WorldWideScience

Sample records for externalizing behavior trajectories

  1. Developmental trajectories and predictors of externalizing behavior: a comparison of girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Carolin; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that the development of externalizing behavior in childhood and adolescence can be described through different developmental pathways. However, knowledge about differences between the sexes regarding the trajectories is limited. This study focused on potential differences by examining the trajectories of self-reported externalizing symptoms for girls and boys separately. In addition, the relationships of several familiar and child-specific variables with those developmental courses were assessed. The study was conducted on a large community sample of German youths (N = 3,893; mean age 11.38 years; 50 % girls) over 4 years. Using growth mixture modeling, three different classes of trajectories were found for both sexes. The classes differed with regard to the level and the course of symptoms ("low", "moderate", "high-decreasing"). Girls were overrepresented in the "low" class, whereas boys were predominant in the "moderate" and "high-decreasing" classes. The multiple group analysis revealed that the girls and boys differed significantly in their level and linear course of symptoms with regard to the "high-decreasing" class. In contrast, no sex differences were found in the growth factors of the "low" and "moderate" classes. The regression analyses showed that the children's depressive symptoms, dysfunctional parenting style, and negative family climate were associated significantly with the level and course of symptoms as well as the class membership of girls and boys. Life events predicted class membership only for boys, whereas maternal depressive symptoms and family conflict did not demonstrate any significant relationship. The sizes of the predictive associations with the growth factors were similar for both sexes. The results are discussed with regard to existing developmental models and their possible implications for prevention and future research.

  2. Prosocial Behavior and Childhood Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Role of Neighborhood and School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the interaction between prosocial behavior and contextual (school and neighborhood) risk in children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems at ages 3, 5, and 7. The sample was 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Neighborhood…

  3. Susceptibility effects of GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (GABRA2) variants and parental monitoring on externalizing behavior trajectories: Risk and protection conveyed by the minor allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M; Villafuerte, Sandra; Heitzeg, Mary M; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors increasing susceptibility to social contexts and predicting psychopathology can help identify targets for prevention. Persistently high externalizing behavior in adolescence is predictive of psychopathology in adulthood. Parental monitoring predicts low externalizing behavior, yet youth likely vary in the degree to which they are affected by parents. Genetic variants of GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (GABRA2) may increase susceptibility to parental monitoring, thus impacting externalizing trajectories. We had several objectives: (a) to determine whether GABRA2 (rs279827, rs279826, rs279858) moderates the relationship between a component of parental monitoring, parental knowledge, and externalizing trajectories; (b) to test the form of this interaction to assess whether GABRA2 variants reflect risk (diathesis-stress) or susceptibility (differential susceptibility) factors; and (c) to clarify GABRA2 associations on the development of problem behavior. This prospective study (N = 504) identified three externalizing trajectory classes (i.e., low, decreasing, and high) across adolescence. A GABRA2 × Parental Monitoring effect on class membership was observed, such that A-carriers were largely unaffected by parental monitoring, whereas class membership for those with the GG genotype was affected by parental monitoring. Findings support differential susceptibility in GABRA2.

  4. Prosocial Behavior: Long-Term Trajectories and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elinor; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Underwood, Marion K

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated developmental trajectories for prosocial behavior for a sample followed from age 10 - 18 and examined possible adjustment outcomes associated with membership in different trajectory groups. Participants were 136 boys and 148 girls, their teachers, and their parents (19.4% African American, 2.4% Asian, 51.9% Caucasian, 19.5% Hispanic, and 5.8% other). Teachers rated children's prosocial behavior yearly in grades 4 - 12. At the end of the 12(th) grade year, teachers, parents, and participants reported externalizing behaviors and participants reported internalizing symptoms, narcissism, and features of borderline personality disorder. Results suggested that prosocial behavior remained stable from middle childhood through late adolescence. Group-based mixture modeling revealed three prosocial trajectory groups: low (18.7%), medium (52.8%), and high (29.6%). Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior as compared to the low prosocial trajectory group, and for girls, lower levels of internalizing symptoms. Membership in the medium prosocial trajectory group also predicted being lower on externalizing behaviors. Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of borderline personality features for girls only.

  5. The Role of Family Income Dynamics in Predicting Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Economic disparities in children's behavioral functioning have been observed in prior research. Yet, studies have ignored important perspectives from developmental psychopathology and have not delineated how aspects of income dynamics (i.e., cumulative family income versus income volatility) differentially relate to behavior problems. To address these limitations, the current study examined how both cumulative income and income volatility predict trajectories of children's internalizing and externalizing problems from kindergarten through fifth grade in a nationally representative sample of 10,900 children (51.4 % male). Results showed four distinct trajectories of internalizing problems and five distinct externalizing trajectories. Family income dynamics were related to trajectory group membership. Specifically, increased cumulative income decreased risk of membership in mid-increasing and mid-stable internalizing groups, and children whose families experienced multiple waves of income loss were 2.4 times as likely to be in the mid-increasing group instead of the low-stable group. With respect to externalizing, higher cumulative income increased the likelihood of belonging in the group exhibiting stably low externalizing problems. Experiencing income loss increased the risk of belonging in the trajectory group exhibiting chronically high externalizing behaviors. These results enhance our knowledge of the role of family income in the development of behavior problems.

  6. Parents do matter: trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L; Barker, Erin T; Almeida, David M

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of three parenting behaviors (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and deviant peers on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. A white, working-to-middle-class sample of adolescents and their mothers and fathers in two-earner families participated in a 32-year longitudinal study (N = 109 families). The study began when the adolescents were in sixth grade (M age = 11.5 years). Analyses showed that parents' firm behavioral control seemed to halt the upward trajectory in externalizing problems among adolescents with deviant peers. Initial levels of internalizing problems were higher among adolescents with parents who reported lower levels of behavioral control and among adolescents with deviant peers. This study suggests that parenting exerts an important influence in adolescents' lives and may do so even in the face of potentially negative peer influence.

  7. Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early thirties: personality and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N = 975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  8. Trajectory control of PbSe-γ-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-04-01

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the γ-Fe2O3 magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  9. Trajectory control of PbSe-gamma-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-04-30

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic gamma-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the gamma-Fe(2)O(3) magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  12. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  13. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiium

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007, the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.

  14. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  15. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  16. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  17. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  18. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  19. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  20. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAIL

  1. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  2. Emotional, external and restrained eating behaviour and BMI trajectories in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Strien, Van Tatjana; Otten, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in eating behaviours might partly explain the variations in development of weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity. In the current study, identified trajectories of BMI in adolescence and their associations with restrained, emotional and external eating were tested.

  3. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  4. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  5. Flocking behavior with multiple leaders and global trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 梁加红; 李石磊

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the group of autonomous agents consisting of multiple leader agents and multiple follower ones, a flocking behavior method with multiple leaders and a global trajectory was proposed. In this flocking method, the group leaders can attain the information of the global trajectory, while each follower can communicate with its neighbors and corresponding leader but does not have global knowledge. Being to a distributed control method, the proposed method firstly sets a movable imaginary point on the global trajectory to ensure that the center and average velocity of the leader agents satisfy the constraints of the global trajectory. Secondly, a two-stage strategy was proposed to make the whole group satisfy the constraints of the global trajectory. Moreover, the distance between the center of the group and the desired trajectory was analyzed in detail according to the number ratio of the followers to the leaders. In this way, on one hand, the agents of the group emerge a basic flocking behavior; on the other hand, the center of the group satisfies the constraints of global trajectory. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Aken, M.A. van; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal

  7. Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health-Related Service Use Among Adolescents With Histories of Early Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Ewing, Emily; Rowley, Christina; Jones, Damon E

    2017-08-01

    To inform efforts to reduce costly service utilization, the present study examined longitudinal trajectories of mental health-related outpatient and residential service use among at-risk youth with a history of early externalizing problems. A cohort of 809 children in the Fast Track Project, a multisite longitudinal study of children at risk for conduct disorder, were followed prospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade. They resided in high-risk areas with high rates of poverty, crime, and violence. Their outpatient and residential service use was assessed annually between sixth and 12th grades through parent report. Growth mixture modeling was applied to model individual differences in trajectories of service use during this period. Teacher, parent, and observer-reported childhood predictors of those trajectories were also examined. Most youths had minimal service use during preadolescence into adolescence. However, approximately 31% had moderate probability of using outpatient counseling services, and approximately 8% had elevated probability of seeing a family doctor for mental health needs. For residential services, approximately 6% had moderate to high probability of service use that peaked during transition to high school, whereas close to 5% had service use that dramatically increased during high school. Childhood predictors of these trajectories included earlier externalizing, internalizing, and emotion regulation problems. This study is the first to use person-centered analytic methods to examine longitudinal trajectories in mental health-related service use among at-risk adolescents. Timely treatment for severe externalizing problems, comorbid internalizing problems, and emotion dysregulation during childhood may be crucial for preventing chronic service use. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal Trajectories of Aberrant Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S.; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist—Community (ABC-C; Aman, Burrow, & Wolford, 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 ...

  10. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  11. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  12. Trajectory control of PbSe-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etgar, Lioz; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute (RBNI), Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen, E-mail: ssefrat@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: rinatan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-30

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  13. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  14. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  15. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  16. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal a

  17. Trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and grades for children who have and have not experienced their parents' divorce or separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Castellino, Domini R; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2006-06-01

    This study examined whether the occurrence and timing of parental separation or divorce was related to trajectories of academic grades and mother- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The authors used hierarchical linear models to estimate trajectories for children who did and did not experience their parents' divorce or separation in kindergarten through 10th grade (N = 194). A novel approach to analyzing the timing of divorce/separation was adopted, and trajectories were estimated from 1 year prior to the divorce/separation to 3 years after the event. Results suggest that early parental divorce/separation is more negatively related to trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems than is later divorce/separation, whereas later divorce/separation is more negatively related to grades. One implication of these findings is that children may benefit most from interventions focused on preventing internalizing and externalizing problems, whereas adolescents may benefit most from interventions focused on promoting academic achievement.

  18. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  19. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population.

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Aberrant Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist—Community (ABC-C; Aman, Burrow, & Wolford, 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200

  1. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students' externalizing behavior in the…

  2. Trajectory Tracking Control of Underactuated USV with Model Perturbation and External Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinbiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved trajectory tracking controller based backstepping control algorithm to address the trajectory tracking problem of an underactuated Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV. A Three Degree of Freedom (DOF underactuated maneuvering motion model for water-jet-propelled USV is established, and controller can track both straight line trajectory and curve trajectory with relatively high accuracy. The stability of USV system is proved by BIBO (bounded-input-bounded-output stable characteristics, then simulation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the robustness and precise control performance of the controller.

  3. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  4. Externalizing behaviors of Ukrainian children: The role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.

  5. [“Tit for Tat?” The development of prosocial behavior and its relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lisa; Seehagen, Sabine; Zmyj, Norbert; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Supporting other human beings is a fundamental aspect of human societies. Such so-called prosocial behavior is expressed in helping others, cooperating and sharing with them. This article gives an overview both of the development of prosocial behavior across childhood and of the relationship between prosociality and externalizing and internalizing problems. Especially externalizing problems are negatively associated with prosocial behavior, whereas the relationships with prosocial behavior are more heterogeneous for internalizing problems. Studies investigating developmental trajectories demonstrate that prosocial behavior and externalizing problems are not opposite ends of a continuum. Rather, they are two independent dimensions that may also co-occur in development. The same applies to internalizing problems, which can co-occur with pronounced prosociality as well as with low prosociality.

  6. Joint Trajectories of Behavioral, Affective, and Cognitive Engagement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Dupéré, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to model student trajectories of behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement from Grade 3 to Grade 6. The authors also examined whether teachers perceptions could predict student trajectory membership. The authors collected data from a sample of 831 students and 152 teachers. Using multiple-process growth…

  7. Parenting and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Bidirectionality during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reported on a broad range of parenting dimensions…

  8. Pathways to Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Three-Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, based on Family Interactional Theory (FIT), the authors tested a longitudinal model of the intergenerational effects of the grandmothers' parent-child relationships and the grandparents' smoking on the grandchildren's externalizing behavior via parents' psychological symptoms, tobacco use, and child rearing. Using Mplus, the authors…

  9. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

  10. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  11. Parenting and children's externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reporte

  12. Shear behavior of concrete beams externally prestressed with Parafil ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghallab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive work has been carried out investigating the use of external prestressing system for flexural strengthening, a few studies regarding the shear behavior of externally prestressed beams can be found. Five beams, four of them were externally strengthened using Parafil rope, were loaded up to failure to investigate the effect of shear span/depth ratio, external prestressing force and concrete strength on their shear behavior. Test results showed that the shear span to depth ratio has a significant effect on both the shear strength and failure mode of the strengthened beams and the presence of external prestressing force increased the ultimate load of the tested beams by about 75%. Equations proposed by different codes for both the conventional reinforced concrete beams and for ordinary prestressed beams were used to evaluate the obtained experimental results. In general, codes equations showed a high level of conservatism in predicting the shear strength of the beams. Also, using the full strength rather than half of the concrete shear strength in the Egyptian code PC-method improves the accuracy of the calculated ultimate shear strength.

  13. Trajectories of childhood internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and psychotic-like experiences in adolescence: A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, Kristin S; Raudino, Alessandra; Downs, Johnny M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is strongly associated with adult psychiatric morbidity, including psychotic disorders. This study examined whether internalizing or externalizing trajectories (continuity/discontinuity of symptoms) from middle childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Prospective data were collected from a community sample of 553 children (mean age = 10.4 years; 50% male) and their primary caregivers. Participants completed questionnaire reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and PLEs at baseline, and again approximately 2 years later. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of adolescent PLEs with four trajectories of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (persistent, incident, remitting, and none), controlling for a range of potential confounders and sampling bias. Significant associations were identified between adolescent PLEs and the incident internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-5.49) and externalizing psychopathology (adj. OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.11-4.14) trajectories, as well as the persistent internalizing (adj. OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.13-3.18) and externalizing (adj. OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.02-3.19) trajectories. Children with remitting psychopathology trajectories were no more likely to present later PLEs than those who never experienced psychopathology. While for many individuals symptoms and illness remit during development without intervention, this study provides important insights regarding potential targets and timing for delivery of early intervention and prevention programs.

  14. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  16. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.

  17. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  18. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  19. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  20. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  1. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports

  2. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school.

  3. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.

  4. Child maltreatment and trajectories of personality and behavioral functioning: implications for the development of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Manly, Jody Todd

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal impact of maltreatment parameters on personality processes and maladjustment and prospective relationships between personality trajectory classes and subsequent maladjustment outcomes. The sample involved maltreated (n = 249) and nonmaltreated (n = 200) children followed longitudinally between ages 6 and 10. Growth mixture modeling indicated multifinality in personality development depending on the risk status (i.e., maltreated vs. nonmaltreated). Two trajectory classes of ego resiliency were identified for maltreated children: those who showed a declining trajectory exhibited greater maladjustment. In contrast, three trajectory classes of ego control were identified for nonmaltreated children; the subgroups showing increases in ego undercontrol or dramatic changes from high ego undercontrol to high ego overcontrol exhibited poor adjustment. Experiencing multiple maltreatment subtypes and physical/sexual abuse were related to higher levels of ego undercontrol and externalizing symptomatology, whereas early onset of maltreatment was associated with the low and decreasing trajectory of ego resiliency and higher levels of internalizing symptomatology. The findings suggest that ego resiliency and ego control, personality processes related to self-regulation, may be important factors in identifying distinct pathways to later personality disorders as well as pathways to resilient functioning.

  5. Trajectories and Risk Factors of Criminal Behavior among Females from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Krupa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social environmental and individual-level factors influence adolescent development and behavior over time. However, little attention has been devoted to examining how risk factors (i.e., parental support, peer delinquency, self-control affect trajectories of criminal behavior among female adolescents. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5138 females and latent class analysis, three offending trajectories among females from late adolescence to early adulthood were identified: late escalators, late de-escalators, and stable low/abstainers. Next, the influence of social environmental and individual-level factors during adolescence (Wave 1 on these trajectories was assessed. Results identified key differences in the risk factors related to group placement. The implications of the findings for prevention and treatment services targeting adolescent females, and directions for future research, are discussed.

  6. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  7. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors throughout Adulthood among Urban African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…

  8. Trajectories of Discrimination across Adolescence: Associations with Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…

  9. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  10. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behaviors from Early- to Middle-Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Fay, Kristen; Schmid, Kristina; McPherran, Caitlin; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive youth development (PYD) model initially assumed inverse links between indicators of PYD and of risk/problem behaviors, empirical work in adolescence has suggested that more complex associations exist between trajectories of the two domains of functioning. To clarify the PYD model, this study assessed intraindividual change in…

  11. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  12. Neurodynamics in the Sensorimotor Loop: Representing Behavior Relevant External Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasemann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems. It is argued that dynamical forms are the essential internal representatives of behavior relevant external situations. Consequently, it is suggested that dynamical forms are the basis for a memory of these situations. Finally, based on the observation that not all brain process have a direct effect on the motor activity, a natural splitting of neurodynamics into vertical (internal) and horizontal (effective) parts is introduced.

  13. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  14. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-08-01

    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  15. Behavior of Compact Toroid in the External Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ioroi, A.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the possibility of refueling and density control of tokamak plasmas by the spheromak-type Compact Toroid (CT) injection in the JFT-2M tokamak in collaboration with JAERI. We demonstrated the CT injection into OH plasmas and observed the core penetration at B_T=0.8 T. The tokamak electron density increased ~0.2× 10^19m-3 at a rate of 2× 10^21m-3/s. We also observed the decrease of the CT velocity by the external magnetic field of the tokamak, which is applied across the CT acceleration region. We have examined the behavior of the CT translated in the external fields B_ext using the magnetic probes and the fast framing camera at Himeji Inst. of tech.. CT plasma in the acceleration region is deformed by the Lorentz force of Jg × B_ext, where Jg is the gun current for CT acceleration. The magnetic field structures of a long CT in the drift region has been revealed to be the mixed relaxed state of m=0 and m=1. Results from CT acceleration and injection in a transverse field will be presented.

  16. Youth Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Trajectories and subsequent Gambling among Urban Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Liu, Weiwei; Hedden, Sarra L.; Goldweber, Asha; Storr, Carla L.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Stinchfield, Randy; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Petras, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the association between aggressive/disruptive behavior development in two distinct developmental periods, childhood (i.e., grades 1–3) and early adolescence (i.e., grades 6–10) and subsequent gambling behavior in late adolescence up to age 20. Method The sample consists of 310 urban males of predominately minority and low socioeconomic status followed from first grade to late adolescence. Separate general growth mixture models (GGMM) were estimated to explore the heterogeneity in aggressive/disruptive behavior development in the above-mentioned two time periods. Results Three distinct behavior trajectories were identified for each time period: a chronic high, a moderate increasing and a low increasing class for childhood, and a chronic high, a moderate increasing followed by decreasing and a low stable class for early adolescence. There was no association between childhood behavior trajectories and gambling involvement. Males with a moderate behavior trajectory in adolescence where two times more likely to gamble compared to those in the low stable class (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.11, 3.24). Those with chronic high trajectories during either childhood or early adolescence (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.06, 6.38; OR=3.19, 95% CI=1.18, 8.64, respectively) were more likely to be at-risk/problem gamblers than those in the low class. Conclusions Aggressive/disruptive behavior development in childhood and early adolescence is associated with gambling and gambling problems in late adolescence among urban male youth. Preventing childhood and youth aggressive/disruptive behavior may be effective to prevent youth problem gambling. PMID:23410188

  17. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  18. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  19. Learning from history: Non-Markovian analyses of complex trajectories for extracting long-time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A number of modern sampling methods probe long time behavior in complex biomolecules using a set of relatively short trajectory segments. Markov state models (MSMs) can be useful in analyzing such data sets, but in particularly complex landscapes, the available trajectory data may prove insufficient for constructing valid Markov models. Here, we explore the potential utility of history-dependent analyses applied to relatively poor decompositions of configuration space for which MSMs are inadequate. Our approaches build on previous work [Suarez et. al., JCTC 2014] showing that, with sufficient history information, unbiased equilibrium and non-equilibrium observables can be obtained even for arbitrary non-Markovian divisions of phase space. We explore a range of non-Markovian approximations using varying amounts of history information to model the finite length of trajectory segments, applying the analyses to toy models as well as several proteins previously studied by microsec-milisec scale atomistic simulatio...

  20. Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Infant and toddler regulatory problems (RPs) including crying, sleeping and feeding, are a frequent concern for parents and have been associated with negative behavioral outcomes in early and middle childhood. Uncertain is whether infant and toddler RPs predict stable, trait-like dysregulated behavior across childhood. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). RPs at 6, 15-18, & 24-30 months and childhood dysregulated behavior at 4, 7, 8, & 9.5 years were assessed using mother report. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) indicated that trajectories of childhood dysregulated behavior were stable over time. All single RPs (i.e., crying, sleeping & feeding problems) were significantly associated with childhood dysregulated behavior. For example, crying problems at 6 months after controlling for confounders (Odds Ratios; 95% Confidence Intervals): Moderate dysregulated behavior: OR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.09 to 2.06], high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.49 to 3.05] and very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.85, 95% CI [1.64 to 4.94]. Multiple RPs were especially strongly associated with dysregulated behavior. For example, the RP composite at 15-18 months: 1 RP, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.17 to 3.57], 2 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 3.46, 95% CI [2.38 to 5.01], 3 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 12.57, 95% CI [6.38 to 24.74]. These findings suggest that RPs in infants and toddlers predict stable dysregulated behavior trajectories across childhood. Interventions for early RPs could help prevent the development of chronic, highly dysregulated behavior.

  1. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  2. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  3. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  4. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  5. Conduct Problem Trajectories Between Age 4 and 17 and Their Association with Behavioral Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Kretschmer, Tina; de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Individual heterogeneity exists in the onset and development of conduct problems, but theoretical claims about predictors and prognosis are often not consistent with the empirical findings. This study examined shape and outcomes of conduct problem trajectories in a Belgian population-based sample (N = 682; 49.5 % boys). Mothers reported on children's conduct problems across six waves (age 4-17) and emerging adults reported on their behavioral adjustment (age 17-20). Applying mixture modeling, we found four gender-invariant trajectories (labeled life-course-persistent, adolescence-onset, childhood-limited, and low). The life-course-persistent group was least favorably adjusted, but the adolescence-onset group was similarly maladjusted in externalizing problems and may be less normative (15 % of the sample) than previously believed. The childhood-limited group was at heightened risk for specifically internalizing problems, being more worrisome than its label suggests. Interventions should not only be aimed at early detection of conduct problems, but also at adolescents to avoid future maladjustment.

  6. Nonlinear Behavior Of Saturated Porous Media Under External Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear behavior of liquid saturated porous media in gravity filed under external impact. The continuum is assumed to be a two-velocity medium; it consists of a deformable porous matrix (with Maxwell's reology) and a Newtonian liquid that saturates this matrix. The energy dissipation in this model takes place due the interface friction between the solid matrix and saturating liquid, and also through relaxation of inelastic shear stress in the porous matrix. The elaborated nonisothermal mathematical model for this kind of medium is a thermodynamically consistent and closed model. Godunov's explicit difference scheme was used for computer simulation; the method implies numerical simulation for discontinuity decay in flux calculations. As an illustrative example, we consider the formation of dissipation structures in a plain layer of that medium after pulse or periodic impact on the background of liquid filtration through the porous matrix. At the process beginning, one can observe elastic behavior of the porous matrix. Deformation spreading through the saturated porous matrix occurs almost without distortions and produces a channel-shaped zone of stretching with a high porosity. Later on, dissipation processes and reology properties of porous medium causes the diffusion of this channel. We also observe a correlation between the liquid distribution (porosity for the solid matrix) and dilatancy fields; this allows us to restore the dilatancy field from the measured fluid saturation of the medium. This work was supported by the RFBR (Grant No. 04-05-64107), the Presidium of SB RAS (Grant 106), the President's Grants (NSh-2118.2003.5, NSh-1573.2003.5).

  7. Towards the Modeling of Behavioral Trajectories of Users in Online Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Bessi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a methodology that allows to model behavioral trajectories of users in online social media. First, we illustrate how to leverage the probabilistic framework provided by Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to represent users by embedding the temporal sequences of actions they performed online. We then derive a model-based distance between trained HMMs, and we use spectral clustering to find homogeneous clusters of users showing similar behavioral trajectories. To provide platform-agnostic results, we apply the proposed approach to two different online social media --- i.e. Facebook and YouTube. We conclude discussing merits and limitations of our approach as well as future and promising research directions.

  8. Mode Analysis for Long-Term Behavior in a Resonant Earth-Moon Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Cody; Howell, Kathleen; Haapala, Amanda; Dichmann, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory design in chaotic regimes allows for the exploitation of system dynamics to achieve certain behaviors. For example, for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, the selected science orbit represents a stable option well-suited to meet the mission objectives. Extended analysis of particular solutions nearby in the phase space reveals transitions into desirable terminal modes induced by natural dynamics. This investigation explores the trajectory behavior and borrows from flow-based analysis strategies to characterize modes of such a motion. Perturbed initial states from a TESS-like orbit are evolved to supply motion suitable for contingency analysis. Through the associated analysis, mechanisms are identified that drive the spacecraft into particular modes and supply conditions necessary for such transitions.

  9. Prediction of thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships during ascent based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xixiang

    2016-06-01

    For designers, operators and users, the ability to accurately predict thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships is very important. Thermal models and dynamic models of stratospheric airships during ascent are developed, including solar radiation, infrared radiation, convection heat transfer and gas expulsion equation. Based on the model, performance parameters of a stratospheric airship during ascent are obtained, including film temperature, helium gas temperature, air temperature, pressure differential, altitude and ascent velocity, changing regulation for these parameters are discussed, and influence of initial helium gas volume and film radiation properties on thermal behavior is analyzed. Simulation results show that, (1) stratospheric airships experience supercooling during ascent, the maximum value is about 30 K, supercooling causes loss of net buoyancy, and affects ascent velocity and trajectory in the end, (2) stratospheric airships experience superheating at the floating altitude, and the maximum value is about 51 K, (3) initial volume ratio of helium gas and the solar radiation absorptivity of film have important effect on thermal behavior and trajectory during ascent, the larger the initial volume ratio is, the faster the ascent velocity will be, and the bigger the solar radiation absorptivity of film is, the smaller the temperature differential between helium gas and outside atmosphere will be.

  10. Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere: External Field models importance during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Davide; Della Torre, Stefano; Pensotti, Simonetta; Bobik, Pavol; Kudela, Karel; Rancoita, Pier Giorgio; Gervasi, Massimo; Jeroen Boschini, Matteo; Rozza, Davide; La vacca, Giuseppe; Tacconi, Mauro

    Geomagsphere is a backtracing code for Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere that has been developed with last models of Internal (IGRF-11) and External (Tsyganenko 1996 and 2005) field components. This backtracing technique was used to separate Primary Cosmic Rays Particles, in case of allowed trajectory, from Secondary particles, in case of forbidden trajectory. We compared Magnetic Field measurements with and without the external field model with satellite data in past periods, in particular GOES (1998) and CLUSTER (2004) data. For both periods TS05 reproduces the magnetc field components with good accuracy. The specificity of the TS05 model, designed for solar storms, was tested comparing it with data taken by CLUSTER during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013) During Solar Flares (occurred march and May 2012), the usage of such an external field has a relevavant impact on fraction of AMS-02 cosmic rays identified as trapped and secondary particles, especially in high geomagnetic latitudes, as was expecte by some previous simulations, in comparison with the Internal Field only.

  11. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  12. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  13. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  15. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  16. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  17. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  18. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  19. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors as Predictors of Sexual Onset in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude P.; Dussault, Frédéric; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study had three goals: (a) assessing the predictive association of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during childhood with sexual onset during early adolescence; (b) examining the interactive link of externalizing and internalizing behaviors with early sexual onset; and (c) investigating the moderating effect of gender in this…

  20. Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…

  1. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  2. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  4. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for children and adolescents with externalizing disorders. Following a description of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, several components common to CBT interventions for youth with externalizing behaviors will be described. Using the Coping Power Program as a model, child treatment components including Emotion Awareness, Perspective Taking, Anger Management, Social Problem Solving, and Goal Setting will be reviewed. CBT strategies for parents of youth with disruptive behaviors will also be described. Finally, the article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of CBT strategies for externalizing disorders and presents specific outcome research on several programs that include CBT techniques.

  6. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; van der Sluis, Cathy M; de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja

    2010-08-01

    Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, children rated their externalizing behavior. Mediational analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects. Higher levels of Extraversion and lower levels of Benevolence were related directly to higher levels of child externalizing behavior. Higher levels of paternal authoritative parenting and lower levels of maternal overreactivity were related to lower scores on externalizing behavior. In addition, the relation between Benevolence, Emotional Stability, and externalizing behavior was partially mediated by parental overreactivity. Conscientiousness had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through paternal authoritative parenting. Relations were not moderated by child gender. This study is of theoretical interest because the results demonstrate that parenting is a mediating mechanism that accounts for associations between personality and externalizing behavior.

  7. Trajectories of Indonesian adolescents' religiosity, problem behavior, and friends' religiosity: covariation and sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C; Christ, Sharon; Lu, Ting; Purwono, Urip

    2014-01-01

    Changes in religiosity, problem behavior, and their friends' religiosity over a 2-year period were assessed in a sample of five hundred and fifty-nine 15-year-old Indonesian Muslim adolescents. Adolescents self-reported their religiosity, problem behavior, and friendships; the religiosity of mutual friends came from friends' self-reports. A parallel process analysis of growth curves showed that adolescents' religiosity trajectories covaried with both problem behavior and friends' religiosity. Using a cross-lagged model in which prior levels were controlled, religiosity at 10th and 11th grades predicted friends' religiosity 1 year later, suggesting that adolescents select friends of similar religiosity. This study provides evidence that religion is intertwined with other aspects of adolescent development and illustrates the importance of contextualizing adolescent religiosity within an ecological framework.

  8. Flight orientation behaviors promote optimal migration trajectories in high-flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Nesbit, Rebecca L; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Don R; Smith, Alan D; Middleton, Douglas R; Hill, Jane K

    2010-02-01

    Many insects undertake long-range seasonal migrations to exploit temporary breeding sites hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, but the behavioral adaptations that facilitate these movements remain largely unknown. Using entomological radar, we showed that the ability to select seasonally favorable, high-altitude winds is widespread in large day- and night-flying migrants and that insects adopt optimal flight headings that partially correct for crosswind drift, thus maximizing distances traveled. Trajectory analyses show that these behaviors increase migration distances by 40% and decrease the degree of drift from seasonally optimal directions. These flight behaviors match the sophistication of those seen in migrant birds and help explain how high-flying insects migrate successfully between seasonal habitats.

  9. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children׳s behavior in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children׳s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems.

  11. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  12. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.

  13. Parenting and Trajectories of Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-year Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multi-group analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children’s alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development. Practical implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21534057

  14. Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C V; Geels, L; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Neale, M C; Bartels, M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.

  15. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

  16. Developmental trajectories of associative memory from childhood to adulthood: a behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Martins, Sylvie; Deshayes, Sebastien; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Chiron, Catherine; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Landeau, Brigitte; Clochon, Patrice; Chételat, Gaël; Eustache, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the capacity to bind multimodal memories to constitute a unique personal event. Most developmental studies on episodic memory focused on one specific component, i.e., the core factual information. The present study examines the relevance of a novel episodic paradigm to assess its developmental trajectories in a more comprehensive way according to the type of association (item-feature, item-location, and item-sequence associations) with measures of both objective and subjective recollection. We conducted a behavioral study aimed at testing the effects of age in a large sample of 160 children, adolescents, and young adults (6-23 years old). We confronted the behavioral data to the neural correlates in a subgroup of 30 children using voxel-based morphometry. Behavioral data outlined differential developmental trajectories according to the type of association, with a continuous increase of factual associative memory efficiency until 10 years, a linear increase of performance in spatial associative memory that pursues until early adulthood and an abrupt increase in temporal associative memory efficiency between 9 and 10. Regarding recollection, measures showed a more pronounced enhancement from 9 to 10 years. Hence, behavioral data highlight a peculiar period in late childhood (8-10 years old) crucial for the developmental time course of episodic memory. Regarding structural data, we found that the improvement of associative memory efficiency was related to a decrease in gray matter volume in a large cerebral network including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (and superior and anterior temporal regions), and the hippocampus bilaterally. These data suggest that multimodal integration would probably be related to the maturation of temporal regions and modulated by a fronto-parietal network. Besides, our findings emphasize the relevance of the present paradigm to assess episodic memory especially in the clinical setting.

  17. Developmental trajectories of associative memory from childhood to adulthood: a behavioral and neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berengere eGuillery-Girard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to the capacity to bind multimodal memories to constitute a unique personal event. Most developmental studies on episodic memory focused on one specific component, i.e. the core factual information. The present study examines the relevance of a novel episodic paradigm to assess its developmental trajectories in a more comprehensive way according to the type of association (item-feature, item-location and item-sequence associations with measures of both objective and subjective recollection. We conducted a behavioral study aimed at testing the effects of age in a large sample of 160 children, adolescents and young adults (6 to 23 years old. We confronted the behavioral data to the neural correlates in a subgroup of 30 children using voxel-based morphometry. Behavioral data outlined differential developmental trajectories according to the type of association, with a continuous increase of factual associative memory efficiency until 10 years, a linear increase of performance in spatial associative memory that pursues until early adulthood and an abrupt increase in temporal associative memory efficiency between 9 and 10. Regarding recollection, measures showed a more pronounced enhancement from 9 to 10 years. Hence, behavioral data highlight a peculiar period in late childhood (8 to 10 years old crucial for the developmental time course of episodic memory. Regarding structural data, we found that the improvement of associative memory efficiency was related to a decrease in gray matter volume in a large cerebral network including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (and superior and anterior temporal regions and the hippocampus bilaterally. These data suggest that multimodal integration would probably be related to the maturation of temporal regions and modulated by a fronto-parietal network. Besides, our findings emphasize the relevance of the present paradigm to assess episodic memory especially in the

  18. Like Father, Like Son? The Link between Parents' Moral Disengagement and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Taraschi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This work considers a still uninvestigated research issue-namely, whether parents' moral disengagement affected preschool children's externalizing behavior. Participants were 245 children (126 girls and 119 boys) aged 3-6 years. Parents' moral disengagement was assessed in terms of their externalization of blame and their indifference in reactions…

  19. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  20. Like Father, Like Son? The Link between Parents' Moral Disengagement and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Taraschi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This work considers a still uninvestigated research issue-namely, whether parents' moral disengagement affected preschool children's externalizing behavior. Participants were 245 children (126 girls and 119 boys) aged 3-6 years. Parents' moral disengagement was assessed in terms of their externalization of blame and their indifference in reactions…

  1. A Mediation Model of Interparental Collaboration, Parenting Practices, and Child Externalizing Behavior in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjobli, John; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined maternal and paternal parenting practices as mediators of the link between interparental collaboration and children's externalizing behavior. Parent gender was tested as a moderator of the associations. A clinical sample consisting of 136 children with externalizing problems and their families participated in the study.…

  2. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  3. Personality and externalizing behavior in the transition to young adulthood : The additive value of personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Hale, William W.; Goossens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The directionality of effects in the associations between personality and externalizing behavior (i.e., delinquency, soft drugs use, and alcohol abuse) is unclear. Moreover, previous studies only examined personality trait domains when examining these associations, whereas personality facet

  4. On the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator with random external disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Kulinich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator under the external random disturbance that is a process of the white noise type. Influence of noises is investigated in resonance and non-resonance cases.

  5. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Persona

  6. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetim...

  7. Soft behavior of string amplitudes with external massive states

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrieri, Andrea L

    2015-01-01

    We briefly discuss the soft behavior of scattering amplitudes both in string and quantum field theory. In particular we show a general argument about the validity of soft theorems for open superstring amplitudes and list some of our recent results.

  8. Status specific tailoring of sperm behavior in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Why dominant males experiencing intense sperm competition sometimes show low investments in sperm production is not always obvious. One well-documented example is that of the external fertilizing teleost, the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, where individuals becoming dominant reduce sperm production and sperm swimming speed in water compared to subordinates. Here we report how ovarian fluid differentially influences sperm velocity of dominant and subordinate male Arctic charr. That is, sperm from dominant males increase their velocity in water diluted ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water, while sperm from subordinates, on the other hand, decrease velocity in ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water. Thus, subordinates, who invest more resources in their sperm and usually show the highest sperm velocity in water, have lower gains from their investment than dominant males when sperm are swimming in ovarian fluid. In sum, our result suggests that ovarian fluid increase sperm velocity more in dominant males than in subordinate males. Although this finding could partly be caused by cryptic female choice exerted by the ovarian fluid for sperm from dominant males, an alternative and more parsimonious explanation is that sperm from dominant males may simply be better designed for swimming in ovarian fluid compared to sperm from subordinate males. Thus, sperm production in the two reproductive roles seems to be adaptively tailored to different external environments.

  9. Influence of attitudes, impulsivity, and parental styles in adolescents' externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Barbero, José A; Ruiz-Hernández, José A; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Waschgler, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Diverse works have associated externalizing problem behavior with impulsivity, parental styles, and attitudes toward violence. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between these variables and externalizing behavior. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a sample of 252 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, from the general population. The results obtained indicate a significant association of externalization with high impulsivity, ingrained attitudes toward violence, and inconsistent parental styles, as well as gender and age differences. These results are discussed in relation with the influence of gender stereotypes and their implications in the development of attitudes toward violence.

  10. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of family violence to the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Research finds that early antisocial behavior is a risk for later intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization, and that children's exposure to their parents' IPV is a risk for subsequent behavior problems. This study tests whether intimate violence (IPV) between partners contributes independently to the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior, using the Children in the Community Study, a representative sample (N = 821) followed for over 25 years in 6 assessments. The present study includes a subsample of parents (N = 678) and their offspring (N = 396). We test the role of three mechanisms by which IPV may influence child antisocial behavior-parental psychopathology, parenting practices, and child self-regulation. Results suggest that IPV independently increased the risk for offspring externalizing problems, net of the effects of parental history of antisocial behavior and family violence. IPV also increased the risk for parental post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder 2 years later, but not for major depressive disorder. Alcohol use disorder independently increased the risk for offspring externalizing behavior, but IPV continued to predict offspring externalizing net of parental alcohol use. Parenting, particularly low satisfaction with the child, was significantly associated with both IPV and externalizing behavior, but did not mediate the effects of IPV on externalizing. IPV predicted higher levels of emotional expressivity, aggression and hostile reactivity, and depressive mood in offspring. Implications for future research and prevention are discussed.

  12. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  13. Latent Classes of Externalizing Behaviors in Youth with Early Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…

  14. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221…

  15. Parental Control is Not Unconditionally Detrimental for Externalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Baydar, Nazli

    2014-01-01

    The association of three different strategies of maternal control (behavioral, psychological, and physical), and maternal warmth with children's externalizing behaviors were analyzed in an observational study of 3-year-old children in Turkey ("N" = 123). The results indicated that (i) mothers exercised all three types of control…

  16. The Role of Maternal Depression on Treatment Outcome for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that, on average, Parent Management Training combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy decreases children's externalizing behavior, but some children do not improve through treatment. The current study aimed to examine the role of maternal depression in understanding this variabi

  17. Differential genetic and environmental influences on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H Harrington

    2015-12-01

    Little research has investigated differential genetic and environmental influences on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on liabilities of being in life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescent-limited (AL) type delinquent groups from adolescence to young adulthood while considering nonviolent and violent delinquency subtypes and gender differences. A genetically informative sample (n = 356, 15-16 years) from the first three waves of In-Home Interview of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was used, with 94 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs of same-sex twins (50% male). Biometric liability threshold models were fit and found that the male-specific LCP type class, chronic, showed more genetic influences, while the AL type classes, decliner and desister, showed more environmental influences. Genetic liability and shared environment both influence the persistence of antisocial behavior. The development of female antisocial behavior appears to be influenced more by shared environment.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Huizink, Anja C

    2012-07-01

    We investigated genetic and environmental influences common to adolescent externalizing behavior (at age 12), smoking (at age 14) and initiation of drug use (at age 17) using the FinnTwin12 cohort data. Multivariate Cholesky models were fit to data from 737 monozygotic and 722 dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability of externalizing behavior was 56%, that of smoking initiation/amount 20/32%, and initiation of drug use 27%. In the best-fitting model common environmental influences explained most of the covariance between externalizing behavior and smoking initiation (69%) and amount (77%). Covariance between smoking initiation/amount and drug use was due to additive genetic (42/22%) and common environmental (58/78%) influences. Half of the covariance between externalizing behavior and drug use was due to shared genetic and half due to the environments shared by co-twins. Using a longitudinal, prospective design, our results indicate that early observed externalizing behavior provides significant underlying genetic and environmental influences common to later substance use, here manifested as initiation of drug use in late adolescence.

  19. Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Laird, Robert D; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-02-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self-ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6 to 9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10 to 15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents' use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed.

  20. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

  2. Long-term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples.

  3. The Timing of Entry into Adult Roles and Changes in Trajectories of Problem Behaviors during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J.; Blozis, Shelley A.; Boeninger, Daria K.; Masarik, April S.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    This study of a cohort of 451 adolescents examined associations between trajectories of problem behaviors and the timing of entry into work, marriage, and parenthood. We used data from 12 assessments across adolescence, through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood. We employed 2-phase mixed-effects models to estimate growth in substance use…

  4. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  5. Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behavior of T-shape Beam Reinforced by External Prestressing Tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available External prestressing has become a primary method for strengthening existing concrete beam and has been increasingly used in the construction of newly erected ones, particularly railroad bridges in recent years. In order to evaluate the effect of this method, the static and dynamic behavior of a T-frame beam reinforced by external prestressed strengthened concrete beam was analyzed by 3D finite element method, and the field test study was also made. The study was carried out to further investigate the simply supported reinforced prestressed concrete beam strengthened by external prestressing through theory analysis and experiment.

  6. Trajectories of prosocial behaviors conducive to civic outcomes during the transition to adulthood: the predictive role of family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanacri, Bernadette P Luengo; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zuffianò, Antonio; Eisenberg, Nancy; Ceravolo, Rosalba; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-12-01

    The current study explored the prediction of civic engagement by diverse trajectories of prosocial behaviors as well family dynamics (i.e., filial self-efficacy and relational parent-child support) across four times of assessment (from age 16-17 to age 22-23) during the transition to adulthood. Three different trajectories of prosocial behaviors were identified for 686 Italian youths: high-increasing (18%), medium-stable (48%), and low-stable (34%). An increasing pattern of change in prosocial behaviors was predicted by filial self-efficacy at age 16-17, which in turn mediated longitudinal relations to civic engagement and civic values at age 22-23. Results highlighted that during the transition to adulthood youths' beliefs about their ability to negotiate with their parents without losing autonomy and relatedness are relevant in promoting prosocial behaviors and civic involvement, especially in the context of Mediterranean countries.

  7. Parenting quality, DRD4, and the prediction of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, C; Willoughby, M; Halpern, C T; Carbone, M A; Cox, M

    2007-09-01

    Recent research has found that the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and maternal insensitivity may interact to predict externalizing behavior in preschoolers. The current study attempted to replicate and extend this finding in a sample of 18-30-month-old children. The current study examined two distinct dimensions of parenting (warm-responsive and negative-intrusive) as predictors of childhood externalizing and internalizing behavior. Further, race was investigated as a moderator of gene-environment relationships. Results revealed that high warm-responsive parenting was associated with decreased externalizing behavior only for African American children possessing the short polymorphism of DRD4. The data indicate that children may be differentially susceptible to different aspects of parenting depending on their genotype, and it is important to consider differences in racial composition when studying these relationships. .

  8. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Shiner, Rebecca L; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports) for 429 children (mean age 8 years at Time 1) replicated the Resilient, Under-, and Overcontroller types. Latent Class Growth Analysis of externalizing and internalizing problems (modeled as latent factors, based on mother and father reports), revealed that Undercontrollers were at greater risk of belonging to a high/decreasing externalizing problem class and a high/stable co-occurring problem class than were Resilients. Overcontrollers were more likely to be in a high/stable internalizing class and less likely to be in the externalizing problem class, but only at low levels of parental overreactivity. Undercontrollers appeared at double risk as they were at risk for high overreactive parenting, which was an independent risk-factor for the elevated problem trajectories. Because childhood personality types were a risk factor for adjustment problems that persisted into adolescence, Under- and Overcontrollers might be considered as a target for early intervention, with a focus on overreactive parenting for Undercontrollers specifically.

  9. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, Willemijn M; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D

    2017-06-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7.70 years; 368 mothers, 355 fathers). Marital stress related to having a child, children's externalizing behavior, and perceived parental competence were assessed three times across 8 years. Multigroup analyses were used to examine models for both parents simultaneously and test for similarity in associations across spouses. A bivariate latent growth model indicated positive associated change between marital stress and externalizing behavior, supporting the idea of codevelopment. The cross-lagged panel model revealed a reciprocal relation between marital stress and perceived parental competence across a time interval of 6 years. Additionally, two elicitation effects appeared during adolescence, showing that parents who reported higher externalizing problems in early adolescence reported more marital stress and a lower sense of competence two years later. Similar associations were found for mothers and fathers. Overall, this study indicates that marital stress and externalizing behavior codevelop over time and supports literature on developmental differences regarding interrelations between subsystems and individuals within the family system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order mode is selected, periodic dynamics corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed. When the stripe mirror is not aligned perfectly, a dynamic behavior like pulse-package oscillations is observed: a periodic oscillated output...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge....

  11. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  12. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

  13. Change in parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors among substance abusing runaways: the effects of family and individual treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study compared three empirically supported psychotherapy interventions, Motivational Interviewing (MI), the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT) with 179 substance abusing runaway adolescents (47 % female, 74 % minority) and their primary caretaker recruited through a Midwestern runaway crisis shelter. Examining both child and primary caretaker reports, each treatment was associated with significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing behaviors to 24 months post-baseline. However, the trajectory of change differed among the treatments. Adolescents receiving MI showed a quicker reduction in internalizing and externalizing behaviors but also a quicker increase in these behaviors compared to adolescents receiving EBFT, who continued to evidence improvements to 24 months. The findings provide support for continued evaluation of these treatments for use with this vulnerable population of adolescents.

  14. Interaction of adrenocortical activity and autonomic arousal on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    The psychobiology of stress involves two major components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Research has revealed the association between behavior problems and the psychobiology of stress, yet findings are inconsistent and few studies have addressed the moderate correlations between behavior problems. This study examines the individual and interactive effects of HPA and ANS on child behavior problems while taking into account the comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. Four saliva samples were collected from each participant in a community sample (N = 429; aged 11-12 years; 50.49 % male), which were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase, sAA (ANS). Children's behavior problems were assessed using parent-report and self-report versions of the Child Behavior Checklist. Latent variables were constructed to represent trait-like individual differences in cortisol and sAA. Low levels of HPA axis activity were associated with higher levels of both externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with low ANS arousal. The association between externalizing and internalizing problems diminished to non-significant after taking into account the influence of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal, which suggests that the psychobiology of stress explains a fair proportion of comorbidity of behavior problems. The findings support that interaction between HPA axis and ANS functioning has potential to clarify prior mixed findings and advance our understanding of the child behavior problems.

  15. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

  16. Gender Roles, Externalizing Behaviors, and Substance Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KULIS, STEPHEN; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 60 male and 91 female Mexican-American adolescents (age 13–18) were administered measures of positive (i.e., assertive masculinity, affective femininity) and negative (i.e., aggressive masculinity, submissive femininity) gender roles, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, peer substance use, and own substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana). Negative gender roles were significantly correlated with internalizing and externalizing problems for both boys and girls, with aggressive masculinity also predicting peer substance use for both genders. Assertive masculinity significantly predicted lower alcohol use in boys, and this effect was not mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, or peer substance use. Negative gender roles significantly predicted higher alcohol use in girls, but this effect was almost completely mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and peer substance use. Results are discussed in terms of gender role socialization among Mexican Americans. PMID:21031145

  17. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, chi...

  18. Examining Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J; Schwartz, Billie S; Keiffer, Jackie N; McCurdy, Barry L; Mathen, Manju; Jawad, Abbas F

    2016-07-01

    This article presents outcome data of the implementation of three group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems, anxiety, and depression. School counselors and graduate students co-led the groups in two low-income urban schools. Data were analyzed to assess pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. Results of the exploratory study indicated that all three GCBT protocols were effective at reducing diagnostic severity level for children who had a primary diagnosis of an externalizing disorder, anxiety disorder, or depressive disorder at the clinical or intermediate (at-risk) level. All three GCBT protocols were implemented with relatively high levels of fidelity. Data on the effectiveness of the interventions for reducing diagnostic severity level for externalizing and internalizing spectrum disorders and for specific disorders are presented. A discussion of implementation of mental health evidence-based interventions in urban schools is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

  20. Working alliance and treatment fidelity as predictors of externalizing problem behaviors in parent management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje S; Ogden, Terje

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated treatment fidelity and working alliance in the Parent Management Training-Oregon model (PMTO) and investigated how these relate to children's externalizing problem behaviors, as reported by parents and teachers. Participants were 331 Norwegian parents who rated the client-therapist working alliance at 3 time points (Sessions 3, 12, and 20). Competent adherence to the PMTO treatment protocol was assessed by PMTO specialists from evaluations of videotaped therapy sessions using the Fidelity of Implementation (FIMP) system (Knutson, Forgatch, & Rains, 2003). Parents and teachers reported children's problem behaviors at baseline and at the end of therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the repeated measures data. Parents reported high and stable levels of alliance and fidelity from Time 1 to Time 3, with no correlational or direct relations between the 2. Treatment fidelity predicted reductions in parent-reported externalizing behavior, whereas working alliance was related to less change in problem behavior. Alliance and fidelity were unrelated to teacher-reported behavior problems. The findings point to treatment fidelity as an active ingredient in PMTO and working alliance as a negative predictor of postassessment parent-reported externalizing behavior. More research is needed to investigate whether these findings can be replicated and extended beyond PMTO.

  1. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  2. Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-01-01

    African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

  3. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  4. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  5. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  6. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  9. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline

  10. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  11. Distinctiveness of Adolescent and Emerging Adult Romantic Relationship Features in Predicting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Romantic relationship involvement has repeatedly been associated with the incidence of externalizing behavior problems, but little is known about the nature and developmental significance of this relation. The current study extends previous research by investigating whether and through what processes romantic relationships distinctively predict…

  12. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities : Relations With Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-base

  13. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African American,…

  14. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  15. Genetic Vulnerability Interacts with Parenting and Early Care and Education to Predict Increasing Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental…

  16. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  17. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  18. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  19. Effectiveness of individually delivered indicated school-based interventions on externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, Maja; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the results of two meta-analyses on the effectiveness of individually delivered indicated school-based interventions for externalizing behavior problems at elementary schools are presented. A distinction was made between studies that evaluated effects of interventions with only

  20. Effectiveness of Individually Delivered Indicated School-Based Interventions on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; van Londen, Monique; Dekovic, Maja; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the results of two meta-analyses on the effectiveness of "individually" delivered indicated school-based interventions for externalizing behavior problems at elementary schools are presented. A distinction was made between studies that evaluated effects of interventions with only an individual component (k = 11 studies, n =…

  1. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  2. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ag

  3. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  4. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  5. Testing causal effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's externalizing and internalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Geels, L.M.; Vink, J.M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Neale, M.C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to

  6. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  7. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  8. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  9. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  10. Life-course fertility patterns associated with childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Childhood behavioral problems have been associated with earlier childbearing, but their life-course reproductive consequences are unknown. The present study examined whether and how behavioral problems assessed in childhood predict fertility patterns over the life course in women and men. Participants were 9,472 individuals from the British National Child Development Study (4,739 men and 4,733 women). Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors were rated by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Information on fertility history was derived from interviews at ages 33, 42, and 46, including date of pregnancy, whether the pregnancy was planned or non-planned, and pregnancy outcome (live birth, miscarriages/stillbirth, induced abortion). Transition to parenthood and fertility rate were assessed using survival analysis and age-stratified regression models. In both sexes, higher externalizing behavior was associated with higher rate of pregnancies, especially non-planned pregnancies in adolescence and early adulthood, but this association attenuated or even reversed later in adulthood. Internalizing behavior was associated with lower pregnancy rates, especially planned pregnancies and later in adulthood, and particularly in men. In women, higher internalizing behavior was also associated with earlier transition to parenthood. Externalizing behavior in women predicted higher risk of miscarriages and induced abortions, while internalizing behavior predicted lower risk for these outcomes. These findings suggest that childhood behavioral problems have long-term associations with fertility behavior over the life course, including earlier transition to parenthood, lower probability of normative family formation later in adulthood, and higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  12. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits.

  14. Modeling and simulation of rigid body external trajectory of spinning projectile under nonstandard conditions%非标准条件下旋转弹丸刚体外弹道的建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯健; 张方方

    2012-01-01

    为研究非标准条件下高速旋转弹丸的刚体外弹道性能,基于坐标变换理论建立了地球曲率影响下的外弹道数学模型,分析了自然风对弹丸气动力及气动力矩的作用,并在考虑气温气压及重力加速度变化的基础上得到了非标准务件下旋转弹丸的刚体外弹道模型.利用该模型对某105 mm榴弹外弹道进行仿真,结果表明:地球曲率引起旋转弹丸外弹道性能参数值少量增加,且增加量随弹丸射程的增大而增加,验证了自然风对弹丸动态稳定性有较大影响,进而影响弹丸的各弹道参数的结论.%To study the rigid body external trajectory performance of spinning projectile under non-standard conditions,the effect of natural wind on earth curvature was analyzed. Moreover,a rigid body external trajectory model was established according to the variations in atmospheric pressure,temperature and acceleration of gravity. The simulation was carried out on the external trajectory of a 105 mm shrapnel by this model. The calculated results show that the external trajectory performance parameters are increased with the fire range by earth curvature,thereby verifying the influence of natural wind upon the dynamical stability of the projectile,which further affects the external trajectory performance parameters.

  15. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan G.C. Wright

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101 of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Impulsivity structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.

  16. Physical Family Violence and Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-03-13

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  18. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge........ Different dynamic behaviors are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the mirror is aligned correctly and high-order modes are selected, in most of the cases periodic dynamics of the output power corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed, but the dynamic...

  19. Social Self Control, Externalizing Behavior, and Peer Liking Among Children with ADHD-CT: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul J; Vaughn, Aaron J; Epstein, Jeffery N; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the role of externalizing behavior as a mediator of the relation between social self-control and peer liking among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Type (ADHD-CT). A model was proposed whereby externalizing behavior would fully statistically account for the direct relation of social self-control to peer liking. One hundred seventy two children ages 7.0-9.9 years with ADHD-CT were rated by their teachers regarding their social self-control and by their parents and teachers regarding their rates of externalizing behavior. Same-sex classmates provided ratings of overall liking. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the proposed model. Results supported the proposed model of externalizing behavior as fully statistically accounting for the relation of social self-control to peer liking. This study demonstrated the crucial role that externalizing behaviors play in the social impairment commonly seen among children with ADHD-CT.

  20. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  1. A sense of containment: potential moderator of the relation between parenting practices and children's externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joel; Cavell, Timothy A; Hughes, Jan N

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the construct of perceived containment, defined as children's beliefs about adults' capacity to impose firm limits and to prevail if there is a conflict in goals. We propose that children's containment beliefs represent an important but understudied factor in the development and maintenance of childhood aggression. Children's ratings on the Perceived Containment Questionnaire (PCQ) were inversely related to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing problems. Moreover, this relation was found to be independent of the quality of parental discipline. We also found evidence that perceived containment moderated the relation between overly harsh, inept discipline and children's externalizing behaviors: ineffective discipline was directly related to externalizing problems in children with relatively high PCQ scores but was unrelated to externalizing problems in children with relatively low PCQ scores. For the latter group of children, the affective quality of the mother-child relationship was a better predictor of problem behavior. These findings provide additional support for Kochanska's (1993) model of differential socialization and for Frick's (1998) assertions concerning meaningful subgroups of aggressive children.

  2. Ground-State Behavior of the Quantum Compass Model in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ke-Wei; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ground-state(GS)properties of the two-dimensional(2D)quantum compass model in an external field on a square 5×5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization(ED)method.We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions,nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter.As the external field is presented,the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.%Ground-state (GS) properties of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum compass model in an external Geld on a square 5x5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization (ED) method. We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions, nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter. As the external Geld is presented, the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.

  3. Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems.

  4. Children's perceptions of dissimilarity in parenting styles are associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkien, Myra; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank; van der Ende, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's perception of dissimilarity in parenting styles, and internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Children from the general population (n = 658) reported on the level of emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection of both parents by filling out the child version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (EMBU-C) and mothers completed the child behavior checklist (CBCL). Intraclass correlations were computed as measures of dissimilarity between parenting styles of mothers and fathers. Children's perceived dissimilarity in parental emotional warmth is associated with internalizing and externalizing problems (β = 0.092, p parents' overprotection is associated with externalizing problems (β = 0.097, p parenting styles is associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, over and above the effects of the level of the parenting styles. The results highlight the negative consequences of perceived dissimilarity between parents. To conclude, children have more internalizing and externalizing problems when they perceive their parents as more dissimilar in parenting styles.

  5. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  6. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  7. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  8. Umbilical cord blood testosterone and childhood internalizing and externalizing behavior: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Robinson

    Full Text Available Antenatal testosterone exposure influences fetal neurodevelopment and gender-role behavior in postnatal life and may contribute to differences in developmental psychopathology during childhood. We prospectively measured the associations between umbilical cord blood testosterone levels at birth and childhood behavioral development in both males and females from a large population based sample. The study comprised 430 females and 429 males from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study where umbilical cord blood had been collected. Total testosterone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry and bioavailable testosterone (BioT levels were calculated. At two, five, eight and ten years of age, the participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Linear regression models were used to analyse the relationship between BioT concentrations (in quartiles and CBCL scores (total, internalizing, externalizing and selected syndrome. Boys had higher mean CBCL T-scores than girls across all ages of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between cord blood BioT quartiles and CBCL total, internalizing and externalizing T-scores at age two or five to ten combined. In the syndrome score analyses, higher BioT quartiles were associated with significantly lower scores for attention problems for boys at age five, eight and ten, and greater withdrawal symptoms in pre-school girls (age five. We did not identify a consistent relationship between antenatal testosterone exposure and total, internalizing or externalizing behavioral difficulties in childhood. Higher umbilical cord BioT levels were associated with lower scores for attention problems in boys up to 10 years and more withdrawn behavior in 5-year-old girls; however, these findings were not consistent across ages and require further investigation in a larger sample.

  9. Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood.

  10. Child maltreatment and trajectories of personality and behavioral functioning: Implications for the development of personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal impact of maltreatment parameters on personality processes and maladjustment and prospective relationships between personality trajectory classes and subsequent maladjustment outcomes. The sample involved maltreated (n = 249) and nonmaltreated (n = 200) children followed longitudinally between ages 6 – 10. Growth mixture modeling indicated multifinality in personality development depending on the risk status (i.e., maltreated vs. nonmaltreated). Two tr...

  11. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity.

  12. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R. [XENERGY, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kotchen, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment

    2003-09-15

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  13. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  14. Evaluation of Structural Behavior of Externally Prestressed Segmented Bridge with Shear Key under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Algorafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Externally Prestressed Segmented (EPS concrete beams are generally used in the construction of bridge structures. External Prestressed technique uses tendons that are placed completely outside the concrete section and attached to the concrete at anchorages and deviators only. Segmented bridge is a bridge built in short sections. Segmented bridge applies smart technique that is a part of an engineering management. EPS bridges are affected by combined stresses i.e., bending, shear, normal, and torsion stresses especially at the segments interface joints. Previous studies on EPS bridges did not include the effect of torsion in the load carrying capacity and other structural behavior. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the structural behavior of EPS bridged under combined bending, shear, normal, and torsion stresses. The aim of this paper is to improve the existing equation to include the effect of torsion in estimating the failure load of EPS bridge. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of different external tendon layouts and different levels of torsion.

  15. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents.

  16. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  17. Development of an Intervention for Foster Parents of Young Foster Children with Externalizing Behavior: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan

    2012-01-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…

  18. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  19. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and/or externalizing behavior problems (EBPs) as compared to children with neither condition. The longitudinal sample, drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, included children who were 6 to 9 years old in Cycle 1 who were followed-up biennially in Cycles 2 and 3 (N = 3476). The associations between NDDs and/or EBPs, child and family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors (consistency and ineffective parenting), were examined across several measures of child psychosocial functioning: peer relationships, general self-esteem, prosocial behavior and anxiety-emotional problems. Children with NDDs, EBPs, and both NDDs and EBPs self-reported lower scores on general self-esteem. Children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs reported lower scores on peer relationships and prosocial behavior. Lastly, children with both NDDs and EBPs self-reported higher scores on anxiety-emotional behaviors. After considering family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors, these differences remained statistically significant only for children with both NDDs and EBPs. Child age and gender, household income and parenting behaviors were important in explaining these associations. Psychosocial functioning differs for children with NDDs and/or EBPs. Children with both NDDs and EBPs appear to report poorer psychosocial functioning compared to their peers with neither condition. However, it is important to consider the context of socio-demographic characteristics, parenting behaviors and their interactions to understand differences in children's psychosocial functioning. Implication for Rehabilitation: Practitioners may wish to consider complexity in child health by examining a comprehensive set of determinants of psychosocial outcomes as well as comorbid conditions, such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and externalizing

  20. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  1. Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E; Henderson, Heather A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Pine, Daniel S; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence.

  2. Externalizing behaviors and cigarette smoking as predictors for use of illicit drugs: a longitudinal study among Finnish adolescent twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  3. Externalizing Behaviors and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors for Use of Illicit Drugs: A Longitudinal Study Among Finnish Adolescent Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  4. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  5. Critical Behavior of Gaussian Model on X Fractal Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; KONG Xiang-Mu; HUANG Jia-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Using the renormalization group method, the critical behavior of Gaussian model is studied in external magnetic fields on X fractal lattices embedded in two-dimensional and d-dimensional (d > 2) Euclidean spaces, respectively. Critical points and exponents are calculated. It is found that there is long-range order at finite temperature for this model, and that the critical points do not change with the space dimensionality d (or the fractal dimensionality dr). It is also found that the critical exponents are very different from results of Ising model on the same lattices, and that the exponents on X lattices are different from the exact results on translationally symmetric lattices.

  6. Different patterns of boys' externalizing behavior and their relation to risk factors: a longitudinal study of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, M; Lösel, F

    2010-01-01

    Childrens' externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and impulsivity are serious problems in many societies. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems (anxiety, depression etc.). The present study addressed these two groups in a prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the previous descriptive findings remained stable over time and, in particular, whether the two types differed in important risk factors for antisocial behavior. The sample consisted of 198 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study. The first assessment took place in kindergarten and the second 3.4 years later in elementary school. The behavior problems were assessed by ratings of kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers using the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ). The risk factors were low socio-economic status of the family, birth complications, physical punishment in parenting behavior, difficult temperament, low intelligence, and aggression-prone social information processing of the child. Approximately 15% of the boys revealed externalizing behavior problems. A variable-oriented analysis showed significant stability over time. In a person-oriented Configural Frequency Analysis the 'externalizing only' and the 'combined externalizing and internalizing' pattern could be replicated. For five of the six risk factors we found significant differences between the boys with behavior problems and a non-deviant group. However, the two different patterns of externalizing problems differed only in intelligence (lower for the group with combined problems). The results confirm models of cumulative biological, psychological and social risks for antisocial behavior over time. Furthermore, specified analyses of the two types and their relation to proactive and reactive

  7. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  8. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  9. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and

  10. Wrinkling behavior in tube hydroforming coupled with internal and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and use of wrinkles is a challenge in tube hydroforming because wrinkle was always considered as one of the defects of tubes from the traditional view. In this paper, a dedicated experimental setup was designed and manufactured, using which the investigation of wrinkling behavior coupled with internal and external pressure can be realized. The effect of internal or external pressure on 5A02 aluminum alloy tubes and 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel tubes were all investigated using this setup. It was found that the number and shape of wrinkles are strongly dependent on the internal or external pressure. More important is that the geometrical configuration of wrinkles can be perfectly characterized using the Gauss function rather than the sine function adopted in the published literature. In addition, the fitted Gauss functions for every wrinkle were integrated in order to compare their area with the corresponding area of die cavity, so as to obtain the appropriate process parameters for the useful wrinkle, which can be formed in advance and then flatted in the calibration stage.

  11. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  12. Academic and Behavioral Trajectories for At-Risk Adolescents in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Cavendish, Wendy; Castro, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was twofold: (a) to investigate academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes for adolescents who were followed longitudinally from middle through high school and (b) to determine if early assessment of achievement and behavior predicts academic and behavioral outcomes for adolescents who were identified as at…

  13. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  14. Parental Monitoring, Association with Externalized Behavior, and Academic Outcomes in Urban African-American Youth: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed.

  15. Child neglect and the development of externalizing behavior problems: associations with maternal drug dependence and neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2013-02-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.

  16. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  17. Mediating Effects of Student-Teacher Relationships on Student Externalizing Behaviors and the Development of a Teacher Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford-McClure, Tonia M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding disruptive, aggressive behaviors in schools. This remains a current issue despite school-wide and targeted interventions implemented with students who manifest externalizing behaviors. The literature review yielded several implications. First, teachers generally indicated that they had received inadequate…

  18. What Works for Whom, How and under What Circumstances? Testing Moderated Mediation of Intervention Effects on Externalizing Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Dekovic, Maja; van Londen, Monique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether changes in child social cognitive functioning and parenting are the mechanisms through which an individually delivered real-world child intervention, Stay Cool Kids, aimed at preventing externalizing problem behavior in high-risk elementary school children, induces changes in child behavior. Moreover, we…

  19. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  20. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. PMID:25455625

  1. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  2. Maternal History of Parentification, Maternal Warm Responsiveness, and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children’s externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation. PMID:22888779

  3. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  4. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Onishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  5. Seismic Behavior of Posttensioned Concrete Bridge Piers with External Viscoelastic Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the seismic performance of posttensioned concrete piers with external viscoelastic dampers to improve the energy dissipation capacity of this type of structure. An installation scheme for viscoelastic dampers on bridge piers is proposed, and the mechanical models of the damper are analyzed according to the installation scheme. By attaching the viscoelastic dampers to the posttensioned bridge piers, the analytical model of the hybrid system is established using the OpenSees finite element analysis package. Cyclic behavior and time history analyses are conducted on a posttensioned bridge with and without viscoelastic dampers using the established finite element model. The analysis results indicate that the viscoelastic dampers can effectively improve the seismic performance of the bridge structures with posttensioned piers.

  6. Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students’ Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacherstudent relationships (TSRs and students’ externalizing behavior problems (EBPs. Moreover, students’ culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Western students than Eastern ones, (b for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Eastern students than Western ones, (b for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents.

  7. Affective Teacher-Student Relationships and Students' Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Cui, Yunhuo; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' externalizing behavior problems (EBPs). Moreover, students' culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Western students than Eastern ones, (b) for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c) when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d) among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Eastern students than Western ones, (b) for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichioroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz . The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6in the strong direct current field.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz .The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6 in the strong direct current field.

  10. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-11-04

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  11. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of

  13. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  14. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ad...

  15. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  16. Examining the Impact of a Positive Behavior Support Program and Direct Instruction of Social and Emotional Learning Skills on the Externalizing Behaviors of Disruptive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Darla Renee

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…

  17. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  18. Chaotic behavior of collective ion dynamics in the presence of an external static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poria, Swarup; Ghosh, Samiran

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional nonlinear collective ion dynamics in the presence of external magnetic field in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. The analysis is performed for traveling plane waves to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics. The presence of magnetic field makes the dynamics of the nonlinear wave complex with a complicated phase-space behavior. Thus, the nonlinear wave supports a wide class of nonlinear structures viz., single soliton, multi-soliton, periodic, and quasi-periodic oscillations depending on the values of M (Mach number) and Ω (the ratio of ion gyro-frequency to the ion plasma frequency). The computational results predict the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear wave and the transition to chaos takes place when Ω ≳ 0.35 depending on the direction of propagation and the value of M. The amplitude of the wave depends on the obliqueness of the propagation and Mach number, whereas the magnetic field changes the dispersion properties of the wave.

  19. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  20. Conductas internalizantes y externalizantes en adolescentes / Internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danitsa Alarcón Parco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La adolescencia es un periodo de cambios rápidos en todos los aspectos del desarrollo humano. Es en esta etapa en la que se suelen presentar dificultades y manifestaciones de problemas de salud mental. El objetivo del estudio es conocer las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes reportadas por adolescentes estudiantes de secundaria. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 298 estudiantes entre 12 a 18 años (M = 14.98, DE = 1.28 de ambos sexos (54.4 % mujeres de dos instituciones educativas públicas donde la mayoría se encontraba cursando el 4.o año de secundaria (33.6 %. La muestra se seleccionó de manera no probabilística, por conveniencia, y se informó a todos los participantes del objetivo y actividades del estudio, del carácter voluntario de su participación, y del cuidado en mantener el anonimato y la confidencialidad de todos los datos recogidos. Se utilizó el autorreporte de jóvenes entre 11 y 18 años (YSR 11-18, Achenbach y Rescorla, 2001 para identificar las conductas internalizantes y externalizantes y sus respectivas dimensiones. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas por sexo. Las mujeres puntuaron más alto que los hombres en ansiedaddepresión, quejas somáticas, problemas de atención, y conductas internalizantes, mientras que los hombres puntuaron más alto en rompimiento de reglas y conductas externalizantes. ABSTRACT Adolescence is a period of rapid changes in all aspects of human development. It is at this stage that difficulties and mental health problems occur more often. The purpose of the study was to identify both internalizing and externalizing behavior reported by adolescent in high school. The sample was composed by 298 participants between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.98, SD = 1.28, of both sexes, (54.4 % women from two public educational institutions where the majority was enrolled in the 4th year of high school (33.6 %. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic manner for

  1. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- l

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  3. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi-

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  5. Adolescents' performance on delay and probability discounting tasks: contributions of age, intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth A; Hooper, Catalina J; Collins, Paul; Luciana, Monica

    2007-11-01

    Healthy adolescents, ages 9-23, completed delay and probability discounting tasks and measures of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, executive functioning, and self-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Delay but not probability discounting decreased with age. Delay discounting was also associated with verbal intelligence and Go-NoGo and Iowa Gambling Task performance. Probability discounting was associated only with externalizing behavior. Findings conform to an accumulation of evidence that while delay and probability discounting may have some overlapping components, they also reflect some fundamentally different processes in this age group.

  6. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior.

  7. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  8. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  9. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Benjamin D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  10. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- level framework. The framework is supported at low-level by different types of cameras, which are synchronized, facilitating effcient processing of information. A fish-eyecamera is used for tracking...

  11. 自然风对旋转弹丸外弹道性能影响的仿真研究%Simulation and Study of Effect of Natural Wind on External Trajectory Performance of Spinning Projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德朝; 张方方; 胡春晓

    2012-01-01

    为研究自然风对旋转弹丸外弹道性能的影响,基于坐标变换理论考虑了地球曲率变化对刚体弹道模型的作用,分析了自然风对各气动力和气动力矩的影响,建立了非标准条件下的刚体外弹道模型.应用该模型对某105mm榴弹不同风速、风向下的外弹道过程进行仿真,结果表明,自然风对飞行弹丸的攻角姿态有较大影响,进而影响弹丸的射程和方向偏移量;自然风对弹丸攻角姿态的影响在弹丸飞行的初始阶段风速大小起主要作用,而在弹丸飞行的中间阶段则是风矢方向起主要作用.%To study the effect of natural wind on external trajectory performance of spinning projectile, effect of earth curvature was analyzed based on the theory of coordinate transformation, the effect of natural wind on aerodynamic force and moment was analyzed. The external trajectory model was established under nonstandard environment. The external trajectory of a 105mm shrapnel at different wind speeds and wind orientation was simulated by use of this model. The calculated results shows that the attack angle of projectile is crucially affected by natural wind which eventually changes the trajectory of projectile. The size of wind speed plays an important role in the effect of natural wind on the dynamical stability at the beginning stage of flying projectile, while at the midway stage the main factor is changed to the direction of wind.

  12. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johanne Vederhus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals.Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years.Results. All eligible EP (n = 35 and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89% and 29 (83% at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales.Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  13. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-18

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  14. The Relationship between Emotion Comprehension and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior in 7- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Ariane; Henning, Anne; Möller, Corina; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of internalizing and externalizing problems on children’s understanding of others’ emotions has mainly been investigated on basic levels of emotion comprehension. So far, studies assessing more sophisticated levels of emotion comprehension reported deficits in the ability to understand others’ emotions in children with severe internalizing or externalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between emotion comprehension and interindividual differences, with a focus on internalizing and externalizing behavior in children aged 7–10 years from the general population. A sample of 135 children was tested for emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Information on internalizing and externalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18. Age, bilingual upbringing, and amount of paternal working hours were significant control variables for emotion comprehension. In contrast to prior research, overall level of emotion understanding was not related to externalizing symptoms and correlated positively with elevated levels of somatic complaints and anxious/depressed symptoms. In addition, and in line with previous work, higher levels of social withdrawal were associated with worse performance in understanding emotions elicited by reminders. The present results implicate not only an altered understanding of emotions among more specific internalizing symptoms, but also that these alterations occur already on a low symptom level in a community based sample. PMID:28018262

  15. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  16. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eCaporali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning.Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels.

  17. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed.

  18. Behavioral externalities in natural resource production possibility frontiers: integrating biology and economics to model human-wildlife interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, N H

    2003-09-01

    Production possibility modeling has been applied to a variety of wildlife management issues. Although it has seen only limited employment in modeling human-wildlife output decisions, it can be expected that the theory's use in this area will increase as human interactions with and impacts on wildlife become more frequent. At present, most models applying production possibility theory to wildlife production can be characterized in that wildlife output quantities are determined by physically quantifiable functions representing rivalrous resources. When the theory is applied to human-wildlife interactions, it may not be sufficient to model the production tradeoffs using only physical constraints. As wildlife are known to respond to human presence, it could be expected that human activity may appear in wildlife production functions as an externality. Behavioral externalities are revealed by an output's response to the presence of another output and can result in a loss of concavity of the production possibilities frontier. Ignoring the potential of a behavioral externality can result in an unexpected and inefficient output allocation that may compromise a wildlife population's well-being. Behavioral externalities can be included in PPF models in a number of ways, including the use of data or cumulative effects modeling. While identifying that behavioral externalities exist and incorporating them into a model is important, correctly interpreting their implications will be critical to improve the efficiency of natural resource management. Behavioral externalities may cause a loss of concavity anywhere along a PPF that may compel managerial decisions that are inconsistent with multiple use doctrines. Convex PPFs may result when wildlife species are extremely sensitive to any level of human activity. It may be possible to improve the PPF's concavity by reducing the strength of the behavioral effect. Any change in the PPF that increases the convexity of the production set

  19. Neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in school-age children : A study on truths and lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This thesis describes a series of studies on the neurobiological correlates of externalizing and prosocial behavior in six-to ten-year old children. Chapter 1 provides an outline and describes the background and aims of our work. The studies described in this thesis are

  20. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  1. The effectiveness of parent management training—oregon model in clinically referred children with externalizing behavior problems in the netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Jill; Vink, G.; Muris, Peter; de Ruiter, Corine

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of parent management training—Oregon model (PMTO) as a treatment for children with externalizing behavior problems in The Netherlands. Clinically referred children (N = 146) aged 4–11 years and their parents were partly randomized to either PMTO (n = 91)

  2. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328240583; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/25233602X

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  3. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical ques

  4. Externalizing Behaviors and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors for Use of Illicit Drugs: A Longitudinal Study Among Finnish Adolescent Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the FinnTwin12

  5. Underlying Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interactions in Externalizing Behavior: A Systematic Review and Search for Theoretical Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, J.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, several candidate genes (i.e., MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT) have been extensively studied as potential moderators of the detrimental effects of postnatal family adversity on child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and conduct disorder. Many studies on s

  6. Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors among African Americans during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…

  7. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  8. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  9. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  10. The aggregation behavior of native collagen in dilute solution studied by intrinsic fluorescence and external probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2013-02-01

    The aggregation behavior of type I collagen in acid solutions with the concentrations covering a range of 0.06-1.50 mg/mL was studied utilizing both of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the phenylalanine and tyrosine residues and the external probing of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS). FRET at 0.30 mg/mL showed the distance among collagen monomers was within 10 nm without the obvious aggregates formed. The predominance of tyrosine fluorescence in FRET in the range of 0.45-0.75 mg/mL identified the existence of collagen aggregates companied with the formation of hydrophobic microdomains revealed by the change of the fluorescence of ANS. The blue-shift of tyrosine fluorescence from 303 to 293 nm for 0.90-1.50 mg/mL dedicated the formation of high order aggregates. The results from the two-phase diagrams of the intrinsic fluorescence for the guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding of collagen confirmed these conclusions. By the two-dimensional correlation analysis for the intrinsic fluorescence of collagen solutions of 0.45, 0.75 and 1.05 mg/mL, the probable characteristic fluorescence peaks for the interactions of proline-aromatic (CH ˜ π) among the collagen molecules were found at 298 and 316 nm.

  11. Distributional behavior of diffusion coefficients obtained by single trajectories in annealed transit time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Local diffusion coefficients in disordered systems such as spin glass systems and living cells are highly heterogeneous and may change over time. Such a time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous environment results in irreproducibility of single-particle-tracking measurements. Irreproducibility of time-averaged observables has been theoretically studied in the context of weak ergodicity breaking in stochastic processes. Here, we provide rigorous descriptions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium diffusion processes for the annealed transit time model, which is a heterogeneous diffusion model in living cells. We give analytical solutions for the mean square displacement (MSD) and the relative standard deviation of the time-averaged MSD for equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. We find that the time-averaged MSD grows linearly with time and that the time-averaged diffusion coefficients are intrinsically random (irreproducible) even in the long-time measurements in non-equilibrium situations. Furthermore, the distribution of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients converges to a universal distribution in the sense that it does not depend on initial conditions. Our findings pave the way for a theoretical understanding of distributional behavior of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients in disordered systems.

  12. Estimating long-term behavior of periodically driven flows without trajectory integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyland, Gary; Koltai, Péter

    2017-05-01

    Periodically driven flows are fundamental models of chaotic behavior and the study of their transport properties is an active area of research. A well-known analytic construction is the augmentation of phase space with an additional time dimension; in this augmented space, the flow becomes autonomous or time-independent. We prove several results concerning the connections between the original time-periodic representation and the time-extended representation, focusing on transport properties. In the deterministic setting, these include single-period outflows and time-asymptotic escape rates from time-parameterized families of sets. We also consider stochastic differential equations with time-periodic advection term. In this stochastic setting one has a time-periodic generator (the differential operator given by the right-hand-side of the corresponding time-periodic Fokker-Planck equation). We define in a natural way an autonomous generator corresponding to the flow on time-extended phase space. We prove relationships between these two generator representations and use these to quantify decay rates of observables and to determine time-periodic families of sets with slow escape rate. Finally, we use the generator on the time-extended phase space to create efficient numerical schemes to implement the various theoretical constructions. These ideas build on the work of Froyland et al (2013 SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 51 223-47), and no expensive time integration is required. We introduce an efficient new hybrid approach, which treats the space and time dimensions separately.

  13. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents– the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is dueto passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS) (N=909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) (N=915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent’s externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers’ critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring. PMID:21280930

  14. Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: the role of parental socialization and emotion expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, S A; Workman, E; Cole, P M; Weissbrod, C; Kendziora, K T; Zahn-Waxler, C

    2000-01-01

    Parental emotions and behaviors that contribute to continuity and change in preschool children's externalizing problems were examined. Mothers and fathers were observed interacting with their children, and child-rearing styles were reported. Teachers, mothers, and children reported children's antisocial, oppositional behavior. Externalizing problems showed strong continuity 2 and 4 years later. Proactive parenting (i.e., supportive presence, clear instruction, and limit setting) predicted fewer behavior problems over time, after controlling for initial problems; the converse was true for parental anger. In contrast, the hypothesized ameliorative contribution of parents' positive emotion was not found. Parental contributions were most influential for children whose initial problems were in the clinical range. In particular, parental anger predicted continuation of problems over time. Paternal, as well as maternal, influences were identified. Examination of parental emotions and inclusion of fathers is important to research and intervention with young antisocial children.

  15. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  16. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  17. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  18. Warm Parenting and Effortful Control in Toddlerhood: Independent and Interactive Predictors of School-Age Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Julia D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-08-01

    Externalizing symptoms, such as aggression, impulsivity, and inattention, represent the most common forms of childhood maladjustment (Campbell et al. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467-488, 2000). Several dimensions of parenting behavior, including overreactive and warm parenting, have been linked to children's conduct problems. However, the majority of these studies involve biologically-related family members, thereby limiting understanding of the role of genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of parenting on child psychopathology. This study extends previous research by exploring associations between overreactive and warm parenting during toddlerhood and school-age externalizing problems, as well as the potential moderating effects of child effortful control (EC) on such associations using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 225 adoption-linked families (adoptive parents, adopted child [124 male and 101 female] and birth parent[s]), thereby allowing for a more precise estimate of environmental influences on the association between parenting and child externalizing problems. Adoptive mothers' warm parenting at 27 months predicted lower levels of child externalizing problems at ages 6 and 7. Child EC moderated this association in relation to teacher reports of school-age externalizing problems. Findings corroborate prior research with biological families that was not designed to unpack genetic and environmental influences on associations between parenting and child externalizing problems during childhood, highlighting the important role of parental warmth as an environmental influence.

  19. Trajectory generation and modulation using dynamic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, P; Sundareshan, M K

    2003-01-01

    Generation of desired trajectory behavior using neural networks involves a particularly challenging spatio-temporal learning problem. This paper introduces a novel solution, i.e., designing a dynamic system whose terminal behavior emulates a prespecified spatio-temporal pattern independently of its initial conditions. The proposed solution uses a dynamic neural network (DNN), a hybrid architecture that employs a recurrent neural network (RNN) in cascade with a nonrecurrent neural network (NRNN). The RNN generates a simple limit cycle, which the NRNN reshapes into the desired trajectory. This architecture is simple to train. A systematic synthesis procedure based on the design of relay control systems is developed for configuring an RNN that can produce a limit cycle of elementary complexity. It is further shown that a cascade arrangement of this RNN and an appropriately trained NRNN can emulate any desired trajectory behavior irrespective of its complexity. An interesting solution to the trajectory modulation problem, i.e., online modulation of the generated trajectories using external inputs, is also presented. Results of several experiments are included to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the DNN in handling trajectory generation and modulation problems.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of a Flexible Structure to Combined External Acoustic and Parametric Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Varoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible structures are frequently subjected to multiple inputs when in the field environment. The accurate determination of the system dynamic response to multiple inputs depends on how much information is available from the excitation sources that act on the system under study. Detailed information include, but are not restricted to appropriate characterization of the excitation sources in terms of their variation in time and in space for the case of distributed loads. Another important aspect related to the excitation sources is how inputs of different nature contribute to the measured dynamic response. A particular and important driving mechanism that can occur in practical situations is the parametric resonance. Another important input that occurs frequently in practice is related to acoustic pressure distributions that is a distributed type of loading. In this paper, detailed theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic response of a flexible cantilever beam carrying a tip mass to simultaneously applied external acoustic and parametric excitation signals have been performed. A mathematical model for transverse nonlinear vibration is obtained by employing Lagrange’s equations where important nonlinear effects such as the beam’s curvature and quadratic viscous damping are accounted for in the equation of motion. The beam is driven by two excitation sources, a sinusoidal motion applied to the beam’s fixed end and parallel to its longitudinal axis and a distributed sinusoidal acoustic load applied orthogonally to the beam’s longitudinal axis. The major goal here is to investigate theoretically as well as experimentally the dynamic behavior of the beam-lumped mass system under the action of these two excitation sources. Results from an extensive experimental work show how these two excitation sources interacts for various testing conditions. These experimental results are validated through numerically simulated results

  1. Behavior Problems in Elementary School among Low-Income Boys: The Role of Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian Andrew; O'Connor, Erin Eileen; Supplee, Lauren; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    The authors identified trajectories of teacher-child relationship conflict and closeness from Grades 1 to 6, and associations between these trajectories and externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 11 years old among low-income, urban boys (N = 262). There were three main findings. Nagin cluster analyses indicated five trajectories for…

  2. Modulating protein behaviors on responsive surface by external electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yun, E-mail: xieyunxx@gdpu.edu.cn; Pan, Yufang; Zhang, Rong; Liang, Ying; Li, Zhanchao

    2015-01-30

    phosphate groups after overcoming a slight energy barrier. Under three states, the basic backbone structures of Cyt c are well kept within the simulation time since the conformation of Cyt c is mainly affected by the surface-generated electric fields, whose strengths are modulated by the external electric fields and are not strong enough to deform protein. The results indicate the possibility of regulating protein behaviors, including promoting or retarding protein adsorption and regulating protein orientations, on responsive surfaces by applying electric fields on the surfaces without worrying protein deformation, which may be helpful in the applications of protein separation and controlled drug delivery.

  3. Co-Occurring Trajectory of Mothers' Substance Use and Psychological Control and Children's Behavior Problems: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin

    2017-02-19

    This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  4. Gene-Environment Interaction in Teacher-Rated Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior in 7- to 12-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior at school can have major consequences for a child and is predictive for disorders later in life. Teacher ratings are important to assess internalizing and externalizing problems at school. Genetic epidemiological studies on teacher-rated problem behavior are relatively scarce and the…

  5. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  6. Experimental Evidence for Differential Susceptibility: Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) Moderates Intervention Effects on Toddlers' Externalizing Behavior in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Mesman, Judi; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback…

  7. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach-avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Rickert, Martin E; Bogg, Tim; Lucas, Jesolyn; Finn, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    Research has suggested that reduced working memory capacity plays a key role in disinhibited patterns of behavior associated with externalizing psychopathology. In this study, participants (N = 365) completed 2 versions of a go/no-go mixed-incentive learning task that differed in the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments for correct and incorrect active-approach responses, respectively. Using separate structural equation models for conventional (hit and false alarm rates) and signal detection theory (signal discriminability and response bias) performance indices, distinct roles for working memory capacity and changes in payoff structure were found. Specifically, results showed that (a) working memory capacity mediated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on false alarms and discriminability of go versus no-go signals; (b) these effects were not moderated by the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments; (c) the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments moderated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on hits and response bias for go versus no-go responses; and (d) these effects were not mediated by working memory capacity. The findings implicate distinct roles for reduced working memory capacity and poorly modulated active approach and passive avoidance in the link between externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition.

  9. DUCTILITY BEHAVIOR FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH EXTERNALLY BONDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC beams with externally bonded Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP laminates with a view to study their strength and ductility. A total of ten beams, 150×250 mm in cross-section were tested in the laboratory over an effective span of 2800 mm. Three fiber reinforced concrete beams were used as reference beams. Six fiber reinforced concrete beams were provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates. One concrete beam was left virgin without any fiber reinforcement and external GFRP laminates. All the beams were tested until failure. The variables considered included volume fraction of fiber reinforcement and stiffness of GFRP laminates. The static responses of all the beams were evaluated in terms of strength, stiffness and ductility. The test results show that the beams provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates exhibit improved performance over the beams with internal fiber reinforcement.

  10. FLOW BEHAVIOR AND MASS TRANSFER IN THREE-PHASE EXTERNAL-LOOP AIRLIFT REACTORS WITH LARGE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malin; Liu; Tongwang; Zhang; Tiefeng; Wang; Jinfu; Wang; Yong; Jin

    2006-01-01

    The flow behavior and mass transfer in a three-phase external-loop airlift reactor can be improved by adding large particles. The mass transfer and liquid dispersion behavior for a three-phase external-loop reactor with large particles are studied in terms of the effect of the diameter and loading of the large particles on the liquid dispersion coefficient and mass transfer coefficient. The results showed that increasing the diameter or loading of the large particles tend to decrease dispersion and intensify mass transfer, and that an increase in the diameter of the large particles remarkably decreases the particle loop rate, while the effect of fine particles is much less notable.

  11. Critical Behavior of the Gaussian Model with Periodic Interactions on Diamond-Type Hierarchical Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN ZhenQuan; KONG XiangMu; JIN JinShuang; YANG ZhanRu

    2001-01-01

    The Gaussian spin model with periodic interactions on the diamond-type hierarchical lattices is constructed by generalizing that with uniform interactions on translationally invariant lattices according to a class of substitution sequences. The Gaussian distribution constants and imposed external magnetic fields are also periodic depending on the periodic characteristic of the interaction bonds. The critical behaviors of this generalized Gaussian model in external magnetic fields are studied by the exact renormalization-group approach and spin rescaling method. The critical points and all the critical exponents are obtained. The critical behaviors are found to be determined by the Gaussian distribution constants and the fractal dimensions of the lattices. When all the Gaussian distribution constants are the same, the dependence of the critical exponents on the dimensions of the lattices is the same as that of the Gaussian model with uniform interactions on translationally invariant lattices.

  12. Developmental Timing and Continuity of Exposure to Interparental Violence and Externalizing Behavior as Prospective Predictors of Dating Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or cont...

  13. Interference, Reduced Action, and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2007-09-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the trajectories of the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function’s trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  14. External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Zohrabian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on external costs of risky behaviors in the U.S. and provides a framework for estimating them. External costs arise when a person does not bear all the costs of his or her behavior. They provide one of the strongest rationales for government interventions. Although the earlier estimates of external costs no longer have policy relevance, they demonstrated that the existence of external costs was an empirical question. We recommend that the estimates of external costs be updated as insurance structures, environments, and knowledge about these behaviors change. The general aspects of external costs may apply to countries other than the U.S. after taking into account differences in institutional, policy and epidemiological characteristics.

  15. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  16. The impact of external optical feedback on the degradation behavior of high-power diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Martin; Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...... unaffected, severe impact is observed to the cladding layers and the waveguide. Consequently hardening of diode lasers for operation under external optical feedback must necessarily involve claddings and waveguide, into which the quantum well is embedded.......The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...

  17. Trajectories of HIV Risk Behavior from Age 15 to 25 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David

    2008-01-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) consistently higher sexual risk levels, increasing to early adulthood followed by some decrease (“high”); (2) a short period of increase to late teens, followed by a longer period of decrease (“decreased”); (3) an initially slow increase, with the increase accelerating by late teens, and a slight decline beginning in early adulthood (“increased”); and (4) consistently lowest levels of sexual risk (“low”). More African Americans were found among the decreased trajectory group; among the low risk group a higher number of youth came from families with parents who spoke a language other than English. The high-risk group had a higher percentage of subjects in non-metropolitan areas and highest alcohol use. Among males, being employed and being in the military were associated with inclusion in the high-risk group. Results have implications for specializing prevention strategies for youth with different patterns of sexual risk. PMID:19669902

  18. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  19. Co-Development of Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviors: Causal Direction and Common Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to study the co-development of internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 2844 Korean fourth graders followed over four years. The project integrated two major theoretical viewpoints positing developmental mechanism: directional model and common vulnerability model. Findings suggest that (a) boys…

  20. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  1. Aggressive Behavior between Siblings and the Development of Externalizing Problems: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sibling aggression and the development of externalizing problems using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically sensitive design. The sample consisted of 780 adolescents (390 sibling pairs) who participated in 2 waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project.…

  2. Poverty, Food Insecurity, and the Behavior for Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Williams, David R.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the associations of poverty and food insecurity over a 2-year period with internalizing and externalizing problems in a large, community-based sample. Method: A total of 2,810 children were interviewed between ages 4 and 14 years at baseline, and between ages 5 and 16 years at follow-up. Primary caregivers…

  3. Co-Development of Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviors: Causal Direction and Common Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to study the co-development of internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 2844 Korean fourth graders followed over four years. The project integrated two major theoretical viewpoints positing developmental mechanism: directional model and common vulnerability model. Findings suggest that (a) boys…

  4. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  5. Poverty, Food Insecurity, and the Behavior for Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Williams, David R.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the associations of poverty and food insecurity over a 2-year period with internalizing and externalizing problems in a large, community-based sample. Method: A total of 2,810 children were interviewed between ages 4 and 14 years at baseline, and between ages 5 and 16 years at follow-up. Primary caregivers…

  6. Children's perceptions of dissimilarity in parenting styles are associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Berkien (Myra); I. Louwerse (Ilse); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's perception of dissimilarity in parenting styles, and internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Children from the general population (n = 658) reported on the level of emotional warmth, rejection, and

  7. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  8. Children's perceptions of dissimilarity in parenting styles are associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Berkien (Myra); I. Louwerse (Ilse); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's perception of dissimilarity in parenting styles, and internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Children from the general population (n = 658) reported on the level of emotional warmth, rejection, and

  9. Investigation of charge injection and transport behavior in multilayer structure consisted of ferromagnetic metal and organic polymer under external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Meng, Wei-Feng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper a five layer organic electronic device with alternately placed ferromagnetic metals and organic polymers: ferromagnetic metal/organic layer/ferromagnetic metal/organic layer/ferromagnetic metal, which is injected a spin-polarized electron from outsides, is studied theoretically using one-dimensional tight binding model Hamiltonian. We calculated equilibrium state behavior after an electron with spin is injected into the organic layer of this structure, charge density distribution and spin polarization density distribution of this injected spin-polarized electron, and mainly studied possible transport behavior of the injected spin polarized electron in this multilayer structure under different external electric fields. We analyze the physical process of the injected electron in this multilayer system. It is found by our calculation that the injected spin polarized electron exists as an electron-polaron state with spin polarization in the organic layer and it can pass through the middle ferromagnetic layer from the right-hand organic layer to the left-hand organic layer by the action of increasing external electric fields, which indicates that this structure may be used as a possible spin-polarized charge electronic device and also may provide a theoretical base for the organic electronic devices and it is also found that in the boundaries between the ferromagnetic layer and the organic layer there exist induced interface local dipoles due to the external electric fields.

  10. Understanding the external pressure and behavior of commercial banks' environmental risk management: an empirical study undertaken in the Yangtze River delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Zhongguo

    2014-04-01

    The present study employed a quantitative survey to ascertain whether the external pressure of environmental risk management (ERM) on commercial banks was a contributing factor to their ERM behavior. Data was obtained using questionnaires from 204 branches of commercial banks located in the Yangtze River Delta of China. The relationship between external pressure and behavior was tested using a linear structural relations model through path analysis. The results revealed that external pressure of ERM was significantly and positively related to the behavior and that pressure from governmental regulations was the most important contributing factor in the passive feedback behavior and preventive behavior of commercial banks. The pressure from markets was the most important contributing factor in banks' active participation behavior; the pressure from community and NGOs was the most important contributing factor in their enthusiastic behavior.

  11. Conduct Problem Trajectories Between Age 4 and 17 and Their Association with Behavioral Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Kretschmer, Tina; de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter

    Individual heterogeneity exists in the onset and development of conduct problems, but theoretical claims about predictors and prognosis are often not consistent with the empirical findings. This study examined shape and outcomes of conduct problem trajectories in a Belgian population-based sample (N

  12. The Behavior of Ultrafine Particles in the Absence and Presence of External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Bentham, Craig; Elliott, James

    2007-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. Finally, we explore the response of these systems to external fields by studying the evolution of the internal microstructure under contant load and shear strain.

  13. Study of Reactive Melt Processing Behavior of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate in Presence of Isocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Erdmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of externally plasticized cellulose acetate (CA were chemically modified using 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI as crosslinking agent. Crosslinking was performed in the molten state by means of melt mixing in an internal mixer. The viscoelastic properties of the non-crosslinked, externally plasticized CA show typical temperature dependence, similar to conventional thermoplastics. A strong increase in storage modulus is observed with increasing crosslink density indicating that the crosslinked compounds exhibit predominately elastic response. The complex viscosity also increases considerably with increasing crosslink density and does not reach the typical Newtonian plateau at low radial frequencies any more. The viscoelastic properties correlate well with the data recorded online during reactive melt processing in the internal mixer. In comparison to the non-crosslinked CA, the crosslinked compounds show higher glass transition temperature, higher VICAT softening temperatures, improved thermal stability and lower plasticizer evaporation at evaluated temperatures.

  14. [The significance of the relationship between external/internal locus of control and adolescent substance use in behavioral medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Kovács, Eszter; Kriston, Pálma

    2011-02-27

    Prevention and treatment of the addictions are key public health priorities in modern society. In medical practice, in relation to the biochemical processes, mapping the addiction-prone personality traits, like external/internal locus of control are getting more and more attention. Individuals with high level on internal locus of control, for example, tend to take care of their health behavior; the lack of it, on the other hand, may worsen the effectiveness of stress release which may increase the likelihood of turning to substance use. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between adolescent substance use (both lifetime prevalence and the actual substance user status) and external/internal locus of control). The data collection of the questionnaire survey was going on among 656 high school students in Szeged (age range between 14-21 years, mean = 16.5 years, S.D. = 1.5 years of age, 49.1% of the sample was female). Associations between indicators of substance use (as dependent variables) and scale points of external/internal locus of control (as independent variables) were assessed using odds ratios calculated by logistic regression analyses, whereas gender was used as a controlling variable. Among boys, scale points of external, among girls, those of internal locus of control showed higher values. External locus of control increased, whereas internal locus of control decreased the risk of substance use, however, the relative role of external/internal locus of control was different according to the type of substance use and the prevalence values. In terms of smoking, lifetime prevalence, whereas in terms of marijuana use, the actual user status was influenced. In addition, while the latter one was also affected by gender, it did not play a role at all in the previous one. All these findings suggest that behavioral control may play a particularly important role in prevention of adolescent substance use. For developing this, methods

  15. Longtime behavior for oscillations of an extensible viscoelastic beam with elastic external supply

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on a nonlinear equation describing the oscillations of an extensible viscoelastic beam with fixed ends, subject to distributed elastic external force. For a general axial load $\\beta$, the existence of a finite/infinite set of stationary solutions and buckling occurrence are scrutinized. The exponential stability of the straight position is discussed. Finally, the related dynamical system in the history space framework is shown to possess a regular global attractor.

  16. Gender as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing behavior problems in sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-02-01

    Despite the proliferation of studies documenting outcomes in sexually abused victims, gender differences remain understudied. The bulk of studies have relied on retrospective samples of adults with insufficient representation of male victims to explore gender specificities. This study examined differential outcomes among boy and girl victims of sexual abuse. A predictive model of outcomes including abuse characteristics and sense of guilt as mediators was proposed. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys), aged 6-12. Being a girl was a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms, while being a boy was a predictor of externalizing problems. Being a boy was also associated with more severe abuse, which in turn predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. Child's gender was not related to perpetrator's relationship to the child or sense of guilt. However, sense of guilt predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing problems while perpetrator's relationship to the child predicted externalizing problems. Gender specificities should be further studied among sexually abused children, as boys and girls appear to manifest different outcomes. Sense of guilt should be a target in intervention for sexually abused children, as results highlight its link to heightened negative outcomes.

  17. Externalizing behavior problems among polydrug cocaine-exposed children: Indirect pathways via maternal harshness and self-regulation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Coles, Claire D; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2014-03-01

    This study examined direct and indirect associations between prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and children's externalizing problems in kindergarten via higher maternal harshness and lower self-regulation in early childhood. Other environmental risk variables, such as child exposure to community violence and experience of hunger, were used as additional predictors. The sample consisted of 216 mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 nonexposed). Maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother-toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children's self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Maternal reports of externalizing behavior problems were obtained at both time points and at kindergarten. Teacher reports were obtained and classroom observations of externalizing behaviors were conducted in the kindergarten classroom. Results indicated significant indirect associations between CE and maternal reports of externalizing problems via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and higher externalizing problems at 3 years of child age. A second indirect path from CE to externalizing problems in the school setting via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and lower self-regulation at 3 years was also significant. There were significant associations between community violence exposure and maternal reports of externalizing problems, and between hunger and externalizing problems in the school setting. Results highlight the role of parenting and self-regulation in early childhood as critical process variables in the indirect association between CE and externalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

  18. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Bian, Yulong; Han, Piguo; Gao, Fengqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9) with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students), the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students). Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided. PMID:28769851

  19. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9 with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students, the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students. Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided.

  20. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students' Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Bian, Yulong; Han, Piguo; Gao, Fengqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9) with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students), the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students). Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students' learning provided.

  1. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2011-05-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence.

  2. Early Callous-Unemotional Behavior, Theory-of-Mind, and a Fearful/Inhibited Temperament Predict Externalizing Problems in Middle and Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Olson, Sheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Childhood externalizing problems are more likely to be severe and persistent when combined with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. A handful of recent studies have shown that CU behavior can also be reliably measured in the early preschool years, which may help to identify young children who are less likely to desist from early externalizing behaviors. The current study extends previous literature by examining the role of CU behavior in very early childhood in the prediction of externalizing problems in both middle and late childhood, and tests whether other relevant child characteristics, including Theory-of-Mind (ToM) and fearful/inhibited temperament moderate these pathways. Multi-method data, including parent reports of child CU behavior and fearful/inhibited temperament, observations of ToM, and teacher-reported externalizing problems were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at ages 3, 6, and 10 (N = 241; 48 % female). Results demonstrated that high levels of CU behavior predicted externalizing problems at ages 6 and 10 over and above the effect of earlier externalizing problems at age 3, but that these main effects were qualified by two interactions. High CU behavior was related to higher levels of externalizing problems specifically for children with low ToM and a low fearful/inhibited temperament. The results show that a multitude of child characteristics likely interact across development to increase or buffer risk for child externalizing problems. These findings can inform the development of targeted early prevention and intervention for children with high CU behavior.

  3. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltre...

  4. Externalizing behavior and impulsivity in the children of alcoholics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanar Sugaparaneetharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduced behavioural inhibition, characterized by impulsivity and disruptive behaviour disorders, has been identified as a developmental precursor of alcoholism with a considerable genetic component. Aims: The present study aimed to assess whether children of fathers with alcohol dependence have high impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. Setting and Design: Observational case-control study, done in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Southern India. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study recruited 50 children aged 7 to 14 years of fathers with alcohol dependence and 50 age- and gender-matched children of fathers without alcohol dependence. The two groups were compared using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics used to summarise the study findings. Cases and controls were compared on BIS and CBCL scores using a general linear model (GLM. All analyses were two tailed and test P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The children of fathers with alcohol dependence were more likely to meet criteria for ADHD (30% versus 10%, χ2 = 6.250, P = 0.012. After controlling for age and gender, impulsivity scores on the BIS tended to be higher in the cases (F = 2.410, P = 0.055 than controls, mainly in the non-planning domains (F = 3.650, P = 0.008. Similarly, externalizing behaviours on CBCL were more common in the cases than controls (F = 2.817, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Children of fathers with alcohol dependence had greater impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. This may represent a behavioural phenotype as well as a potential target for early intervention.

  5. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, E R

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function's trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  6. Developmental Associations Between Externalizing Behaviors, Peer Delinquency, Drug Use, Perceived Neighborhood Crime, and Violent Behavior in Urban Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; X̄ age=14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; X̄ age=29.2 years). The variables assessed were: compon...

  7. Enhanced Absorption Performance of Carbon Nanostructure Based Metamaterials and Tuning Impedance Matching Behavior by an External AC Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipur, Reza; Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali

    2017-04-12

    Metamaterials have surprisingly broadened the range of available practical applications in new devices such as shielding, microwave absorbing, and novel antennas. More research has been conducted related to tuning DNG frequency bands of ordered or disordered metamaterials, and far less research has focused on the importance of impedance matching behavior, with little effort and attention given to adjusting the magnitude of negative permittivity values. This is particularly important if devices deal with low-amplitude signals such as radio or TV antennas. The carbon/hafnium nickel oxide (C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy) nanocomposites with simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, excellent metamaterial performance, and good impedance matching could become an efficient alternative for the ordered metamaterials in wave-transparent, microwave absorbing, and solar energy harvesting fields. In this study, we prepared C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy nanocomposites by the solvothermal method, and we clarified how the impedance matching and double-negative (DNG) behaviors of C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy can be tuned by an external AC electric field created by an electric quadrupole system. An external electric field allows for the alignment of the well-dispersed nanoparticles of carbon with long-range orientations order. We believe that this finding broadens our understanding of moderate conductive material-based random metamaterials (MCMRMs) and provides a novel strategy for replacing high-loss ordered or disordered metamaterials with MCMRMs.

  8. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  9. External tagging does not affect the feeding behavior of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon vagabundus (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2009-11-10

    Increasingly, the ability to recognize individual fishes is important for studies of population dynamics, ecology, and behavior. Although a variety of methods exist, external tags remain one of the most widely applied because they are both effective and cost efficient. However, a key assumption is that neither the tagging procedure nor the presence of a tag negatively affects the individual. While this has been demonstrated for relatively coarse metrics such as growth and survival, few studies have examined the impact of tags and tagging on more subtle aspects of behavior. We tagged adult vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) occupying a 30-ha insular reef in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using a commonly-utilized t-bar anchor tag. We quantified and compared feeding behavior (bite rate), which is sensitive to stress, of tagged and untagged individuals over four separate sampling periods spanning 4 months post-tagging. Bite rates did not differ between tagged and untagged individuals at each sampling period and, combined with additional anecdotal observations of normal pairing behavior and successful reproduction, suggest that tagging did not adversely affect individuals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  10. The Association of Externalizing Behavior and Parent-Child Relationships: An Intergenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…

  11. Which Family Factors Predict Children's Externalizing Behaviors Following Discharge from Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Parents' behavior management practices, parental stress, and family environment are highly pertinent to children's conduct problems. Preadolescents' psychiatric hospitalization usually arises because of severe conduct problems, so the relationships of family-related variables to postdischarge functioning warrant investigation. This…

  12. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  13. Quantum trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to many-particle systems has been an active area of research in recent years as researchers have looked for ways to tackle difficult problems in this area. The quantum trajectory method provides an efficient computational technique for solving both stationary and time-evolving states, encompassing a large area of quantum mechanics. Quantum Trajectories brings the expertise of an international panel of experts who focus on the epistemological significance of quantum mechanics through the quantum theory of motion.Emphasizing a classical interpretation of quan

  14. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  15. Out-of-school care and problem behavior trajectories among low-income adolescents: individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics as added risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Morris, Jodi Eileen; Hernandez, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Using a developmental systems approach, this study considered longitudinal links between adolescents' out-of-school care experiences and behavioral trajectories within a random sample of 819 adolescents ages 10 to 14 years at Wave 1 from low-income, urban families. Multiple aspects of context were considered, including the location, supervision, and structure of adolescents' care arrangements, as well as parenting practices and perceived neighborhood environments. Regression models indicated that out-of-home care, whether supervised or unsupervised, showed modest longitudinal relations with heightened rates of delinquency, drug and alcohol use, and school problems. Out-of-home care was linked with particularly deleterious outcomes for adolescents with high earlier rates of behavior problems, low parental monitoring, and low perceived neighborhood collective efficacy.

  16. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.

  17. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  18. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  19. Patterns of Sustained Attention in Infancy Shape the Developmental Trajectory of Social Behavior from Toddlerhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; McDermott, Jennifer N. Martin; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the…

  20. Critical behavior of the Gaussian model on fractal lattices in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥木; 林振权; 朱建阳

    2000-01-01

    For inhomogeneous lattices we generalize the classical Gaussian model, i. e. it is pro-posed that the Gaussian type distribution constant and the external magnetic field of site / in this model depend on the coordination number q, of site i, and that the relation bq1/bq1 = q1/q1 holds among bq1s, where bq1 is the Gaussian type distribution constant of site /. Using the decimation real-spacerenormalization group following the spin-rescaling method, the critical points and critical exponents of the Gaussian model are calculated on some Koch type curves and a family of the diamond-type hierar-chical (or DH) lattices. At the critical points, it is found that the nearest-neighbor interaction and the magnetic field of site i can be expressed in the form K’ = bq1/q1 and hq =0, respectively. it is also found that most critical exponents depend on the fractal dimensionality of a fractal system. For the family of the DH lattices, the results are identical with the exact results on translation symmetric lattices,

  1. Critical behavior of the Gaussian model on fractal lattices in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For inhomogeneous lattices we generalize the classical Gaussian model, i.e. it is proposed that the Gaussian type distribution constant and the external magnetic field of site i in this model depend on the coordination number qi of site i, and that the relation bqi/bqj=qi/qj holds among bqi's, where bqi is the Gaussian type distribution constant of site i. Using the decimation real-space renormalization group following the spin-rescaling method, the critical points and critical exponents of the Gaussian model are calculated on some Koch type curves and a family of the diamond-type hierarchical (or DH) lattices. At the critical points, it is found that the nearest-neighbor interaction and the magnetic field of site i can be expressed in the form K*=bqi/qi and h*qi=0, respectively. It is also found that most critical exponents depend on the fractal dimensionality of a fractal system. For the family of the DH lattices, the results are identical with the exact results on translation symmetric lattices, and if the fractal dimensionality df=4, the Gaussian model and the mean field theories give the same results.

  2. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic peptides including diphenylalanine (FF) have the capacity to self-assemble into ordered, biocompatible nanostructures with piezoelectric properties relevant to a variety of biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we examine the response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate ordered aggregation, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. This is modulated by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g., backbone stretching) and by the cooperative alignment of neighboring FF and water molecules. These observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nanostructured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their electro-mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  4. Separating Family-Level and Direct Exposure Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring Externalizing Symptoms: Bridging the Behavior Genetic and Behavior Teratologic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Ryne; Massey, Suena H; Clark, Caron A C; Burns, James L; Mustanski, Brian S; Cook, Edwin H; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Makowski, Beth; Espy, Kimberly A; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been robustly associated with externalizing problems and their developmental precursors in offspring in studies using behavioral teratologic designs (Wakschlag et al., Am J Public Health 92(6):966-974, 2002; Espy et al., Dev Psychol 47(1):153-169, 2011). In contrast, the use of behavior genetic approaches has shown that the effects commonly attributed to MSDP can be explained by family-level variables (D'Onofrio et al., Dev Psychopathol 20(01):139-164, 2008). Reconciling these conflicting findings requires integration of these study designs. We utilize longitudinal data on a preschool proband and his/her sibling from the Midwest Infant Development Study-Preschool (MIDS-P) to test for teratologic and family level effects of MSDP. We find considerable variation in prenatal smoking patterns both within and across pregnancies within families, indicating that binary smoking measures are not sufficiently capturing exposure. Structural equation models indicate that both conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms showed unique effects of MSDP over and above family level effects. Blending high quality exposure measurement with a within-family design suggests that it is premature to foreclose the possibility of a teratologic effect of MSDP on externalizing problems. Implications and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine whether young men who chronically use marijuana are at risk for engaging in drug-related and non-drug-related criminal offending and exhibiting psychopathic personality features in their mid-30s. Methods Patterns of marijuana use were delineated in a sample of predominately Black and White young men from adolescence to the mid-20s using latent class growth curve analysis. Self-report and official records of criminal offending and psychopathic personality features were assessed in the mid-30s. Analyses controlled for multiple factors indicative of a preexisting antisocial lifestyle and co-occurring use of other substances and tested for moderation by race. Results Four latent marijuana trajectory groups were identified: chronic high, adolescence-limited, late increasing, and low/nonusers. Relative to low/nonusers, chronic high and late increasing marijuana users exhibited more adult psychopathic features and were more likely to engage in drug-related offending during their mid-30s. Adolescence-limited users were similar to low/nonusers in terms of psychopathic features but were more likely to be arrested for drug-related crimes. No trajectory group differences were found for violence or theft, and the group differences were not moderated by race. Conclusions Young men who engage in chronic marijuana use from adolescence into their 20s are at increased risk for exhibiting psychopathic features, dealing drugs, and enduring drug-related legal problems in their mid-30s relative to men who remain abstinent or use infrequently. PMID:26568641

  6. Social communication mediates the relationship between emotion perception and externalizing behaviors in young adult survivors of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Eren, Senem; Rosema, Stefanie; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Catroppa, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of childhood disability, and is associated with elevated risk for long-term social impairment. Though social (pragmatic) communication deficits may be among the most debilitating consequences of childhood TBI, few studies have examined very long-term communication outcomes as children with TBI make the transition to young adulthood. In addition, the extent to which reduced social function contributes to externalizing behaviors in survivors of childhood TBI remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of social communication difficulty among young adult survivors of childhood TBI (n=34, injury age: 1.0-7.0 years; M time since injury: 16.55 years) and examine relations among aspects of social function including emotion perception, social communication and externalizing behaviors rated by close-other proxies. Compared to controls the TBI group had significantly greater social communication difficulty, which was associated with more frequent externalizing behaviors and poorer emotion perception. Analyses demonstrated that reduced social communication mediated the association between poorer emotion perception and more frequent externalizing behaviors. Our findings indicate that socio-cognitive impairments may indirectly increase the risk for externalizing behaviors among young adult survivors of childhood TBI, and underscore the need for targeted social skills interventions delivered soon after injury, and into the very long-term. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels of adult alcohol consumption induced by interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal versus externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Johnston, C; Gelernter, S

    1989-08-01

    Investigated levels of distress and alcohol consumption in Ss interacting with problematic vs non-problematic child confederates. Social drinkers were randomly assigned to interact with boys trained to enact behaviors characteristic of either normal or attention-deficit disorder/conduct disorder (ADD/CD) children. Mood data were collected before and after the interaction. Ss engaged in ad lib beer consumption for 20 min, while anticipating another interaction with the same boy. Children in the ADD/CD role produced comparably distressed moods for both male and female Ss. However, only men drank to higher blood-alcohol levels in the ADD/CD vs. normal child condition. Results suggest that higher rates of drinking observed in fathers of ADD/CD children may be partly a function of their particular response to the distress associated with interactions with such children.

  8. Critical behavior of an anisotropic Ising antiferromagnet in both external longitudinal and transverse fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Denise A. do, E-mail: denise.a.n@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J., E-mail: jsousa@edu.ufam.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Pacobahyba, Josefa T., E-mail: jtmpacobahyba@dfis.ufrr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we study the critical behavior of a two-sublattice Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse ({Omega}) fields by using the effective-field theory. The model consists of ferromagnetic interaction J{sub x} in the x direction and antiferromagnetic interaction J{sub y} in the y direction in the presence of the H and {Omega} fields. We obtain the phase diagrams in the H-T and {Omega}-T planes changing values of the {Omega} and H parameters, respectively for fixed value at {lambda}=J{sub x}/J{sub y}=1. At null temperature, the ground state phase diagram in the {Omega}-H plane for several values of {lambda} parameter is analyzed. In the particular case of {lambda}=1 we compare our results with mean-field theory (MFT) and was not observed reentrant behavior around of the critical field H{sub c}/J{sub y}=2.0 for {Omega}=0 by using EFT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the last decade there has been a great interest in physics of the quantum phase transition in system at low dimensional. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the transverse Ising model has been studied by a variety of approximate methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the context of quantum phase transition and critical phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First time, is presented a study of the superantiferromagnetic transverse Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have obtained finite temperature and ground state phase diagrams.

  9. The evolutionary trajectory of the mating-type (mat genes in Neurospora relates to reproductive behavior of taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannesson Hanna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.

  10. Vaccination and public trust: a model for the dissemination of vaccination behavior with external intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Medus, A D

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is widely recognized as the most effective way of immunization against many infectious diseases. However, unfounded claims about supposed side effects of some vaccines have contributed to spread concern and fear among people, thus inducing vaccination refusal. For instance, MMR vaccine coverage has undergone an important decrease in a large part of Europe and US as a consequence of erroneously alleged side-effects, leading to recent measles outbreaks. In this work, we propose a general agent-based model to study the spread of vaccination behavior in social networks, not as an isolated binary opinion spreading on it, but as part of a process of cultural dissemination in the spirit of Axelrod's model. We particularly focused on the impact of a small anti-vaccination movement over an initial population of pro-vaccination social agents. Additionally, we have considered two classes of edges in the underlying social network: personal edges able to spread both opinions and diseases; and the non-personal ...

  11. Process, mechanism, and explanation related to externalizing behavior in developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2002-10-01

    Advances in conceptualization and statistical modeling, on the one hand, and enhanced appreciation of transactional pathways, gene-environment correlations and interactions, and moderator and mediator variables, on the other, have heightened awareness of the need to consider factors and processes that explain the development and maintenance of psychopathology. With a focus on attentional problems, impulsivity, and disruptive behavior patterns, I address the kinds of conceptual approaches most likely to lead to advances regarding explanatory models in the field. Findings from my own research program on processes and mechanisms reveal both promise and limitations. Progress will emanate from use of genetically informative designs, blends of variable and person-centered research, explicit testing of developmental processes, systematic approaches to moderation and mediation, exploitation of "natural experiments," and the conduct of prevention and intervention trials designed to accentuate explanation as well as outcome. In all, breakthroughs will occur only with advances in translational research-linking basic and applied science-and with the further development of transactional, systemic approaches to explanation.

  12. Instantiating the multiple levels of analysis perspective in a program of study on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M

    2012-08-01

    During the last quarter century, developmental psychopathology has become increasingly inclusive and now spans disciplines ranging from psychiatric genetics to primary prevention. As a result, developmental psychopathologists have extended traditional diathesis-stress and transactional models to include causal processes at and across all relevant levels of analysis. Such research is embodied in what is known as the multiple levels of analysis perspective. We describe how multiple levels of analysis research has informed our current thinking about antisocial and borderline personality development among trait impulsive and therefore vulnerable individuals. Our approach extends the multiple levels of analysis perspective beyond simple Biology × Environment interactions by evaluating impulsivity across physiological systems (genetic, autonomic, hormonal, neural), psychological constructs (social, affective, motivational), developmental epochs (preschool, middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood), sexes (male, female), and methods of inquiry (self-report, informant report, treatment outcome, cardiovascular, electrophysiological, neuroimaging). By conducting our research using any and all available methods across these levels of analysis, we have arrived at a developmental model of trait impulsivity that we believe confers a greater understanding of this highly heritable trait and captures at least some heterogeneity in key behavioral outcomes, including delinquency and suicide.

  13. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Mental health in adolescence as determinant of alcohol consumption trajectories in the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio; Lintonen, Tomi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hägglöf, Bruno; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to analyze whether poor mental health in adolescence predicts heavy alcohol consumption over the long term. Alcohol consumption in the population cohort (n = 1010) was surveyed at the ages of 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42. Utilizing latent class growth analysis, six consumption trajectories ranging from 'Late Onset Low' to 'Early Onset High' were defined and analyzed with respect to internalization (depressiveness and anxiousness) and externalization (truancy and vandalism) at age 16. Poor mental health predicted the Early Onset High trajectory (risk ratios in relation to the compliant trajectory 3.59 for anxiousness, 2.85 for depressiveness, 5.69 for truancy and 7.75 for externalized vandalism). Moreover, significant associations were found for the Early Onset Moderate and Early Onset Low trajectories. This is the first study to show an association between internalized mental health problems in adolescence and lifelong heavy drinking. The study also confirmed a strong association between externalized behavior and heavy drinking, indicating a need of preventive measures in this group. Nevertheless, the analyses demonstrated that most teenagers with mental health problems continue along a reasonable drinking trajectory.

  15. Amygdala Response Predicts Trajectory of Symptom Reduction During Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent...

  16. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5-13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten-Grade 2, Grades 3-5, and Grades 6-8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior.

  17. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  18. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  19. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  20. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  1. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Beyond main effects of gene‐sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene‐set and child externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene‐based and gene‐set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome‐wide environmental interact...

  3. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: Harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Windhorst, D.A.; Mileva, V.R.; Rippe, R.C.A.; Tiemeier, H; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; IJzendoorn, van, M.H.; Bakermans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene‐based and gene‐set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome‐wide environmental interact...

  4. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  5. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  6. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  7. Music preferences, friendship, and externalizing behavior in early adolescence : A SIENA examination of the music marker theory using the SNARE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the

  8. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  9. Academic Processing Speed Mediates the Influence of both Externalizing Behavior and Language Skills on the Academic Skills of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Allor, Jill H.; Mooney, Paul; Dai, Tao

    2008-01-01

    The results from previous research suggest that there is a relatively small (albeit statistically significant) relationship between the externalizing behavior and academic skills of students with emotional disturbance (ED). Researchers have also found that the majority of these students have language deficits that hinder their academic…

  10. HPA-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems in early adolescents from the general population : the role of comorbidity and gender The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used

  11. Music preferences, friendship, and externalizing behavior in early adolescence : A SIENA examination of the music marker theory using the SNARE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the

  12. The Effectiveness of Mentoring Youth with Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems on Youth Outcomes and Parenting Stress: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Valle, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with significant externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems habitually report greater parenting stress compared to parents of children without these challenges. One avenue to alleviate parenting stress and ameliorate youth outcomes is youth mentoring, which includes a supportive adult paired with a child with the…

  13. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windhorst (Judith); V. Mileva-Seitz; R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and gene-se

  14. An examination of the structure of self-report psychopathy measures and their relations with general traits and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, L Alana; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R

    2011-07-01

    Self-report assessment of psychopathy is plagued by inconsistencies among the relations of the various psychopathy factors. We examined the factor structure of 3 prominent self-report measures of psychopathy-the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-III (SRP-III; Williams, Paulhus, & Hare, 2007), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995), and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-R (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). A coherent 4-factor structure resulted from conducting an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the psychopathy subscales along with the domains from the five-factor model. Two of these factors were consistent with traditional conceptualizations of a 2-factor structure of psychopathy (i.e., Factor 1, which loaded negatively with Agreeableness; Factor 2, which loaded negatively with Conscientiousness), while 2 additional factors emerged, 1 of which emphasized low Neuroticism and 1 of which emphasized traits related to novelty/reward-seeking and dominance-related personality traits (high Extraversion). We also investigated the relations of these factors with a variety of externalizing behaviors (EB). The psychopathy scales indicative of interpersonal antagonism (i.e., Factor 1) were most consistently and strongly related to EB. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of a trait-based perspective in the assessment of psychopathy.

  15. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC, which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1, or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2.

  16. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Theeuwes, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition) of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC), which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a) saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b) the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1), or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2).

  17. The trajectory of fidelity in a multiyear trial of the family check-up predicts change in child problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapa, Amanda; Smith, Justin D; Kim, Hanjoe; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-10-01

    Therapist fidelity to evidence-based family interventions has consistently been linked to child and family outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the potential ebb and flow of fidelity of therapists over time. We examined therapist drift in fidelity over 4 years in the context of a Family Check-Up prevention services in early childhood (ages 2-5 years). At age 2, families engaging in Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement Program services were randomized and offered annual Family Check-Ups. Seventy-nine families with a child in the clinical range of problem behaviors at age 2 years were included in this analysis. Latent growth modeling revealed a significant linear decline in fidelity over time (M = -0.35, SD = 0.35) and that steeper declines were related to less improvement in caregiver-reported problem behaviors assessed at ages 7.5/8.5 years (b = -.69, p = .003; β = -.95, 95% CI [-2.11, -0.22]). These findings add to the literature concerning the need to continually monitor therapist fidelity to an evidence-based practice over time to optimize family benefits. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  19. Associação entre comportamentos externalizantes e baixo desempenho escolar: uma revisão de estudos prospectivos e longitudinais Association between externalizing behavior and underachievement: a review of prospective and longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento na literatura de estudos prospectivos e longitudinais investigando a associação entre problemas de comportamento externalizantes e baixo desempenho escolar no ensino fundamental, no período de 1990 a 2006. Por meio dos sistemas PsycInfo, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo e Web of Science, foram selecionados e adquiridos 18 artigos, classificados em quatro categorias: estudos com amostras clínicas; estudos comparando grupos com ou sem comorbidade; estudos que buscam testar modelos de trajetória de desenvolvimento; estudos sobre precursores da associação entre problemas de comportamento e baixo desempenho escolar. A análise dos artigos evidencia que a co-ocorrência de baixo desempenho escolar e problemas externalizantes sugere a influência de variáveis antecedentes, como condições adversas na família e baixo nível socioeconômico. Indica, ainda, que a associação traz mau prognóstico às crianças, como comorbidades com transtornos psiquiátricos, posteriores problemas acadêmicos e de comportamento anti-social, evidenciando a situação de risco psicossocial em que se encontram.A survey in the literature of prospective and longitudinal studies was made investigating the association between externalizing behavior and underachievement in the period of 1990-2006. It was used PsycInfo, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo and Web of Science systems and it was selected and acquired 18 articles, classified in four categories: studies with clinical samples; studies comparing groups with or without comorbidity; studies that try to establish or to test models of developmental trajectory; studies of precursors of the association between behavior problems and underachievement. The analysis of articles evidences that the co-occurrence of underachievement and externalizing behavior suggests the influence of antecedent variables, such as adverse conditions in the family and low socio-economic level. It indicates that the association brings

  20. Migration and diving behavior of Centrophorus squamosus in the NE Atlantic. Combining electronic tagging and Argo hydrography to infer deep ocean trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, Cristina; González-Pola, Cesar; Sánchez, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    A total of nine leafscale gulper sharks Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788), were tagged with pop-up, satellite, archival, transmitting tags (PSAT) in the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of El Cachucho (Le Danois Bank) located in waters to the north of Spain, (NE Atlantic). Tags provided data on time, pressure and temperature that were used to examine movement patterns and diving behavior. Data collected from Argo floats in the study area have been used to devise a simple geolocation algorithm to infer the probable routes followed by this species. Tag release points revealed that C. squamosus moved both to the west (Galician waters) and to the north (Porcupine Bank) from the tagging area, suggesting well defined preferred pathways. The inferred trajectories indicated that sharks alternate periods constrained to specific geographical regions with quick and prompt movements covering large distances. Two sharks made conspicuous diurnal vertical migrations being at shallower depths around midnight and at maximum depths at midday, while other sharks did not make vertical migrations. Vertical movements were done smoothly and independently of the fish swimming long-distances or resting in the area. Overall results confirm that this species is highly migratory, supporting speeds of 20 nautical miles.day-1 and well capable to swim and make vertical migrations well above the abyssal plain.

  1. Promoting Behavioral Regulation in Writing: Differential Effects on Indicators of Writing Performance and Learning Behaviors in 4th Graders with and without Externalizing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Glaser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a writing intervention study with 4th-graders, we examined the effects of behaviour-oriented procedures (specification of behaviour rules and intentions; feedback on desired target behaviour, and self-evaluation of behaviour progress on the writing performance of students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors. In two classes, 42 students, including 10 students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: writing strategies program vs. writing strategies plus behaviour-regulation program. Both programs consisted of four 90-min sessions. In groups of nine to twelve students, all students received a cognitive strategies intervention for writing narratives (Glaser, 2005. At posttest and follow-up assessments (four weeks after the training, aggressive-hyperactive students who had been taught writing strategies in tandem with behaviour-regulation techniques outperformed students with problem behaviours who had not been taught such techniques in strategy-related and holistic measures of writing performance. Students with behaviour problems who had only received the writing strategies instruction gained least from attending the program.

  2. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Gemina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1 formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2 formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3 formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on typical food products of Bandung and Cianjur. The survey research method and form of research were verification, while the sampling method conducted was the simple random sampling by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents. The data quality testing performed were the validity test and the reliability test. For the path analysis research model, data transformation from ordinal to interval was previously conducted using the method of successive interval. Results of the study revealed that consumer external and internal environmental factors together have a positive effect towards consumer perception. The effect of consumer external environmental factors are greater than the consumer internal environmental factors towards consumer perception. The more mature consumers are, either from the aspect of their way of thinking or educative factors obtained from education and insight, the more developed are their perception towards food products. Consumer perception has a positive effect towards consumer attitude and preference. The variable of consumer attitude and preference has a positive effect towards consumer behavior in consuming typical regional food products.

  3. Trajectories of CBCL Attention Problems in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, S.C.C.; Oort, F.V.A. van; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of Attention Problems in twins followed from age 6 to 12 years. Second, we investigated whether singletons follow similar trajectories. Maternal longitudinal ratings on the Attention Problems (AP) subscale of the Child Behavior

  4. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  5. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting.

  6. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Boyce, W Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children's negative outcomes, but the majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children's autonomic nervous system reactivity at 6 months and their externalizing behavior problems at 7 years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families.

  7. Trajectory Clustering with Applications to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  8. Longitudinal Relations of Children's Effortful Control, Impulsivity, and Negative Emotionality to Their Externalizing, Internalizing, and Co-Occurring Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Zhou, Qing; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and negative emotionality to at least borderline clinical levels of symptoms and change in maladjustment over four years. Children's (N = 214; 77% European American; M age = 73 months) externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by parents and…

  9. Studies of Sociosexual Interactions in Rats in an Externally Valid Procedure: Are They Relevant for Understanding Human Sexual Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When a prolonged observation of groups of rats in a seminatural environment is used as testing procedure, different behavioral patterns are shown compared with what observed in a pair housed in a small cage. Males and females copulate simultaneously, they show a promiscuously and random copulatory pattern. Females remain completely receptive from the first lordosis displayed in the period of behavioral estrus until the last. There is no reduction in paracopulatory behaviors and no increase in rejections towards the end of estrus. Female paracopulatory behavior and receptivity change in a most abrupt way at both initiation and termination of behavioral estrus. It appears that, in the seminatural environment, males copulate in bouts, and males do not pursue the females unless they are fully receptive. Non-sexual, social behavior including affiliative and nonaffiliative interaction among rats is rather unrelated to sexual activities in both sex.

  10. The relationship between the response to external light stimulation and behavioral states in the human fetus: how it differs from vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, M; Nagata, N; Ikeno, S; Terakawa, N

    2000-05-01

    To determine the effects of external light stimulation on fetal behavioral states and know the difference from those of vibroacoustic stimulation. A flashlight and a vibroacoustic stimulator was applied directly on the maternal abdomen to determine the response of 56 normal fetuses at 36-40 weeks gestation. Fetal heart rate (FHR) and body movements were recorded using an actocardiograph, and fetal eye movements were observed using real-time ultrasonography. Using Nijhuis's criteria, the fetal behavioral states (1F-4F) were determined. FHR acceleration was considered a fetal response to the stimulations. The lag time between stimulation and fetal response was within 4 s. A positive response rate to the light stimulation was higher at behavioral states 2F (82%) and 3F (83%) than at state 1F (4%). Light stimulation changed the behavioral state of two of the six 3F fetuses (33%) from 3F to 4F. No change of state was observed in fetuses that were in states 1F and 2F. For vibroacoustic stimulation, fetal response was 100% positive and changes of states were observed frequently irrespective of the behavioral state before the stimulation. Fetal response to light stimulation is closely connected to fetal behavioral states and may reflect some distinct stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  11. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  12. The Teacher-Student Relationship as a Developmental Context for Children with Internalizing or Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jean A.; Grant, Sycarah; Morlock, Larissa

    2008-01-01

    Children with significant behavior problems are at risk for poor school adaptation and a host of deleterious school outcomes. Given the time children spend in school, there is a need to better understand the normative contexts and processes within schools that may enhance the positive adaptation of children with significant behavior problems. This…

  13. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  14. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  15. Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures An Analysis of Outcome Studies of Youth Interventions Targeting Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Pauline; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom; Stams, Geert-Jan; van Laar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the implementation of treatment integrity procedures in outcome studies of youth interventions targeting behavioral problems. The Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures Scale (ITIPS), developed by Perepletchikova, Treat, and Kazdin (2007), was adapted

  16. Implementation of treatment integrity procedures: an analysis of outcome studies of youth interventions targeting externalizing behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, P.; Boendermaker, L.; van Yperen, T.; Stams, G.J.; van Laar, J.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the implementation of treatment integrity procedures in outcome studies of youth interventions targeting behavioral problems. The Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures Scale (ITIPS), developed by Perepletchikova, Treat, and Kazdin (2007), was adapted

  17. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  18. Mechanical performance of external fixators with wires for the treatment of bone fractures--Part I: Load-displacement behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprete, C; Gola, M M

    1993-02-01

    Using matrix algebra, a mathematical model is formulated for a particular type of external fixator with wires (system developed by Ilizarov) for the treatment of bone fractures. The mathematical model is used to give a linear estimate of the stiffness under lateral and axial loads in a representative number of practical conditions. Relative displacements of the bone ends at the fracture site are calculated not only in the common case of a gap, but also for various angles of inclined sliding contact; in this case, a realistic load is applied and nonlinear stiffening of the wires under transversal loads is iteratively taken into account.

  19. Network Externalities and Behavior-Based Price Discrimination%网络外部性与基于行为的区别定价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮; 任剑新

    2012-01-01

    近年来,基于行为的区别定价成为区别定价领域研究的热点,但是这方面的文献却鲜有涉及到市场中存在着网络外部性的情形。在理性预期的假设下,本文通过一个两阶段双寡头博弈模型分析了网络外部性与基于行为的区别定价对子博弈精炼纳什均衡的影响。在成熟市场上,网络外部性会对具有不同初始市场份额的厂商产生不同影响;在新兴市场上,无论厂商采取何种定价策略,网络外部性都会加剧市场上的竞争,导致厂商利润下降。与统一定价下的子博弈精炼纳什均衡相比,基于行为的区别定价会加剧竞争从而导致厂商利润的下降,但是会造成较多社会福利的无谓损失。%Behavior-based price discrimination has received much attention in the recent economic literatures, but the literatures of this topic rarely deal with status of market with network externalities. Under the assumption of rational expectation, this paper studies the effect of network externalities and behavior - based price discrimination to the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium by using a two - period duopoly model. In a mature market, network externalities would exert varying influences on different firms depending on their initial market share. In a new market,network externalities would increase competition and reduce firms' profits no matter what kind of pricing strategy the firms take. Compared with the SPE of uniform pricing, behavior - based price discrimination would increase competition and reduce firms' profits,but it also creates more dead -weight loss to the society.

  20. Assessing relational schemas in parents of children with externalizing behavior disorders: reliability and validity of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2011-02-28

    Direct observational assessment of parent-child interaction is important in clinical intervention with conduct-problem children, but is costly and resource-intensive. We examined the reliability and validity of a brief measure of parents' relational schemas (RSs) regarding their child. Children (aged 4 to 11years) and their families receiving treatment at a clinic for externalizing behavior problems (n=150) or mood/developmental disorders (n=28) were assessed using a multi-method, multi-informant procedure. RSs were coded from Five-Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) using the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS), and were compared with directly observed parent-child interaction and questionnaire measures of family and parental dysfunction and conduct problems. Mothers' and fathers' RS scales were internally consistent and could be reliably coded in under 10min. Less positive RSs and more negative RSs were associated with higher rates of child conduct problems, and were more characteristic of the speech samples of parents of children with externalizing disorders, compared with clinic control parents. RSs demonstrated some associations with parenting behavior and measures of family functioning and symptoms of parental psychopathology, and predicted conduct problems independently of observed parental criticism. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the FAARS assessment of parental RSs in clinic-referred families. This brief measure of parent-child dynamics appears well-suited to 'real-world' (i.e., community) clinical settings in which intensive methods of observation are often not feasible.

  1. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers.

  2. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  3. Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Irritability Symptoms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Trepat, Esther; Domènech, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    This study traces the developmental course of irritability symptoms in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) from ages 3-5 and examines the psychopathological outcomes of the different trajectories at age 6. A sample of 622 3-year-old preschoolers (311 were boys), followed up until age 6, was assessed yearly with a semi-structured diagnostic interview with parents and at age 6 with questionnaires answered by parents, teachers and children. Growth-Mixture-Modeling yielded five trajectories of irritability levels for the whole sample (high-persistent 3.5%, decreasing 3.8%, increasing 2.6%, low-persistent 44.1% and null 46.0%). Among the children who presented with ODD during preschool age, three trajectories of irritability symptoms resulted (high-persistent 31.9%, decreasing 34.9% and increasing 33.2%). Null, low-persistent and decreasing irritability courses in the sample as a whole gave very similar discriminative capacity for children's psychopathological state at age 6, while the increasing and high-persistent categories involved poorer clinical outcomes than the null course. For ODD children, the high-persistent and increasing trajectories of irritability predicted disruptive behavior disorders, comorbidity, high level of functional impairment, internalizing and externalizing problems and low anger control at age 6. Irritability identifies a subset of ODD children at high risk of poorer longitudinal psychopathological and functional outcomes. It might be clinically relevant to identify this subset of ODD children with a high number of irritability symptoms throughout development with a view to preventing comorbid and future adverse longitudinal outcomes.

  4. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 35...

  5. Human-Like Behavior Generation Based on Head-Arms Model for Robot Tracking External Targets and Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Beck, Aryel; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Facing and pointing toward moving targets is a usual and natural behavior in daily life. Social robots should be able to display such coordinated behaviors in order to interact naturally with people. For instance, a robot should be able to point and look at specific objects. This is why, a scheme to generate coordinated head-arm motion for a humanoid robot with two degrees-of-freedom for the head and seven for each arm is proposed in this paper. Specifically, a virtual plane approach is employed to generate the analytical solution of the head motion. A quadratic program (QP)-based method is exploited to formulate the coordinated dual-arm motion. To obtain the optimal solution, a simplified recurrent neural network is used to solve the QP problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using both computer simulation and physical experiments.

  6. Direct Time Domain Numerical Analysis of Transient Behavior of a VLFS during Unsteady External Loads in Wave Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of the VLFS subjected to arbitrary external load is systematically investigated by a direct time domain modal expansion method, in which the BEM solutions based on time domain Kelvin sources are used for hydrodynamic forces. In the analysis, the time domain free-surface Green functions with sufficient accuracy are rapidly evaluated in finite water depth by the interpolation-tabulation method, and the boundary integral equation with a quarter VLFS model is established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The validity of the present method is verified by comparing with the time histories of vertical displacements of the VLFS during a mass drop and airplane landing and takeoff in still water conditions, respectively. Then the developed numerical scheme is used in wave conditions to study the combined action taking into account the mass drop/airplane landing/takeoff loads as well as incident wave action. It is found that the elevation of structural waves due to mass drop load can be significantly changed near the impact region, while the vertical motion of runway in wave conditions is dominant as compared with that only generated by airplane.

  7. Origins of children's externalizing behavior problems in low-income families: toddlers' willing stance toward their mothers as the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2013-11-01

    Although children's active role in socialization has been long acknowledged, relevant research has typically focused on children's difficult temperament or negative behaviors that elicit coercive and adversarial processes, largely overlooking their capacity to act as positive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents. We studied the willing, receptive stance toward their mothers in a low-income sample of 186 children who were 24 to 44 months old. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a latent construct of willing stance, manifested as children's responsiveness to mothers in naturalistic interactions, responsive imitation in teaching contexts, and committed compliance with maternal prohibitions, all observed in the laboratory. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed that ecological adversity undermined maternal responsiveness, and responsiveness, in turn, was linked to children's willing stance. A compromised willing stance predicted externalizing behavior problems, assessed 10 months later, and fully mediated the links between maternal responsiveness and those outcomes. Ecological adversity had a direct, unmediated effect on internalizing behavior problems. Considering children's active role as willing, receptive agents capable of embracing parental influence can lead to a more complete understanding of detrimental mechanisms that link ecological adversity with antisocial developmental pathways. It can also inform research on the normative socialization process, consistent with the objectives of developmental psychopathology.

  8. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  9. Response behavior of ZrO{sub 2} under swift heavy ion irradiation with and without external pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, B., E-mail: bea.schuster@gsi.de [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Reseach (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fujara, F. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Merk, B. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Reseach (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Neumann, R. [Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Reseach (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Seidl, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Reseach (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, C. [Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Reseach (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of relativistic heavy ions with pressure can influence the phase behavior of ZrO{sub 2} in ways none of those two extreme conditions alone could. The response behavior of ZrO{sub 2} towards ion irradiation under different pressure conditions is investigated. ZrO{sub 2} exposed to energetic particles is known to undergo a crystalline-to-crystalline phase transition from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase. In agreement with earlier findings, this structural change requires also for heaviest ions, such as Au, Pb, and U, a multiple ion impact. If the irradiation is performed under high pressure, the monoclinic-to-tetragonal transformation occurs at a fluence that is more than one order of magnitude lower suggesting a single impact process. Raman measurements at ambient conditions and X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples irradiated under pressure revealed that the monoclinic-to-tetragonal transformation under pressure is not a direct process but involves a transition into the cubic high-temperature structure, before the tetragonal structure becomes stable under decompression. At even higher pressures, the additional ion irradiation forces ZrO{sub 2} to transform to the higher orthorhombic-II phase that is far away from its stability field.

  10. Trajectory P system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subbaiah Annadurai; Thiyagarajan Kalyani; Vincent Rajkumar Dare; Durairaj Gnanaraj Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing aiming to abstract computing ideas for the structure and the functioning of living cells as well as from the way the cells are organized in tissues or higher-order structures.Trajectories are used as a tool for modeling language operations and other related objects.A trajectory P system consists of a membrane structure in which the object in each membrane is a collection of words and the evolutionary rules are given in terms of trajectories.In this paper,we present some properties of trajectory P systems.

  11. Improved Propulsion Modeling for Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Atchison, Justin A.; Gould, Julian J.

    2017-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with spacecraft systems design. In particular, the propulsion and power characteristics of a low-thrust spacecraft are major drivers in the design of the optimal trajectory. Accurate modeling of the power and propulsion behavior is essential for meaningful low-thrust trajectory optimization. In this work, we discuss new techniques to improve the accuracy of propulsion modeling in low-thrust trajectory optimization while maintaining the smooth derivatives that are necessary for a gradient-based optimizer. The resulting model is significantly more realistic than the industry standard and performs well inside an optimizer. A variety of deep-space trajectory examples are presented.

  12. How could Theory of Mind contribute to the differentiation of social adjustment profiles of children with externalizing behavior disorders and children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Houssa, Marine; Mazzone, Stéphanie

    2013-09-01

    This study compared Theory of Mind (ToM) emotion and belief abilities in 43 children with externalized behavior (EB) disorders presenting low intelligence, 40 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and 33 typically developing (TD) preschoolers (as a control group), matched for developmental age. The links between their ToM abilities, their level in seven self-regulation strategies as displayed in social problem-solving tasks and their social adjustment profiles (assessed by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation, completed by their teachers) were examined. Children with EB presented lower comprehension of causes of emotions and lower self-regulation of joint attention and of attention than children with ID and TD children. In comparison with TD children, lower social adjustment was observed in nearly all dimensions of profiles in both atypical groups. Specifically, children with EB were significantly angrier than children with ID. Although variable patterns of positive correlations were obtained in atypical groups between self-regulation strategies and ToM abilities, the most numerous positive links were obtained in the group with EB. Regression analyses showed that developmental age predicted ToM abilities and certain dimensions of social adjustment profiles in atypical groups. In the ID group, ToM emotions predicted general adaptation, affective adaptation, interactions with peers and with adults and low internalizing problems. In the EB group, general adaptation was predicted by ToM emotions and self-regulation, interactions with peers by ToM beliefs, and a low level of externalizing problems by ToM emotions. Some implications for intervention and perspectives for research are suggested.

  13. 14 CFR 417.207 - Trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... potential three-sigma trajectory dispersions about the nominal trajectory. (2) A fuel exhaustion trajectory...) Trajectory model. A final trajectory analysis must use a six-degree of freedom trajectory model to...

  14. City of External Space Design Based on Behavior%基于行为习性的城市外部空间设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽; 檀文迪

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the environmental psychology space outside the city ,the paper sums up people instinctively with some typical behavior such as shortcut ,passing on the right or left ,clockwise turn ,dependence ,as well as the behavior based on the crowd as the representative of the experience of habits and differences between groups as the representative of the habits of the gap .Study of a series of a‐dapt or solve the space problem ,summarizes the patterns of behavior and the space in the city of external space design in the process of the combination of the most suitable experience .%通过分析在环境心理学所处的城市外部空间,总结人们出于本能具有某些典型的行为习性。如抄近路,靠右侧或左侧通行,逆时针转向,依靠性等,以及基于这些行为习性所处的围观为代表的体验性习性与群体差异为代表的习性上的差距。研究出一系列适应或者解决这些空间问题的方法,总结出在城市外部空间设计过程中人的行为模式与空间的相结合的最适合的体验方式。

  15. Examining the Relations Among the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality, the Five-Factor Model, and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Chelsea E; Hyatt, Courtland S; Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-01-26

    Given long-standing criticisms of the DSM's reliance on categorical models of psychopathology, including the poor reliability and validity of personality-disorder diagnoses, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published an alternative model (AM) of personality disorders in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which, in part, comprises 5 pathological trait domains based on the 5-factor model (FFM). However, the empirical profiles and discriminant validity of the AM traits remain in question. We recruited a sample of undergraduates (N = 340) for the current study to compare the relations found between a measure of the DSM-5 AM traits (i.e., the Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) and a measure of the FFM (i.e., the International Personality Item Pool; IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) in relation to externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In general, the domains from the 2 measures were significantly related and demonstrated similar patterns of relations with these criteria, such that Antagonism/low Agreeableness and Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness were related to externalizing behaviors, whereas Negative Affectivity/Neuroticism was most significantly related to internalizing symptoms. However, the PID-5 demonstrated large interrelations among its domains and poorer discriminant validity than the IPIP. These results provide additional support that the conception of the trait model included in the DSM-5 AM is an extension of the FFM, but highlight some of the issues that arise due to the PID-5's more limited discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  17. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  18. Bohmian trajectory from the "classical" Schrödinger equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Santanu; Khatua, Munmun; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The quantum-classical correspondence is studied for a periodically driven quartic oscillator exhibiting integrable and chaotic dynamics, by studying the Bohmian trajectory of the corresponding "classical" Schrödinger equation. Phase plots and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy are computed and compared with the classical trajectory as well as the Bohmian trajectory obtained from the time dependent Schrödinger equation. Bohmian mechanics at the classical limit appears to mimick the behavior of a dissipative dynamical system.

  19. Ornithopter transition trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    The design of stable trim conditions for forward flight and for hover has been achieved. In forward flight, an ornithopter is configured like a conventional airplane or large bird. Its fuselage is essentially horizontal and the wings heave in a vertical plane. In hover, however, the body pitches vertically so that the wing stroke in the horizontal plane. Thrust directed downward, the vehicle remains aloft while the downdraft envelops the tail to provide enough flow for vehicle control and stabilization. To connect these trajectories dynamically is the goal. The naïve approach-to choose two stable trajectories and switch between them-has been accomplished. A new approach is to establish an open-loop trajectory through a trajectory optimization algorithm-optimized for shortest altitude drop, shortest stopping distance, or lowest energy consumption.

  20. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  1. Espectacularidad y comportamientos de masa: El problema de la autoría (externa Spectacular and mass behavior: The problem of authorship (external

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gutiérrez Brito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la autoría política y social de los comportamientos colectivos espontáneos y la facultad que tienen las masas y/o las multitudes para actuar responsablemente por iniciativa propia y al margen de influencias o manipulaciones externas. El análisis realizado aborda los problemas formales que entraña el hecho de asumir comportamientos colectivos del tipo señalado, pero también algunas dificultades relacionadas con la explicación de la imitación y su potencial autorreflexivo. El objetivo final de este análisis lleva a presentar el concepto de espectacularidad como instrumento para replantear y avanzar nuevas soluciones al problema de la desautorización en estas formaciones sociales históricamente calificadas como irracionales y/o instintivas.This article discusses the problem of the political and social authorship in the collective spontaneous behaviors, and the facul-ty that the crowds and/or multitudes have to perform on own initiative responsibly and without influence or external manipulation. The current analysis approaches the formal problems than entails to the fact to assume this type of collective behaviors, but also some difficulties related with the explanation of theimitation and his auto-reflexive potential. The end purpose of this analysis leads to present espectacularidad"s concept like instrument to redefine and to advance new solutions to the problem of the disavowal in these social formations once historically were regarded as irrationalists and/or instinctive.

  2. Child Characteristics, Parent Education and Depressive Symptoms, and Marital Conflict Predicting Trajectories of Parenting Behavior from Childhood Through Early Adolescence in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Dopkins Stright, Anne; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2017-09-01

    The study examined how child and parent characteristics, and contextual sources of stress, such as marital conflict predict initial status and trajectories of parent involvement, support, and harsh control, over a 4-year period in families in Taiwan (n = 4,754). Based on Belsky's (1984) ecological model of parenting, three domains predicting parenting were tested, child characteristics (age cohort and gender), father and mother characteristics (education and depressive symptoms), and contextual sources of stress (marital conflict). The study followed two cohorts of children; the younger cohort was followed from first to fourth grade and the older cohort from fourth to seventh grade. Initially, fourth graders reported more parental involvement, support, and harsh control than first graders. However, involvement, support, and harsh control decreased across the 4 years for the older cohort as they transitioned to early adolescence. In the first year, girls reported more parental involvement and support and less harsh control than boys. Across the 4 years, involvement and support increased, and harsh control decreased for boys; whereas involvement stayed the same, support slightly decreased, and harsh control slightly increased for girls. Children whose parents were more educated reported more parent involvement, support, and harsh control in the first year. Children whose fathers were chronically depressed and whose parents were experiencing marital conflict reported decreasing parent involvement and support over the years. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  4. Kinematic evaluation of virtual walking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Gabriel; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Pettré, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Virtual walking, a fundamental task in Virtual Reality (VR), is greatly influenced by the locomotion interface being used, by the specificities of input and output devices, and by the way the virtual environment is represented. No matter how virtual walking is controlled, the generation of realistic virtual trajectories is absolutely required for some applications, especially those dedicated to the study of walking behaviors in VR, navigation through virtual places for architecture, rehabilitation and training. Previous studies focused on evaluating the realism of locomotion trajectories have mostly considered the result of the locomotion task (efficiency, accuracy) and its subjective perception (presence, cybersickness). Few focused on the locomotion trajectory itself, but in situation of geometrically constrained task. In this paper, we study the realism of unconstrained trajectories produced during virtual walking by addressing the following question: did the user reach his destination by virtually walking along a trajectory he would have followed in similar real conditions? To this end, we propose a comprehensive evaluation framework consisting on a set of trajectographical criteria and a locomotion model to generate reference trajectories. We consider a simple locomotion task where users walk between two oriented points in space. The travel path is analyzed both geometrically and temporally in comparison to simulated reference trajectories. In addition, we demonstrate the framework over a user study which considered an initial set of common and frequent virtual walking conditions, namely different input devices, output display devices, control laws, and visualization modalities. The study provides insight into the relative contributions of each condition to the overall realism of the resulting virtual trajectories.

  5. Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method, which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

  6. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory is a sequence of locations, each associated with a timestamp, describing the movement of a point. Trajectory data is becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. In this paper we study the problem of compressing planar trajectories such tha...

  7. Moon Landing Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustafa MEHEDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory optimization is a crucial process during the planning phase of a spacecraft landing mission. Once a trajectory is determined, guidance algorithms are created to guide the vehicle along the given trajectory. Because fuel mass is a major driver of the total vehicle mass, and thus mission cost, the objective of most guidance algorithms is to minimize the required fuel consumption. Most of the existing algorithms are termed as “near-optimal” regarding fuel expenditure. The question arises as to how close to optimal are these guidance algorithms. To answer this question, numerical trajectory optimization techniques are often required. With the emergence of improved processing power and the application of new methods, more direct approaches may be employed to achieve high accuracy without the associated difficulties in computation or pre-existing knowledge of the solution. An example of such an approach is DIDO optimization. This technique is applied in the current research to find these minimum fuel optimal trajectories.

  8. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.

  9. Trajectory Clustering and an Application to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  10. The trajectory and the related physical and social determinants of body mass index in elementary school children: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ju; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study explored developmental trajectory patterns of BMI and associated factors. Participants included 1,609 students who were followed from age 7 to 12 years. Data collection involved annual self-administered questionnaires and records of height and weight. An ecological model was used to identify the factors associated with BMI trajectories. Group-based trajectory models and multinomial logit models were used in the statistical analysis. There were gender differences in BMI trajectories. Among boys, four BMI trajectories were normal or slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, overweight becoming obese, and persistently obese. Among girls, four BMI trajectories were persistently slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, persistently overweight, and persistently obese. The mean BMI in each trajectory group demonstrated an upward trend over time. In boys, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with after-school exercise, academic performance, family interactions, overweight parents, and father's education level. In girls, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with television viewing or computer use, family interactions, peer interactions, and overweight parents. Children under age 7 years who are already overweight or obese are an important target for interventions. The different factors associated with BMI trajectories can be used for targeting high risk groups.

  11. The Trajectory and the Related Physical and Social Determinants of Body Mass Index in Elementary School Children: Results from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored developmental trajectory patterns of BMI and associated factors. Participants included 1,609 students who were followed from age 7 to 12 years. Data collection involved annual self-administered questionnaires and records of height and weight. An ecological model was used to identify the factors associated with BMI trajectories. Group-based trajectory models and multinomial logit models were used in the statistical analysis. There were gender differences in BMI trajectories. Among boys, four BMI trajectories were normal or slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, overweight becoming obese, and persistently obese. Among girls, four BMI trajectories were persistently slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, persistently overweight, and persistently obese. The mean BMI in each trajectory group demonstrated an upward trend over time. In boys, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with after-school exercise, academic performance, family interactions, overweight parents, and father’s education level. In girls, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with television viewing or computer use, family interactions, peer interactions, and overweight parents. Children under age 7 years who are already overweight or obese are an important target for interventions. The different factors associated with BMI trajectories can be used for targeting high risk groups.

  12. Trajectory metaheuristic algorithms to optimize problems combinatorics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alancay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of metaheuristic algorithms to optimization problems has been very important during the last decades. The main advantage of these techniques is their flexibility and robustness, which allows them to be applied to a wide range of problems. In this work we concentrate on metaheuristics based on Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and Variable Neighborhood Search trajectory whose main characteristic is that they start from a point and through the exploration of the neighborhood vary the current solution, forming a trajectory. By means of the instances of the selected combinatorial problems, a computational experimentation is carried out that illustrates the behavior of the algorithmic methods to solve them. The main objective of this work is to perform the study and comparison of the results obtained for the selected trajectories metaheuristics in its application for the resolution of a set of academic problems of combinatorial optimization.

  13. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.

  14. Risk and protective factors across multiple microsystems associated with internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in rural adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Evans, Caroline B R; Wu, Qi; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica; Cotter, Katie L

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined risk and protective factors across microsystems that impact the development of internalizing symptoms and aggression over 4 years in a sample of culturally diverse, rural adolescents. We explored whether risk and protective factors across microsystems were associated with changes in rates of internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project (RAP), a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 students from 26 public middle schools and 12 public high schools. Three level HLM models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and aggression. Compared with other students, risk for internalizing symptoms and aggression was elevated for youth exposed to risk factors in the form of school hassles, parent-child conflict, peer rejection, and delinquent friends. Microsystem protective factors in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction decreased risk for aggression, but were not associated with internalizing symptoms, whereas future orientation and parent support decreased risk for internalizing symptoms, but not aggression. Results indicate that risks for internalizing symptoms and aggression are similar, but that unique protective factors are related to these adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Implications and limitations were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    -and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  16. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  17. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  18. Clustering vessel trajectories with alignment kernels under trajectory compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.; van Someren, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply a selection of alignment measures, such as dynamic time warping and edit distance, to the problem of clustering vessel trajectories. Vessel trajectories are an example of moving object trajectories, which have recently become an important research topic. The alignment measures

  19. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  20. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  1. 产业集聚的外部性与企业融资行为%Industrial Cluster Externality and Enterprise Financing Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文君

    2012-01-01

    Although it proves that industrial cluster externality has positive effect on debt financing in most paper, the research on enterprise systematical financing behavior is rare. This paper analyzes the industrial clusters and capital structure by the way of theory and empirical study. The theoretical analysis finds that the relationship between the both is different by the analysis of the trade - off theory and pecking order theory. The empirical study result finds more support of the pecking order theory, and shows that industrial cluster is negative related to capital structural. It makes inter financing preference that transaction cost is high in the debt financing, asymmetric information problem is serious.%虽然不少文献都明确了产业集聚的外部性对企业的债务融资具有正向作用,但就产业集聚外部性如何系统性影响企业融资行为的研究较少。本文综合运用产业组织理论和公司金融理论,从理论和实证两个方面分析产业集聚与资本结构间的关系。理论分析发现,产业集聚与资本结构在权衡理论框架和优序融资理论框架下呈现出不同的关系。实证结果则发现产业集聚与资本结构负相关,更多的支持了优序融资理论。原因在于,我国制造业企业的债务融资存在较高的交易成本,“信息不对称”问题严重,使得企业融资的首要选择是内部融资。

  2. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C

    2010-09-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  3. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Center of pressure trajectory differences between shod and barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James; Pisciotta, Eric; James, Stan; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in center of pressure (COP) trajectories between shod and barefoot running. Ten habitually shod runners ran continuous laps under both shod and barefoot conditions. The COP trajectory was calculated in the global coordinate system but then transformed to the anatomic coordinate system of the foot. The anterior-posterior and medio-lateral positions and excursions of the COP, as well as the most medial location and percent stand at which it occurred were examined. Additionally, external eversion moments and ground reaction forces were assessed. Compared to the shod condition, in the barefoot condition the COP was located more anteriorly early in stance and the COP was located significantly more medially at most time points across stance. There were no differences in external eversion moments during early stance or peak ground reaction forces between conditions. Future studies on mechanical or epidemiological differences between shod and barefoot running may find the COP trajectory an informative parameter to examine.

  5. Analysis of Controlled Trajectory Optimization for Canard Trajectory Correction Fuze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽荣; 李世义; 申强

    2004-01-01

    The optimization method of the canard trajectory correction fuze's controlled trajectory phase is researched by using the aerodynamics of aerocraft and the optimal control theory, the trajectory parameters of the controlled trajectory phase based on the least energy cost are determined. On the basis of determining the control starting point and the target point, the optimal trajectory and the variation rule of the normal overload with the least energy cost are provided, when there is no time restriction in the simulation process. The results provide a theoretical basis for the structure design of the canard mechanism.

  6. Strategic Trajectories in the Offshoring and Offshore Outsourcing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process and the strategic trajectories underlying it, including both the internal venturing and the external outsourcing process. We define and present various perspectives on the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process. We...

  7. Behavioral Impulsivity and Risk-Taking Trajectories Across Early Adolescence in Youths With and Without Family Histories of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Lake, Sarah L; Mathias, Charles W; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Youths with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased susceptibility for developing substance use disorders relative to those without such histories (FH-). This vulnerability may be related to impaired adolescent development of impulse control and elevated risk-taking. However, no previous studies have prospectively examined impulse control and risk-taking in FH+ youth across adolescence. A total of 386 pre-adolescents (305 FH+, 81 FH-; aged 10 to 12) with no histories of regular alcohol or other drug use were compared on behavioral measures of impulsivity including delay discounting, response initiation (Immediate Memory Task), response inhibition impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm), and risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth). Youths completed these laboratory tasks every 6 months, allowing for the examination of 10- to 15-year-olds. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to characterize the development of impulse control and risk-taking as shown in performance of these tasks throughout adolescence. We found that (i) FH+ youths had increased levels of delay discounting and response inhibition impulsivity at study entry; (ii) regardless of FH status, all youths had relatively stable delay discounting across time, improvements in response inhibition and response initiation impulsivity, and increased risk-taking; and (iii) although FH+ youths had increased response inhibition impulsivity at pre-adolescence, these differences were negligible by mid-adolescence. Heightened delay discounting in FH+ pre-adolescents coupled with normal adolescent increases in risk-taking may contribute to their increased susceptibility toward problem substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  9. Semantic enrichment of GPS trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de Victor; Keulen, van Maurice; By, de Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a co

  10. The Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis for Pad Abort One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Prasad; Noonan, Meghan; Karlgaard, Christopher; Beck, Roger

    2011-01-01

    I. Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) objective: a) Produce reconstructed trajectory of the PA-1 flight to understand vehicle dynamics and aid other post flight analyses. b) Leverage all measurement sources taken of vehicle during flight to produce the most accurate estimate of vehicle trajectory. c) Generate trajectory reconstructions of the Crew Module (CM), Launch Abort System (LAS), and Forward Bay Cover (FBC). II. BET analysis was started immediately following the PA-1 mission and was completed in September, 2010 a) Quick look version of BET released 5/25/2010: initial repackaging of SIGI data. b) Preliminary version of BET released 7/6/2010: first blended solution using available sources of external measurements. c) Final version of BET released 9/1/2010: final blended solution using all available sources of data.

  11. Visual Uav Trajectory Plan System Based on Network Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; Lin, Z. J.; Su, G. Z.; Wu, B. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  12. Cell mechanics through analysis of cell trajectories in microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Samuel; Alexeev, Alexander; Sulchek, Todd

    The understanding of dynamic cell behavior can aid in research ranging from the mechanistic causes of diseases to the development of microfluidic devices for cancer detection. Through analysis of trajectories captured from video of the cells moving in a specially designed microfluidic device, insight into the dynamic viscoelastic nature of cells can be found. The microfluidic device distinguishes cells viscoelastic properties through the use of angled ridges causing a series of compressions, resulting in differences in trajectories based on cell stiffness. Trajectories of cell passing through the device are collected using image processing methods and data mining techniques are used to relate the trajectories to cell properties obtained from experiments. Furthermore, numerical simulation of the cell and microfluidic device are used to match the experimental results from the trajectory analysis. Combination of the modeling and experimental data help to uncover how changes in cellular structures result in changes in mechanical properties.

  13. Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.

  14. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  15. 外部情境因素对城市女性公共环境行为的影响%Influences of External Situational Factors on City Women’s Public Environmental Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄粹; 鹿群; 赵闯

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the moderating effects of situational factors on the relationship between environ‐mental attitude and environmental behavior using hierarchical regression analysis ,based on the ABC theory of psychology ,and using questionnaire surveys and interviews .The statistic results show that in the case of fa‐vorable external factors ,positive attitude can lead to environmental behavior ;while in the case of unfavorable external factors ,positive attitude cannot produce environmental behavior ,which indicates that the effect of en‐vironmental attitude on environmental behavior is restricted by external factors ,especially moderated by exter‐nal factors such as “cooperation and participation” ,“participation way” and “policies and regulations” .This conclusion shows that it is necessary for the departments concerned to improve the relevant external factors in order to promote the women’s public environmental behavior ,in addition to the cultivation of female positive environmental attitudes .%文章基于心理学中的ABC理论,采用问卷调查和访谈的方法,在肯定以往研究得出的环境态度影响环境行为的基础上,采用分层回归分析重点研究外部情境因素对环境态度与环境行为之间关系的调节作用。统计结果表明:在外部情境因素极其有利的情况下,积极的环境态度能够导致环境行为的发生,当外部情境因素不利的时候,积极的环境态度也不会产生环境行为。这说明了环境态度对环境行为的影响受到外部情境因素的制约,尤其是受到外部情境因素“合作参与”、“参与渠道”、“政策法规”的调节作用。这一结论说明促进城市女性在公共领域的环境行为,除了要培养女性积极的环境态度外,更需要有关部门完善相关的外部情境因素。

  16. Trajectories in parallel optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David

    2011-10-01

    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  17. Differentially Private Trajectory Data Publication

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Desai, Bipin C

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of location-aware devices, trajectory data has been generated and collected in various application domains. Trajectory data carries rich information that is useful for many data analysis tasks. Yet, improper publishing and use of trajectory data could jeopardize individual privacy. However, it has been shown that existing privacy-preserving trajectory data publishing methods derived from partition-based privacy models, for example k-anonymity, are unable to provide sufficient privacy protection. In this paper, motivated by the data publishing scenario at the Societe de transport de Montreal (STM), the public transit agency in Montreal area, we study the problem of publishing trajectory data under the rigorous differential privacy model. We propose an efficient data-dependent yet differentially private sanitization algorithm, which is applicable to different types of trajectory data. The efficiency of our approach comes from adaptively narrowing down the output domain by building...

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Attention Deficit Disorder: Boys' Developmental Trajectories from Age 3 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1990-01-01

    In this study of developmental precursors of adolescent behavior, the developmental trajectories of 435 boys from ages 3 through 15 were traced for selected correlates of delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior, low verbal intelligence, reading difficulty, and family adversity). (PCB)

  19. Periodic billiard trajectories in polygons: generating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobets, Ya B.; Gal'perin, G. A.; Stepin, Anatolii M.

    1992-06-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction §1. Billiard trajectories in a plane domain §2. Fagnano's problem. Mechanical interpretations of periodic trajectories in triangles §3. An extremal property of billiard trajectories. Birkhoff's theorem. The non-existence of a unified construction of periodic trajectories in obtuse triangles §4. 'Perpendicular' trajectories in obtuse triangles of special shape §5. 'Perpendicular' trajectories in rational polygons and polyhedra §6. Stable trajectories §7. Stable perpendicular trajectories §8. Isolated trajectories §9. Isolated trajectories in acute and obtuse triangles. The bifurcation diagram of isolated trajectories (a 'hang-glider' configuration) §10. The density of F-triangles in a neighbourhood of (0, 0) §11. Generalization of the construction of isolated trajectories in obtuse triangles §12. Stable and unstable billiard trajectories in plane Weyl chambers §13. A criterion for the stability of periodic trajectories in a regular hexagonConclusionReferences

  20. 外界支持物对绞股蓝种群觅养行为和繁殖对策的影响%Effects of external support on the foraging behavior and reproductive strategies in Gynostemma pentaphylum populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维明; 钟章成

    2001-01-01

    G.Pentaphyllum,as a climbing plant,utilizes its surrounding plants as external support for upright growth under natural conditions.To examine the effects of the external support on foraging behavior and reproductive strategies in the G.pentaphyllum populations,two types of treatments,i.e.erect growth with external support,and prostrate growth without external support,were created to simulate their success and failure in encountering support using experimental ecological methods.The results showed as follows:(1)External support could significantly affect blade biomass ratio,tendril biomass ratio,branching ratio,specific leaf area,blade biomass/support biomass,and petiole angle.The influences can embody the ecological adaptation of G.pentaphyllum populations to heterogeneous light environments,and reflect the “research” of the population with prostrate growth for support as well.(2)External support could significantly influence reproductive allocation,reproductive index,reproductive efficiency index,reproductive ratio,and reproductive output.It implies that external support may significantly affect reproductive strategies of the populations.(3)The different characteristics of the populations had various sensitivity to external support.(4)It was through changing their light resource environments and growth means that external support affected foraging behavior and reproductive strategies in the G.pentaphyllum populations.%绞股蓝(Gynostemma pentaphyllum)是一种攀援植物,自然条件下攀附其它植物向上生长。利用实验生态学方法,设置两种处理,即有外界支持物(简称支持物)的直立生长和无支持物的伏地生长(模拟绞股蓝寻找到和找不到支持物的两种生长情况),以探讨支持物对绞股蓝种群觅养行为和繁殖对策的影响。结果表明:(1)支持物能显著影响叶片生物量比、卷须生物量比、分枝率、比叶面积、叶生物量/支持结构生物量比和叶柄角度

  1. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    the central metric free-flow speed from trajectories, instead of using point-based measurements such as induction-loops. This free-flow speed is widely used to compute and monitor the congestion level. The paper argues that the actual travel-time is a more accurate metric. The paper suggests a novel approach...... are correctly coordinated, and navigational device manufacturers to advice drivers in real-time on expected behavior of signalized intersections. The main conclusion is that trajectories can provide novel insight into the actual traffic situation that is not possible using existing approaches. Further...... to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections...

  2. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  3. 行为心理与高校体育场馆的外部造型研究%Behavior Psychology and University Sports Venues External Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳华

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the university stadium ext-ernal shape characteristics, combined with the design of al as-pects of the psychological needs this paper researches the inner space environment and other aspects of school sports stadium construction.%本文在分析高校体育场馆外部造型特点的基础上,结合大学生对学校体育建筑设计各方面的心理需求对体育馆的内部空间环境等方面进行研究。

  4. Reciprocal Relations between the Trajectories of Mothers' Harsh Discipline, Responsiveness and Aggression in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Nazli; Akcinar, Berna

    2017-02-18

    Theoretical advances in the study of the development of aggressive behaviors indicate that parenting behaviors and child aggression mutually influence one another. This study contributes to the body of empirical research in this area by examining the development of child aggression, maternal responsiveness, and maternal harsh discipline, using 5-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of Turkish children (n = 1009; 469 girls and 582 boys). Results indicated that: (i) maternal responsiveness and harsh discipline at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectory of aggression; (ii) reciprocally, aggressive behaviors at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectories of these two types of parenting behaviors; (iii) deviations from the linear trajectories of the child and mother behaviors tended to be short lived; and, (iv) the deviations of child behaviors from the linear trajectories were associated with the subsequent changes in mother behaviors after age 5. These findings are discussed in the cultural context of this study.

  5. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  6. Geometric Algorithms for Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Technology such as the Global Positing System (GPS) has made tracking moving entities easy and cheap. As a result there is a large amount of trajectory data available, and an increasing demand on tools and techniques to analyze such data. We consider several analysis tasks for trajectory data, and d

  7. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Lee [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Thomas, Christopher G., E-mail: Chris.Thomas@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion

  8. A Measure of Similarity Between Trajectories of Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le QI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of similarity between trajectories of vessels is one of the kernel problems that must be addressed to promote the development of maritime intelligent traffic system (ITS. In this study, a new model of trajectory similarity measurement was established to improve the data processing efficiency in dynamic application and to reflect actual sailing behaviors of vessels. In this model, a feature point detection algorithm was proposed to extract feature points, reduce data storage space and save computational resources. A new synthesized distance algorithm was also created to measure the similarity between trajectories by using the extracted feature points. An experiment was conducted to measure the similarity between the real trajectories of vessels. The growth of these trajectories required measurements to be conducted under different voyages. The results show that the similarity measurement between the vessel trajectories is efficient and correct. Comparison of the synthesized distance with the sailing behaviors of vessels proves that results are consistent with actual situations. The experiment results demonstrate the promising application of the proposed model in studying vessel traffic and in supplying reliable data for the development of maritime ITS.

  9. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  10. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys' and girls' externalizing behavior in Gene × Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhof, Esther; Belsky, Jay; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G × E interaction reflecting diathesis-stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis-stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

  11. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  12. Probabilistic Modeling of Aircraft Trajectories for Dynamic Separation Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.

  13. Relations Between Paternal and Maternal Harsh Disciplines and Junior Middle School Students' Externalizing Problem Behaviors%父母严厉管教与初中生外化问题行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓; 魏志民; 邢晓沛; 王美芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察父亲和母亲的严厉管教与初中生外化问题行为的关系.方法:采用Straus编制的亲子冲突解决策略量表和Achenbach儿童行为量表的儿童自我报告版测查1070名初中生.结果:①初中男生遭受的父亲严厉管教的频繁性高于女生.初中男生遭受母亲体罚的频繁性高于女生.初二学生遭受母亲心理攻击的频繁性显著高于初一学生.②父亲和母亲的心理攻击、体罚和身体虐待均与初中生外化问题行为存在显著正相关.③父亲和母亲的心理攻击、母亲的体罚和身体虐待可以显著预测初中生的外化问题行为,但父亲的体罚和身体虐待不能显著预测初中生的外化问题行为.结论:父母实施严厉管教行为的频繁性受到初中生性别和年龄的影响,并且父母亲的严厉管教对初中生外化问题行为具有一定的预测作用.%Objective: To examine the effect of parental harsh disciplines on junior middle school students' externaliz-ing problem behaviors. Methods: One thousand and seventy junior middle school students completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and the YSR. Results: The frequency of paternal harsh discipline was higher for boys than for girls. The frequency of maternal corporal punishment was higher for boys than for girls. The frequency of maternal psycho-logical aggression was higher for the 8th grade students than for the 7th. The correlations between parental harsh discipline and junior middle school students' externalizing problem behaviors were significant. Paternal and maternal psychological aggression, maternal corporal punishment and physical abuse could significantly predict junior middle school students' externalizing problem behaviors, but paternal corporal punishment and physical abuse couldn' t significantly predict junior middle school students' externalizing problem behaviors. Conclusion: The frequency of parental harsh discipline is affect-ed by junior

  14. Directional locomotion of C. elegans in the absence of external stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Peliti

    Full Text Available Many organisms respond to food deprivation by altering their pattern of movement, often in ways that appear to facilitate dispersal. While the behavior of the nematode C. elegans in the presence of attractants has been characterized, long-range movement in the absence of external stimuli has not been examined in this animal. Here we investigate the movement pattern of individual C. elegans over times of ∼1 hour after removal from food, using two custom imaging set-ups that allow us to track animals on large agar surfaces of 22 cm×22 cm. We find that a sizeable fraction of the observed trajectories display directed motion over tens of minutes. Remarkably, this directional persistence is achieved despite a local orientation memory that decays on the scale of about one minute. Furthermore, we find that such trajectories cannot be accounted for by simple random, isotropic models of animal locomotion. This directional behavior requires sensory neurons, but appears to be independent of known sensory signal-transduction pathways. Our results suggest that long-range directional behavior of C. elegans may not be driven by sensory cues.

  15. Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviors in Adolescence and Young adulthood : Longitudinal Studies on the Role of Co-occurrence and Intimate Bonds with Parents and Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Two main issues formed a starting point for the different empirical studies that make up this dissertation: (1) what is the prevalence, course, and comorbidity of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood?, and (2) what is the role of intimate relationships with parents and partners in the

  16. Examining the Effect of External Factors and Context-Dependent Beliefs of Teachers in the Use of ICT in Teaching: Using an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sallimah; Laxman, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Research into teachers' attitudes, beliefs, competence, and inhibitions in relation to their use of technology may provide answers to a series of questions from administrators that relate to teachers' classroom implementation of Information and Communication Technology. The theory of planned behavior is a useful model for providing a framework for…

  17. Examining the Effect of External Factors and Context-Dependent Beliefs of Teachers in the Use of ICT in Teaching: Using an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sallimah; Laxman, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Research into teachers' attitudes, beliefs, competence, and inhibitions in relation to their use of technology may provide answers to a series of questions from administrators that relate to teachers' classroom implementation of Information and Communication Technology. The theory of planned behavior is a useful model for providing a framework for…

  18. The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

  19. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  20. Drug use trajectory patterns among older drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyndall B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Boeri, Thor Whalen, Benjamin Tyndall, Ellen BallardKennesaw State University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Kennesaw GA, USAAbstract: To better understand patterns of drug use trajectories over time, it is essential to have standard measures of change. Our goal here is to introduce measures we developed to quantify change in drug use behaviors. A secondary goal is to provide effective visualizations of these trajectories for applied use. We analyzed data from a sample of 92 older drug users (ages 45 to 65 to identify transition patterns in drug use trajectories across the life course. Data were collected for every year since birth using a mixed methods design. The community-drawn sample of active and former users were 40% female, 50% African American, and 60% reporting some college or greater. Their life histories provided retrospective longitudinal data on the diversity of paths taken throughout the life course and changes in drug use patterns that occurred over time. Bayesian analysis was used to model drug trajectories displayed by innovative computer graphics. The mathematical techniques and visualizations presented here provide the foundation for future models using Bayesian analysis. In this paper we introduce the concepts of transition counts, transition rates and relapse/remission rates, and we describe how these measures can help us better understand drug use trajectories. Depicted through these visual tools, measurements of discontinuous patterns provide a succinct view of individual drug use trajectories. The measures we use on drug use data will be further developed to incorporate contextual influences on the drug trajectory and build predictive models that inform rehabilitation efforts for drug users. Although the measures developed here were conceived to better examine drug use trajectories, the applications of these measures can be used with other longitudinal datasets.Keywords: drug use, trajectory patterns