaviors compared to adolescents receiving EBFT, who continued to evidence improvements to 24 months. The findings provide support for continued evaluation of these treatments for use with this vulnerable population of adolescents.

  9. Externalizing behaviors of Ukrainian children: The role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.

  10. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  11. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth of a sibling, a ... for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or ... limits. Talk therapy and behavior therapy for your child can also help.

  12. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  13. Relations between Parenting and Child Behavior: Exploring the Child's Personality and Parental Self-Efficacy as Third Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…

  14. Pathways to Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Three-Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, based on Family Interactional Theory (FIT), the authors tested a longitudinal model of the intergenerational effects of the grandmothers' parent-child relationships and the grandparents' smoking on the grandchildren's externalizing behavior via parents' psychological symptoms, tobacco use, and child rearing. Using Mplus, the authors…

  15. Maternal factors associated with child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Peden, Ann R

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of risk factors in predicting young children's behavior problems may provide insights for the development of preventive interventions. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify maternal predictors of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a volunteer sample of 205 low-income, single mothers with children between 2 and 6 years of age. Data were collected on chronic stressors, self-esteem, negative thinking, depressive symptoms, and child behavior during in-home interviews with the mothers. Mothers' reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors did not differ by sex or race of the child. Chronic stressors and depressive symptoms, in addition to control variables, explained 27% of the variability in internalizing behavior while these two variables accounted for 21% of the variability in externalizing behavior. For both internalizing and externalizing behavior, chronic stressors exerted the largest total effects. The effects of self-esteem and negative thinking were indirect, with the latter playing a stronger role. The indirect effect of negative thinking on child behavior was exerted through depressive symptoms, while self-esteem was linked with child behavior through both negative thinking and depressive symptoms. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking, a variable amenable to intervention, may not only decrease a mother's depressive symptoms but also improve her perception of the child's behavior. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking may provide a way to reduce their depressive symptoms and result in fewer behavior problems among their young children. Nurses working in primary care and community-based settings are in key positions to address this problem and improve the mental health of low-income mothers and positively affect the behavior of their children.

  16. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C

    2010-09-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  17. Beyond main effects of gene‐sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene‐set and child externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene‐based and gene‐set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome‐wide environmental interact...

  18. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: Harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Windhorst, D.A.; Mileva, V.R.; Rippe, R.C.A.; Tiemeier, H; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; IJzendoorn, van, M.H.; Bakermans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene‐based and gene‐set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome‐wide environmental interact...

  19. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windhorst (Judith); V. Mileva-Seitz; R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and gene-se

  20. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  2. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  3. Child Routines and Self-Regulation Serially Mediate Parenting Practices and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Lovina Rose; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies clearly indicate that parenting practices relate to child externalizing behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying this relation are less well understood. There has been limited evaluation of child routines and self-regulation in relation to these variables, and no known studies have evaluated all of these variables…

  4. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

  5. Schools and Child Antisocial Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lieven J. R. Pauwels; Robert Svensson

    2015-01-01

    .... Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N...

  6. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  7. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... religion, or social mores. They might include very aggressive or destructive behavior, overt racism or prejudice, stealing, truancy, smoking or ...

  8. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  9. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  11. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  12. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  13. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAIL

  14. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  15. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  16. What Works for Whom, How and under What Circumstances? Testing Moderated Mediation of Intervention Effects on Externalizing Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Dekovic, Maja; van Londen, Monique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether changes in child social cognitive functioning and parenting are the mechanisms through which an individually delivered real-world child intervention, Stay Cool Kids, aimed at preventing externalizing problem behavior in high-risk elementary school children, induces changes in child behavior. Moreover, we…

  17. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  18. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Aken, M.A. van; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal

  19. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for children and adolescents with externalizing disorders. Following a description of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, several components common to CBT interventions for youth with externalizing behaviors will be described. Using the Coping Power Program as a model, child treatment components including Emotion Awareness, Perspective Taking, Anger Management, Social Problem Solving, and Goal Setting will be reviewed. CBT strategies for parents of youth with disruptive behaviors will also be described. Finally, the article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of CBT strategies for externalizing disorders and presents specific outcome research on several programs that include CBT techniques.

  1. Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Laird, Robert D; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-02-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self-ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6 to 9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10 to 15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents' use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed.

  2. Effects of Mexican Immigrant Parents' Daily Workplace Discrimination on Child Behavior and Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2015-04-30

    This study investigated Mexican immigrant parents' reports of perceived workplace discrimination and their children's behavior, parents' moods, and parent-child interactions. Parents of one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children were asked to complete one survey daily for 2 weeks (N = 1,592 days). On days when fathers perceived discrimination, fathers and mothers reported more externalizing child behaviors, and mothers reported fewer positive child behaviors. When mothers perceived discrimination, they reported more externalizing child behaviors; fathers reported more internalizing child behaviors. Parents reported worse mood on days with perceived discrimination. Perceived discrimination was not strongly related to parent-child interactions. For fathers, but less so for mothers, those whose psychological acculturation indicated separation had more negative relations between daily perceived workplace discrimination and child and family outcomes.

  3. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  4. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  5. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  6. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  7. Contribution of family violence to the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Research finds that early antisocial behavior is a risk for later intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization, and that children's exposure to their parents' IPV is a risk for subsequent behavior problems. This study tests whether intimate violence (IPV) between partners contributes independently to the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior, using the Children in the Community Study, a representative sample (N = 821) followed for over 25 years in 6 assessments. The present study includes a subsample of parents (N = 678) and their offspring (N = 396). We test the role of three mechanisms by which IPV may influence child antisocial behavior-parental psychopathology, parenting practices, and child self-regulation. Results suggest that IPV independently increased the risk for offspring externalizing problems, net of the effects of parental history of antisocial behavior and family violence. IPV also increased the risk for parental post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder 2 years later, but not for major depressive disorder. Alcohol use disorder independently increased the risk for offspring externalizing behavior, but IPV continued to predict offspring externalizing net of parental alcohol use. Parenting, particularly low satisfaction with the child, was significantly associated with both IPV and externalizing behavior, but did not mediate the effects of IPV on externalizing. IPV predicted higher levels of emotional expressivity, aggression and hostile reactivity, and depressive mood in offspring. Implications for future research and prevention are discussed.

  8. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal a

  9. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  10. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  11. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  12. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  13. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  14. Interaction of adrenocortical activity and autonomic arousal on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    The psychobiology of stress involves two major components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Research has revealed the association between behavior problems and the psychobiology of stress, yet findings are inconsistent and few studies have addressed the moderate correlations between behavior problems. This study examines the individual and interactive effects of HPA and ANS on child behavior problems while taking into account the comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. Four saliva samples were collected from each participant in a community sample (N = 429; aged 11-12 years; 50.49 % male), which were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase, sAA (ANS). Children's behavior problems were assessed using parent-report and self-report versions of the Child Behavior Checklist. Latent variables were constructed to represent trait-like individual differences in cortisol and sAA. Low levels of HPA axis activity were associated with higher levels of both externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with low ANS arousal. The association between externalizing and internalizing problems diminished to non-significant after taking into account the influence of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal, which suggests that the psychobiology of stress explains a fair proportion of comorbidity of behavior problems. The findings support that interaction between HPA axis and ANS functioning has potential to clarify prior mixed findings and advance our understanding of the child behavior problems.

  15. Development of an Intervention for Foster Parents of Young Foster Children with Externalizing Behavior: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan

    2012-01-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…

  16. Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C V; Geels, L; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Neale, M C; Bartels, M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.

  17. Physical Family Violence and Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-03-13

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  20. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  1. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity.

  2. Warm Parenting and Effortful Control in Toddlerhood: Independent and Interactive Predictors of School-Age Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Julia D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-08-01

    Externalizing symptoms, such as aggression, impulsivity, and inattention, represent the most common forms of childhood maladjustment (Campbell et al. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467-488, 2000). Several dimensions of parenting behavior, including overreactive and warm parenting, have been linked to children's conduct problems. However, the majority of these studies involve biologically-related family members, thereby limiting understanding of the role of genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of parenting on child psychopathology. This study extends previous research by exploring associations between overreactive and warm parenting during toddlerhood and school-age externalizing problems, as well as the potential moderating effects of child effortful control (EC) on such associations using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 225 adoption-linked families (adoptive parents, adopted child [124 male and 101 female] and birth parent[s]), thereby allowing for a more precise estimate of environmental influences on the association between parenting and child externalizing problems. Adoptive mothers' warm parenting at 27 months predicted lower levels of child externalizing problems at ages 6 and 7. Child EC moderated this association in relation to teacher reports of school-age externalizing problems. Findings corroborate prior research with biological families that was not designed to unpack genetic and environmental influences on associations between parenting and child externalizing problems during childhood, highlighting the important role of parental warmth as an environmental influence.

  3. Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E; Henderson, Heather A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Pine, Daniel S; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence.

  4. Child Maltreatment and Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Neilson, Elizabeth C; English, Diana J; Litrownik, Alan J; Margolis, Benyamin; Proctor, Laura; Dubowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed. Neglect significantly predicted unprotected sex. Substance use predicted unprotected sex and four or more partners but did not mediate the effects of maltreatment. Trauma symptoms predicted unprotected sex and mediated effects of emotional maltreatment on unprotected sex and on assertiveness in sexual refusal and the effects of sexual abuse on unprotected sex. Both neglect and emotional maltreatment emerged as important factors in risky sexual behavior. Trauma symptoms appear to be an important pathway by which maltreatment confers risk for risky sexual behavior. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should include assessment and treatment for trauma symptoms and for history of child maltreatment in all its forms.

  5. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior towa

  6. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  7. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  8. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students' externalizing behavior in the…

  9. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  10. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  12. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and/or externalizing behavior problems (EBPs) as compared to children with neither condition. The longitudinal sample, drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, included children who were 6 to 9 years old in Cycle 1 who were followed-up biennially in Cycles 2 and 3 (N = 3476). The associations between NDDs and/or EBPs, child and family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors (consistency and ineffective parenting), were examined across several measures of child psychosocial functioning: peer relationships, general self-esteem, prosocial behavior and anxiety-emotional problems. Children with NDDs, EBPs, and both NDDs and EBPs self-reported lower scores on general self-esteem. Children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs reported lower scores on peer relationships and prosocial behavior. Lastly, children with both NDDs and EBPs self-reported higher scores on anxiety-emotional behaviors. After considering family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors, these differences remained statistically significant only for children with both NDDs and EBPs. Child age and gender, household income and parenting behaviors were important in explaining these associations. Psychosocial functioning differs for children with NDDs and/or EBPs. Children with both NDDs and EBPs appear to report poorer psychosocial functioning compared to their peers with neither condition. However, it is important to consider the context of socio-demographic characteristics, parenting behaviors and their interactions to understand differences in children's psychosocial functioning. Implication for Rehabilitation: Practitioners may wish to consider complexity in child health by examining a comprehensive set of determinants of psychosocial outcomes as well as comorbid conditions, such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and externalizing

  13. Gene-Environment Interaction in Teacher-Rated Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior in 7- to 12-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior at school can have major consequences for a child and is predictive for disorders later in life. Teacher ratings are important to assess internalizing and externalizing problems at school. Genetic epidemiological studies on teacher-rated problem behavior are relatively scarce and the…

  14. Experimental Evidence for Differential Susceptibility: Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) Moderates Intervention Effects on Toddlers' Externalizing Behavior in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Mesman, Judi; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback…

  15. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  16. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, Willemijn M; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D

    2017-06-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7.70 years; 368 mothers, 355 fathers). Marital stress related to having a child, children's externalizing behavior, and perceived parental competence were assessed three times across 8 years. Multigroup analyses were used to examine models for both parents simultaneously and test for similarity in associations across spouses. A bivariate latent growth model indicated positive associated change between marital stress and externalizing behavior, supporting the idea of codevelopment. The cross-lagged panel model revealed a reciprocal relation between marital stress and perceived parental competence across a time interval of 6 years. Additionally, two elicitation effects appeared during adolescence, showing that parents who reported higher externalizing problems in early adolescence reported more marital stress and a lower sense of competence two years later. Similar associations were found for mothers and fathers. Overall, this study indicates that marital stress and externalizing behavior codevelop over time and supports literature on developmental differences regarding interrelations between subsystems and individuals within the family system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Child-focused behavioral assessment and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, I M

    1999-12-01

    Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself.

  18. Maternal History of Parentification, Maternal Warm Responsiveness, and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children’s externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation. PMID:22888779

  19. Beyond deficits: intimate partner violence, maternal parenting, and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

  20. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  1. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  2. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  4. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  5. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 35...

  6. Children's perceptions of dissimilarity in parenting styles are associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkien, Myra; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank; van der Ende, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's perception of dissimilarity in parenting styles, and internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Children from the general population (n = 658) reported on the level of emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection of both parents by filling out the child version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (EMBU-C) and mothers completed the child behavior checklist (CBCL). Intraclass correlations were computed as measures of dissimilarity between parenting styles of mothers and fathers. Children's perceived dissimilarity in parental emotional warmth is associated with internalizing and externalizing problems (β = 0.092, p parents' overprotection is associated with externalizing problems (β = 0.097, p parenting styles is associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, over and above the effects of the level of the parenting styles. The results highlight the negative consequences of perceived dissimilarity between parents. To conclude, children have more internalizing and externalizing problems when they perceive their parents as more dissimilar in parenting styles.

  7. Underlying Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interactions in Externalizing Behavior: A Systematic Review and Search for Theoretical Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, J.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, several candidate genes (i.e., MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT) have been extensively studied as potential moderators of the detrimental effects of postnatal family adversity on child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and conduct disorder. Many studies on s

  8. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  9. Ethnic differences in problem perception : Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problema

  10. The Impact of Serial Transitions on Behavioral and Psychological Problems among Children in Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Cloutier, Richard; Pauze, Robert; Simard, Marie; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Poulin, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the impacts of serial transitions on externalized and internalized behavior disorders, anxiety, and depression among children in child protection services. The research was carried out with a sample of 741 children. The findings demonstrate that the number of times a family is blended is a stronger predictive factor for…

  11. Parenting and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Bidirectionality during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reported on a broad range of parenting dimensions…

  12. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  13. Parenting and children's externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reporte

  14. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  15. Latent Growth Curve Modeling of Child Behavior in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Kamphaus, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated child behavioral change during the early years of elementary school. Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992) teacher ratings of child behavior were collected over a three-year period. The sample consisted of 162 children measured yearly between first and third grade.…

  16. Shear behavior of concrete beams externally prestressed with Parafil ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghallab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive work has been carried out investigating the use of external prestressing system for flexural strengthening, a few studies regarding the shear behavior of externally prestressed beams can be found. Five beams, four of them were externally strengthened using Parafil rope, were loaded up to failure to investigate the effect of shear span/depth ratio, external prestressing force and concrete strength on their shear behavior. Test results showed that the shear span to depth ratio has a significant effect on both the shear strength and failure mode of the strengthened beams and the presence of external prestressing force increased the ultimate load of the tested beams by about 75%. Equations proposed by different codes for both the conventional reinforced concrete beams and for ordinary prestressed beams were used to evaluate the obtained experimental results. In general, codes equations showed a high level of conservatism in predicting the shear strength of the beams. Also, using the full strength rather than half of the concrete shear strength in the Egyptian code PC-method improves the accuracy of the calculated ultimate shear strength.

  17. Life-course fertility patterns associated with childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Childhood behavioral problems have been associated with earlier childbearing, but their life-course reproductive consequences are unknown. The present study examined whether and how behavioral problems assessed in childhood predict fertility patterns over the life course in women and men. Participants were 9,472 individuals from the British National Child Development Study (4,739 men and 4,733 women). Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors were rated by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Information on fertility history was derived from interviews at ages 33, 42, and 46, including date of pregnancy, whether the pregnancy was planned or non-planned, and pregnancy outcome (live birth, miscarriages/stillbirth, induced abortion). Transition to parenthood and fertility rate were assessed using survival analysis and age-stratified regression models. In both sexes, higher externalizing behavior was associated with higher rate of pregnancies, especially non-planned pregnancies in adolescence and early adulthood, but this association attenuated or even reversed later in adulthood. Internalizing behavior was associated with lower pregnancy rates, especially planned pregnancies and later in adulthood, and particularly in men. In women, higher internalizing behavior was also associated with earlier transition to parenthood. Externalizing behavior in women predicted higher risk of miscarriages and induced abortions, while internalizing behavior predicted lower risk for these outcomes. These findings suggest that childhood behavioral problems have long-term associations with fertility behavior over the life course, including earlier transition to parenthood, lower probability of normative family formation later in adulthood, and higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Helping Parents Address Their Child's Sexual Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Marsha

    2001-01-01

    Describes a model for helping parents address their child's sexually inappropriate behavior. The model focuses on: supporting parents and facilitating their ability to accept their child's sexual problems, processing their affective and cognitive reactions, and devising a plan to help parents talk directly with their child about the sexually…

  19. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  20. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls' externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes.

  1. A sense of containment: potential moderator of the relation between parenting practices and children's externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joel; Cavell, Timothy A; Hughes, Jan N

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the construct of perceived containment, defined as children's beliefs about adults' capacity to impose firm limits and to prevail if there is a conflict in goals. We propose that children's containment beliefs represent an important but understudied factor in the development and maintenance of childhood aggression. Children's ratings on the Perceived Containment Questionnaire (PCQ) were inversely related to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing problems. Moreover, this relation was found to be independent of the quality of parental discipline. We also found evidence that perceived containment moderated the relation between overly harsh, inept discipline and children's externalizing behaviors: ineffective discipline was directly related to externalizing problems in children with relatively high PCQ scores but was unrelated to externalizing problems in children with relatively low PCQ scores. For the latter group of children, the affective quality of the mother-child relationship was a better predictor of problem behavior. These findings provide additional support for Kochanska's (1993) model of differential socialization and for Frick's (1998) assertions concerning meaningful subgroups of aggressive children.

  2. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents.

  3. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  4. Behavioral versus Traditional Approaches to Prevention of Child Abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevention of child abduction and states shortcomings of traditional versus behavioral approaches to prevention of child abduction. Reveals that behavioral-skills training appears to be a necessary component in effective prevention programs and suggests children undergo such training, with the focus being on self-protective…

  5. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  6. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  7. Different patterns of boys' externalizing behavior and their relation to risk factors: a longitudinal study of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, M; Lösel, F

    2010-01-01

    Childrens' externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and impulsivity are serious problems in many societies. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems (anxiety, depression etc.). The present study addressed these two groups in a prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the previous descriptive findings remained stable over time and, in particular, whether the two types differed in important risk factors for antisocial behavior. The sample consisted of 198 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study. The first assessment took place in kindergarten and the second 3.4 years later in elementary school. The behavior problems were assessed by ratings of kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers using the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ). The risk factors were low socio-economic status of the family, birth complications, physical punishment in parenting behavior, difficult temperament, low intelligence, and aggression-prone social information processing of the child. Approximately 15% of the boys revealed externalizing behavior problems. A variable-oriented analysis showed significant stability over time. In a person-oriented Configural Frequency Analysis the 'externalizing only' and the 'combined externalizing and internalizing' pattern could be replicated. For five of the six risk factors we found significant differences between the boys with behavior problems and a non-deviant group. However, the two different patterns of externalizing problems differed only in intelligence (lower for the group with combined problems). The results confirm models of cumulative biological, psychological and social risks for antisocial behavior over time. Furthermore, specified analyses of the two types and their relation to proactive and reactive

  8. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure, home environment, and primary caregiver risk factors predict child behavioral problems at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children's developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child's caregiving environment.

  9. Parenting Style as a Predictor of Internal and External Behavioural Symptoms in Children : The Child's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hedstrom, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine three distinct parenting styles and their effect on children’s behavioural patterns, as perceived by the child. The parenting styles, based on Baumrind’s typologies of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, were measured as well as the children’s self-rated internal and external symptoms. Results indicated that there was a relationship between authoritarian parenting and all aspects of internal symptoms (depression, loneliness and self-este...

  10. Maternal Distress Influences Young Children's Family Representations Through Maternal View of Child Behavior and Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Soo; Popp, Jill; Robinson, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Distress of a parent is a key influence on the quality of the child's experience in the family. We hypothesized that maternal distress would spill over into more negative views of their children's behaviors and less emotional availability in their relationships. Further, we investigated whether these cumulative experiences contributed to children's emerging narratives about mothers and family life. Method In this longitudinal study, mothers of young twin children reported their distress on three occasions in relation to: self, the marital relationship, and the family climate. Mothers also reported on their children's externalizing behavior problems. Mother-child interaction was observed focusing on maternal sensitivity and child responsivity. Children responded to story stem beginnings about challenging situations in the family and their narratives were scored for family conflict and cohesion themes. APIM methods of dyadic data analysis accounted for the inclusion of both twins in the analysis. Results Results from structural equation models supported the hypothesized cumulative experience of maternal distress on children's family life representations for both family conflict and family cohesion. Conclusion A family environment in which children are exposed to persistent maternal distress early in life may have cumulative effects, influencing how mothers interact with and view their children's behavior at later developmental stages. Moreover, exposure to repeated distress for longer periods of time may contribute to an intergenerational continuity of distress for the child that may become rooted in negative affective bias in their own view of family relationships. PMID:23568672

  11. Early Callous-Unemotional Behavior, Theory-of-Mind, and a Fearful/Inhibited Temperament Predict Externalizing Problems in Middle and Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Olson, Sheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Childhood externalizing problems are more likely to be severe and persistent when combined with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. A handful of recent studies have shown that CU behavior can also be reliably measured in the early preschool years, which may help to identify young children who are less likely to desist from early externalizing behaviors. The current study extends previous literature by examining the role of CU behavior in very early childhood in the prediction of externalizing problems in both middle and late childhood, and tests whether other relevant child characteristics, including Theory-of-Mind (ToM) and fearful/inhibited temperament moderate these pathways. Multi-method data, including parent reports of child CU behavior and fearful/inhibited temperament, observations of ToM, and teacher-reported externalizing problems were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at ages 3, 6, and 10 (N = 241; 48 % female). Results demonstrated that high levels of CU behavior predicted externalizing problems at ages 6 and 10 over and above the effect of earlier externalizing problems at age 3, but that these main effects were qualified by two interactions. High CU behavior was related to higher levels of externalizing problems specifically for children with low ToM and a low fearful/inhibited temperament. The results show that a multitude of child characteristics likely interact across development to increase or buffer risk for child externalizing problems. These findings can inform the development of targeted early prevention and intervention for children with high CU behavior.

  12. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  13. FAMILY CONFLICT MODERATES EARLY PARENT-CHILD BEHAVIORAL TRANSACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Barnett, Melissa A; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Mortensen, Jennifer A

    2017-09-01

    The reciprocal transactions that shape early parent-child relationships are influenced by contextual stress, such as family conflict. Although family conflict is a salient stressor to the family system, few studies have considered how parent-child transactions vary according to exposure to family conflict. The present study examined how family conflict alters early parent-child behavioral transactions. We utilized three waves of data from a multisite longitudinal study of low-income families (N = 2, 876), child age 14 months, 24 months, and 36 months, to identify behavioral transactions of positive and negative maternal (supportiveness, negative regard) and child (engagement, negativity) behaviors. Results indicated that family conflict at 14 months diminished the positive association between maternal supportiveness and child engagement, and amplified the inverse association between maternal negativity and child engagement. Family conflict at 14 months also was associated with increased stability of child negativity and subsequent increased maternal negative regard at 36 months, in part via increases in 24-month child negativity. In sum, family conflict occurring early in childhood predicted and moderated behavioral transactions between young children and their mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Multilevel correlates of behavioral resilience among children in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tessa; Romano, Elisa; Flynn, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Resilience, defined as positive adaptation and functioning following exposure to significant adversity, is an important topic of investigation in child welfare. The current study used data from the Ontario Looking After Children (OnLAC) project to estimate the prevalence of behavioral resilience (i.e., lower frequency of conduct and emotional problems, higher frequency of prosocial behavior) in 531 5-9 year olds living in out-of-home care, and to determine how behaviorally-resilient children are functioning in other domains (i.e., peer relationships and academic performance). Furthermore, hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the contribution of four levels of analysis (i.e., child, family, child welfare worker, and child welfare agency) on behaviors and to identify the contribution of predictor variables within each of these levels. Findings indicated that 50-70% of children exhibited resilience on one behavioral outcome while approximately 30% showed resilience on at least two of the outcomes. Also, 8.4-9.6% exhibited resilience on one of the behavioral outcomes in addition to peer relationships and academic performance. The child level accounted for the highest proportion of total explained variance in behavioral outcomes, followed by the family-, child welfare worker-, and child welfare agency-levels. A number of child and foster family variables predicted behavioral functioning. Findings indicate that it is important to inquire about children's functioning across multiple domains to obtain a comprehensive developmental assessment. Also, child and foster family characteristics appear to play considerable roles in the promotion of behavioral resilience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Etiological contributions to the covariation between children's perceptions of inter-parental conflict and child behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolas, Molly; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2013-02-01

    Prior work has suggested that inter-parental conflict likely plays an etiological role in child behavior problems. However, family-level measurement of inter-parental conflict in most traditional child twin studies has made it difficult to tease apart the specific causal mechanisms underlying this association. The Children's Perception of Inter-parental Conflict scale (CPIC) provides a child-specific measurement tool for examining these questions, as its subscales tap multiple dimensions of conflict assessed from the child's (rather than the parent's) perspective. The current study examined (1) the degree of genetic and environmental influence on each of the CPIC subscales, and (2) etiological contributions to the covariation between the CPIC scales and parental reports of child behavioral problems. The CPIC was completed by 1,200 child twins (aged 6-11 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Multivariate models were examined to evaluate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to both the CPIC scales and to their overlap with child behavioral outcomes. Modeling results indicated no significant moderation of sex or age. Significant environmental overlap emerged between the CPIC conflict properties scale and child internalizing and externalizing problems. By contrast, significant genetic correlations emerged between the CPIC self-blame scale and externalizing problems as well as between the CPIC threat scale and internalizing problems. Overall, findings suggest that the subscales of the CPIC are somewhat etiologically diverse and may provide a useful tool for future investigations of possible gene-environment interplay.

  16. Umbilical cord blood testosterone and childhood internalizing and externalizing behavior: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Robinson

    Full Text Available Antenatal testosterone exposure influences fetal neurodevelopment and gender-role behavior in postnatal life and may contribute to differences in developmental psychopathology during childhood. We prospectively measured the associations between umbilical cord blood testosterone levels at birth and childhood behavioral development in both males and females from a large population based sample. The study comprised 430 females and 429 males from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study where umbilical cord blood had been collected. Total testosterone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry and bioavailable testosterone (BioT levels were calculated. At two, five, eight and ten years of age, the participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Linear regression models were used to analyse the relationship between BioT concentrations (in quartiles and CBCL scores (total, internalizing, externalizing and selected syndrome. Boys had higher mean CBCL T-scores than girls across all ages of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between cord blood BioT quartiles and CBCL total, internalizing and externalizing T-scores at age two or five to ten combined. In the syndrome score analyses, higher BioT quartiles were associated with significantly lower scores for attention problems for boys at age five, eight and ten, and greater withdrawal symptoms in pre-school girls (age five. We did not identify a consistent relationship between antenatal testosterone exposure and total, internalizing or externalizing behavioral difficulties in childhood. Higher umbilical cord BioT levels were associated with lower scores for attention problems in boys up to 10 years and more withdrawn behavior in 5-year-old girls; however, these findings were not consistent across ages and require further investigation in a larger sample.

  17. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  18. Factors that Determine Child Behavior during Dental Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Elmedin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA and dental behavior problems (DBP were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.

  19. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school.

  20. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and ...

  1. Acceptability of Alternative Treatments for Deviant Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of deviant child behavior were described to 88 undergraduate students along with four different treatments (reinforcement of incompatible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock). Reinforcement of incompatible behavior was more acceptable than other treatments which followed, in order, time out from…

  2. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents– the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is dueto passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS) (N=909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) (N=915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent’s externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers’ critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring. PMID:21280930

  3. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  4. Mother-Child Conversations about Emotions: Linkages to Child Aggression and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Southam-Gerrow, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We examined associations of maternal and child emotional discourse and child emotion knowledge with children's behavioral competence. Eighty-five upper middle-income, mostly White preschoolers and mothers completed a home-based bookreading task to assess discourse about emotions. Children's anger perception bias and emotion situation knowledge…

  5. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  6. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  7. Neurodynamics in the Sensorimotor Loop: Representing Behavior Relevant External Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasemann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems. It is argued that dynamical forms are the essential internal representatives of behavior relevant external situations. Consequently, it is suggested that dynamical forms are the basis for a memory of these situations. Finally, based on the observation that not all brain process have a direct effect on the motor activity, a natural splitting of neurodynamics into vertical (internal) and horizontal (effective) parts is introduced.

  8. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-08-01

    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  9. Behavior of Compact Toroid in the External Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ioroi, A.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the possibility of refueling and density control of tokamak plasmas by the spheromak-type Compact Toroid (CT) injection in the JFT-2M tokamak in collaboration with JAERI. We demonstrated the CT injection into OH plasmas and observed the core penetration at B_T=0.8 T. The tokamak electron density increased ~0.2× 10^19m-3 at a rate of 2× 10^21m-3/s. We also observed the decrease of the CT velocity by the external magnetic field of the tokamak, which is applied across the CT acceleration region. We have examined the behavior of the CT translated in the external fields B_ext using the magnetic probes and the fast framing camera at Himeji Inst. of tech.. CT plasma in the acceleration region is deformed by the Lorentz force of Jg × B_ext, where Jg is the gun current for CT acceleration. The magnetic field structures of a long CT in the drift region has been revealed to be the mixed relaxed state of m=0 and m=1. Results from CT acceleration and injection in a transverse field will be presented.

  10. Externalizing behavior problems among polydrug cocaine-exposed children: Indirect pathways via maternal harshness and self-regulation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Coles, Claire D; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2014-03-01

    This study examined direct and indirect associations between prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and children's externalizing problems in kindergarten via higher maternal harshness and lower self-regulation in early childhood. Other environmental risk variables, such as child exposure to community violence and experience of hunger, were used as additional predictors. The sample consisted of 216 mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 nonexposed). Maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother-toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children's self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Maternal reports of externalizing behavior problems were obtained at both time points and at kindergarten. Teacher reports were obtained and classroom observations of externalizing behaviors were conducted in the kindergarten classroom. Results indicated significant indirect associations between CE and maternal reports of externalizing problems via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and higher externalizing problems at 3 years of child age. A second indirect path from CE to externalizing problems in the school setting via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and lower self-regulation at 3 years was also significant. There were significant associations between community violence exposure and maternal reports of externalizing problems, and between hunger and externalizing problems in the school setting. Results highlight the role of parenting and self-regulation in early childhood as critical process variables in the indirect association between CE and externalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

  11. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26-57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators' attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children's behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features.

  12. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  13. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  14. Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: the role of parental socialization and emotion expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, S A; Workman, E; Cole, P M; Weissbrod, C; Kendziora, K T; Zahn-Waxler, C

    2000-01-01

    Parental emotions and behaviors that contribute to continuity and change in preschool children's externalizing problems were examined. Mothers and fathers were observed interacting with their children, and child-rearing styles were reported. Teachers, mothers, and children reported children's antisocial, oppositional behavior. Externalizing problems showed strong continuity 2 and 4 years later. Proactive parenting (i.e., supportive presence, clear instruction, and limit setting) predicted fewer behavior problems over time, after controlling for initial problems; the converse was true for parental anger. In contrast, the hypothesized ameliorative contribution of parents' positive emotion was not found. Parental contributions were most influential for children whose initial problems were in the clinical range. In particular, parental anger predicted continuation of problems over time. Paternal, as well as maternal, influences were identified. Examination of parental emotions and inclusion of fathers is important to research and intervention with young antisocial children.

  15. Child Behavior Problems: Role of Cocaine Use, Parenting and Child Exposure to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, Yvette; Finger, Brent; Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child behavior problems have yielded mixed results, suggesting a need to identify additional mediating and moderating influences. We hypothesized that the relation between PCE and behavior problems at kindergarten would be mediated/moderated by child exposure to violence; and that maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness would moderate the association between violence exposure and behavior problems. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed (NCE) mother-child dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of PCE. Results yielded no direct or mediated/moderated association between PCE and child behavior problems, and no significant interaction effects between PCE and parenting quality. However, higher exposure to violence in kindergarten was significantly associated with higher child behavior problems. This association was moderated by maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness. High maternal warmth/sensitivity buffered the association between violence exposure and behavior problems while high maternal harshness exacerbated this association. This study highlights the role of violence exposure in the development of behavior problems among high-risk children, and emphasizes the significance of parenting quality in buffering or exacerbating this risk among these children. Implications for prevention include targeting the potential role of maternal warmth/sensitivity as a protective influence among children exposed to violence.

  16. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  17. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  18. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

  20. Frequencies of T-Score Differences between Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Summary Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Milton E.; Tiedemann-Fuller, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    A table is provided giving observed difference frequencies for caregiver versus teacher ratings of children on the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales per the original normative samples. The table permits accurate evaluation of the empirical rarity of specific cross-informant…

  1. Behavior Problems in Elementary School among Low-Income Boys: The Role of Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian Andrew; O'Connor, Erin Eileen; Supplee, Lauren; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    The authors identified trajectories of teacher-child relationship conflict and closeness from Grades 1 to 6, and associations between these trajectories and externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 11 years old among low-income, urban boys (N = 262). There were three main findings. Nagin cluster analyses indicated five trajectories for…

  2. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  3. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  4. Child Teacher Relationship Training as a Head Start Early Mental Health Intervention for Children Exhibiting Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Terri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effectiveness of child teacher relationship training (CTRT) with at-risk preschool children exhibiting disruptive behavior. The participants included a total of 23 Head Start teachers and their aides, and children identified by their teachers as exhibiting clinical or borderline levels of externalizing behavior…

  5. Frequencies of T-Score Differences between Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Summary Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Milton E.; Tiedemann-Fuller, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    A table is provided giving observed difference frequencies for caregiver versus teacher ratings of children on the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales per the original normative samples. The table permits accurate evaluation of the empirical rarity of specific cross-informant…

  6. Attorney Attitudes Regarding Behaviors Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Georgia L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Prosecuting and defense attorneys across Indiana were surveyed concerning the acceptability of specific behaviors associated with child abuse. Among respondents (n=154) prosecutors had more severe judgments than defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as an explanation for these findings. (Author/DB)

  7. The Relationship between Emotion Comprehension and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior in 7- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Ariane; Henning, Anne; Möller, Corina; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of internalizing and externalizing problems on children’s understanding of others’ emotions has mainly been investigated on basic levels of emotion comprehension. So far, studies assessing more sophisticated levels of emotion comprehension reported deficits in the ability to understand others’ emotions in children with severe internalizing or externalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between emotion comprehension and interindividual differences, with a focus on internalizing and externalizing behavior in children aged 7–10 years from the general population. A sample of 135 children was tested for emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Information on internalizing and externalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18. Age, bilingual upbringing, and amount of paternal working hours were significant control variables for emotion comprehension. In contrast to prior research, overall level of emotion understanding was not related to externalizing symptoms and correlated positively with elevated levels of somatic complaints and anxious/depressed symptoms. In addition, and in line with previous work, higher levels of social withdrawal were associated with worse performance in understanding emotions elicited by reminders. The present results implicate not only an altered understanding of emotions among more specific internalizing symptoms, but also that these alterations occur already on a low symptom level in a community based sample. PMID:28018262

  8. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system.

  9. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatburn A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex Chatburn,1,2 Scott Coussens,1,2 Mark J Kohler1,3 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Health Network, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Children’s Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods: A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. Keywords: resilience, behavior, internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, depression, sleep

  10. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  11. The Effectiveness of Mentoring Youth with Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems on Youth Outcomes and Parenting Stress: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Valle, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with significant externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems habitually report greater parenting stress compared to parents of children without these challenges. One avenue to alleviate parenting stress and ameliorate youth outcomes is youth mentoring, which includes a supportive adult paired with a child with the…

  12. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  13. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  14. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  15. School Attendance and Child Labor - A Model of Collective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates how community approval or disapproval affects school attendance and child labor and how aggregate behavior of the community feeds back towards the formation and persistence of an anti- (or pro-) schooling norm. The proposed community-model continues to take aggregate and idiosyncratic poverty into account as an important driver of low school attendance and child labor. But it provides also an explanation for why equally poor villages or regions can displa...

  16. Acceptability of alternative treatments for deviant child behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazdin, A E

    1980-01-01

    The acceptability of alternative treatments for deviant child behavior was evaluated in two experiments. In each experiment, clinical cases were described to undergraduate students along with four different treatments in a Replicated Latin Square Design. The treatments included reinforcement of incomparible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock and the treatments were described as they were appliedto children with problem behaviors. Experiment 1 developed an ...

  17. Nonlinear Behavior Of Saturated Porous Media Under External Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear behavior of liquid saturated porous media in gravity filed under external impact. The continuum is assumed to be a two-velocity medium; it consists of a deformable porous matrix (with Maxwell's reology) and a Newtonian liquid that saturates this matrix. The energy dissipation in this model takes place due the interface friction between the solid matrix and saturating liquid, and also through relaxation of inelastic shear stress in the porous matrix. The elaborated nonisothermal mathematical model for this kind of medium is a thermodynamically consistent and closed model. Godunov's explicit difference scheme was used for computer simulation; the method implies numerical simulation for discontinuity decay in flux calculations. As an illustrative example, we consider the formation of dissipation structures in a plain layer of that medium after pulse or periodic impact on the background of liquid filtration through the porous matrix. At the process beginning, one can observe elastic behavior of the porous matrix. Deformation spreading through the saturated porous matrix occurs almost without distortions and produces a channel-shaped zone of stretching with a high porosity. Later on, dissipation processes and reology properties of porous medium causes the diffusion of this channel. We also observe a correlation between the liquid distribution (porosity for the solid matrix) and dilatancy fields; this allows us to restore the dilatancy field from the measured fluid saturation of the medium. This work was supported by the RFBR (Grant No. 04-05-64107), the Presidium of SB RAS (Grant 106), the President's Grants (NSh-2118.2003.5, NSh-1573.2003.5).

  18. Children with problematic sexualized behaviors in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Gries, Len; Schneiderman, Mel; Parker, Rob; Archer, Marc; Friedrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in a child welfare sample. In this study, 97 children from ages 10 to 12 from either foster boarding homes or a residential treatment center participated. Researchers interviewed foster parents or primary therapists about children's sexual behavior, traumatic events, clinical symptoms, and their attitudes toward the child. Findings revealed that problematic sexualized behaviors were more prevalent in the residential treatment center (RTC) sample than they were in a normative sample. The pattern of associations between sexual behavior problems, traumatic events, and clinical syndromes in both the RTC and the foster boarding home (FBH) samples was similar to what has been found in samples in which biological custodial parents were the respondents. Analyses comparing youth who met the criterion for having problematic sexualized behaviors and youth who did not meet the criterion revealed that the two groups differed on clinical symptoms, prior traumatic events, and negative reports by caregivers. Results confirm the utility of the CSBI measure for this population and highlight several important clinical and programmatic concerns for addressing problematic sexual behavior in children in the child welfare system.

  19. Gratification behavior in a young child: Course and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Anand Pandurangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Masturbation (gratification behavior is rarely seen in young children. It occurs in children between the age of 3 months and 3 years with a second peak incidence at about the adolescent age. A 26-month-old child presented to us with gratification behavior. On evaluation, she did not have any physical illness mimicking gratification behavior. The parents were counseled, and 6 sessions of behavior therapy were carried out. Gratification behavior in young children is not pathological. Waxing and waning of the symptoms may be present.

  20. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. PMID:25455625

  1. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5-13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten-Grade 2, Grades 3-5, and Grades 6-8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior.

  2. Interpretations of Child Behavior by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Constance R.; Docherty, Edward M., Jr.

    This study examined sex-role typing in older adults' interpretations of young children's behavior. Participants were 48 older adults averaging 64.7 years of age. Videotapes were made of the play behavior of each of two toddlers, a female and a male matched in body type, hair length, dress (plain tee shirt and shorts), and in the activities in…

  3. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  4. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  5. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  6. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  7. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  8. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors as Predictors of Sexual Onset in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude P.; Dussault, Frédéric; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study had three goals: (a) assessing the predictive association of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during childhood with sexual onset during early adolescence; (b) examining the interactive link of externalizing and internalizing behaviors with early sexual onset; and (c) investigating the moderating effect of gender in this…

  9. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  10. Maternal mental health in pregnancy and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Lukose, Ammu; Srinivasan, K

    2011-10-01

    Maternal mental health research is a public health priority due to its impact on both maternal and child health. Despite the growing number of empirical studies in this area, particularly from developing countries, there is a paucity of synthetic review articles. Therefore, attempting to synthesize the existing literature in this area seems relevant to appraise the readers of the field's progress and to infer directions for future research. The present review aims to provide an overview of the literature on maternal mental health and its association with birth outcomes and child behavior. Specifically, the literature on mental health during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its influence on birth outcomes and child behavior have been reviewed. Further, a conceptual and methodological evaluation of the existing literature has been provided to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest directions for future research.

  11. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. For Law-Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V.

    This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…

  12. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  13. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  14. Family Meals and Child Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…

  15. Warning signs prior to aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faay, M.D.M.; Valenkamp, M.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at detecting and categorizing early warning signs of aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units. We analyzed 575 violent incident report forms and developed a coding scheme consisting of 16 warning signs. From the 575 incident report forms, a total of 1087 signs were coded. Most

  16. Child behavior check list and Korean personality inventory for children with functional visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.

  17. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  18. Correlating parenting styles with child behavior and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child's behavior during the first dental visit. Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children's Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pauthoritarian and permissive parents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit.

  19. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  20. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  1. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  2. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  4. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  5. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Clinical Characteristics and Relationship to Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Research examining children with sexual behavior problems (SBP) almost exclusively relies on caregiver reports. The current study, involving a sample of 1112 children drawn from a prospective study, utilizes child self-reports and teacher reports, as well caregiver-reports. First, analyses examined children displaying any SBP; a second set of analyses specifically examined children displaying interpersonal forms of SBP. Caregivers reported greater internalizing, externalizing, and social problems for children with general SBP and/or interpersonal SBP when compared to children without SBP. Caregiver concerns were rarely corroborated by teacher and child reports. Protective services records indicated that SBP was linked to childhood sexual abuse, but sexual abuse occurred in the minority of these cases. Physical abuse was more common among children with interpersonal forms of SBP. The data in the current study suggest the need for multiple reporters when assessing children presenting with SBP and that conventional views of these children may be misleading.

  7. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  8. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  9. Authoritative feeding behaviors to reduce child BMI through online interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration.

  10. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  11. Modifications in parent feeding practices and child diet during family-based behavioral treatment improve child zBMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jodi Cahill; Kolko, Rachel P; Stein, Richard I; Welch, R Robinson; Perri, Michael G; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2014-05-01

    To examine associations between modifications in parent feeding practices, child diet, and child weight status after treatment and to evaluate dietary mediators. Children classified as overweight or obese and 7-11 years old (N = 170) completed a 16-session family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) program. Anthropometrics (standardized body mass index (zBMI)), Child Feeding Questionnaire, and 24-hr dietary recalls were collected at baseline and post-FBT. Linear regression predicted child zBMI change. Single and multiple mediation tested child dietary modifications as mediators between change in parent feeding practices and child zBMI. Restrictive parent feeding practices significantly decreased during FBT. Reductions in parent restriction, child weight concern, child's total energy intake, and percent energy from fat, and increases in parent perceived responsibility, and child percent energy from protein, predicted reductions in child zBMI. Change in child total energy intake mediated the relation between parent restriction and child zBMI change after accounting for covariates and additional dietary mediators. FBT is associated with a decrease in parental restriction, which is associated with reductions in child relative weight, which was mediated by a decrease in child energy intake. Teaching parents to reduce children's energy intake without being overly restrictive may improve child weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J; Crouch, Julie L; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S; Hiraoka, Regina; Rutledge, Ericka; Jenkins, Jade

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children's behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the implied traits were positive/negative. The contributions of automatic processes and controlled processes to task performance were examined using process dissociation procedures. Low CPA risk parents were significantly less likely to indicate negative traits were present in behavioral descriptions of children when negative traits were vaguely (compared to strongly) implied. In contrast, high CPA risk parents were equally likely to indicate negative traits were present regardless of whether the traits were vaguely or strongly implied. For low (but not high) CPA risk parents, automatic processes contributed significantly less to task performance when negative traits were vaguely implied compared to when the same traits were strongly implied. Given that parenting involves negotiating a seemingly endless series of ambiguous behaviors as children grow and develop, the capacity to refrain from automatically attributing negative traits to children when they exhibit vaguely negative behaviors may serve an important function in reducing risk of aggressive parenting behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment (CABA): A Brief Structured Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Amanda Leigh; Miller, Stacy Jo; Smith, Johan R; Johnson, Karen E

    2017-04-01

    Use of valid, affordable, accessible, and brief measures facilitates the assessment of mental health outcomes. The Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment Scale, a brief, structured scale, assesses problem behavior through patient and/or informant report. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the scale's psychometric properties. In the cross-sectional study presented, a large national sample of youth (aged 5-18) admitted for psychiatric treatment (N = 32,689) was examined. The two major domains of problem behavior assessed were Internalizing and Externalizing. Reliability was good to excellent with alpha levels ranging from 0.874 to 0.917. Additional items measured Risk Behavior (α = 0.648). Subscale total scores correlated well with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children, 9-item version (BPRS-C-9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor, multidimensional model of problem behavior as satisfactory for child and adolescent use, although further research is required to refine some items for clarity and improved model fit.

  14. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood.

  15. Links between Marital Quality, the Mother-Child Relationship and Child Behavior: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M.; Pike, Alison

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between marital quality and child behavior, assessing mother-child relationship quality as a potential mediator. The sample included 78 mothers with two target children (mean ages = 9.82 and 12.05 years, respectively). Mothers reported on their children's behavior as well as their marital quality, while each child…

  16. Links between Marital Quality, the Mother-Child Relationship and Child Behavior: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M.; Pike, Alison

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between marital quality and child behavior, assessing mother-child relationship quality as a potential mediator. The sample included 78 mothers with two target children (mean ages = 9.82 and 12.05 years, respectively). Mothers reported on their children's behavior as well as their marital quality, while each child…

  17. Correlating Parenting Styles with Child Behavior and Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S.; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child’s behavior during the first dental visit. Methods Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children’s Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. Results 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pparents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Conclusions Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit. PMID:25685975

  18. Developmental trajectories and predictors of externalizing behavior: a comparison of girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Carolin; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that the development of externalizing behavior in childhood and adolescence can be described through different developmental pathways. However, knowledge about differences between the sexes regarding the trajectories is limited. This study focused on potential differences by examining the trajectories of self-reported externalizing symptoms for girls and boys separately. In addition, the relationships of several familiar and child-specific variables with those developmental courses were assessed. The study was conducted on a large community sample of German youths (N = 3,893; mean age 11.38 years; 50 % girls) over 4 years. Using growth mixture modeling, three different classes of trajectories were found for both sexes. The classes differed with regard to the level and the course of symptoms ("low", "moderate", "high-decreasing"). Girls were overrepresented in the "low" class, whereas boys were predominant in the "moderate" and "high-decreasing" classes. The multiple group analysis revealed that the girls and boys differed significantly in their level and linear course of symptoms with regard to the "high-decreasing" class. In contrast, no sex differences were found in the growth factors of the "low" and "moderate" classes. The regression analyses showed that the children's depressive symptoms, dysfunctional parenting style, and negative family climate were associated significantly with the level and course of symptoms as well as the class membership of girls and boys. Life events predicted class membership only for boys, whereas maternal depressive symptoms and family conflict did not demonstrate any significant relationship. The sizes of the predictive associations with the growth factors were similar for both sexes. The results are discussed with regard to existing developmental models and their possible implications for prevention and future research.

  19. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  20. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors.

  1. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.

  2. Like Father, Like Son? The Link between Parents' Moral Disengagement and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Taraschi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This work considers a still uninvestigated research issue-namely, whether parents' moral disengagement affected preschool children's externalizing behavior. Participants were 245 children (126 girls and 119 boys) aged 3-6 years. Parents' moral disengagement was assessed in terms of their externalization of blame and their indifference in reactions…

  3. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  4. Like Father, Like Son? The Link between Parents' Moral Disengagement and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Taraschi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This work considers a still uninvestigated research issue-namely, whether parents' moral disengagement affected preschool children's externalizing behavior. Participants were 245 children (126 girls and 119 boys) aged 3-6 years. Parents' moral disengagement was assessed in terms of their externalization of blame and their indifference in reactions…

  5. Improvements in Child Behavior and Family Mealtime Environment After an Intensive Behavioral Feeding Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M; Yusupova, Stella

    2016-08-31

    The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings. Results revealed that caregivers perceived all three AYCE family mealtime patterns to improve from preintervention to postintervention, the majority of caregivers rated intervention as being effective for improving the specific child feeding goals identified at preintervention, and caregivers gave high satisfaction ratings for the intervention.

  6. Personality and externalizing behavior in the transition to young adulthood : The additive value of personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Hale, William W.; Goossens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The directionality of effects in the associations between personality and externalizing behavior (i.e., delinquency, soft drugs use, and alcohol abuse) is unclear. Moreover, previous studies only examined personality trait domains when examining these associations, whereas personality facet

  7. On the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator with random external disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Kulinich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator under the external random disturbance that is a process of the white noise type. Influence of noises is investigated in resonance and non-resonance cases.

  8. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetim...

  9. Soft behavior of string amplitudes with external massive states

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrieri, Andrea L

    2015-01-01

    We briefly discuss the soft behavior of scattering amplitudes both in string and quantum field theory. In particular we show a general argument about the validity of soft theorems for open superstring amplitudes and list some of our recent results.

  10. Assessing relational schemas in parents of children with externalizing behavior disorders: reliability and validity of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2011-02-28

    Direct observational assessment of parent-child interaction is important in clinical intervention with conduct-problem children, but is costly and resource-intensive. We examined the reliability and validity of a brief measure of parents' relational schemas (RSs) regarding their child. Children (aged 4 to 11years) and their families receiving treatment at a clinic for externalizing behavior problems (n=150) or mood/developmental disorders (n=28) were assessed using a multi-method, multi-informant procedure. RSs were coded from Five-Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) using the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS), and were compared with directly observed parent-child interaction and questionnaire measures of family and parental dysfunction and conduct problems. Mothers' and fathers' RS scales were internally consistent and could be reliably coded in under 10min. Less positive RSs and more negative RSs were associated with higher rates of child conduct problems, and were more characteristic of the speech samples of parents of children with externalizing disorders, compared with clinic control parents. RSs demonstrated some associations with parenting behavior and measures of family functioning and symptoms of parental psychopathology, and predicted conduct problems independently of observed parental criticism. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the FAARS assessment of parental RSs in clinic-referred families. This brief measure of parent-child dynamics appears well-suited to 'real-world' (i.e., community) clinical settings in which intensive methods of observation are often not feasible.

  11. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  12. Status specific tailoring of sperm behavior in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Why dominant males experiencing intense sperm competition sometimes show low investments in sperm production is not always obvious. One well-documented example is that of the external fertilizing teleost, the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, where individuals becoming dominant reduce sperm production and sperm swimming speed in water compared to subordinates. Here we report how ovarian fluid differentially influences sperm velocity of dominant and subordinate male Arctic charr. That is, sperm from dominant males increase their velocity in water diluted ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water, while sperm from subordinates, on the other hand, decrease velocity in ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water. Thus, subordinates, who invest more resources in their sperm and usually show the highest sperm velocity in water, have lower gains from their investment than dominant males when sperm are swimming in ovarian fluid. In sum, our result suggests that ovarian fluid increase sperm velocity more in dominant males than in subordinate males. Although this finding could partly be caused by cryptic female choice exerted by the ovarian fluid for sperm from dominant males, an alternative and more parsimonious explanation is that sperm from dominant males may simply be better designed for swimming in ovarian fluid compared to sperm from subordinate males. Thus, sperm production in the two reproductive roles seems to be adaptively tailored to different external environments.

  13. Influence of attitudes, impulsivity, and parental styles in adolescents' externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Barbero, José A; Ruiz-Hernández, José A; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Waschgler, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Diverse works have associated externalizing problem behavior with impulsivity, parental styles, and attitudes toward violence. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between these variables and externalizing behavior. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a sample of 252 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, from the general population. The results obtained indicate a significant association of externalization with high impulsivity, ingrained attitudes toward violence, and inconsistent parental styles, as well as gender and age differences. These results are discussed in relation with the influence of gender stereotypes and their implications in the development of attitudes toward violence.

  14. The Child Network for Parents to Track Their Child's Mood and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Rowe, Michael; Kaplan, Dana; Findling, Robert

    2017-04-25

    A wide range of psychiatric disorders are common in young children, especially in those at high risk because of a parent with a unipolar or bipolar mood disorder in the United States. Yet in part because most children are seen in primary care, these illnesses are often not recognized or treated in a timely fashion. To begin to address this problem, we started the Child Network. The Child Network is for parents of children age 2-12 with mood or behavioral symptoms or at high risk for them. The parents rate the severity of symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional behavior, and mania on a once a week basis on a secure website under a Johns Hopkins Intramural Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. These ratings can then be printed out along with any treatments given to aide in visualization of symptom course. A demographics form, which includes diagnoses given to the child in the community, and a symptom checklist are filled out upon Network entry. We report on the retrospective diagnoses and prospective treatment of the first 65 parents to join the Network. The most common diagnoses were anxiety disorders and ADHD followed by disruptive behavioral disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Prospective ratings of two or more consecutive weeks of moderate to severe rating in any of the five symptom domains paralleled these diagnoses given in the community. Atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsant mood stabilizers, and medications for ADHD were among the most widely used drugs. An illustrated example of symptom course is presented. Many children continued to show substantial symptom severity despite treatment with an average of 2.2 medications. The Child Network provides a useful longitudinal approach to visualize the course of symptoms, which should help lead to earlier and more effective treatment.

  15. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A.H. Zottis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.

  16. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  17. Modifying the verbal expression of a child with autistic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, E; Swisher, L

    1975-06-01

    The Bell and Howell Language Master was used in conjunction with the Monterey Language Program to modify the verbal expression of a nine-year-old boy with autistic behaviors. The goal was to train the child to correctly name up to 10 pictures presented individually. Two training modes were used. For one, the therapist spoke at the time (live voice). For the other, she presented a tape recording of her voice via a Language Master. The results suggested that the child's responses to the Language Master were as good as, if not better than, his responses to the live-voice presentations. In addition, observation indicated that he responded more readily to the Language Master presentations. His spontaneous speech was also noted by independent observers to improve in his classroom and in his home. Possible reasons for the improvement in verbal expression are considered.

  18. Latent Classes of Externalizing Behaviors in Youth with Early Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…

  19. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221…

  20. Parental Control is Not Unconditionally Detrimental for Externalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Baydar, Nazli

    2014-01-01

    The association of three different strategies of maternal control (behavioral, psychological, and physical), and maternal warmth with children's externalizing behaviors were analyzed in an observational study of 3-year-old children in Turkey ("N" = 123). The results indicated that (i) mothers exercised all three types of control…

  1. The Role of Maternal Depression on Treatment Outcome for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that, on average, Parent Management Training combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy decreases children's externalizing behavior, but some children do not improve through treatment. The current study aimed to examine the role of maternal depression in understanding this variabi

  2. Gender as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing behavior problems in sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-02-01

    Despite the proliferation of studies documenting outcomes in sexually abused victims, gender differences remain understudied. The bulk of studies have relied on retrospective samples of adults with insufficient representation of male victims to explore gender specificities. This study examined differential outcomes among boy and girl victims of sexual abuse. A predictive model of outcomes including abuse characteristics and sense of guilt as mediators was proposed. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys), aged 6-12. Being a girl was a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms, while being a boy was a predictor of externalizing problems. Being a boy was also associated with more severe abuse, which in turn predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. Child's gender was not related to perpetrator's relationship to the child or sense of guilt. However, sense of guilt predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing problems while perpetrator's relationship to the child predicted externalizing problems. Gender specificities should be further studied among sexually abused children, as boys and girls appear to manifest different outcomes. Sense of guilt should be a target in intervention for sexually abused children, as results highlight its link to heightened negative outcomes.

  3. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  4. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  5. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  6. Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Huizink, Anja C

    2012-07-01

    We investigated genetic and environmental influences common to adolescent externalizing behavior (at age 12), smoking (at age 14) and initiation of drug use (at age 17) using the FinnTwin12 cohort data. Multivariate Cholesky models were fit to data from 737 monozygotic and 722 dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability of externalizing behavior was 56%, that of smoking initiation/amount 20/32%, and initiation of drug use 27%. In the best-fitting model common environmental influences explained most of the covariance between externalizing behavior and smoking initiation (69%) and amount (77%). Covariance between smoking initiation/amount and drug use was due to additive genetic (42/22%) and common environmental (58/78%) influences. Half of the covariance between externalizing behavior and drug use was due to shared genetic and half due to the environments shared by co-twins. Using a longitudinal, prospective design, our results indicate that early observed externalizing behavior provides significant underlying genetic and environmental influences common to later substance use, here manifested as initiation of drug use in late adolescence.

  7. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  8. Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

  9. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  10. Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behavior of T-shape Beam Reinforced by External Prestressing Tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available External prestressing has become a primary method for strengthening existing concrete beam and has been increasingly used in the construction of newly erected ones, particularly railroad bridges in recent years. In order to evaluate the effect of this method, the static and dynamic behavior of a T-frame beam reinforced by external prestressed strengthened concrete beam was analyzed by 3D finite element method, and the field test study was also made. The study was carried out to further investigate the simply supported reinforced prestressed concrete beam strengthened by external prestressing through theory analysis and experiment.

  11. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship Between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. The current analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ) which are hypoth...

  12. Parenting quality, DRD4, and the prediction of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, C; Willoughby, M; Halpern, C T; Carbone, M A; Cox, M

    2007-09-01

    Recent research has found that the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and maternal insensitivity may interact to predict externalizing behavior in preschoolers. The current study attempted to replicate and extend this finding in a sample of 18-30-month-old children. The current study examined two distinct dimensions of parenting (warm-responsive and negative-intrusive) as predictors of childhood externalizing and internalizing behavior. Further, race was investigated as a moderator of gene-environment relationships. Results revealed that high warm-responsive parenting was associated with decreased externalizing behavior only for African American children possessing the short polymorphism of DRD4. The data indicate that children may be differentially susceptible to different aspects of parenting depending on their genotype, and it is important to consider differences in racial composition when studying these relationships. .

  13. Child mortality in the Netherlands in the past decades: An overview of external causes and the role of public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, S.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Need, A.

    2014-01-01

    Among European countries, the Netherlands has the second lowest child mortality rate from external causes. We present an overview, discuss possible explanations, and suggest prevention measures. We analyzed mortality data from all deceased children aged 0-19 years for the period 1969-2011. Child mor

  14. Child mortality in the Netherlands in the past decades: an overview of external causes and the role of public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, Sandra; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    Among European countries, the Netherlands has the second lowest child mortality rate from external causes. We present an overview, discuss possible explanations, and suggest prevention measures. We analyzed mortality data from all deceased children aged 0–19 years for the period 1969–2011. Child mor

  15. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order mode is selected, periodic dynamics corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed. When the stripe mirror is not aligned perfectly, a dynamic behavior like pulse-package oscillations is observed: a periodic oscillated output...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge....

  16. Parenting Behavior, Child Functioning, and Health Behaviors in Preadolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Bridget; Mackey, Eleanor Race; Streisand, Randi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of critical parenting behaviors with preadolescent reported depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Method A total of 84 youth with T1D, ages 9–11 years, completed the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, Child Depression Inventory, Self-Efficacy for Diabetes scale, and Self-Care Inventory during a baseline assessment for a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to promote adherence. Results P...

  17. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education.

  18. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  19. Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from ages 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower income families.

  20. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

  1. Village sanitation and child health: Effects and external validity in a randomized field experiment in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jeffrey; Spears, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Over a billion people worldwide defecate in the open, with important consequences for early-life health and human capital accumulation in developing countries. We report a cluster randomized controlled trial of a village sanitation intervention conducted in rural Maharashtra, India designed to identify an effect of village sanitation on average child height, an outcome of increasing importance to economists. We find an effect of approximately 0.3 height-for-age standard deviations, which is consistent with observations and hypotheses in economic and health literatures. We further exploit details of the planning and implementation of the experiment to study treatment heterogeneity and external validity.

  2. Child Development and Behavior Branch (CDBB), NIHCD, Report to the NACHHD Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…

  3. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  4. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  5. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

  6. Behavior modification of aggressive children in child welfare: evaluation of a combined intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Büttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-07-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve children (average age 10 years), diagnosed with an oppositional defiant disorder or a conduct disorder, are treated either with a child welfare program or with a combined intervention of child welfare program and TAC. Before and immediately after completion of the combined treatment, parent and teacher ratings are collected. Parents report children participating in child welfare and TAC to show a stronger decline in social and conduct problems as well as a clearer increase in prosocial behavior. Teachers see a better improvement in social problems and tended to report a decrease in aggressive behavior. Results confirm that the TAC can enhance effects of a child welfare program.

  7. Gender Roles, Externalizing Behaviors, and Substance Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KULIS, STEPHEN; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 60 male and 91 female Mexican-American adolescents (age 13–18) were administered measures of positive (i.e., assertive masculinity, affective femininity) and negative (i.e., aggressive masculinity, submissive femininity) gender roles, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, peer substance use, and own substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana). Negative gender roles were significantly correlated with internalizing and externalizing problems for both boys and girls, with aggressive masculinity also predicting peer substance use for both genders. Assertive masculinity significantly predicted lower alcohol use in boys, and this effect was not mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, or peer substance use. Negative gender roles significantly predicted higher alcohol use in girls, but this effect was almost completely mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and peer substance use. Results are discussed in terms of gender role socialization among Mexican Americans. PMID:21031145

  8. Emulating real-life situations with a play task to observe parenting skills and child behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Metzler, Carol W; Sanders, Matthew R; Crowley, Ryann

    2015-04-01

    Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the parent-child play task (PCPT) to assess mother-child interactions for a randomized controlled trial of a video-based parenting program. Participants were 307 mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children who presented oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicited the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals' behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT-observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of 2 task-specific behaviors. Mother's guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children's interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children's noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Child-to-parent violence: emotional and behavioral predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of some behavioral and emotional characteristics of adolescents who perpetrate CPV. A total of 1,072 adolescents (601 girls) filled out measures of CPV, proactive and reactive aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse at Time 1, and measures of CPV 6 months later. The results showed that CPV was predicted by proactive, but not by reactive, aggression. This finding supports an instrumental role for CPV, which should be understood in the context of permissibility and lack of limits within the family. Depression and substance abuse also predicted the increase of CPV over time. Moreover, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of physical CPV, but verbal CPV was more predominant among girls. Although there were sex differences in some of the risk factors for CPV, the predictive model linking these risks to CPV was similar for boys and girls. Findings of this study suggest a psychological profile that combines internalizing problems and an instrumental use of violence in adolescents who perpetrate CPV. These characteristics are important for interventions.

  10. Examining Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J; Schwartz, Billie S; Keiffer, Jackie N; McCurdy, Barry L; Mathen, Manju; Jawad, Abbas F

    2016-07-01

    This article presents outcome data of the implementation of three group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems, anxiety, and depression. School counselors and graduate students co-led the groups in two low-income urban schools. Data were analyzed to assess pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. Results of the exploratory study indicated that all three GCBT protocols were effective at reducing diagnostic severity level for children who had a primary diagnosis of an externalizing disorder, anxiety disorder, or depressive disorder at the clinical or intermediate (at-risk) level. All three GCBT protocols were implemented with relatively high levels of fidelity. Data on the effectiveness of the interventions for reducing diagnostic severity level for externalizing and internalizing spectrum disorders and for specific disorders are presented. A discussion of implementation of mental health evidence-based interventions in urban schools is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

  12. Working alliance and treatment fidelity as predictors of externalizing problem behaviors in parent management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje S; Ogden, Terje

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated treatment fidelity and working alliance in the Parent Management Training-Oregon model (PMTO) and investigated how these relate to children's externalizing problem behaviors, as reported by parents and teachers. Participants were 331 Norwegian parents who rated the client-therapist working alliance at 3 time points (Sessions 3, 12, and 20). Competent adherence to the PMTO treatment protocol was assessed by PMTO specialists from evaluations of videotaped therapy sessions using the Fidelity of Implementation (FIMP) system (Knutson, Forgatch, & Rains, 2003). Parents and teachers reported children's problem behaviors at baseline and at the end of therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the repeated measures data. Parents reported high and stable levels of alliance and fidelity from Time 1 to Time 3, with no correlational or direct relations between the 2. Treatment fidelity predicted reductions in parent-reported externalizing behavior, whereas working alliance was related to less change in problem behavior. Alliance and fidelity were unrelated to teacher-reported behavior problems. The findings point to treatment fidelity as an active ingredient in PMTO and working alliance as a negative predictor of postassessment parent-reported externalizing behavior. More research is needed to investigate whether these findings can be replicated and extended beyond PMTO.

  13. An overview of child physical abuse: developing an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed.

  14. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  15. Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-01-01

    African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

  16. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  17. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  20. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline

  1. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  2. Distinctiveness of Adolescent and Emerging Adult Romantic Relationship Features in Predicting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Romantic relationship involvement has repeatedly been associated with the incidence of externalizing behavior problems, but little is known about the nature and developmental significance of this relation. The current study extends previous research by investigating whether and through what processes romantic relationships distinctively predict…

  3. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities : Relations With Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-base

  4. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African American,…

  5. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  6. Genetic Vulnerability Interacts with Parenting and Early Care and Education to Predict Increasing Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental…

  7. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  8. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  9. Effectiveness of individually delivered indicated school-based interventions on externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, Maja; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the results of two meta-analyses on the effectiveness of individually delivered indicated school-based interventions for externalizing behavior problems at elementary schools are presented. A distinction was made between studies that evaluated effects of interventions with only

  10. Effectiveness of Individually Delivered Indicated School-Based Interventions on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; van Londen, Monique; Dekovic, Maja; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the results of two meta-analyses on the effectiveness of "individually" delivered indicated school-based interventions for externalizing behavior problems at elementary schools are presented. A distinction was made between studies that evaluated effects of interventions with only an individual component (k = 11 studies, n =…

  11. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  12. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ag

  13. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  14. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  15. Testing causal effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's externalizing and internalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Geels, L.M.; Vink, J.M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Neale, M.C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to

  16. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  17. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  18. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  19. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  20. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  1. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

  2. Reciprocity among maternal distress, child behavior, and parenting: transactional processes and early childhood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Gerstein, Emily D; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring bidirectional relations among maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity during the preschool period (child ages 3 to 5 years), comparing relations among families of typically developing children and children with developmental risk. This study included 250 families, 110 of which had a child with early developmental delay. Analyses utilized data from maternal report, father report, and observational methods. The results indicated significant stability in maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity over time. Support for bidirectional effects between maternal symptomatology and child internalizing symptoms was found specifically for mothers of children with developmental risk. Maternal symptomatology was found to mediate the influence of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms on maternal sensitivity. The findings underscore critical transactional processes within families of children with early developmental risk that connect increased maternal symptomatology to emerging child internalizing symptoms during the preschool period.

  3. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  4. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  5. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  6. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  7. Sleep Items in the Child Behavior Checklist: A Comparison with Sleep Diaries, Actigraphy, and Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Cousins, Jennifer C.; Forbes, Erika E.; Trubnick, Laura; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Child Behavior Checklist is sometimes used to assess sleep disturbance despite not having been validated for this purpose. This study examined associations between the Child Behavior Checklist sleep items and other measures of sleep. Method: Participants were 122 youth (61% female, aged 7 through 17 years) with anxiety disorders…

  8. Strengths Moderate the Impact of Trauma on Risk Behaviors in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gene; Martinovich, Zoran; Gawron, Tim; Lyons, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether traumatic experiences of children entering the child welfare system have an impact on their risk behaviors and whether these behaviors are moderated by children's strengths. Method: The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services administered the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) measure to…

  9. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  10. The Relationship Between Maternal Depression, In-Home Violence, And Use Of Physical Punishment: What Is The Role Of Child Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Augustyn, Marilyn; Young, Robin; Zuckerman, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Context Maternal depression and in-home violence are independently associated with the use of physical punishment on children; however, the combined impact of these factors on the practice of physical punishment is unknown, as is the extent to which their relationship to physical punishment varies with child behavior. Objectives 1) Determine the combined impact of maternal depression and violence exposure on one physical punishment practice, smacking; 2) Explore the role of child behaviors in this relationship. Methods Multivariable regression analysis of a nationally representative sample of US kindergarten children. Maternal depressive symptoms, violence exposure, and use of smacking as a discipline technique were measured by parent interview. Child behaviors were reported by teachers. Results 12,764 mother-child dyads were included in the analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for smacking among mothers with depressive symptoms was 1.59 (95% CI 1.40, 1.80); among mothers exposed to in-home violence, 1.48 (95% CI 1.18, 1.85); among dually exposed mothers, 2.51 (95% CI 1.87, 3.37). Adjusting these models for child self-control or externalizing behavior yielded no change in these associations, and no effect modification by child behavior was detected. Among mothers reporting to smack their children, depression was associated with an increased smacking frequency (aIRR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01, 1.24); however, this association was reduced to borderline significance when adjusting the models for child self-control or externalizing behavior (aIRRs 1.10; 95% CI 1.00, 1.21). Depressed mothers who were also exposed to violence demonstrated higher rates of smacking (aIRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09, 1.53); this remained stable when adjusting for child behaviors. Conclusion Maternal depression and violence exposure are associated with smacking as a means of punishment. The magnitude of this association is increased when depression and violence occur together. When coexistent, they also

  11. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reciprocal models of child behavior and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in a sample of children at risk for early conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Heather E; Shaw, Daniel S; Moilanen, Kristin L; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2008-10-01

    Although much has been written about transactional models in the study of parenting practices, relatively few researchers have used this approach to examine how child behavior might be related to parental well-being. This study used latent growth curve modeling to test transactional models of age 2 child noncompliance, parental depressive symptoms, and age 4 internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a subsample of families in the Early Steps Multisite Study. In unconditional models, maternal depressive symptoms showed a linear decrease from child ages 2 to 4, whereas paternal depression did not show significant change. Observed child noncompliance at age 2 showed significant associations with concurrent reports of maternal depressive symptoms and trend-level associations with paternal depressive symptoms. For both parents, higher levels of initial depressive symptoms were related to increased age 4 child internalizing behaviors. The findings provide support for reciprocal process models of parental depression and child behavior, and this study is one of the first to present empirical evidence that fathers' depressive symptoms have bidirectional associations with their children's behavior in early childhood. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L

    2009-09-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  14. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  15. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  16. Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perceived parent-child relational qualities (parental trust of the child, child's trust of parents, child's readiness to communicate with parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), parental behavioral control (including indicators of…

  17. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits.

  19. Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipline and externalizing problem behaviour in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2004-01-01

    Negative discipline has been linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality characteristics of children and parents. Using the Five Factor Model, we examined the extent to which parents' and children's

  20. The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence / O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence were investigated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only maternal childrearing practices were significant to explain the variance in the externalizing behaviors and social competence. The work discusses the relevance of parental practices and the limitations of the evaluation of temperament and maternal responsiveness as predictors for the comprehension of social development.

  1. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan G.C. Wright

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101 of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Impulsivity structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.

  3. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  4. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge........ Different dynamic behaviors are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the mirror is aligned correctly and high-order modes are selected, in most of the cases periodic dynamics of the output power corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed, but the dynamic...

  5. Social Self Control, Externalizing Behavior, and Peer Liking Among Children with ADHD-CT: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul J; Vaughn, Aaron J; Epstein, Jeffery N; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the role of externalizing behavior as a mediator of the relation between social self-control and peer liking among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Type (ADHD-CT). A model was proposed whereby externalizing behavior would fully statistically account for the direct relation of social self-control to peer liking. One hundred seventy two children ages 7.0-9.9 years with ADHD-CT were rated by their teachers regarding their social self-control and by their parents and teachers regarding their rates of externalizing behavior. Same-sex classmates provided ratings of overall liking. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the proposed model. Results supported the proposed model of externalizing behavior as fully statistically accounting for the relation of social self-control to peer liking. This study demonstrated the crucial role that externalizing behaviors play in the social impairment commonly seen among children with ADHD-CT.

  6. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.

  7. Ground-State Behavior of the Quantum Compass Model in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ke-Wei; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ground-state(GS)properties of the two-dimensional(2D)quantum compass model in an external field on a square 5×5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization(ED)method.We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions,nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter.As the external field is presented,the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.%Ground-state (GS) properties of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum compass model in an external Geld on a square 5x5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization (ED) method. We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions, nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter. As the external Geld is presented, the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.

  8. Parents' spontaneous evaluations of children and symbolic harmful behaviors toward their child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J; Crouch, Julie L; Milner, Joel S

    2017-05-01

    Parents' evaluations of children are believed to be a cognitive contributor to their subsequent child-directed harsh or physically abusive behaviors. The current research examined whether parents' (N=100) evaluations of children were moderated by either (a) the child behavior on which the evaluation was based and (b) parents' measured risk for child physical abuse. The study also explored whether parents' evaluations of children were related to their tendencies to symbolically harm their child. The current study also used a novel method to indirectly assess parents' evaluations of children: A modified Affect Misattribution Procedure. Contrary to a priori expectations, negative evaluations of children were stronger for parents who were at low risk, relative to high risk, for child physical abuse. Nonetheless, we observed that high-risk parents were more likely than low-risk parents to inflict symbolic harm onto their child. In an exploratory analysis we observed that parents who formed more overall negative evaluations of children engaged in more symbolic harm to their child. Although high-risk parents were more likely to symbolically harm their child than low-risk parents, this effect does not seem to be due to high-risk parents' negative child evaluations from negative child behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems.

  10. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  11. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  12. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. Long-tunnelled external ventricular drain as a long-term treatment option for hydrocephalus in a child with an unresectable low-grade supratentorial tumor: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelifeonwu, John A; Sokol, Drahoslav; Gallo, Pasquale; Kandasamy, Jothy; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    The authors report a case of a child with hypothalamic-origin pilocytic astrocytoma and hydrocephalus, which was refractory to treatment with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt due to high CSF protein content. With parental education, the child's hydrocephalus was managed long-term in the community with a long-tunnelled external ventricular drain, which was maintained by his parents. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of this management option as a long-term measure. No harm has come to the patient. The authors propose long-term, long-tunnelled external ventricular drain as a viable treatment option for such patients.

  14. The impact of behavior-specific and behavior-nonspecific reinforcement on child compliance to mother directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P S; Wahler, R G; Herring, M

    2001-09-01

    Theories of child socialization differ with regard to the influence they attribute to behavior-specific reinforcement contingencies versus behavior-nonspecific reinforcement contingencies (i.e. social responsiveness). The present research investigated, at a within-individual level, the relationship between both types of reinforcement and child compliance with maternal directives. Behavior-specific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prior episodes of compliance and noncompliance to mother directives. Behavior-nonspecific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prosocial and aversive behaviors unrelated to mother directives. It was hypothesized that both reinforcement processes would be related to child responses to subsequent mother directives. The findings support these hypotheses. The discussion addresses caretaker social responsiveness as an intervention target of behavioral family therapy.

  15. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.

  16. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  17. Poverty and Child Behavioral Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Parental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y

    2017-08-30

    The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9-10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents' subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers' life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems.

  18. Convergence of Internal and External Structure for the California Child Q-set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The language of personality traits includes single-word trait descriptors, and longer phrases or sentences. Evidence has accumulated that abstract, semantic relationships among single words have the same underlying structure as the empirical relationships when words are applied to individuals. The present study examines whether these two kinds of structure are also isomorphic for longer trait descriptors. Empirical descriptions and judgements of semantic similarity were collected among the descriptors comprising the California Child Q-set, or CCQ, and analysed with multidimensional scaling. Canonical correlation showed the solutions to be closely related to one another, and to independent sets of ratings available for the CCQ items. Informants’ similarity judgements were not affected by the context in which they were made. The dominant dimensions of the solutions reproduce dimensions found previously for the single-word personality lexicon, indicating the two trait-descriptive languages to be closely parallel. PMID:20480712

  19. Socialization of prosocial behavior: Gender differences in the mediating role of child brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-18

    Evidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 162), moderated mediation was tested for the relation between parental sensitivity and child prosocial behavior via brain volume, in boys and girls. Both maternal and paternal sensitivity were repeatedly observed between 1 and 4 years of age. Brain volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging measurements at age 8, and self-reported prosocial behavior of children was assessed at 9 years of age. Parental sensitivity was positively related to child brain volume, and to child prosocial behavior at trend level. Child brain volume was negatively related to child prosocial behavior. A significant gender-by-brain interaction was found, illustrating that daughters of sensitive parents were more prosocial and that less prosocial behavior was reported for girls with a larger total brain volume. Child gender significantly moderated the indirect effect of parental sensitivity on prosocial behavior via total brain volume. A significant indirect pathway was found only in girls. The results warrant replication but indicate the importance of considering gender when studying the behavioral implications of differences in brain volume related to early caregiving experiences.

  20. Placement into foster care and the interplay of urbanicity, child behavior problems, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Wildfire, Judy; Green, Rebecca L

    2006-07-01

    Child welfare involvement is related to involvement with poverty, but the dimensions of that relationship have not been fully explored. Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being were used to test the relationship between poverty indicators and placement into foster care. Poverty, ages of children, urban or nonurban settings, and the presence of mental health disorders interact to contribute to placement decisions. In urban areas, poverty is strongly associated with involvement with child welfare services, but children's mental health problems are not. In nonurban areas, children's mental health problems are a far greater contributor to child welfare involvement than poverty. Implications for understanding the dual functions of child welfare placements are provided. Child welfare services continue to address the needs of families with children with substantial behavioral problems--yet, federal child welfare policy includes no recognition of this important role.

  1. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment ...

  2. Children's Stress Behaviors and Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Family Child Care Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Ying

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated and qualitatively compared differences in children's stress reactions across two levels of developmentally appropriate practice in family child care homes. Data were collected through observations. Six children, five boys and one girl from six different family child care homes, between the ages of 36 and 60 months, were observed for the type and frequency of stress behaviors. The six family child care homes were divided into two groups based on more or less use of a...

  3. Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood.

  4. The perception of child problem behavior : the role of informant personality and context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was on the question of who provides the most accurate information with regard to the behavior of a child under which circumstances. In clinical practice, information on the functioning of a particular child is commonly provided by such different types of informants as

  5. Classroom Management of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. A Storied Model: Torey Hayden's One Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle; Wilson, Kayce Jo

    2004-01-01

    Torey Hayden's style of classroom management in her nonfiction book "One Child" was examined. "One Child" unfolds within the space of a special education classroom for children with severe behavioral impairments and focuses on Sheila, a troubled 6-year-old, who has tied a 3-year-old boy to a tree and critically burned him. Each technique Hayden…

  6. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  7. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  8. Temperament as a Moderator of the Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…

  9. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliki, Boka; Konstantinos, Arapostathis; Nikolaos, Kotsanos; Vassilis, Karagiannis; Cor, van Loveren; Jaap, Veerkamp

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  10. Child-to-Parent Violence: Emotional and Behavioral Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…

  11. Self-injurious Behavior in a Young Child with Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Alok Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1. Few reports on behavioral aspects especially self-injurious behavior in LNS patients are available. We report a case of LNS in an 8-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-injurious behavior.

  12. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  13. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R. [XENERGY, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kotchen, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment

    2003-09-15

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Structural Behavior of Externally Prestressed Segmented Bridge with Shear Key under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Algorafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Externally Prestressed Segmented (EPS concrete beams are generally used in the construction of bridge structures. External Prestressed technique uses tendons that are placed completely outside the concrete section and attached to the concrete at anchorages and deviators only. Segmented bridge is a bridge built in short sections. Segmented bridge applies smart technique that is a part of an engineering management. EPS bridges are affected by combined stresses i.e., bending, shear, normal, and torsion stresses especially at the segments interface joints. Previous studies on EPS bridges did not include the effect of torsion in the load carrying capacity and other structural behavior. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the structural behavior of EPS bridged under combined bending, shear, normal, and torsion stresses. The aim of this paper is to improve the existing equation to include the effect of torsion in estimating the failure load of EPS bridge. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of different external tendon layouts and different levels of torsion.

  15. Parent Feeding Behavior and Child Appetite: Associations Depend on Feeding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396

  16. Schools and Child Antisocial Behavior: In Search for Mediator Effects of School-Level Disadvantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauwels, Lieven J. R; Svensson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    .... Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N...

  17. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Case, Laura K; Burrus, Caley J; Ramachandran, V S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for visual feedback. We also show that both the fascination and the happiness that CL derives from looking at a computer-generated reflection diminish when a delay is introduced between the camera input and screen output. We believe that immediate, real-time visual feedback allows CL to integrate motor sensations with external visual ones into a coherent body schema that he cannot internally generate, perhaps due to a dysfunctional MNS.

  18. The impact of caregiver-mediated JASPER on child restricted and repetitive behaviors and caregiver responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-12-02

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  20. Externalizing behavior and impulsivity in the children of alcoholics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanar Sugaparaneetharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduced behavioural inhibition, characterized by impulsivity and disruptive behaviour disorders, has been identified as a developmental precursor of alcoholism with a considerable genetic component. Aims: The present study aimed to assess whether children of fathers with alcohol dependence have high impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. Setting and Design: Observational case-control study, done in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Southern India. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study recruited 50 children aged 7 to 14 years of fathers with alcohol dependence and 50 age- and gender-matched children of fathers without alcohol dependence. The two groups were compared using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics used to summarise the study findings. Cases and controls were compared on BIS and CBCL scores using a general linear model (GLM. All analyses were two tailed and test P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The children of fathers with alcohol dependence were more likely to meet criteria for ADHD (30% versus 10%, χ2 = 6.250, P = 0.012. After controlling for age and gender, impulsivity scores on the BIS tended to be higher in the cases (F = 2.410, P = 0.055 than controls, mainly in the non-planning domains (F = 3.650, P = 0.008. Similarly, externalizing behaviours on CBCL were more common in the cases than controls (F = 2.817, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Children of fathers with alcohol dependence had greater impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. This may represent a behavioural phenotype as well as a potential target for early intervention.

  1. Parent predictors of child weight change in family based behavioral obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J

    2012-07-01

    Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two sites were included in the study. Variables included those related to parent modeling (parent BMI), home food environment, parenting (parent and child report), and demographics. Results suggested that parent BMI change was a significant predictor of child weight, in that a reduction of 1 BMI unit in the parent was associated with a 0.255 reduction in child BMI. None of the other variables were significant in the final model. This study is consistent with other research showing that parent weight change is a key contributor to child weight change in behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Researchers and clinicians should focus on encouraging parents to lose weight to assist their overweight and obese child in weight management.

  2. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of Romanian Translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Camelia E.; Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of Romanian translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" ("BPI-01"; Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001) and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" ("NCBRF"; Aman, Tasse, Rojahn, & Hammer, 1996) were explored. Respondents completed the instruments for 115…

  4. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  5. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of normal controls. Methods A Stop-task was used to measure specific aspects of response inhibition in 10 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, 8 children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD, 11 children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD and 11 normal controls. All children were between 8 and 14 years old. Event-related potentials and behavioural responses were recorded. An initial go-signal related microstate, a subsequent Stop-signal related N200, and performance measures were analyzed using ANCOVA with age as covariate. Results Groups did not differ in accuracy or reaction time to the Go-stimuli. However, all clinical groups displayed reduced map strength in a microstate related to initial processing of the Go-stimulus compared to normal controls, whereas topography did not differ. Concerning motor response inhibition, the AD/HD-only and the ODD/CD-only groups displayed slower Stop-signal reaction times (SSRT and Stop-failure reaction time compared to normal controls. In children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, Stop-failure reaction-time was longer than in controls, but their SSRT was not slowed. Moreover, SSRT in AD/HD+ODD/CD was faster than in AD/HD-only or ODD/CD-only. The AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only groups displayed reduced Stop-N200 mean amplitude over right-frontal electrodes. This effect reached only a trend for comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. Conclusion Following similar attenuations in initial processing of the Go

  6. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Punitive Discipline and Child Behavior Problems in Chinese-American Immigrant Families: The Moderating Effects of Indigenous Child-Rearing Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 107 Chinese immigrant families we examined whether cultural child-rearing beliefs moderated the association between parents' use of punitive discipline and children's behavioral adjustment. Immigrant parents and their children aged 7 to 17 years completed measures of parental discipline and child behavior problems. Parents also…

  8. Externalizing behaviors and cigarette smoking as predictors for use of illicit drugs: a longitudinal study among Finnish adolescent twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  9. Externalizing Behaviors and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors for Use of Illicit Drugs: A Longitudinal Study Among Finnish Adolescent Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  10. Critical Behavior of Gaussian Model on X Fractal Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; KONG Xiang-Mu; HUANG Jia-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Using the renormalization group method, the critical behavior of Gaussian model is studied in external magnetic fields on X fractal lattices embedded in two-dimensional and d-dimensional (d > 2) Euclidean spaces, respectively. Critical points and exponents are calculated. It is found that there is long-range order at finite temperature for this model, and that the critical points do not change with the space dimensionality d (or the fractal dimensionality dr). It is also found that the critical exponents are very different from results of Ising model on the same lattices, and that the exponents on X lattices are different from the exact results on translationally symmetric lattices.

  11. Dimensions of behavior of toddlers entering early intervention: child and family correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Anita A; Hebbeler, Kathleen M; Spiker, Donna; Simeonsson, Rune J

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of the behavioral characteristics of a nationally representative sample of 1612 toddlers 18-31 months of age entering Part C early intervention services in the U.S. Factor analysis of 15 items describing child behavior collected as part of an extensive telephone interview of parents yielded four dimensions of behavior: difficult behaviors, lack of persistence, distractible, and withdrawn. Demographic and personal characteristics of the child and family were found to be related to the four behavioral dimensions. Parent reports of behavior of toddlers with fair or poor health or those with communication difficulties were less positive for all behavioral dimensions, suggesting the development of toddler behavioral characteristics is influencing or being influenced by other facets of development.

  12. Tracking Teachers' Behavior to Concurrently Decrease Punishment Use with and Problem Behavior in a Child with Autism while Decreasing the Child's Frequency of Negative Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambolin, Krista; Fabrizio, Michael; Ferris, Kelly; Barclay, Suzanne; Carrier, Dana

    2007-01-01

    Intervening with children's problem behavior can be tricky business. Adding punishment procedures into a child's intervention plan can not only add to the trickiness but also switch the attention of on-line staff members away from what should be the goal of any intervention for misbehavior--preventing the misbehavior and teaching functionally…

  13. Behavioral Treatment for Headaches in Children: A Practical Guide for the Child Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benore, Ethan; Monnin, Kara

    2016-03-29

    Headache is a highly prevalent condition and is the leading cause for school absences. Despite the rich literature supporting behavioral treatments for headache, many child psychologists mistakenly perceive that they lack appropriate training to treat children with headache. Likewise, many physicians feel underprepared to refer the child for behavioral treatments. This article serves as a primer, providing tools for the general child psychologist or mental health provider by answering frequently asked questions. First, we provide a concise background on pathophysiology and medical care for headache. We then detail aspects of behavioral interventions for headache, including a case example. We included a limited list of up-to-date references most relevant to the child psychologist who does not treat headache on a regular basis to support further reading. By reviewing this primer, local mental health professionals can provide children with headache access to high-quality, evidence-based clinical care closer to home.

  14. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  15. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Boyce, W Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children's negative outcomes, but the majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children's autonomic nervous system reactivity at 6 months and their externalizing behavior problems at 7 years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families.

  16. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  17. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  18. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    OpenAIRE

    B S Suprabha; Arathi Rao; Shwetha Choudhary; Ramya Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1) age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2) dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionna...

  19. Wrinkling behavior in tube hydroforming coupled with internal and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and use of wrinkles is a challenge in tube hydroforming because wrinkle was always considered as one of the defects of tubes from the traditional view. In this paper, a dedicated experimental setup was designed and manufactured, using which the investigation of wrinkling behavior coupled with internal and external pressure can be realized. The effect of internal or external pressure on 5A02 aluminum alloy tubes and 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel tubes were all investigated using this setup. It was found that the number and shape of wrinkles are strongly dependent on the internal or external pressure. More important is that the geometrical configuration of wrinkles can be perfectly characterized using the Gauss function rather than the sine function adopted in the published literature. In addition, the fitted Gauss functions for every wrinkle were integrated in order to compare their area with the corresponding area of die cavity, so as to obtain the appropriate process parameters for the useful wrinkle, which can be formed in advance and then flatted in the calibration stage.

  20. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the Action/Maintenance stage of change in each domain. From November 2008 to August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI, answered questions assessing their stage of change, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the Action stage of change for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the Action stage of change for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child's dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training health care providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [“Tit for Tat?” The development of prosocial behavior and its relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lisa; Seehagen, Sabine; Zmyj, Norbert; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Supporting other human beings is a fundamental aspect of human societies. Such so-called prosocial behavior is expressed in helping others, cooperating and sharing with them. This article gives an overview both of the development of prosocial behavior across childhood and of the relationship between prosociality and externalizing and internalizing problems. Especially externalizing problems are negatively associated with prosocial behavior, whereas the relationships with prosocial behavior are more heterogeneous for internalizing problems. Studies investigating developmental trajectories demonstrate that prosocial behavior and externalizing problems are not opposite ends of a continuum. Rather, they are two independent dimensions that may also co-occur in development. The same applies to internalizing problems, which can co-occur with pronounced prosociality as well as with low prosociality.

  2. Daily hassles, mother-child relationship, and behavior problems in Muslim Arab American adolescents in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J; Templin, Thomas N; Hough, Edythe S

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study examines reciprocal and dynamic relations among daily hassles, the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems and whether the relations differed by sociodemographic variables. Three waves of data about adolescent daily hassles, quality of the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems were collected from 454 Arab Muslim adolescents and their immigrant mothers over a 3-year period. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine reciprocal relations among the study variables. Relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems were reciprocal, with a poor mother-child relationship contributing to greater behavior problems and behavior problems contributing to a decline in the quality of the mother-child relationship. Relations involving daily hassles were unidirectional: A better mother-child relationship contributed to fewer daily hassles and behavior problems contributed to more daily hassles but daily hassles did not contribute to more behavior problems. Father's education was the only sociodemographic variable that was significant: Adolescents with more highly educated fathers had a better mother-child relationship and fewer behavioral problems. Findings suggest that Arab American Muslim adolescents with behavior problems are differentially exposed to daily hassles but daily hassles are not the best point of intervention. Bidirectional relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems suggest intervening to improve the mother-child relationship and manage symptoms of adolescent behavior problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Parental Monitoring, Association with Externalized Behavior, and Academic Outcomes in Urban African-American Youth: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed.

  4. A Typology of Teacher-Rated Child Behavior: Revisiting Subgroups over 10 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Mindrila, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine a typology of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Teacher Rating Scale (BASC TRS-C, 2nd edition; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The typology was compared with the solution identified from the 1992 BASC TRS-C norm dataset. Using cluster analysis, a seven-cluster solution…

  5. The Empirical Versus DSM-Oriented Approach of the Child Behavior Checklist Similarities and Dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Marianne S.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  6. The empirical versus DSM-oriented approach of the child behavior checklist: Similarities and dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, M.S. de; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  7. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…

  8. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics That Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C J

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associated with risk for the development of aggressive behavior problems in elementary school (aggressive-disruptive behaviors at home, attention problems, and social cognitions) in a sample of 755 first-grade children in four demographically diverse American communities. Two school characteristics associated with student aggressive-disruptive behavior problems (low-quality classroom context, school poverty levels) were also assessed. Linear and multilevel analyses showed that both child and school characteristics made independent and cumulative contributions to the development of student aggressive-disruptive behavior at school. Although rates of student aggressive-disruptive behavior varied by gender and race, the predictive model generalized across all groups of children in the study.

  9. Comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Kathryn; Zlomke, Kimberly; Shawler, Paul; Sullivan, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Many assessment measures have only been validated for one specific diagnostic population, which is costly and reduces the clinical utility of assessments. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is one popular measure designed to assess disruptive behavior problems in youth. The ECBI has sound psychometric properties in typically developing…

  10. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Acceptance of and Intent to Use Behavioral Child Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…

  13. Parental Separation and Child Aggressive and Internalizing Behavior: An Event History Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…

  14. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  15. Reactive vs. Proactive Antisocial Behavior: Differential Correlates of Child ADHD Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Pitale, Maria; Vora, Vaishali; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between proactive and reactive antisocial behavior with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Caregivers of children aged 8 to 15 (n = 84) being evaluated at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic served as participants. Given the conceptual similarity between reactive antisocial behavior (ASB)…

  16. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics that Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…

  17. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data…

  18. A Follow-Up Study of Behavior Problems Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of 93 prepubertal children evaluated for sexual abuse and 80 nonabused children. Sexually abused children had significantly more behavior problems, including depression, aggression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity, and sexual problems. At four-month follow-up, children with…

  19. Parental Separation and Child Aggressive and Internalizing Behavior: An Event History Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…

  20. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  1. Bidirectional Effects between Parenting and Aggressive Child Behavior in the Context of a Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brinke, Lysanne W; Deković, Maja; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-10-27

    Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 children (74 % boys, 26 % girls) with elevated levels of aggression, their mothers and their teachers. Reactive aggression, proactive aggression and perceived parenting were measured at four measurement times from pretest to one-year after intervention termination. Results showed that associations between aggressive child behavior and perceived parenting are different in an intervention context, compared to a general developmental context. Aggressive behavior and perceived parenting were unrelated over time for children who did not receive an intervention. In an intervention context, however, decreases in aggressive child behavior were related to increases in perceived positive parenting and decreases in perceived overreactivity. These findings underscore the importance of addressing child-driven processes in interventions aimed at children, but also in interventions aimed at both children and their parents.

  2. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  3. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  4. What Predicts Method Effects in Child Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Justin A.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Jensen, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether child, parent, and teacher characteristics such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), parental depressive symptoms, the number of years of teaching experience, number of children in the classroom, and teachers' disciplinary self-efficacy predict deviations from maternal ratings in a…

  5. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  6. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  7. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families.

  8. Mediating Effects of Student-Teacher Relationships on Student Externalizing Behaviors and the Development of a Teacher Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford-McClure, Tonia M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding disruptive, aggressive behaviors in schools. This remains a current issue despite school-wide and targeted interventions implemented with students who manifest externalizing behaviors. The literature review yielded several implications. First, teachers generally indicated that they had received inadequate…

  9. Psychological and behavioral correlates of family violence in child witnesses and victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Honore M

    1988-01-01

    Abused and nonabused child witnesses to parental violence temporarily residing in a battered women's shelter were compared to children from a similar economic background on measures of self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and behavior problems, using mothers' and self-reports. Results indicated significantly more distress in the abused-witness children than in the comparison group, with nonabused witness children's scores falling between the two. Age of child and types of violence were mediating factors. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent’s drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in t...

  11. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R

    2012-12-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent's drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment.

  12. Effects of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parents' expectation of the child's acculturation on the substance use behaviors of urban, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Unger, Jennifer B; Wagner, Karla D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,936 Hispanic adolescents of mean age 14.0 years (standard deviation= 0.4) from seven Los Angeles area schools. The effects of perceived parental monitoring and parent-child communication on the adolescents' self-reported past thirty day cigarette smoking and alcohol and marijuana use behaviors were analyzed. In addition, the relationships between parents' expectations of the child's acculturation and adolescents' drug use behaviors were examined. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were found to have statistically significant inverse associations with all three drug types when controlling for one another and the demographic variables assessed in the study. Parents' expectation of the child's acculturation to the U.S. was found to be inversely related with alcohol use. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were not found to mediate the relationship between parents' expectation of the child's acculturation and alcohol use.

  13. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  14. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Onishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  15. Seismic Behavior of Posttensioned Concrete Bridge Piers with External Viscoelastic Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the seismic performance of posttensioned concrete piers with external viscoelastic dampers to improve the energy dissipation capacity of this type of structure. An installation scheme for viscoelastic dampers on bridge piers is proposed, and the mechanical models of the damper are analyzed according to the installation scheme. By attaching the viscoelastic dampers to the posttensioned bridge piers, the analytical model of the hybrid system is established using the OpenSees finite element analysis package. Cyclic behavior and time history analyses are conducted on a posttensioned bridge with and without viscoelastic dampers using the established finite element model. The analysis results indicate that the viscoelastic dampers can effectively improve the seismic performance of the bridge structures with posttensioned piers.

  16. Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students’ Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacherstudent relationships (TSRs and students’ externalizing behavior problems (EBPs. Moreover, students’ culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Western students than Eastern ones, (b for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Eastern students than Western ones, (b for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents.

  17. Affective Teacher-Student Relationships and Students' Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Cui, Yunhuo; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' externalizing behavior problems (EBPs). Moreover, students' culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Western students than Eastern ones, (b) for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c) when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d) among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Eastern students than Western ones, (b) for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichioroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz . The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6in the strong direct current field.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz .The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6 in the strong direct current field.

  20. Child and Family Predictors of Therapy Outcome for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Littlefield, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 106 children primarily referred for externalizing behavior problems and their families, and assessed the prediction of treatment outcome following a standardized short-term, cognitive behavioral group program. "Exploring Together" comprised a children's group (anger management, problem-solving and…

  1. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Suprabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1 age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2 dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 125 children aged between 7 and 14 years undergoing dental treatment under local anesthesia. The parent completed a questionnaire on family situation, medical history, and past dental experiences of the child. Child′s dental fear was recorded using Children′s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale and behavior was rated using Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using chi square test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Unpleasant experience in dental clinic and age of the child significantly influenced dental behavior. Visited pediatrician in the past one year, prior history of hospital admission, previous visit to dentist, experience at the first dental visit, and age of the child were contributing factors for dental fear. There was also significant association between dental fear levels and behavior. Conclusions: In 7 to 14 year olds, dental fear influences dental behavior, but the factors affecting them are not the same. Although dental fear decreases and dental behavior improves with age, experiences at the previous dental visits seem to influence both dental fear and behavior. Past medical experiences are likely to influence dental fear but not dental behavior.

  2. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-11-04

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  3. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of child abuse with personality features and high risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghezelseflo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.

  5. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor.

  6. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  7. The Development of an Effective Applied Behavioral Analysis Program for a Young Child with Autism: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell-Gordon, Donna; Cattell-Gordon, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes development and implementation of a home-based intensive applied behavioral analysis program based on the Lovaas method for a young child. Describes creation of the home-based program, lack of support from the child's school program, the child's progress, and the opening of a pilot school and resource center that serves seven children…

  8. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  9. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  10. Using Matched Groups to Explore Child Behavior Problems and Maternal Well-Being in Children with down Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hill, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as…

  11. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of

  12. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  13. Meta-analysis of treatment for child sexual behavior problems: practice elements and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Amand, Annick; Bard, David E; Silovsky, Jane F

    2008-05-01

    This meta-analysis of 11 treatment outcome studies evaluated 18 specific treatments of sexual behavior problems (SBP) as a primary or secondary target. Specifically, it examines relations among child characteristics, treatment characteristics (including practice elements), and short-term outcome (including sexual and general behavior problems). Utilizing pre- and postintervention results, the overall degree of change over the course of treatment was estimated at a 0.46 and 0.49 standard deviation decline in SBP and general behavior problems, respectively. As hypothesized, the caregiver practice element Parenting/Behavior Management Skills (BPT) predicted the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (and the Child Behavior Checklist when BPT was combined with caregiver Rules about Sexual Behaviors). In contrast, practice elements that evolved from Adult Sex Offender (ASO) treatments were not significant predictors. BPT and preschool age group provided the best model fit and more strongly predicted outcome than broad treatment type classifications (e.g., Play Therapy or Cognitive Behavior Therapy). Results question current treatments for children with SBP that are based on ASO models of treatment without caregiver involvement.

  14. Examining the Impact of a Positive Behavior Support Program and Direct Instruction of Social and Emotional Learning Skills on the Externalizing Behaviors of Disruptive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Darla Renee

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…

  15. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  16. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  17. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.

  18. Partner Abuse of Mothers Compromises Children's Behavioral Functioning Through Maternal Mental Health Dysfunction: Analysis of 300 Mother-Child Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddoux, John A; Liu, Fuqin; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Paulson, Rene; Binder, Brenda K; Fredland, Nina; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Partner violence is associated with numerous negative consequences for victims, especially poor mental health. Children who are exposed to partner violence are more likely to have behavior problems. Nevertheless, research on the relationship between severity of abuse, maternal mental health functioning following partner violence, and child behavior problems is limited. We explored the direct and indirect effects on the child's behavioral functioning of severity of maternal abuse and maternal mental health functioning following abuse. A sample of 300 mothers was recruited when they sought assistance for abuse for the first time at shelters for abused women or at the district attorney's office. Severity of abuse, mothers' mental health functioning, and child behavioral functioning were measured by maternal self-report at entry into the study and 4 months later. In SEM analysis, at both entry and 4 months, severity of abuse had a direct effect on maternal mental health functioning, which in turn had a direct effect on child behavioral functioning. The path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning also was significant but became non- significant once maternal mental health functioning was added to the equation, indicating that the path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning was indirect and occurred as a result of the mother's mental health functioning, which remained directly linked to child behavioral problems. Intergenerational interventions are needed to address both maternal mental health and child behavioral functioning when a mother reports partner violence and is experiencing mental health problems.

  19. Chaotic behavior of collective ion dynamics in the presence of an external static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poria, Swarup; Ghosh, Samiran

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional nonlinear collective ion dynamics in the presence of external magnetic field in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. The analysis is performed for traveling plane waves to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics. The presence of magnetic field makes the dynamics of the nonlinear wave complex with a complicated phase-space behavior. Thus, the nonlinear wave supports a wide class of nonlinear structures viz., single soliton, multi-soliton, periodic, and quasi-periodic oscillations depending on the values of M (Mach number) and Ω (the ratio of ion gyro-frequency to the ion plasma frequency). The computational results predict the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear wave and the transition to chaos takes place when Ω ≳ 0.35 depending on the direction of propagation and the value of M. The amplitude of the wave depends on the obliqueness of the propagation and Mach number, whereas the magnetic field changes the dispersion properties of the wave.

  20. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  1. Conductas internalizantes y externalizantes en adolescentes / Internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danitsa Alarcón Parco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La adolescencia es un periodo de cambios rápidos en todos los aspectos del desarrollo humano. Es en esta etapa en la que se suelen presentar dificultades y manifestaciones de problemas de salud mental. El objetivo del estudio es conocer las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes reportadas por adolescentes estudiantes de secundaria. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 298 estudiantes entre 12 a 18 años (M = 14.98, DE = 1.28 de ambos sexos (54.4 % mujeres de dos instituciones educativas públicas donde la mayoría se encontraba cursando el 4.o año de secundaria (33.6 %. La muestra se seleccionó de manera no probabilística, por conveniencia, y se informó a todos los participantes del objetivo y actividades del estudio, del carácter voluntario de su participación, y del cuidado en mantener el anonimato y la confidencialidad de todos los datos recogidos. Se utilizó el autorreporte de jóvenes entre 11 y 18 años (YSR 11-18, Achenbach y Rescorla, 2001 para identificar las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes y sus respectivas dimensiones. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas por sexo. Las mujeres puntuaron más alto que los hombres en ansiedaddepresión, quejas somáticas, problemas de atención, y conductas internalizantes, mientras que los hombres puntuaron más alto en rompimiento de reglas y conductas externalizantes. ABSTRACT Adolescence is a period of rapid changes in all aspects of human development. It is at this stage that difficulties and mental health problems occur more often. The purpose of the study was to identify both internalizing and externalizing behavior reported by adolescent in high school. The sample was composed by 298 participants between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.98, SD = 1.28, of both sexes, (54.4 % women from two public educational institutions where the majority was enrolled in the 4th year of high school (33.6 %. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic manner for

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  3. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  4. Does Mother Know Best? Parental Discrepancies in Assessing Child Behavioral and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...

  5. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  6. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  7. Adolescents' performance on delay and probability discounting tasks: contributions of age, intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth A; Hooper, Catalina J; Collins, Paul; Luciana, Monica

    2007-11-01

    Healthy adolescents, ages 9-23, completed delay and probability discounting tasks and measures of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Delay but not probability discounting decreased with age. Delay discounting was also associated with verbal intelligence and Go-NoGo and Iowa Gambling Task performance. Probability discounting was associated only with externalizing behavior. Findings conform to an accumulation of evidence that while delay and probability discounting may have some overlapping components, they also reflect some fundamentally different processes in this age group.

  8. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  9. Mediator or moderator? The role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tim Oi; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2017-08-29

    Raising a child with intellectual disability (ID) may be stressful for parents. Previous studies have suggested the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study examined whether this mediating role is a result of parents' self-report bias. It also explored whether mindfulness has a moderating role instead when child behavior problems are reported by teachers. In a questionnaire survey, 271 Chinese parents of children with ID in 6 Hong Kong special schools reported their levels of stress and mindfulness, as well as their children's behavior problems. The latter was also reported by teachers. When child behavior problems were reported by parents, parental mindfulness was a mediator between child behavior problems and parental stress. In contrast, when child behavior problems were reported by teachers, parental mindfulness was a moderator between child behavior problems and parental stress. The mediation role of mindfulness maybe an artifact of measurement. The findings provide an encouraging message that parenting a child with ID and behavior problems does not necessarily mean more stress among all parents. Parents with a high level of mindfulness may experience less stress than those with a low level of mindfulness. Parents of children with intellectual disability (ID) tend to report high psychological stress. Previous self-report studies have identified mindfulness as a mediator in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study differs from previous studies by including third-party's reports. It has contributed to the existing body of knowledge in two respects. First, it examined whether the mediation effect resulted from parent self-report bias. Second, it tested an alternative hypothesis of the moderation effect by using teachers' reports to measure child behavior problems. The results showed that when child behavior problems were measured by parents

  10. Are parenting behaviors associated with child sleep problems during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; Bastiani, Jessica; Williams, Lauren K

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a recognized common side effect in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although associated with treatment factors such as hospitalization and corticosteroids, sleep problems may also be influenced by modifiable environmental factors such as parenting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine sleep problems in children undergoing treatment for ALL compared to healthy children and whether parenting practices are associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 73 children aged 2-6 years who were (1) in the maintenance phase of ALL treatment (ALL group, n = 43) or (2) had no major medical illness (healthy control group, n = 30) participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires measuring their child's sleep behavior and their own parenting practices. Parents of children undergoing ALL treatment reported significantly more child sleep problems; 48% of children with ALL compared to 23% of healthy children had clinical levels of sleep disturbance. Parents of the ALL group also reported significantly more lax parenting practices and strategies associated with their child's sleep including co-sleeping, comforting activities, and offering food and drink in the bedroom. Results of multivariate regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for illness status, parent-child co-sleeping was significantly associated with child sleep difficulties. Strategies employed by parents during ALL treatment may be a potential modifiable intervention target that could result in improved child sleep behaviors. Future research aimed at developing and testing parenting interventions aimed to improve child sleep in the context of oncology treatment is warranted.

  11. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  12. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  13. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  14. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  15. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  16. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  17. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  18. Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how temperament factors are linked to internalizing and externalizing problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report and temperament was evalu

  19. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...

  20. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  1. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  2. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  3. Mothers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness as a Predictor of Maternal and Child Behavior during Playtime Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.; Roberts, Felicia; Rack, Jessica J.; Delaney, Julie E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores associations between mothers' trait verbal aggressiveness (VA) and maternal and child behavior during playtime interactions. Forty mothers completed a 10-minute play period with one of their children (range = 3-8 years) and then responded to D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley's (1986) trait VA scale. Mothers' trait VA was…

  4. Relationships between Child Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms and Caregiver Strain and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen L.; Feinn, Richard; Bernard, Stanley; Brereton, Maria; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disturbance often have difficulties in multiple symptom domains. This study investigates the relationships between child symptoms and caregiver strain and parenting stress among 177 youth and their caregivers participating in a school-based system of care. Youth were grouped by symptom domain and included…

  5. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  6. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  7. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  8. Syndrome dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher Report Form : a critical empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, CA; Hox, J; Auerbach, J; Erol, N; Fonseca, AC; Mellenbergh, GJ; Novik, TS; Oosterlaan, J; Roussos, AC; Shalev, RS; Zilber, N; Sergeant, JA

    1999-01-01

    The construct representation of the cross-informant model of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Samples were collected in seven different countries. The results are based on 13,226 parent ratings and 8893 teacher

  9. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  10. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  11. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  12. Syndrome dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher Report Form : a critical empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, CA; Hox, J; Auerbach, J; Erol, N; Fonseca, AC; Mellenbergh, GJ; Novik, TS; Oosterlaan, J; Roussos, AC; Shalev, RS; Zilber, N; Sergeant, JA

    1999-01-01

    The construct representation of the cross-informant model of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Samples were collected in seven different countries. The results are based on 13,226 parent ratings and 8893 teacher ra

  13. THE TRAINING AND UTILIZATION OF CHILD BEHAVIOR CONSULTANTS IN THE SCHOOLS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Buffalo, NY.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS TO EVALUATE THE OBJECTIVES AND PRE-OPERATIONAL TRAINING OF A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO PROVIDE CHILD BEHAVIOR CONSULTANTS (CBCS) FOR SCHOOLS. THE EVALUATION IS BASED ON QUESTIONNAIRE DATA, CASE STUDIES, AND INTERVIEWS WITH TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. WHETHER THERE WERE ACTUAL PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STUDENTS WHO WERE…

  14. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  16. A Comparative Study of Vygotsky's Perspectives on Child Language Development with Nativism and Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…

  17. Problems reported by parents of children in multiple cultures: the Child Behavior Checklist syndrome constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons); T.M. Achenbach (Thomas); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population sampl

  18. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  19. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  20. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  1. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  2. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  3. Relationship of Maternal Child-Rearing Behaviors to Children's Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Of 52 children who rated their mothers' child rearing behaviors and completed self-esteem inventories, the children who viewed their mothers as using psychological pressure techniques to discipline them had low self-esteem, while children who viewed their mothers as being accepting had high self-esteem. (RL)

  4. Parental Efficacy and Role Responsibility for Assisting in Child's Healthful Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Christa L.; Neal, William A.; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, and its subsequent impact on negative health outcomes, continues to plague the United States. Better health outcomes have been linked to increased child achievement in school. Due to the strong influence parents have on children's healthful behaviors particularly in younger years, it's imperative to…

  5. Selected Child Behaviors Most and Least Valued by Young Adult Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinnus, Gene R.; Ford, Martin Z.

    A study to obtain data concerning values for child behavior from a sample of Mexican adults from Guadalajara (Jalisco, Mexico), and to compare and contrast these data with those obtained in previous research with subjects from the United States, used a sample consisting of 40 males (mean age 31.1 years) and 40 females (mean age 20.1). The subjects…

  6. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  7. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships, Behavior Regulation, and Language Gain among At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschoolers from low socioeconomic-status (SES) backgrounds demonstrate lags in their language development, and preschool participation is viewed as an important means for mitigating these lags. In this study, we investigated how teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior regulation within preschool classrooms were associated…

  9. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  10. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  11. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  12. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  13. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-18

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  14. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered.

  15. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother's total EQ and child's total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pparenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; pparenting style.

  16. Reciprocal Relations Between Student-Teacher Relationship and Children's Behavioral Problems: Moderation by Child-Care Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Věra; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this Norwegian study, bidirectional relations between children's behavior problems and child-teacher conflict and closeness were examined, and the possibility of moderation of these associations by child-care group size was tested. Eight hundred and nineteen 4-year-old children were followed up in first grade. Results revealed reciprocal effects linking child-teacher conflict and behavior problems. Effects of child-teacher closeness on later behavior problems were moderated by group size: For children in small groups only (i.e., ≤ 15 children), greater closeness predicted reduced behavior problems in first grade. In consequence, stability of behavior problems was greater in larger than in smaller groups. Results are discussed in light of regulatory mechanisms and social learning theory, with possible implications for organization of child care.

  17. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M; Kinsel, John

    2014-01-01

    The current article explores the relationship between teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers' executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children's challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher's workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers' executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children's school readiness skills and teachers' health.

  18. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD.

  19. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children’s Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically-Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829

  20. Impact of Community Mentors on Maternal Behaviors and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, S. E.; Landry, S. H.; Smith, K. E.; Swank, P. R.; Hebert, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Play and Learning Strategies (PALS), a research-based parent education and support program, was delivered to families with low income via home visiting using a facilitator. Facilitators completed 12 home visits addressing responsive parenting, behavioral support, language stimulation, and support of attentional skills. This report compares PALS to…