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Sample records for external validity information

  1. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  2. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  3. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  4. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  5. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  6. External validation of the paediatric risk of malignancy index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, A J; Kluivers, K B; Massuger, L F; Coppus, S F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to validate the paediatric risk of malignancy index (PRMI), as previously published. External validation study. Academic hospital: Radboud University Medical Center. Female paediatric patients under the age of 18 years diagnosed with, or treated for, an adnexal mass between January 1999 and October 2013. Information was collected on diagnosis, presenting symptoms, and signs and imaging characteristics. The PRMI was calculated for each patient. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated, and the results were visualised using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve). Histological diagnosis, discriminative performance using the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve and sensitivity and specificity. Seventy-eight patients were included, with a median age of 12 years. A malignant mass was found in 17 patients (21.8%). The PRMI with a cut-off value of 7 resulted in a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 44.1-89.6%) and a specificity of 85.3% (95% CI 73.8-93.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.868 (95% CI 0.756-0.980). The PRMI showed less discriminative capacity than originally published, but its performance was still good; however, further prospective validation studies are needed to define whether the model is useful in daily clinical practice. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. External Validation of the COmorbidity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Nicholas; Davidson, Ross; Ghori, Uzair K; Abdou, Yara; Abukhalaf, Jawad; Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez

    2017-10-01

    The COmorbidity TEst (COTE) is a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-specific co-morbidity score created to predict mortality. Before its wide application at the University of New Mexico we intended to validate it. The study was conducted at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) in Albuquerque, NM, USA, a tertiary academic hospital. Consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of COPD were identified using the hospital's medical records system and included if they were older than 40 years, had smoked at least 20 pack-years and their post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was <0.7 without an alternative diagnosis. The data collected included demographics, co-morbidities as described in the COTE, COPD-specific therapies, spirometry results and mortality. Of 317 patients 51.4% were male, average age was 65.6 ± 9.6 years and the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted (FEV1%) was 52.9 ± 16.9%. 31 (9.8%) patients were on triple long-acting bronchodilator inhaler therapy, 88 (27.8%) on two long-acting bronchodilators and 163 (51.4%) on at least one long-acting bronchodilator. The median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR = 1.9-6.9). Fifty four patients died by the end of the follow-up period and their median COTE of 4 (IQR = 1-8) was significantly higher than for the survivors with COTE = 1 (IQR = 0-6; p = 0.002). In univariable analyses COTE was positively associated while FEV1%, body mass index (BMI) and gender were negatively associated with all-cause mortality. In multivariable analysis BMI, FEV1% and COTE remained independent predictors for mortality. The COTE is an independent predictor of mortality for COPD patients at UNMH.

  8. External validation of the discharge of hip fracture patients score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, Anne J. H.; Flikweert, Elvira R.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Maier, Andrea B.; Bloem, Rolf M.; Pilot, Peter; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    This paper reports the external validation of a recently developed instrument, the Discharge of Hip fracture Patients score (DHP) that predicts discharge location on admission in patients living in their own home prior to hip fracture surgery. The DHP (maximum score 100 points) was applied to 125

  9. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  10. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized mu......-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd......Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  11. Validation of a scenario-based assessment of critical thinking using an externally validated tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Jennifer L; Schmidt, Peggy; Smylie, Dean; Irizarry, Kris; Crocker, Carlos; Tyler, John; Barr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    With medical education transitioning from knowledge-based curricula to competency-based curricula, critical thinking skills have emerged as a major competency. While there are validated external instruments for assessing critical thinking, many educators have created their own custom assessments of critical thinking. However, the face validity of these assessments has not been challenged. The purpose of this study was to compare results from a custom assessment of critical thinking with the results from a validated external instrument of critical thinking. Students from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences were administered a custom assessment of critical thinking (ACT) examination and the externally validated instrument, California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), in the spring of 2011. Total scores and sub-scores from each exam were analyzed for significant correlations using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant correlations between ACT Blooms 2 and deductive reasoning and total ACT score and deductive reasoning were demonstrated with correlation coefficients of 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. No other statistically significant correlations were found. The lack of significant correlation between the two examinations illustrates the need in medical education to externally validate internal custom assessments. Ultimately, the development and validation of custom assessments of non-knowledge-based competencies will produce higher quality medical professionals.

  12. External Validity and Model Validity: A Conceptual Approach for Systematic Review Methodology

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    Raheleh Khorsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence rankings do not consider equally internal (IV, external (EV, and model validity (MV for clinical studies including complementary and alternative medicine/integrative health care (CAM/IHC research. This paper describe this model and offers an EV assessment tool (EVAT© for weighing studies according to EV and MV in addition to IV. Methods. An abbreviated systematic review methodology was employed to search, assemble, and evaluate the literature that has been published on EV/MV criteria. Standard databases were searched for keywords relating to EV, MV, and bias-scoring from inception to Jan 2013. Tools identified and concepts described were pooled to assemble a robust tool for evaluating these quality criteria. Results. This study assembled a streamlined, objective tool to incorporate for the evaluation of quality of EV/MV research that is more sensitive to CAM/IHC research. Conclusion. Improved reporting on EV can help produce and provide information that will help guide policy makers, public health researchers, and other scientists in their selection, development, and improvement in their research-tested intervention. Overall, clinical studies with high EV have the potential to provide the most useful information about “real-world” consequences of health interventions. It is hoped that this novel tool which considers IV, EV, and MV on equal footing will better guide clinical decision making.

  13. External Validation of the HERNIAscore: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Moses, Maya L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Hannon, Craig; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-09-01

    The HERNIAscore is a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) risk assessment tool that uses only preoperative variables and predictable intraoperative variables. The aim of this study was to validate and modify, if needed, the HERNIAscore in an external dataset. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal malignancy from 2011 through 2015 at a safety-net hospital. The primary end point was clinical postoperative VIH. Patients were stratified into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on HERNIAscore. A revised HERNIAscore was calculated with the addition of earlier abdominal operation as a categorical variable. Cox regression of incisional hernia with stratification by risk class was performed. Incidence rates of clinical VIH formation within each risk class were also calculated. Two hundred and forty-seven patents were enrolled. On Cox regression, in addition to the 3 variables of the HERNIAscore (BMI, COPD, and incision length), earlier abdominal operation was also predictive of VIH. The revised HERNIAscore demonstrated improved predictive accuracy for clinical VIH. Although the original HERNIAscore effectively stratified the risk of an incisional radiographic VIH developing, the revised HERNIAscore provided a statistically significant stratification for both clinical and radiographic VIHs in this patient cohort. We have externally validated and improved the HERNIAscore. The revised HERNIAscore uses BMI, incision length, COPD, and earlier abdominal operation to predict risk of postoperative incisional hernia. Future research should assess methods to prevent incisional hernias in moderate-to-high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. External validation of the HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lee; Gomes, Marcelo P V; Al Solaiman, Firas; St John, Julie; Ozaki, Asuka; Raju, Manjunath; Dhariwal, Manoj; Kim, Esther S H

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be challenging. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score has recently been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of HIT. We sought to externally and prospectively validate the HEP score. We prospectively assessed pre-test probability of HIT for 51 consecutive patients referred to our Consultative Service for evaluation of possible HIT between August 1, 2012 and February 1, 2013. Two Vascular Medicine fellows independently applied the 4T and HEP scores for each patient. Two independent HIT expert adjudicators rendered a diagnosis of HIT likely or unlikely. The median (interquartile range) of 4T and HEP scores were 4.5 (3.0, 6.0) and 5 (3.0, 8.5), respectively. There were no significant differences between area under receiver-operating characteristic curves of 4T and HEP scores against the gold standard, confirmed HIT [defined as positive serotonin release assay and positive anti-PF4/heparin ELISA] (0.74 vs 0.73, p = 0.97). HEP score ≥ 2 was 100 % sensitive and 16 % specific for determining the presence of confirmed HIT while a 4T score > 3 was 93 % sensitive and 35 % specific. In conclusion, the HEP and 4T scores are excellent screening pre-test probability models for HIT, however, in this prospective validation study, test characteristics for the diagnosis of HIT based on confirmatory laboratory testing and expert opinion are similar. Given the complexity of the HEP scoring model compared to that of the 4T score, further validation of the HEP score is warranted prior to widespread clinical acceptance.

  15. External Validity in Policy Evaluations that Choose Sites Purposively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert B; Orr, Larry L; Bell, Stephen H; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of social programs are often carried out in multiple "sites," such as school districts, housing authorities, local TANF offices, or One-Stop Career Centers. Most evaluations select sites purposively following a process that is nonrandom. Unfortunately, purposive site selection can produce a sample of sites that is not representative of the population of interest for the program. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model of purposive site selection. We begin with the proposition that a purposive sample of sites can usefully be conceptualized as a random sample of sites from some well-defined population, for which the sampling probabilities are unknown and vary across sites. This proposition allows us to derive a formal, yet intuitive, mathematical expression for the bias in the pooled impact estimate when sites are selected purposively. This formula helps us to better understand the consequences of selecting sites purposively, and the factors that contribute to the bias. Additional research is needed to obtain evidence on how large the bias tends to be in actual studies that select sites purposively, and to develop methods to increase the external validity of these studies.

  16. External model validation of binary clinical risk prediction models in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-08-01

    Clinical risk-prediction models serve an important role in healthcare. They are used for clinical decision-making and measuring the performance of healthcare providers. To establish confidence in a model, external model validation is imperative. When designing such an external model validation study, thought must be given to patient selection, risk factor and outcome definitions, missing data, and the transparent reporting of the analysis. In addition, there are a number of statistical methods available for external model validation. Execution of a rigorous external validation study rests in proper study design, application of suitable statistical methods, and transparent reporting.

  17. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who…

  18. Prediction Models and Their External Validation Studies for Mortality of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Uchino, Shigehiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review AKI outcome prediction models and their external validation studies, to describe the discrepancy of reported accuracy between the results of internal and external validations, and to identify variables frequently included in the prediction models. Methods We searched the MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases (until January 2016). Studies were eligible if they derived a model to predict mortality of AKI patients or externally validated at least one of the prediction models, and presented area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUROC) to assess model discrimination. Studies were excluded if they described only results of logistic regression without reporting a scoring system, or if a prediction model was generated from a specific cohort. Results A total of 2204 potentially relevant articles were found and screened, of which 12 articles reporting original prediction models for hospital mortality in AKI patients and nine articles assessing external validation were selected. Among the 21 studies for AKI prediction models and their external validation, 12 were single-center (57%), and only three included more than 1,000 patients (14%). The definition of AKI was not uniform and none used recently published consensus criteria for AKI. Although good performance was reported in their internal validation, most of the prediction models had poor discrimination with an AUROC below 0.7 in the external validation studies. There were 10 common non-renal variables that were reported in more than three prediction models: mechanical ventilation, age, gender, hypotension, liver failure, oliguria, sepsis/septic shock, low albumin, consciousness and low platelet count. Conclusions Information in this systematic review should be useful for future prediction model derivation by providing potential candidate predictors, and for future external validation by listing up the published prediction models. PMID:28056039

  19. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  20. Why a Trade-Off? The Relationship between the External and Internal Validity of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimenez-Buedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the methodological discussion around experiments in economics and other social sciences is framed in terms of the notions of internal and external validity. The standard view is that internal validity and external validity stand in a relationship best described as a trade-off. However, it is also commonly held that internal validity is a prerequisite to external validity. This article addresses the problem of the compatibility of these two ideas and analyzes critically the standard arguments about the conditions under which a trade-off between internal and external validity arises. Our argument stands against common associations of internal validity and external validity with the distinction between field and laboratory experiments and assesses critically the arguments that link the artificiality of experimental settings done in the laboratory with the purported trade-off between internal and external validity. We conclude that the idea of a trade-off or tension between internal and external validity seems, upon analysis, far less cogent than its intuitive attractiveness may lead us to think at first sight.

  1. When All Children Comprehend: Increasing the External Validity of Narrative Comprehension Development Research

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    Silas E. Burris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children’s play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children’s later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.

  2. Expanding the Framework of Internal and External Validity in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    An experiment is deemed to be valid, inasmuch as valid cause-effect relationships are established, if the results are due only to the manipulated independent variable (possess internal validity) and are generalizable to groups, environments, and contexts outside of the experimental settings (possess external validity). Consequently, all…

  3. External validation of two tools for the clinical diagnosis of acute diverticulitis without imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.; Andeweg, C.S.; Laurell, H.; Daniels, L.; Laméris, W.; Reitsma, J.B.; Hendriks, J.C.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Goor, H.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim External validation and comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of two predictive tools, the emergency department triad and the clinical scoring tool in diagnosing acute diverticulitis. Methods Two derivation datasets were used crosswise for external validation. In addition, both tools were valida

  4. Developing a brief cross-culturally validated screening tool for externalizing disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Most screening instruments for externalizing disorders have been developed and validated in Western children. We developed and validated a brief screening instrument for predicting externalizing disorders in native Dutch children as well as in non-Dutch immigrant children, using predictor

  5. A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation of Cross-Validation and External Test Set Validation in (Q)SAR.

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    Gütlein, Martin; Helma, Christoph; Karwath, Andreas; Kramer, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    (Q)SAR model validation is essential to ensure the quality of inferred models and to indicate future model predictivity on unseen compounds. Proper validation is also one of the requirements of regulatory authorities in order to accept the (Q)SAR model, and to approve its use in real world scenarios as alternative testing method. However, at the same time, the question of how to validate a (Q)SAR model, in particular whether to employ variants of cross-validation or external test set validation, is still under discussion. In this paper, we empirically compare a k-fold cross-validation with external test set validation. To this end we introduce a workflow allowing to realistically simulate the common problem setting of building predictive models for relatively small datasets. The workflow allows to apply the built and validated models on large amounts of unseen data, and to compare the performance of the different validation approaches. The experimental results indicate that cross-validation produces higher performant (Q)SAR models than external test set validation, reduces the variance of the results, while at the same time underestimates the performance on unseen compounds. The experimental results reported in this paper suggest that, contrary to current conception in the community, cross-validation may play a significant role in evaluating the predictivity of (Q)SAR models.

  6. Simultaneous classification and multidimensional scaling with external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, HAL; Vicari, D; Vichi, M

    2005-01-01

    For the exploratory analysis of a matrix of proximities or (dis)similarities between objects, one often uses cluster analysis ( CA) or multidimensional scaling (MDS). Solutions resulting from such analyses are sometimes interpreted using external information on the objects. Usually the procedures of

  7. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  8. Architecture of Maritime Awareness System Supplied with External Information

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    Stróżyna Milena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a software architecture, which has been developed for the needs of the System for Intelligent Maritime Monitoring (SIMMO. The system bases on the state-of-the-art information fusion and intelligence analysis techniques, which generates an enhanced Recognized Maritime Picture and thus supports situation analysis and decision- making. The SIMMO system aims to automatically fuse an up-to-date maritime data from Automatic Identification System (AIS and open Internet sources. Based on collected data, data analysis is performed to detect suspicious vessels. Functionality of the system is realized in a number of different modules (web crawlers, data fusion, anomaly detection, visualization modules that share the AIS and external data stored in the system’s database. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how external information can be leveraged in maritime awareness system and what software solutions are necessary. A working system is presented as a proof of concept.

  9. Demonstrating Experimenter "Ineptitude" as a Means of Teaching Internal and External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Kimberli R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Internal and external validity are key concepts in understanding the scientific method and fostering critical thinking. This article describes a class demonstration of a "botched" experiment to teach validity to undergraduates. Psychology students (N = 75) completed assessments at the beginning of the semester, prior to and immediately following…

  10. External validation of a clinical scoring system for the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Opmeer, B. C.; Zweers, E. J. K.; van Ballegooie, E.; ter Brugge, H. G.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: A prediction rule for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could be helpful in early detection and increased efficiency of screening. A prediction rule by means of a clinical scoring system is available, but has never been validated externally. The aim of this study was to validate the scoring s

  11. Improving the external validity of clinical trials: the case of multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services vision and strategic framework on multiple chronic conditions (MCCs incorporates recommendations designed to facilitate research that will improve our knowledge about interventions and systems that will benefit individuals with MCCs (or multimorbidity. The evidence base supporting the management of patients with MCCs will be built both through intervention trials specifically designed to address multimorbidity and identification of MCCs in participants across the clinical trial range. This article specifically focuses on issues relating to external validity with specific reference to trials involving patients with MCCs. The exclusion of such patients from clinical trials has been well documented. Randomized control trials (RCTs are considered the “gold standard” of evidence, but may have drawbacks in relation to external validity, particularly in relation to multimorbidity. It may, therefore, be necessary to consider a broader range of research methods that can provide converging evidence on intervention effects to address MCCs. Approaches can also be taken to increase the usefulness of RCTs in general for providing evidence to inform multimorbidity management. Additional improvements to RCTs would include better reporting of inclusion and exclusion criteria and participant characteristics in relation to MCCs. New trials should be considered in terms of how they will add to the existing evidence base and should inform how interventions may work in different settings and patient groups. Research on treatments and interventions for patients with MCCs is badly needed. It is important that this research includes patient-centered measures and that generalizability issues be explicitly addressed.

  12. Frequency of damage by external hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Camarinopoulos, A.; Karali, T. [ERRA, Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, L. [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighborhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. In all cases, some accident is a necessary condition for a hazard. Another probabilistic element is the probability of ignition. If transport causes the explosion, the location of the accident will influence the consequences. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. In order to avoid unnecessarily pessimistic approaches, geographical information can be used in addition to local weather statistics. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. This information can be used to find frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. A probabilistic model has been developed. It is based on: - A joint probability density function for wind direction and wind speed, which has been estimated from local weather statistics, - Frequency of hazards for neighboring plants and various types of traffic, - Statistics on the amounts and types of explosive materials, - The model has been implemented using one numerical integrations method and two variants of Monte Carlo method. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Northern Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. In its present form, it makes use of design criteria specific for nuclear power plants, but these could be replaced by different criteria. (orig.)

  13. How to assess the external validity and model validity of therapeutic trials: a conceptual approach to systematic review methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsan, Raheleh; Crawford, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Background. Evidence rankings do not consider equally internal (IV), external (EV), and model validity (MV) for clinical studies including complementary and alternative medicine/integrative medicine (CAM/IM) research. This paper describe this model and offers an EV assessment tool (EVAT©) for weighing studies according to EV and MV in addition to IV. Methods. An abbreviated systematic review methodology was employed to search, assemble, and evaluate the literature that has been published on EV/MV criteria. Standard databases were searched for keywords relating to EV, MV, and bias-scoring from inception to Jan 2013. Tools identified and concepts described were pooled to assemble a robust tool for evaluating these quality criteria. Results. This study assembled a streamlined, objective tool to incorporate for the evaluation of quality of EV/MV research that is more sensitive to CAM/IM research. Conclusion. Improved reporting on EV can help produce and provide information that will help guide policy makers, public health researchers, and other scientists in their selection, development, and improvement in their research-tested intervention. Overall, clinical studies with high EV have the potential to provide the most useful information about "real-world" consequences of health interventions. It is hoped that this novel tool which considers IV, EV, and MV on equal footing will better guide clinical decision making.

  14. Checklist for the qualitative evaluation of clinical studies with particular focus on external validity and model validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmar Horst C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their significance and application. In this article, a comprehensive checklist is presented addressing these relevant criteria. Methods The checklist was developed by listing the most commonly used assessment criteria for clinical studies. Additionally, specific lists for individual applications were included. The categories of biases of internal validity (selection, performance, attrition and detection bias correspond to structural, treatment-related and observational differences between the test and control groups. Analogously, we have extended these categories to address external validity and model validity, regarding similarity between the study population/conditions and the general population/conditions related to structure, treatment and observation. Results A checklist is presented, in which the evaluation criteria concerning external validity and model validity are systemised and transformed into a questionnaire format. Conclusion The checklist presented in this article can be applied to both planning and evaluating of clinical studies. We encourage the prospective user to modify the checklists according to the respective application and research question. The higher expenditure needed for the evaluation of clinical studies in systematic reviews is justified, particularly in the light of the influential nature of their conclusions on therapeutic decisions and the creation of clinical guidelines.

  15. Networks and external sources of information, section 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, P. F.; Wynne, H. G.; Martin, W. A.; Bodini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic functional aspects of telecommunications, text searching, and networking are reviewed. Some of the information services, both commercial and noncommercial, which are operational in the United States and Europe are described. The ARPANET, TELENET, TYMET, and EURONET packet networks are described. External online bibliographic data bases and factual data banks are reviewed. Details of services offered, specific topics available, and contact points are given for: (in the United States) the NASA/RECON, DOE/RECON, Defense RDT and E, Lockheed Information System (DIALOG), SDC ORBIT, and the bibliograhic Retrieval systems; and (in Europe), ESA/IRS, the International Atomic Energy Agency, TELESYSTEMS, SPIDEL, INKA DIMDI DATA-STAR, BLAISE, and PERGAMON-INFOLINE systems.

  16. Heart rate variability indicates emotional value during pro-social economic laboratory decisions with large external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken, Jonas

    2017-03-10

    The present study investigates the external validity of emotional value measured in economic laboratory experiments by using a physiological indicator of stress, heart rate variability (HRV). While there is ample evidence supporting the external validity of economic experiments, there is little evidence comparing the magnitude of internal levels of emotional stress during decision making with external stress. The current study addresses this gap by comparing the magnitudes of decision stress experienced in the laboratory with the stress from outside the laboratory. To quantify a large change in HRV, measures observed in the laboratory during decision-making are compared to the difference between HRV during a university exam and other mental activity for the same individuals in and outside of the laboratory. The results outside the laboratory inform about the relevance of laboratory findings in terms of their relative magnitude. Results show that psychologically induced HRV changes observed in the laboratory, particularly in connection with social preferences, correspond to large effects outside. This underscores the external validity of laboratory findings and shows the magnitude of emotional value connected to pro-social economic decisions in the laboratory.

  17. Development of Technology Competencies for Public Services’ Staff Has Limited External Validity. A Review of: Wong, G. K. W. (2010. Information commons help desk transactions study. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(3, 235-241.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Martin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To develop an understanding of the types of technology questions asked at an information commons help desk for the purposes of staffing the desk and training. Specifically, the study looked to answer the following questions:1. What kind of assistance do users seek from the help desk?2. How complex is it to handle the technology questions?3. What are the key competencies desirable of the help desk staff?Design - Qualitative analysis of transactions completed at an information commons help desk.Setting - A medium sized academic library located in Hong Kong.Data - 1,636 transactions completed at an information commons help desk between January 2007 and May 2009.Methods - From the opening in 2006, the staff of the information commons help desk recorded all transactions electronically using a modified version of the open source software LibStats. The author examined the transactions for roughly the second and third weeks of each month from January 2007 to May 2009 in an effort to determine the types of questions asked and their complexity.Main Results - In response to question one, 86.3% of questions asked at the help desk concerned technology; the majority of those questions (76.5% were about printing, wireless connection, and various software operation. For question two, 82% of technology questions were determined to be of the lowest tier (Tier 1 of complexity, one-third of the questions required only “direct answers,” and 80% of questions could be answered consistently via the creation of a “knowledge base of answers for these foreseeable questions.” For question three, a list of fourteen competencies for help desk staff were created.Conclusion - With the low complexity of the technology questions asked, the creation of a knowledge base of common questions and answers, and proper training of staff based on the competencies identified in the study, an information commons could be effective with one integrated desk staffed by a

  18. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  19. Approaches for externally validated QSAR modelling of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, P; Pilutti, P; Papa, E

    2007-01-01

    Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are recognized mutagens and carcinogens. A set of mutagenicity data (TA100) for 48 nitro-PAHs was modeled by the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) regression method, and OECD principles for QSAR model validation were applied. The proposed Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models are based on two topological molecular descriptors. The models were validated for predictivity by both internal and external validation. For the external validation, three different splitting approaches, D-optimal Experimental Design, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Random Selection by activity sampling, were applied to the original data set in order to compare these methodologies and to select the best descriptors able to model each prediction set chemicals independently of the splitting method applied. The applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach.

  20. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian Aavang; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, J K

    2013-01-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasmino......Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant...... and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0...

  1. Impact of External Cue Validity on Driving Performance in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Scally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the impact of external cue validity on simulated driving performance in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD patients and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Braking points and distance between deceleration point and braking point were analysed for red traffic signals preceded either by Valid Cues (correctly predicting signal, Invalid Cues (incorrectly predicting signal, and No Cues. Results showed that PD drivers braked significantly later and travelled significantly further between deceleration and braking points compared with controls for Invalid and No-Cue conditions. No significant group differences were observed for driving performance in response to Valid Cues. The benefit of Valid Cues relative to Invalid Cues and No Cues was significantly greater for PD drivers compared with controls. Trail Making Test (B-A scores correlated with driving performance for PDs only. These results highlight the importance of external cues and higher cognitive functioning for driving performance in mild to moderate PD.

  2. Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura-Andrade, José Luiz; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2017-03-01

    To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.

  3. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  4. External validity of ST elevation myocardial infarction trials : The Zwolle studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasoul, Saman; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Hoorntje, Jan C. A.; Gosselink, A. T. Marcel; Zijlstra, Felix; Suryapranata, Harry; van 't Hof, Arnoud W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Guidelines are mainly based upon results of randomised controlled clinical trials. However, due to low external validity of these trials, their results can not reasonably be applied to all patients in routine practice. In our hospital, all patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

  5. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  6. Italian validation of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Terminiello, Virginia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is usually experienced by patients awaiting surgical procedures and it can negatively impact patient's outcome. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a questionnaire created to identify anxious patients and their need for information: it has been translated and validated in many languages because of its reliability and ease of completion. To date, no Italian version of the APAIS has been produced; our aim was to translate and validate the APAIS in Italian. We produced an Italian version of the APAIS and we administered it to 110 patients undergoing elective surgery; we explored its structure by factor analysis and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha. We analyzed its external validity by confronting it to the Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Italian version of the APAIS were determined. The Italian version of the APAIS confirmed the original structure of the questionnaire and its internal consistency; it well correlated with the STAI-Y1, the subscale of the STAI which explore the anxiety "state." An APAIS score of 14 was found as best cutoff to distinguish anxious and non-anxious patients. The Italian translation of the APAIS showed psychometric properties similar to the original version. Its reliability and its efficiency make it a powerful tool even in Italian population to detect anxiety and need for information.

  7. Validity of information security policy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    Full Text Available Validity is concerned with establishing evidence for the use of a method to be used with a particular set of population. Thus, when we address the issue of application of security policy models, we are concerned with the implementation of a certain policy, taking into consideration the standards required, through attribution of scores to every item in the research instrument. En today's globalized economic scenarios, the implementation of information security policy, in an information technology environment, is a condition sine qua non for the strategic management process of any organization. Regarding this topic, various studies present evidences that, the responsibility for maintaining a policy rests primarily with the Chief Security Officer. The Chief Security Officer, in doing so, strives to enhance the updating of technologies, in order to meet all-inclusive business continuity planning policies. Therefore, for such policy to be effective, it has to be entirely embraced by the Chief Executive Officer. This study was developed with the purpose of validating specific theoretical models, whose designs were based on literature review, by sampling 10 of the Automobile Industries located in the ABC region of Metropolitan São Paulo City. This sampling was based on the representativeness of such industries, particularly with regards to each one's implementation of information technology in the region. The current study concludes, presenting evidence of the discriminating validity of four key dimensions of the security policy, being such: the Physical Security, the Logical Access Security, the Administrative Security, and the Legal & Environmental Security. On analyzing the Alpha of Crombach structure of these security items, results not only attest that the capacity of those industries to implement security policies is indisputable, but also, the items involved, homogeneously correlate to each other.

  8. Prognostic models for locally advanced cervical cancer: external validation of the published models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, David; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Fernández, Sara Pedraza; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Gómez, José Fermín Pérez Regadera

    2017-09-01

    To externally validate the prognostic models for predicting the time-dependent outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in an independent cohort. A historical cohort of 297 women with LACC who were treated with radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy from 1999 to 2014 at the 12 de Octubre University Hospital (H12O), Madrid, Spain. The external validity of prognostic models was quantified regarding discrimination, calibration, measures of overall performance, and decision curve analyses. The review identified 8 studies containing 13 prognostic models. Different (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stages, parametrium involvement, hydronephrosis, location of positive nodes, and race) but related cohorts with validation cohort (5-year overall survival [OS]=70%; 5-year disease-free survival [DFS]=64%; average age of 50; and over 79% squamous cell) were evaluated. The following models exhibited good external validity in terms of discrimination and calibration but limited clinical utility: the OS model at 3 year from Kidd et al.'s study (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]=0.69; threshold of clinical utility [TCU] between 36% and 50%), the models of DFS at 1 year from Kidd et al.'s study (AUROC=0.64; TCU between 24% and 32%) and 2 years from Rose et al.'s study (AUROC=0.70; TCU between 19% and 58%) and the distant recurrence model at 5 years from Kang et al.'s study (AUROC=0.67; TCU between 12% and 36%). The external validation revealed the statistical and clinical usefulness of 4 prognostic models published in the literature.

  9. Can findings from randomized controlled trials of social skills training in autism spectrum disorder be generalized? The neglected dimension of external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Choque Olsson, Nora; Bölte, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We extracted data clustered into six overarching themes: source population, included population, context, treatment provider, treatment intervention, and outcome. A total of 15 eligible randomized controlled trials were identified. The eligible population was typically limited to high-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder, and the included population was predominantly male and Caucasian. Scant information about the recruitment of participants was provided, and details about treatment providers and settings were sparse. It was not evident from the trials to what extent acquired social skills were enacted in everyday life and maintained over time. We conclude that the generalizability of the accumulated evidence is unclear and that the determinants of external validity are often inadequately reported. At this point, more effectiveness-oriented randomized controlled trials of equally high internal and external validity are needed. More attention to the determinants of external validity is warranted when this new generation of randomized controlled trials are planned and reported. We provide a tentative checklist for this purpose.

  10. Validation of the Information/Communications Technology Literacy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Technical Report 1360 Validation of the Information / Communications Technology Literacy Test D. Matthew Trippe Human Resources Research...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Validation of the Information / Communications Technology Literacy Test 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAS-09-D-0013 5b...validate a measure of cyber aptitude, the Information / Communications Technology Literacy Test (ICTL), in predicting trainee performance in Information

  11. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort : prospective multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, Marije; Kwee, Anneke; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Inge; Evers, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; Hering, Yolanda R; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kirpestein, Cornel; Monincx, Wilma M; Siljee, Jacqueline E; Van 't Zelfde, Annewil; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Vankan-Buitelaar, Simone A; Vonk, Mariska A A W; Wiegers, Therese A; Zwart, Joost J; Franx, Arie; Moons, Karel G M; Koster, Maria P H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: External validation of all published prognostic models in

  12. Survival nomogram for curatively resected Korean gastric cancer patients: multicenter retrospective analysis with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database.We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 2006 at eight centers. Among these centers, six institutions were randomly assigned to the development set, and the other two centers were assigned to the validation set. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model was performed, and discrimination and calibration were evaluated by external validation.Multivariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In the external validation, the concordance index was 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.784-0.878, and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic was 3.92 (P = 0.917.We developed and validated a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer based on a multicenter database. This nomogram can be broadly applied even in general hospitals and is useful for counseling patients, and scheduling follow-up.

  13. Statistical external validation and consensus modeling: a QSPR case study for Koc prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester

    2007-03-01

    The soil sorption partition coefficient (log K(oc)) of a heterogeneous set of 643 organic non-ionic compounds, with a range of more than 6 log units, is predicted by a statistically validated QSAR modeling approach. The applied multiple linear regression (ordinary least squares, OLS) is based on a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors selected by the genetic algorithms-variable subset selection (GA-VSS) procedure. The models were validated for predictivity by different internal and external validation approaches. For external validation we applied self organizing maps (SOM) to split the original data set: the best four-dimensional model, developed on a reduced training set of 93 chemicals, has a predictivity of 78% when applied on 550 validation chemicals (prediction set). The selected molecular descriptors, which could be interpreted through their mechanistic meaning, were compared with the more common physico-chemical descriptors log K(ow) and log S(w). The chemical applicability domain of each model was verified by the leverage approach in order to propose only reliable data. The best predicted data were obtained by consensus modeling from 10 different models in the genetic algorithm model population.

  14. Externally validated QSPR modelling of VOC tropospheric oxidation by NO3 radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, E; Gramatica, P

    2008-01-01

    The troposphere is the principal recipient of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin. The persistence of these compounds in the troposphere is an important factor for the evaluation of their fate, and the possible negative effects to the environment and human health. In this study, the tropospheric lifetime of 166 VOCs, in terms of night-time degradation rates with nitrate radical (NO(3)), was modelled by the quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) approach. The multiple linear regression method was applied, in combination with the genetic algorithm-variable subset selection procedure, to a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated by the DRAGON software. The models were developed according to the OECD principles for regulatory acceptance of QSARs, with particular attention to external validation and applicability domain (AD). The external validation was performed on an unbiased external test set or by splitting the available data using self-organized maps or the random by response approach. The best QSPR models presented in this study showed good internal (range of Q(loo)(2): 89-92%) as well as external predictivity (range of Q(ext)(2): 75-89%). The AD of the models was analysed by the leverage approach, and was represented graphically in the Williams graph.

  15. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  16. An Analysis of Data Validity for Measures of Effectiveness of Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    these losses are not random, then external validity is threatened. J. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Galtung (1967) states that all social science data are...Information System Quarterly, Vol. 12 , No. 2, (June 1988), pp. 277-296. Galtung , Johan, Theory and Methods of Social Research, Columbia University Press, New

  17. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  18. Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn D

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed.

  19. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.

    2007-01-01

    -skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships. Here, we describe an external validation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new...... for sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid...

  20. Psychological capital: Internal and external validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24 on a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Görgens-Ekermans

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological capital (PsyCap is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24. Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA and non-USA studies.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity, reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement of the PCQ-24.Motivation for the study: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured.Main findings: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables.Practical/managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices.Contribution/value-add: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism on a South African sample, was provided in this study.

  1. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this instrument is currently not available in German. The goals of our study were to translate the Dutch Radboud Skills Questionnaire into German and to assess its external criterion validity with the German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Methods We translated the Radboud Skills Questionnaire according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 57 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event was obtained. We assessed the external criterion validity by comparing the German Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the German Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire and calculated the prediction intervals. Results Score values ranged from 55.4 ± 22.0 for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score and 140.1 ± 39.2 for the Radboud Skills Questionnaire. We found a high correlation between the Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (R2 = 0.83. Conclusion This validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire demonstrates that this German version is a simple and accurate instrument to assess and quantify disabilities of patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity for clinical and research purposes

  2. External validity of a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of severe infections caused by MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mical; Bronstein, Ella; Yahav, Dafna; Goldberg, Elad; Bishara, Jihad; Leibovici, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the external validity of a pragmatic, investigator-initiated RCT on treatment of severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we compared patient characteristics and treatment effect estimates for patients included in the RCT versus those excluded. Participants and outcomes The RCT included hospitalised patients with documented or highly-probable invasive MRSA infections who were randomised to vancomycin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment, between 2007 and 2014. A concomitant observational study prospectively included all consecutive patients, between 2008 and 2011, who were excluded from the RCT due to no consent, meningitis, left-sided endocarditis, severe neutropaenia, chronic renal dialysis or treatment with study medications for longer than 48 h. The primary outcomes were clinical failure at day 7 and 30-day mortality for both studies. We compared baseline and infection characteristics, outcome rates and treatment effect estimates for included versus excluded patients. Results The RCT included 252 patients who were compared with 220 excluded patients who were observed. Inability to provide informed consent was the main reason for patient exclusion. Excluded patients’ functional and cognitive performance was significantly poorer than that of included patients. Sepsis was more severe among excluded patients (higher rates of mechanical ventilation, indwelling catheters, septic shock and organ failure). Clinical failure occurred in 83/252 (32.9%) versus 175/220 (79.5%) and deaths in 32 (12.7%) versus 64 (29.1%) for included versus excluded patients, p<0.001 for both comparisons. Comparing vancomycin to TMP-SMX, in the RCT mortality, was non-significantly lower with vancomycin (OR 0.76, 95% CIs 0.36 to 1.62), while in the observational analysis of excluded patients, mortality was significantly higher with vancomycin (OR 2.63, 1.04 to 6.65), p=0.04 for the difference. Conclusions

  3. Development and External Validation of a Prognostic Nomogram for Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Moser, Justin C.; Parrozzani, Raffaele; Bazzi, Marco; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Mocellin, Simone; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Midena, Edoardo; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Aliberti, Camillo; Campana, Luca G.; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) will develop metastatic disease, usually involving the liver. The outcome of metastatic UM (mUM) is generally poor and no standard therapy has been established. Additionally, clinicians lack a validated prognostic tool to evaluate these patients. The aim of this work was to develop a reliable prognostic nomogram for clinicians. Patients and Methods Two cohorts of mUM patients, from Veneto Oncology Institute (IOV) (N=152) and Mayo Clinic (MC) (N=102), were analyzed to develop and externally validate, a prognostic nomogram. Results The median survival of mUM was 17.2 months in the IOV cohort and 19.7 in the MC cohort. Percentage of liver involvement (HR 1.6), elevated levels of serum LDH (HR 1.6), and a WHO performance status=1 (HR 1.5) or 2–3 (HR 4.6) were associated with worse prognosis. Longer disease-free interval from diagnosis of UM to that of mUM conferred a survival advantage (HR 0.9). The nomogram had a concordance probability of 0.75 (SE .006) in the development dataset (IOV), and 0.80 (SE .009) in the external validation (MC). Nomogram predictions were well calibrated. Conclusions The nomogram, which includes percentage of liver involvement, LDH levels, WHO performance status and disease free-interval accurately predicts the prognosis of mUM and could be useful for decision-making and risk stratification for clinical trials. PMID:25780931

  4. Capturing value from external NPD collaboration — the significant role of market information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, Thomas

    sources.This study contributes to the existing knowledge of firms’ use of external sources in new product development. A model is presented that tests the effectiveness of external collaboration when multiple external sources have to be managed simultaneously. Also, firms’ ability to process information...... is included, as a central capability that allows them to identify the right collaborators for NPD projects, collect information from them, and disseminate that information throughout their organization. Finally, in the model, the level of novelty involved in new product development is included as a way...

  5. Predicting complications in pre-eclampsia : external validation of the fullPIERS model using the PETRA trial dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Joost; Payne, Beth; von Dadelszen, Peter; Groen, Henk; de Vries, Johanna; Magee, Laura A.; Mol, Ben Willem; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The internally validated fulIPIERS model predicts adverse maternal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia within 48 h after eligibility. Our objective was to assess generalizability of this prediction model. Study design: External validation study using prospectively collected data from two

  6. Prognosis in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury : External validation of the IMPACT models and the role of extracranial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingsma, Hester; Andriessen, Teuntje M. J. C.; Haitsema, Iain; Horn, Janneke; van der Naalt, Joukje; Franschman, Gaby; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Vos, Pieter E.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    BACKGROUND: Several prognostic models to predict outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been developed, but few are externally validated. We aimed to validate the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic models in a recent unselected patient

  7. 75 FR 70160 - Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Administration 29 CFR Part 2590 Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information... Act, as amended by the Affordable Care Act, and its implementing regulations. DATES: Submit written or... and external review processes under the Affordable Care Act; those comments are being collected...

  8. Therapist variation within randomised trials of psychotherapy: implications for precision, internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Rebecca; Roberts, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Nesting of patients within therapists in psychotherapy trials creates an additional level within the design. The multilevel nature of this design has implications for the precision, internal and external validity of estimates of the treatment effect. Prior to or during a trial, psychotherapies are allocated to therapists and therapists are assigned to patients such that the therapist becomes part of the causal pathway from the intervention to the patient. It is therefore important to consider not only the relationship between interventions and patients but also relationships between interventions and therapists and between therapists and patients. Research designs comparing the effects of therapeutic approaches, therapist characteristics and packages of the two can be unified by viewing therapists as an important source of variability within psychotherapy outcome studies. Methodological considerations arising from therapist variation will be discussed, drawing together and building upon the associated psychotherapy and statistical literatures. Parallels will also be made with related designs and methods of analysis.

  9. External validation of anti-Müllerian hormone based prediction of live birth in assisted conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Amani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological age and oocyte yield are independent determinants of live birth in assisted conception. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after controlled ovarian stimulation. We have previously assessed the ability of AMH and age to independently predict live birth in an Italian assisted conception cohort. Herein we report the external validation of the nomogram in 822 UK first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods Retrospective cohort consisting of 822 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle at Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine. Analyses were restricted to women aged between 25 and 42 years of age. All women had an AMH measured prior to commencing their first IVF cycle. The performance of the model was assessed; discrimination by the area under the receiver operator curve (ROCAUC and model calibration by the predicted probability versus observed probability. Results Live births occurred in 29.4% of the cohort. The observed and predicted outcomes showed no evidence of miscalibration (p = 0.188. The ROCAUC was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.68, suggesting moderate and similar discrimination to the original model. The ROCAUC for a continuous model of age and AMH was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61, 0.69, suggesting that the original categories of AMH were appropriate. Conclusions We confirm by external validation that AMH and age are independent predictors of live birth. Although the confidence intervals for each category are wide, our results support the assessment of AMH in larger cohorts with detailed baseline phenotyping for live birth prediction.

  10. Information Value and Externalities in Reputation Building - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E. Bolton; Axel Ockenfels

    2007-01-01

    In sequential equilibrium theory, reputation building is independent of whether the reputation builder is matched with one long-run player or a series of short run players. We observe, however, that reputation builders are significantly more challenged by long-run players in both laboratory chain store and buyer-seller games. Reputation builder behavior is not as unpredictable as required by the mixed equilibrium strategies and so information about the reputation builder’s past behavior has m...

  11. Information Value and Externalities in Reputation Building - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E Bolton; Axel Ockenfels

    2007-01-01

    In sequential equilibrium theory, reputation building is independent of whether the reputation builder is matched with one long-run player or a series of short run players. We observe, however, that reputation builders are significantly more challenged by long-run players in both laboratory chain store and buyer-seller games. Reputation builder behavior is not as unpredictable as required by the mixed equilibrium strategies and so information about the reputation builder’s past behavior has m...

  12. Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramspek, Chava L; Voskamp, Pauline Wm; van Ittersum, Frans J; Krediet, Raymond T; Dekker, Friedo W; van Diepen, Merel

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities. A systematic review was performed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To account for missing data, multiple imputation was performed. The original prediction formulae were extracted from selected studies. The probability of death per model was calculated for each individual within the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD). The predictive performance of the models was assessed based on their discrimination and calibration. In total, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. External validation was performed in 1,943 dialysis patients from NECOSAD for a total of seven models. The models performed moderately to well in terms of discrimination, with C-statistics ranging from 0.710 (interquartile range 0.708-0.711) to 0.752 (interquartile range 0.750-0.753) for a time frame of 1 year. According to the calibration, most models overestimated the probability of death. Overall, the performance of the models was poorer in the external validation than in the original population, affirming the importance of external validation. Floege et al's models showed the highest predictive performance. The present study is a step forward in the use of a prediction model as a useful tool for nephrologists, using evidence-based medicine that

  13. Structural relations between coping strategies and Burnout syndrome on health workers: A study of external and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Austria Corrales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate hypothesized structural and functional relationships between coping strategies and factors associated with burnout syndrome in independent samples of health workers from different hospitals and hospital care settings. We applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the scale of Coping with Extreme Risks adapted to the Mexican population, we analyzed the responses of 354 health workers in a tertiary hospital and 300 from a reference hospital. The samples were intentional, non-probability, quota. The group was formed by nurses, paramedics, diagnostics services, physicians and resident physicians. Results confirmed the factor structure of the instruments in the twosamples and showed that the use of active coping strategies (control, information seeking, social support, among others has protective effects on the factors associated withthe syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfillment at work, regardless of the sample, context and type of hospital care. We discuss the results andtheir implications in relation to external validity and findings in other related research.

  14. Information systems validation using formal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Sarram

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing interest to use unified modeling language (UML to consider the functional requirements. However, lacking a tool to detect the accuracy and the logic of diagrams in this language makes a formal model indispensable. In this study, conversion of primary UML model of a system to a colored Petri net has been accomplished in order to examine the precision of the model. For this purpose, first the definition of priority and implementation tags for UML activity diagram are provided; then it is turned into colored Petri net. Second, the proposed model provides translated tags in terms of net transitions and some monitoring are used to control the system characteristics. Finally, an executable model of UML activity diagram is provided so that the designer could simulate the model by using the simulation results to detect and to refine the problems of the model. In addition, by checking the results, we find out the proposed method enhances authenticity and accuracy of early models and the ratio of system validation increases compared with previous methods.

  15. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  16. [Assessment of complex PTSD - internal and external validity of a diagnostic interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroske-Leiner, Katja; Hofmann, Arne; Sack, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The diagnostic construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) describes the consequences of early onset and long-term persisting psychological traumatizations. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) - is the German adaptation of the structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES). The present study reports first data regarding the internal validity of the I-kPTBS as well as on the external validity of the diagnosis of complex PTSD. The I-kPTBS was applied in 72 consecutive patients of a specialized outpatient clinic. 31 patients fulfilled the criteria of the diagnosis complex PTSD. 25 suffered from a PTSD but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria of complex PTSD. Both groups where compared regarding their symptoms, resources and reports of childhood events. Internal consistence of the I-kPTBS regarding the sample was good to excellent (alpha = 0.88). As expected, patients with the diagnosis of complex PTSD showed more severe dissociative, depressive and general anxiety symptoms than patients with PTSD alone. Patients fulfilling the criteria of complex PTSD reported a lower age at their first traumatic event, more multiple traumatizations and more often a dissociative disorder as comorbid diagnosis. Patients with complex PTSD show a higher traumaload in childhood and a lower level of compensatory resources. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) describes a consistent diagnostic construct. The results demonstrate that the diagnosis of complex PTSD selects a specific group of patients with early childhood trauma and high symptom level. Specific criteria can differentiate this patient group well from patients that suffer from PTSD alone.

  17. External Validation of Models for Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyeon Ku

    Full Text Available To externally validate models to predict LN metastsis; Karakiewicz nomogram, clinical nodal staging score (cNSS, and pathologic nodal staging score (pNSS using a different cohort.Clinicopathologic data from 500 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were analyzed. The overall predictive values of models were compared with the criteria of overall performance, discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness.Presence of pN+ stages was recorded in 117 patients (23.4%. Agreement between clinical and pathologic stage was noted in 174 (34.8%. Based on Nagelkerke's peudo-R2 and brier score, pNSS demonstrated best overall performance. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, showed that pNSS had the best discriminatory ability. In all models, calibration was on average correct (calibration-in-the-large coefficient = zero. On decision curve analysis, pNSS performed better than other models across a wide range of threshold probabilities.When compared to pNSS, current precystectomy models such as the Karakiewicz nomogram and cNSS cannot predict the probability of LN metastases accurately. The findings suggest that the application of pNSS to Asian patients is feasible.

  18. Multicentre external validation of the BIMC model for solid solitary pulmonary nodule malignancy prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soardi, Gian Alberto; Perandini, Simone; Motton, Massimiliano; Montemezzi, Stefania [AOUI Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, Anna Rita; Del Ciello, Annemilia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, Giovanna [UO Chirurgia Toracica, Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, Antonio [UO Radiologia, Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, Laura [UO Pneumologia, Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, Mestre (Italy); Bernhart, Marco [UO Radiologia, Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, Mestre (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To provide multicentre external validation of the Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model by assessing diagnostic accuracy in a cohort of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected in a clinic-based setting. To assess model impact on SPN decision analysis and to compare findings with those obtained via the Mayo Clinic model. Clinical and imaging data were retrospectively collected from 200 patients from three centres. Accuracy was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) areas under the curve (AUCs). Decision analysis was performed by adopting both the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the British Thoracic Society (BTS) risk thresholds. ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.880 (95 % CI, 0.832-0.928) for the BIMC model and of 0.604 (95 % CI, 0.524-0.683) for the Mayo Clinic model. Difference was 0.276 (95 % CI, 0.190-0.363, P < 0.0001). Decision analysis showed a slightly reduced number of false-negative and false-positive results when using ACCP risk thresholds. The BIMC model proved to be an accurate tool when characterising SPNs. In a clinical setting it can distinguish malignancies from benign nodules with minimal errors by adopting current ACCP or BTS risk thresholds and guiding lesion-tailored diagnostic and interventional procedures during the work-up. (orig.)

  19. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    . Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice.

  20. Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes : systematic literature search and independent external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify existing prediction models for the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and to externally validate them in a large independent cohort. Data sources Systematic search of English, German, and Dutch literature in PubMed until February 2011 to identify prediction models for diabe

  1. Validation of a Switching Operation in the External Grid of Gunfleet Sand Offshore Wind Farm by Means of EMT Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Okholm, J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the voltage signals occurring during a switching operation recorded in the external grid of Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm recorded with an Elspec measurement system. The measurements are compared to electromagnetic (EMT) simulations for validation of the wind farm model...

  2. A Psychometric Validation of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…

  3. External validity of sentiment mining reports: Can current methods identify demographic biases, event biases, and manipulation of reviews?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Bloemen, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Many publications in sentiment mining provide new techniques for improved accuracy in extracting features and corresponding sentiments in texts. For the external validity of these sentiment reports, i.e., the applicability of the results to target audiences, it is important to well analyze data of t

  4. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I.E. Snell (Kym I.E.); H. Hua (Harry); T.P. Debray (Thomas P.A.); J. Ensor (Joie); M.P. Look (Maxime); K.G.M. Moons (Karel G.M.); R.D. Riley (Richard D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. Study Design and Setting We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing c

  5. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  6. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  7. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  8. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method.

  9. Information flows and social externalities in a Tanzanian banana growing village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of social networks as facilitators of information flows and banana output increase. Based on a village census, full information is available on the socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmers' kinship group members, neighbours and informal insurance group members. The census data enable us to use individual specific reference groups and include exogenous group controls to tackle standard difficulties related to identification and omitted variables bias when analysing social effects. For the survey village of Nyakatoke in Tanzania the results suggest that information flows exist within all types of groups analysed but output externalities are limited to kinship groups. Using networks may offer scope for effective information flows on agricultural techniques, but our evidence suggests that not just any local network will have a social externality impact, requiring a clear understanding of local social networks for maximum impact.

  10. Posterior odontoid process angulation in pediatric Chiari I malformation: an MRI morphometric external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Dewan, Michael C; Day, Matthew A; Shannon, Chevis N; Tomycz, Luke; Tulipan, Noel; Wellons, John C

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Osseous anomalies of the craniocervical junction are hypothesized to precipitate the hindbrain herniation observed in Chiari I malformation (CM-I). Previous work by Tubbs et al. showed that posterior angulation of the odontoid process is more prevalent in children with CM-I than in healthy controls. The present study is an external validation of that report. The goals of our study were 3-fold: 1) to externally validate the results of Tubbs et al. in a different patient population; 2) to compare how morphometric parameters vary with age, sex, and symptomatology; and 3) to develop a correlative model for tonsillar ectopia in CM-I based on these measurements. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt University; 78 of these patients had imaging available for review. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. A neuroradiologist retrospectively evaluated preoperative MRI examinations in these 78 patients and recorded the following measurements: McRae line length; obex displacement length; odontoid process parameters (height, angle of retroflexion, and angle of retroversion); perpendicular distance to the basion-C2 line (pB-C2 line); length of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia; caudal extent of the cerebellar tonsils; and presence, location, and size of syringomyelia. Odontoid retroflexion grade was classified as Grade 0, > 90°; Grade I,85°-89°; Grade II, 80°-84°; and Grade III, < 80°. Age groups were defined as 0-6 years, 7-12 years, and 13-17 years at the time of surgery. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test were performed to assess the relationship between age, sex, and symptomatology with these craniometric variables. RESULTS The prevalence of posterior odontoid angulation was 81%, which is almost identical to that in the previous report

  11. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  12. External validation of a claims-based algorithm for classifying kidney-cancer surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deapen Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other malignancies, there is no literature supporting the accuracy of medical claims data for identifying surgical treatments among patients with kidney cancer. We sought to validate externally a previously published Medicare-claims-based algorithm for classifying surgical treatments among patients with early-stage kidney cancer. To achieve this aim, we compared procedure assignments based on Medicare claims with the type of surgery specified in SEER registry data and clinical operative reports. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare data, we calculated the agreement between Medicare claims and SEER data for identification of cancer-directed surgery among 6,515 patients diagnosed with early-stage kidney cancer. Next, for a subset of 120 cases, we determined the agreement between the claims algorithm and the medical record. Finally, using the medical record as the reference-standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the claims algorithm. Results Among 6,515 cases, Medicare claims and SEER data identified 5,483 (84.1% and 5,774 (88.6% patients, respectively, who underwent cancer-directed surgery (observed agreement = 93%, κ = 0.69, 95% CI 0.66 – 0.71. The two data sources demonstrated 97% agreement for classification of partial versus radical nephrectomy (κ = 0.83, 95% CI 0.81 – 0.86. We observed 97% agreement between the claims algorithm and clinical operative reports; the positive predictive value of the claims algorithm exceeded 90% for identification of both partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Medicare claims represent an accurate data source for ascertainment of population-based patterns of surgical care among patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

  13. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean V˙O2 of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% V˙O2PEAK) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak V˙O2 of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% V˙O2PEAK), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L–1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport. PMID:28158252

  14. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, Matheus; Soares, Pedro Paulo; Araújo, Marcus Paulo; Porto, Flávia; Franchini, Emerson; Bridge, Craig Alan; Gurgel, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean [Formula: see text] of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% [Formula: see text]) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak [Formula: see text] of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% [Formula: see text]), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L-1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport.

  15. External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deudekom, Floor J.; Postmus, Iris; van der Ham, Danielle J.; Pothof, Alexander B.; Broekhuizen, Karen; Blauw, Gerard J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    Background To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics. Methods PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Results In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63–70) and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45–72). In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%). When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials. Conclusion Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs. PMID:28346503

  16. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Leopold, Daniel R; Burns, G Leonard; Jarrett, Matthew A; Langberg, Joshua M; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willcutt, Erik G

    2016-03-01

    To conduct the first meta-analysis evaluating the internal and external validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct as related to or distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as associated with functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning. Electronic databases were searched through September 2015 for studies examining the factor structure and/or correlates of SCT in children or adults. The search procedures identified 73 papers. The core SCT behaviors included across studies, as well as factor loadings and reliability estimates, were reviewed to evaluate internal validity. Pooled correlation effect sizes using random effects models were used to evaluate SCT in relation to external validity domains (i.e., demographics, other psychopathologies, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning). Strong support was found for the internal validity of the SCT construct. Specifically, across factor analytic studies including more than 19,000 individuals, 13 SCT items loaded consistently on an SCT factor as opposed to an ADHD factor. Findings also support the reliability (i.e., internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability) of SCT. In terms of external validity, there is some indication that SCT may increase with age (r = 0.11) and be associated with lower socioeconomic status (r = 0.10). Modest (potentially negligible) support was found for SCT symptoms being higher in males than females in children (r = 0.05) but not in adults. SCT is more strongly associated with ADHD inattention (r = 0.63 in children, r = 0.72 in adults) than with ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.32 in children, r = 0.46 in adults), and it likewise appears that SCT is more strongly associated with internalizing symptoms than with externalizing symptoms. SCT is associated with significant global, social, and academic impairment (r = 0.38-0.44). Effects for neuropsychological functioning are mixed, although

  17. Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis on routine computed tomography? An external validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, Constantinus F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dijkhuis, Gawein; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, Harald J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis using computed tomography (CT) examinations that happen to visualise the spine can be used to identify patients with osteoporosis. We sought to verify the diagnostic performance of vertebral Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on routine CT examinations for diagnosing osteoporosis in a separate, external population. Consecutive patients who underwent a CT examination of the chest or abdomen and had also received a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test were retrospectively included. CTs were evaluated for vertebral fractures and vertebral attenuation (density) values were measured. Diagnostic performance measures and the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) for diagnosing osteoporosis were calculated. Three hundred and two patients with a mean age of 57.9 years were included, of which 82 (27 %) had osteoporosis according to DXA and 65 (22 %) had vertebral fractures. The diagnostic performance for vertebral HU measurements was modest, with a maximal AUC of 0.74 (0.68 - 0.80). At that optimal threshold the sensitivity was 62 % (51 - 72 %) and the specificity was 79 % (74 - 84 %). We confirmed that simple trabecular vertebral density measurements on routine CT contain diagnostic information related to bone mineral density as measured by DXA, albeit with substantially lower diagnostic accuracy than previously reported. (orig.)

  18. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  19. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  20. Certain Properties of a Quantum Information Network Driven by External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Qiao; FANG Jin-Qing; ZOU Qin

    2006-01-01

    @@ A quantum information network with the structure of the Gaussian channel is proposed. The network topological property and information characteristic is studied. Under the catastrophic and exponential external field driving,the degree distribution has the spatial and temporal characteristics, and the positive or negative power index appears, which can influence the assortativity coefficient. This is possibly helpful to open a way to using the different type of driving to introduce the expected properties for the network.

  1. First approximations in avalanche model validations using seismic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Lafon, Pere; Suriñach, Emma; Bartelt, Perry; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Tapia, Mar; Sovilla, Betty

    2017-04-01

    Avalanche dynamics modelling is an essential tool for snow hazard management. Scenario based numerical modelling provides quantitative arguments for decision-making. The software tool RAMMS (WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF) is one such tool, often used by government authorities and geotechnical offices. As avalanche models improve, the quality of the numerical results will depend increasingly on user experience on the specification of input (e.g. release and entrainment volumes, secondary releases, snow temperature and quality). New model developments must continue to be validated using real phenomena data, for improving performance and reliability. The avalanches group form University of Barcelona (RISKNAT - UB), has studied the seismic signals generated from avalanches since 1994. Presently, the group manages the seismic installation at SLF's Vallée de la Sionne experimental site (VDLS). At VDLS the recorded seismic signals can be correlated to other avalanche measurement techniques, including both advanced remote sensing methods (radars, videogrammetry) and obstacle based sensors (pressure, capacitance, optical sender-reflector barriers). This comparison between different measurement techniques allows the group to address the question if seismic analysis can be used alone, on more additional avalanche tracks, to gain insight and validate numerical avalanche dynamics models in different terrain conditions. In this study, we aim to add the seismic data as an external record of the phenomena, able to validate RAMMS models. The seismic sensors are considerable easy and cheaper to install than other physical measuring tools, and are able to record data from the phenomena in every atmospheric conditions (e.g. bad weather, low light, freezing make photography, and other kind of sensors not usable). With seismic signals, we record the temporal evolution of the inner and denser parts of the avalanche. We are able to recognize the approximate position

  2. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming

    2015-11-01

    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  3. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  4. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles within DSM-IV ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child…

  5. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort: prospective multicentre cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, M.; Kwee, A.; Naaktgeboren, C.A.; Groot, I. de; Evers, I.M.; Groenendaal, F.; Hering, Y.R.; Huisjes, A.J.M.; Kirpestein, C.; Monincx, W.M.; Siljee, J.E.; Zelfde, A. van't; Oirschot, C.M. van; Vankan-Buitelaar, S.A.; Vonk, M.A.A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Zwart, J.J.; Franx, A.; Moons, K.G.M.; Koster, M.P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design: External validation of all published prognostic models in

  6. Information-Constrained Optima with Retrading: An Externality and Its Market-Based Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilenthong, Weerachart T; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-05-01

    This paper studies the efficiency of competitive equilibria in environments with a moral hazard problem and unobserved states, both with retrading in ex post spot markets. The interaction between private information problems and the possibility of retrade creates an externality, unless preferences have special, restrictive properties. The externality is internalized by allowing agents to contract ex ante on market fundamentals determining the spot price or interest rate, over and above contracting on actions and outputs. Then competitive equilibria are equivalent with the appropriate notion of constrained Pareto optimality. Examples show that it is possible to have multiple market fundamentals or price-islands, created endogenously in equilibrium.

  7. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multinomial logistic functions in markov chain models of sleep architecture: internal and external validation and covariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, Roberto; Zamuner, Stefano; Mezzalana, Enrica; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Gomeni, Roberto; Hooker, Andrew C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2011-09-01

    Mixed-effect Markov chain models have been recently proposed to characterize the time course of transition probabilities between sleep stages in insomniac patients. The most recent one, based on multinomial logistic functions, was used as a base to develop a final model combining the strengths of the existing ones. This final model was validated on placebo data applying also new diagnostic methods and then used for the inclusion of potential age, gender, and BMI effects. Internal validation was performed through simplified posterior predictive check (sPPC), visual predictive check (VPC) for categorical data, and new visual methods based on stochastic simulation and estimation and called visual estimation check (VEC). External validation mainly relied on the evaluation of the objective function value and sPPC. Covariate effects were identified through stepwise covariate modeling within NONMEM VI. New model features were introduced in the model, providing significant sPPC improvements. Outcomes from VPC, VEC, and external validation were generally very good. Age, gender, and BMI were found to be statistically significant covariates, but their inclusion did not improve substantially the model's predictive performance. In summary, an improved model for sleep internal architecture has been developed and suitably validated in insomniac patients treated with placebo. Thereafter, covariate effects have been included into the final model.

  9. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guenter [Risa Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin-Charlottenburg (Germany); Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali [Environment Reliability and Risk Analysis (ERRA), Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, Leonidas [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  10. External validation and prediction employing the predictive squared correlation coefficient test set activity mean vs training set activity mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüürmann, Gerrit; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Kühne, Ralph

    2008-11-01

    The external prediction capability of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is often quantified using the predictive squared correlation coefficient, q (2). This index relates the predictive residual sum of squares, PRESS, to the activity sum of squares, SS, without postprocessing of the model output, the latter of which is automatically done when calculating the conventional squared correlation coefficient, r (2). According to the current OECD guidelines, q (2) for external validation should be calculated with SS referring to the training set activity mean. Our present findings including a mathematical proof demonstrate that this approach yields a systematic overestimation of the prediction capability that is triggered by the difference between the training and test set activity means. Example calculations with three regression models and data sets taken from literature show further that for external test sets, q (2) based on the training set activity mean may become even larger than r (2). As a consequence, we suggest to always use the test set activity mean when quantifying the external prediction capability through q (2) and to revise the respective OECD guidance document accordingly. The discussion includes a comparison between r (2) and q (2) value ranges and the q (2) statistics for cross-validation.

  11. Development and external validation of a faecal immunochemical test-based prediction model for colorectal cancer detection in symptomatic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria Teresa; Álvarez-Sánchez, Victoria; Ferrandez, Ángel; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; ,; Cubiella, Joaquín; Vega, Pablo; Salve, María; Díaz-Ondina, Marta; Blanco, Irene; Macía, Pedro; Sánchez, Eloy; Fernández-Seara, Javier; Alves, María Teresa; Quintero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients based on available biomarkers may improve CRC diagnosis. Our aim was to develop, compare with the NICE referral criteria and externally validate a CRC prediction model, COLONPREDICT, based on clinical and laboratory variables. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms referred for colonoscopy between March 2012 and September 2013 in ...

  12. Complex approach to the organization of external information flows of tourism enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to provide the basis of the complex approach to the organization of external information flows at tourism enterprises in order to improve the management of these information flows. The results of the analysis. The complex approach of improvement of the information flows management at tourism enterprises basing on the complex of information signals and organization of feedback between consumers and tourism enterprises is proposed. Application of the theory of market signals (signaling for implementation of the complex approach is substantiated by the fact that an enterprise should generate and extend external outgoing information flows that would contribute to the provision of additional opportunities for the increase tourism products and services output, establishment of partnership and customers attraction. Informational signals as external information flows and activation of informational signaling ensure the informational connection between customers and tourism enterprises in order to stimulate the demand on the services of tourism enterprises and accordingly, their stable competitive position in the market; consideration and formation of demand, as the customers, which are maximum informed on the opportunities of tourism enterprises and the components of an tourism product, may describe their needs in the most accurate way. However, the usage of particular informational signals does not give such opportunities to a tourism enterprise. The necessity to use the complex of informational signals by tourism enterprises was demonstrated through the game theory. If a tourism enterprise does not perform informational signaling, then the sales of tourism products become complicated. The probability of attraction of loyal customers (in accordance to the given goal is not significant, as the choice of a tourism enterprise by a customer has a random character. Therefore, a customer attends another

  13. The Influence of External Information on Collective Bargaining: Survey Evidence of Union and Firm Negotiators in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehr, Alex; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer two questions: 1- To what extent are negotiators in collective bargaining influenced by different types of external information? 2- How can differences in the influence of external information between negotiators be explained by the characteristics of the negotiators and

  14. Validity of clinical information from a maternity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y Y; Jatulis, D E; Elashoff, R M; Liu, E; Leung, K M; Legorreta, A P

    1997-01-01

    This research was designed to validate data collected through a survey--an inexpensive way to provide information for quality measurement. The survey was sent to health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees who had given birth(s) between October 1, 1994, and May 31, 1995. The responses were compared with the medical records. A sample of 407 women was randomly selected from the completed surveys. Medical records were reviewed for 89.9% (362/407) of the sample based on medical record availability. Over 98% of responses agreed with the medical record information regarding whether there were cesarean sections for previous deliveries (kappa = 1.0), cesarean section for recent delivery (kappa = 0.95), and vaginal birth after cesarean section (kappa = 0.96). Over 99% of the mothers agreed with the information regarding whether the newborn birth weight was under 2500 g (kappa = 0.91). The findings strongly support the validation of this instrument. Using this validated instrument enables health plans to cost-effectively obtain crucial information.

  15. SU-C-BRF-05: Design and Geometric Validation of An Externally and Internally Deformable, Programmable Lung Motion Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Y; Sawant, A [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Most clinically-deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating, tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are rigid-exterior+rigid-interior or rigid-exterior+deformable-interior. Neither class adequately represents the human anatomy, which is deformable internally as well as externally. We describe the construction and experimental validation of a more realistic, externally- and internally-deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available lung phantom (RS- 1500, RSD Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A 3-axis platform was programmed with sinusoidal and six patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam ‘diaphragm’ that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of mapping the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) trajectories of external and internal radioopaque markers with kV x-ray fluoroscopy and correlating these with optical surface monitoring using the in-room VisionRT system. Results: The phantom correctly reproduced the programmed motion as well as realistic effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.4 mm RMS error for internal as well as external markers. The motion trajectories of internal and external markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R=0.97). Furthermore, motion trajectories of arbitrary points on the deforming phantom surface, as recorded by the VisionRT system also showed a high correlation with respect to the fluoroscopically-measured trajectories of internal markers (R=0.92). Conclusion: We have

  16. The predictive and external validity of the STarT Back Tool in Danish primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Kent, Peter; Albert, Hanne B;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The STarT Back Tool (SBT) was recently translated into Danish and its concurrent validity described. This study tested the predictive validity of the Danish SBT. METHODS: Danish primary care patients (n = 344) were compared to a UK cohort. SBT subgroup validity for predicting high activity...... limitation at 3 months' follow-up was assessed using descriptive proportions, relative risks, AUC and odds ratios. RESULTS: The SBT had a statistically similar predictive ability in Danish primary care as in UK primary care. Unadjusted relative risks for poor clinical outcome on activity limitation...

  17. Village sanitation and child health: Effects and external validity in a randomized field experiment in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jeffrey; Spears, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Over a billion people worldwide defecate in the open, with important consequences for early-life health and human capital accumulation in developing countries. We report a cluster randomized controlled trial of a village sanitation intervention conducted in rural Maharashtra, India designed to identify an effect of village sanitation on average child height, an outcome of increasing importance to economists. We find an effect of approximately 0.3 height-for-age standard deviations, which is consistent with observations and hypotheses in economic and health literatures. We further exploit details of the planning and implementation of the experiment to study treatment heterogeneity and external validity.

  18. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Johannes, Kevyn [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, CETHIL, UMR 5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 (France)

    2010-07-15

    In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Type, named Type 260, is developed to model the thermal behavior of an external wall with PCM. This model is presented in this paper and validated using experimental data from the literature. (author)

  19. Distension test in passive external rotation: Validation of a new clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboa, E; López-Graña, G; Barco, R; Antuña, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal validity of a clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis, called the Distension Test in Passive External Rotation (DTPER). The DTPER is performed with the patient standing up, the arm adducted, and the elbow bent at 90°. From this position, a smooth passive external rotation is started, the affected arm being supporting at the wrist with one hand of the examiner and the other maintaining the adducted elbow until the maximum painless point of the rotation is reached. From this point of maximum external rotation with the arm in adduction and with no pain, an abrupt distension movement is made, increasing the external rotation, causing pain in the shoulder if the test is positive. This term was performed on a group of patients with shoulder pain of many origins, in order to analyse the predictive values, sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio. The DTPER showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 91.8 to 100%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI; 82.4 to 94.8%). The positive predictive value was 0.62 and a likelihood ratio of 10.22 (95% CI; 5.5 to 19.01). False positives were only found in patients with subscapular tendinopathies or glenohumeral arthrosis. The DTPER has a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis, and is excluded when it is practically negative. False positives can easily be identified if there is external rotation with no limits (subscapular tendinopathy) or with a simple shoulder X-ray (glenohumeral arthrosis). Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing relational schemas in parents of children with externalizing behavior disorders: reliability and validity of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2011-02-28

    Direct observational assessment of parent-child interaction is important in clinical intervention with conduct-problem children, but is costly and resource-intensive. We examined the reliability and validity of a brief measure of parents' relational schemas (RSs) regarding their child. Children (aged 4 to 11years) and their families receiving treatment at a clinic for externalizing behavior problems (n=150) or mood/developmental disorders (n=28) were assessed using a multi-method, multi-informant procedure. RSs were coded from Five-Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) using the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS), and were compared with directly observed parent-child interaction and questionnaire measures of family and parental dysfunction and conduct problems. Mothers' and fathers' RS scales were internally consistent and could be reliably coded in under 10min. Less positive RSs and more negative RSs were associated with higher rates of child conduct problems, and were more characteristic of the speech samples of parents of children with externalizing disorders, compared with clinic control parents. RSs demonstrated some associations with parenting behavior and measures of family functioning and symptoms of parental psychopathology, and predicted conduct problems independently of observed parental criticism. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the FAARS assessment of parental RSs in clinic-referred families. This brief measure of parent-child dynamics appears well-suited to 'real-world' (i.e., community) clinical settings in which intensive methods of observation are often not feasible.

  1. External validation of a COPD prediction model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Emerging models for predicting risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require external validation in order to assess their clinical value. We validated a previous model for predicting new onset COPD in a different database. We randomly drew 38,597 case-control pairs (total N = 77,194) of individuals aged ≥35 years and matched for sex, age, and general practice from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. We assessed accuracy of the model to discriminate between COPD cases and non-cases by calculating area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROCAUC) for the prediction scores. Analogous to the development model, ever smoking (OR 6.70; 95%CI 6.41–6.99), prior asthma (OR 6.43; 95%CI 5.85–7.07), and higher socioeconomic deprivation (OR 2.90; 95%CI 2.72–3.09 for highest vs. lowest quintile) increased the risk of COPD. The validated prediction scores ranged from 0–5.71 (ROCAUC 0.66; 95%CI 0.65–0.66) for males and 0–5.95 (ROCAUC 0.71; 95%CI 0.70–0.71) for females. We have confirmed that smoking, prior asthma, and socioeconomic deprivation are key risk factors for new onset COPD. Our model seems externally valid at identifying patients at risk of developing COPD. An impact assessment now needs to be undertaken to assess whether this prediction model can be applied in clinical care settings. PMID:28304375

  2. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  3. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  4. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  5. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  6. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  7. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  8. External validity of the Indonesian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth edition (WAIS-IV-ID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwartono, C.; Hidajat, L.L.; Halim, M.S.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV-ID) has been adapted and proved to be valid for its internal structure for Indonesian population. The same structure found as in the American WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-US; Suwartono, Hendriks, Hidajat, Halim, & Kessels, 2015). Despite its strong i

  9. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  10. Risk-Informed External Hazards Analysis for Seismic and Flooding Phenomena for a Generic PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ma, Zhegang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spears, Bob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosbab, Ben [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This report describes the activities performed during the FY2017 for the US-DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (LWRS-RISMC), Industry Application #2. The scope of Industry Application #2 is to deliver a risk-informed external hazards safety analysis for a representative nuclear power plant. Following the advancements occurred during the previous FYs (toolkits identification, models development), FY2017 focused on: increasing the level of realism of the analysis; improving the tools and the coupling methodologies. In particular the following objectives were achieved: calculation of buildings pounding and their effects on components seismic fragility; development of a SAPHIRE code PRA models for 3-loops Westinghouse PWR; set-up of a methodology for performing static-dynamic PRA coupling between SAPHIRE and EMRALD codes; coupling RELAP5-3D/RAVEN for performing Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty analysis and automatic limit surface search; and execute sample calculations for demonstrating the capabilities of the toolkit in performing a risk-informed external hazards safety analyses.

  11. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kym I E; Hua, Harry; Debray, Thomas P A; Ensor, Joie; Look, Maxime P; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing calibration and discrimination performance, while accounting for their correlation. The approach estimates a prediction model's average performance, the heterogeneity in performance across populations, and the probability of "good" performance in new populations. This allows different implementation strategies (e.g., recalibration) to be compared. Application is made to a diagnostic model for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a prognostic model for breast cancer mortality. In both examples, multivariate meta-analysis reveals that calibration performance is excellent on average but highly heterogeneous across populations unless the model's intercept (baseline hazard) is recalibrated. For the cancer model, the probability of "good" performance (defined by C statistic ≥0.7 and calibration slope between 0.9 and 1.1) in a new population was 0.67 with recalibration but 0.22 without recalibration. For the DVT model, even with recalibration, there was only a 0.03 probability of "good" performance. Multivariate meta-analysis can be used to externally validate a prediction model's calibration and discrimination performance across multiple populations and to evaluate different implementation strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical: palivizumab – validation against two external data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerskjold A

    2015-05-01

    registration in the DNPR was 97% (94%–99%, with data from the medical record as the reference. Conclusion: Exposure to palivizumab was underestimated in the DNPR. Reimbursement data are a readily accessible data supplement, which only slightly increased the sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR. Our findings underline the need to improve DNPR information concerning drugs administered in hospitals. Keywords: drug; health register; medical records; respiratory syncytial virus; validation 

  13. Experimental validation of a radio frequency photogun as external electron injector for a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stragier, X. F. D.; Luiten, O. J.; van der Geer, S. B.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Brussaard, G. J. H.

    2011-07-01

    A purpose-built RF-photogun as external electron injector for a laser wakefield accelerator has been thoroughly tested. Different properties of the RF-photogun have been measured such as energy, energy spread and transverse emittance. The focus of this study is the investigation of the smallest possible focus spot and focus stability at the entrance of the plasma channel. For an electron bunch with 10 pC charge and 3.7 MeV kinetic energy, the energy spread was 0.5% with a shot-to-shot stability of 0.05%. After focusing the bunch by a pulsed solenoid lens at 140 mm from the middle of the lens, the focal spot was 40 μm with a shot-to-shot stability of 5 μm. Higher charge leads to higher energy spread and to a larger spot size, due to space charge effects. All properties were found to be close to design values. Given the limited energy of 3.7 MeV, the properties are sufficient for this gun to serve as injector for one particular version of laser wakefield acceleration, i.e., injection ahead of the laser pulse. These measured electron bunch properties were then used as input parameters for simulations of electron bunch injection in a laser wakefield accelerator. The arrival time jitter was deduced from measurements of the energy fluctuation, in combination with earlier measurements using THz coherent transition radiation, and is around 150 fs in the present setup. The bunch length in the focus, simulated using particle tracking, depends on the accelerated charge and goes from 100 fs at 0.1 pC to 1 ps at 50 pC. When simulating the injection of the 3.7 MeV electron bunch of 10 pC in front of a 25 TW laser pulse with a waist of 30 μm in a plasma with a density of 0.7 × 1024 m-3, the maximum accelerated charge was found to be 1.2 pC with a kinetic energy of ˜900 MeV and an energy spread of ˜5%. The experiments combined with the simulations show the feasibility of external injection and give a prediction of the output parameters that can be expected from a laser

  14. Orthognathic surgery: is patient information on the Internet valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldairy, T; Laverick, S; McIntyre, G T

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality and reliability of UK websites providing information on orthognathic and jaw surgery to patients. An Internet search engine (www.google.com) was used to identify websites containing medical information on 'orthognathic surgery' and 'jaw surgery'. Of over 144,000 links for orthognathic surgery and 700,000 for jaw surgery, the first 100 were examined in detail. After excluding discussion groups, news and video feeds, and removing duplicate sites, only 25 relevant websites remained which were then evaluated using the DISCERN instrument (www.discern.org.uk/discern_instrument.php). Through the 16 questions assessing the reliability and quality of the consumer information which are scored from 1 to 5, a relative index of the quality of the information is produced. The maximum score attainable for an excellent website is 80. Of the 25 websites that were scored, DISCERN indicated the majority of websites fell well below the maximum score. The highest score achieved by one of the websites according to the DISCERN tool was 64 of 80 and the lowest score achieved was 21 of 80. The websites achieving maximum and minimum score were Wikipedia and qualitydentistry.com, respectively. By directing patients to validated websites, clinicians can ensure patients find appropriate information; however, further development of websites relating to orthognathic surgery is required. Internet information should be updated on a regular basis to account for improvements in orthodontic and surgical care.

  15. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  16. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review and external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkens, N A; Algra, A; Greving, J P

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shortcomings. Performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. Background Antiplatelet therapy is widely used in secondary prevention after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the main adverse effect of antiplatelet therapy and is potentially life threatening. Identification of patients at increased risk of bleeding may help target antiplatelet therapy. This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for existing prediction models up to December 2014. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the CHARMS checklist. Prediction models were externally validated in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2, comprising 6602 patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke. We assessed discrimination and calibration of included prediction models. Five prediction models were identified, of which two were developed in patients with previous cerebral ischemia. Three studies assessed major bleeding, one studied intracerebral hemorrhage and one gastrointestinal bleeding. None of the studies met all criteria of good quality. External validation showed poor discriminative performance, with c-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.64 and poor calibration. A limited number of prediction models is available that predict intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy. The methodological quality of the models varied, but was generally low. Predictive performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. In order to

  17. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  18. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  19. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  20. Validation of the French version of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Loundou, Anderson; Capdevila, Xavier; Bruder, Nicolas; Auquier, Pascal

    2013-10-07

    Most patients are anxious before surgery. The level of preoperative anxiety depends on several factors and merits an objective evaluation. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-report questionnaire comprising six questions that have been developed and validated to evaluate the preoperative anxiety of patients. This global index assesses three separate areas: anxiety about anaesthesia, anxiety about surgery, and the desire for information. The purpose of this study was to translate the APAIS into French and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the APAIS. The process consisted of two steps. The first step involved the production of a French version of the APAIS that was semantically equivalent to the original version. In the second step, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version, including the internal consistency and reliability, the differential item functioning, and the external validity. Participants older than 18, undergoing elective surgery (except obstetric), able to understand and read French, and able to complete a self-report questionnaire were eligible for inclusion in the study. A forward-backward translation was performed. The psychometric evaluation covered three domains: internal validity, external validity, and acceptability. Within 4-48 h after surgery, the patients were asked to complete the "Evaluation du Vécu de l'ANesthésie" questionnaire" (EVAN) questionnaire, which is a validated, multi-dimensional questionnaire that assesses the patient's experiences in the perioperative period. A database with 175 patients was created. The principal component factor analysis revealed the same three-dimensional structure as the original scale. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a strong fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.069 and a comparative fit index of 1.00. The amount of differential item functioning (DIF) between the subgroups of patients (i

  1. Development and Validation of Acyclovir HPLC External Standard Method in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of acyclovir in human plasma. The method involves a simple protein precipitation technique. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column using mixture of 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 290 nm. The retention time of acyclovir was 4.12 minutes. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range of 25.0–150.0 ng/mL. Validation studies were achieved by using the fundamental parameters, including accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and range, stability studies, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. It shows recovery at 91.0% which is more precise and accurate compared to the other method. These results indicated that the bioanalytical method was linear, precise, and accurate. The new bioanalytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic linearity study in human plasma.

  2. External validation of a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley J Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thousands of systematic reviews have been conducted in all areas of health care. However, the methodological quality of these reviews is variable and should routinely be appraised. AMSTAR is a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews. METHODOLOGY: AMSTAR was used to appraise 42 reviews focusing on therapies to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and other acid-related diseases. Two assessors applied the AMSTAR to each review. Two other assessors, plus a clinician and/or methodologist applied a global assessment to each review independently. CONCLUSIONS: The sample of 42 reviews covered a wide range of methodological quality. The overall scores on AMSTAR ranged from 0 to 10 (out of a maximum of 11 with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 3.7 to 5.6 and median 4.0 (range 2.0 to 6.0. The inter-observer agreement of the individual items ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement. Nine items scored a kappa of >0.75 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.96. The reliability of the total AMSTAR score was excellent: kappa 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.00 and Pearson's R 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98. The overall scores for the global assessment ranged from 2 to 7 (out of a maximum score of 7 with a mean of 4.43 (95% CI: 3.6 to 5.3 and median 4.0 (range 2.25 to 5.75. The agreement was lower with a kappa of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.88. Construct validity was shown by AMSTAR convergence with the results of the global assessment: Pearson's R 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.84. For the AMSTAR total score, the limits of agreement were -0.19+/-1.38. This translates to a minimum detectable difference between reviews of 0.64 'AMSTAR points'. Further validation of AMSTAR is needed to assess its validity, reliability and perceived utility by appraisers and end users of reviews across a broader range of systematic reviews.

  3. External Validation of the PECARN Head Trauma Prediction Rules in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kentaro; Uematsu, Satoko; Tetsuhara, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Kato, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2017-03-01

    The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma prediction rules are used to assist computed tomography (CT) decision-making for children with minor head trauma. Although the PECARN rules have been validated in North America and Europe, they have not yet been validated in Asia. In Japan, there are no clinical decision rules for children with minor head trauma. The rate of head CT for children with minor head trauma in Japan is high since CT is widely accessible across the country. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the PECARN rules for identifying clinically important traumatic brain injuries (ciTBI) in children with minor head trauma in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Japan (30,000 patients/year). We enrolled all children younger than 18 years with minor head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale ≥ 14) who presented to the emergency department within 24 hours of their injury between January and December 2013. We retrospectively classified the children into three risk categories according to the PECARN rules. The PECARN rules were considered negative when children were classified into the very-low-risk category. The primary outcome was considered positive when a child had ciTBI defined as head injury resulting in death, neurosurgery, intubation for > 24 hours, or hospital admission ≥ 2 nights with evidence of TBI on CT. Among 2,208 children included in the study, 24 (1.1%) had ciTBI. Sensitivities and specificities of the PECARN rules to predict ciTBI were 85.7% (12/14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.2 to 98.2) and 73.5% (572/778; 95% CI = 70.3 to 76.6), respectively, for children Japan. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Assessing the external validity of algorithms to estimate EQ-5D-3L from the WOMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Englund, Martin

    2016-10-04

    The use of mapping algorithms have been suggested as a solution to predict health utilities when no preference-based measure is included in the study. However, validity and predictive performance of these algorithms are highly variable and hence assessing the accuracy and validity of algorithms before use them in a new setting is of importance. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive accuracy of three mapping algorithms to estimate the EQ-5D-3L from the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) among Swedish people with knee disorders. Two of these algorithms developed using ordinary least squares (OLS) models and one developed using mixture model. The data from 1078 subjects mean (SD) age 69.4 (7.2) years with frequent knee pain and/or knee osteoarthritis from the Malmö Osteoarthritis study in Sweden were used. The algorithms' performance was assessed using mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error. Two types of prediction were estimated for mixture model: weighted average (WA), and conditional on estimated component (CEC). The overall mean was overpredicted by an OLS model and underpredicted by two other algorithms (P algorithms suffered from overprediction for severe health states and underprediction for mild health states with lesser extent for mixture model. While the mixture model outperformed OLS models at the extremes of the EQ-5D-3D distribution, it underperformed around the center of the distribution. While algorithm based on mixture model reflected the distribution of EQ-5D-3L data more accurately compared with OLS models, all algorithms suffered from systematic bias. This calls for caution in applying these mapping algorithms in a new setting particularly in samples with milder knee problems than original sample. Assessing the impact of the choice of these algorithms on cost-effectiveness studies through sensitivity analysis is recommended.

  5. The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Pieter W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays. Methods We developed DBS extraction protocols for use with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and compared the results with those using matching plasma samples from the same patient. Results Since DBS samples showed poor performance with TPHA and EIA (TPHA sensitivity was 50.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9–61.2% and EIA specificity was 50.4% (95% CI: 43.7–57.1%, only the DBS TPPA was used in the final evaluation. DBS TPPA showed an sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI: 91.3–98.0% and a specificity of 99.0% (95% CI: 98.1–99.5% compared to TPPA using plasma samples as a reference. Conclusion DBS samples can be recommended for use with TPPA, and may be of value for external quality assurance of point-of-care syphilis testing.

  6. Butterfly effect and holographic mutual information under external field and spatial noncommutativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Du, Yi-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  7. Butterfly Effect and Holographic Mutual Information under External Field and Spatial Noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  8. External Validation of a Referral Rule for Axial Spondyloarthritis in Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke van Hoeven

    Full Text Available To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA.Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation.Primary care patients aged 18-45 years with CLBP existing more than three months and onset of back pain started before the age of 45 years.The number of axSpA patients according to the ASAS criteria.The referral rule (CaFaSpA referral rule was developed using 364 CLBP patients from 19 primary care practices and contains four easy to use variables; inflammatory back pain, good response to nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, family history of spondyloarthritis and a back pain duration longer than five years. This referral rule is positive when at least two variables are present. Validation of the CaFaSpA rule was accomplished in 579 primary care CLBP patients from 38 practices from other areas. Performance of the referral rule was assessed by c-statistic and calibration plot. To fit the final referral rule the development and validation datasets were pooled leading to a total study population of 943 primary care participants.The referral rule was validated in 579 patients (41% male, mean age 36 (sd7.0. The percentage of identified axSpA patients was 16% (n=95. External validation resulted in satisfactory calibration and reasonable discriminative ability (c-statistics 0.70 [95% CI, 0.64-0.75]. In the pooled dataset sensitivity and specificity of the referral rule were 75% and 58%.The CaFaSpA referral rule for axSpA consists of four easy to use predictors for primary care physicians and has a good predictive value in this validation study. The referral rule has the potential to be a screening tool for primary care by identifying CLBP patients suspected for axSpA.

  9. External Validation of a Referral Rule for Axial Spondyloarthritis in Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeven, Lonneke; Vergouwe, Yvonne; de Buck, P. D. M.; Luime, Jolanda J.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Weel, Angelique E. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Design Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation. Participants Primary care patients aged 18-45 years with CLBP existing more than three months and onset of back pain started before the age of 45 years. Main Outcome The number of axSpA patients according to the ASAS criteria. Methods The referral rule (CaFaSpA referral rule) was developed using 364 CLBP patients from 19 primary care practices and contains four easy to use variables; inflammatory back pain, good response to nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, family history of spondyloarthritis and a back pain duration longer than five years. This referral rule is positive when at least two variables are present. Validation of the CaFaSpA rule was accomplished in 579 primary care CLBP patients from 38 practices from other areas. Performance of the referral rule was assessed by c-statistic and calibration plot. To fit the final referral rule the development and validation datasets were pooled leading to a total study population of 943 primary care participants. Results The referral rule was validated in 579 patients (41% male, mean age 36 (sd7.0). The percentage of identified axSpA patients was 16% (n=95). External validation resulted in satisfactory calibration and reasonable discriminative ability (c-statistics 0.70 [95% CI, 0.64-0.75]). In the pooled dataset sensitivity and specificity of the referral rule were 75% and 58%. Conclusions The CaFaSpA referral rule for axSpA consists of four easy to use predictors for primary care physicians and has a good predictive value in this validation study. The referral rule has the potential to be a screening tool for primary care by identifying CLBP patients suspected for axSpA. PMID:26200904

  10. External validation of TNM-C score in three community hospital cohorts for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takayuki; Saito, Kazutaka; Ishioka, Junichiro; Kawano, Keizo; Morimoto, Shinji; Matsuoka, Yoh; Okuno, Tetsuo; Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Noro, Akira; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-02-01

    To assess the general applicability of TNM-C scoring, which consists of TNM classification and preoperative C-reactive protein concentration, the predictive ability of the TNM-C score was externally validated for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) at three community hospitals. Seven hundred patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy after being diagnosed with RCC. Out of the 700 patients, 518 with clear cell carcinoma served as the current study cohort. The predictive ability of the TMN-C score for cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Harrell's concordance index (c-index). The c-index of the TNM-C score was 0.85 in the entire data set. CSS rates were clearly stratified according to the scoring model (pTNM-C score alone (without pathological details) has a high predictive ability for the prognosis of ccRCC patients, it is generally applicable for use in community hospitals.

  11. Classifying environmental pollutants: Part 3. External validation of the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, H J; Solbé, J; Speksnijder, J; van Leeuwen, C J; Hermens, J L

    2000-04-01

    In order to validate a classification system for the prediction of the toxic effect concentrations of organic environmental pollutants to fish, all available fish acute toxicity data were retrieved from the ECETOC database, a database of quality-evaluated aquatic toxicity measurements created and maintained by the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals. The individual chemicals for which these data were available were classified according to the rulebase under consideration and predictions of effect concentrations or ranges of possible effect concentrations were generated. These predictions were compared to the actual toxicity data retrieved from the database. The results of this comparison show that generally, the classification system provides adequate predictions of either the aquatic toxicity (class 1) or the possible range of toxicity (other classes) of organic compounds. A slight underestimation of effect concentrations occurs for some highly water soluble, reactive chemicals with low log K(ow) values. On the other end of the scale, some compounds that are classified as belonging to a relatively toxic class appear to belong to the so-called baseline toxicity compounds. For some of these, additional classification rules are proposed. Furthermore, some groups of compounds cannot be classified, although they should be amenable to predictions. For these compounds additional research as to class membership and associated prediction rules is proposed.

  12. External Validation of the Lupus Impact Tracker in a Southeastern US Longitudinal Cohort With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jennifer E; Drenkard, Cristina; Kan, Hong; Bao, Gaobin; Dunlop-Thomas, Charmayne; Pobiner, Bonnie; Chang, David J; Jolly, Meenakshi; Lim, S Sam

    2017-06-01

    To examine the external validity of the Lupus Impact Tracker (LIT), a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) tool in a population-based cohort of patients with SLE in Atlanta, Georgia. We modeled the association of LIT scores with patient-reported measures of SLE activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]) and organ damage (self-administered Brief Index of Lupus Damage [SA-BILD]). We investigated the association of LIT scores with general HRQoL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12). Correlation, multivariable regression, and longitudinal analyses using general linear modeling with fixed effects were performed to investigate the association between the LIT and patient-reported disease activity (SLAQ); patient-reported disease damage (SA-BILD); mental health (mental component summary [MCS] of the SF-12); and physical health (physical component summary [PCS] of the SF-12). Demographic trends related to the LIT were also assessed using cross-sectional analysis. The LIT was significantly associated with disease activity (SLAQ), organ damage (SA-BILD), MCS scores, and PCS scores in both adjusted and unadjusted regression analysis (P SLAQ), MCS scores, and PCS scores (P < 0.0001), but not organ damage (SA-BILD). The LIT is a simple, patient-centered tool that can be used to assess HRQoL in patients with SLE. This study provides external validity of the LIT in a population-based cohort with a large number of African American patients with a relatively high disease burden. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. External validation of the APPS, a new and simple outcome prediction score in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D; Schouten, Laura R; Cremer, Olaf L; Ong, David S Y; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    A recently developed prediction score based on age, arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) and plateau pressure (abbreviated as 'APPS') was shown to accurately predict mortality in patients diagnosed with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After thorough temporal external validation of the APPS, we tested the spatial external validity in a cohort of ARDS patients recruited during 3 years in two hospitals in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients with moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition were included in this observational multicenter cohort study from the mixed medical-surgical ICUs of two university hospitals. The APPS was calculated per patient with the maximal airway pressure instead of the plateau pressure as all patients were ventilated in pressure-controlled mode. The predictive accuracy for hospital mortality was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC). Additionally, the score was recalibrated and reassessed. In total, 439 patients with moderate or severe ARDS were analyzed. All-cause hospital mortality was 43 %. The APPS predicted all-cause hospital mortality with moderate accuracy, with an AUC-ROC of 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.67]. Calibration was moderate using the original cutoff values (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit P APPS was moderate, also after recalibration of the score, and thus the APPS does not seem to be fitted for that purpose. The APPS might serve as simple tool for stratification of mortality in patients with moderate or severe ARDS. Without recalibrations, the performance of the APPS was moderate and we should therefore hesitate to blindly apply the score to other cohorts of ARDS patients.

  14. To whom do the results of the multicenter, randomized, controlled INSECT trial (ISRCTN 24023541 apply? - assessment of external validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Seiler et al: Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures for closure of primary elective midline abdominal incisions: a multicenter randomized trial (INSECT: ISRCTN24023541. Ann Surg 2009, 249(4:576-582. Background Existing evidence suggests that the transfer of results of randomized controlled trials into clinical practice may be limited. Potential reasons can be attributed to aspects of external validity. The aim of this study is to investigate issues related to the external validity of the INSECT trial. Methods All participating surgical departments were categorized and the clinical and baseline characteristics of randomized patients were evaluated. In addition, demographic and clinical data of all screened and randomized patients at the Departments of Surgery in Heidelberg and Erlangen were analyzed. Results Twenty-five centers enrolled a total of 625 patients. These centers included eight primary, 11 secondary, and six tertiary care centers. The tertiary care centers enrolled the most patients (n = 237, 38% followed by the primary care centers (n = 199, 32% and the secondary care centers (n = 189 patients; 30%. The mean number and baseline data of randomized patients did not differ between the three types of care centers (p = 0.09. Overall, the treatment according to protocol was at least 92%. At the Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, 307 patients were screened and 60 out of 130 eligible patients were randomized. There were no differences in demographic and clinical baseline data between included and non-included patients. In Erlangen, 351 patients were screened and 57 out of 106 eligible patients randomized. Conclusions Results of the INSECT trial are applicable to a broad spectrum of patients treated at different hospital levels.

  15. A Review of the External Validity of Clinical Trials with Beta-Blockers in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Toukhsati, Samia R.; Thomas, Merlin C.; Jelinek, Michael V.; Hare, David L.; Horowitz, John D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beta-blockers (BBs) are the mainstay prognostic medication for all stages of chronic heart failure (CHF). There are many classes of BBs, each of which has varying levels of evidence to support its efficacy in CHF. However, most CHF patients have one or more comorbid conditions such as diabetes, renal impairment, and/or atrial fibrillation. Patient enrollment to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often excludes those with certain comorbidities, particularly if the symptoms are severe. Consequently, the extent to which evidence drawn from RCTs is generalizable to CHF patients has not been well described. Clinical guidelines also underrepresent this point by providing generic advice for all patients. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence to support the use of BBs in CHF patients with common comorbid conditions. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and the reference lists of reviews for RCTs, post hoc analyses, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that report on use of BBs in CHF along with patient demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS In total, 38 studies from 28 RCTs were identified, which provided data on six BBs against placebo or head to head with another BB agent in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Several studies explored BBs in older patients. Female patients and non-Caucasian race were underrepresented in trials. End points were cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. Comorbid diabetes, renal impairment, or atrial fibrillation was detailed; however, no reference to disease spectrum or management goals as a focus could be seen in any of the studies. In this sense, enrollment may have limited more severe grades of these comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS RCTs provide authoritative information for a spectrum of CHF presentations that support guidelines. RCTs may provide inadequate information for more heterogeneous CHF patient cohorts. Greater Phase IV research may be needed to fill this gap and inform guidelines for a more

  16. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Rouibah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interorganizational information system that aims to structure collaboration of engineering activities as well as data sharing across company borders. The paper also describes the approach underlying the system, validates it by designing a system prototype, and tests the system using questionnaire and in-depth interviews in order to further knowledge about the subject. The main results from the test show: collaboration engineering is potentially important for senior managers; end-users were specifically attracted more by the concept rather by its implementation; engineering change management is a complex process; and the support of strategic level is a critical success factor. In addition, the paper describes other factors that emerged during the ongoing project and inhibit success of the system.

  17. Validation of a finite element model of a unilateral external fixator in a rabbit tibia defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunratanakul, Kavin; Kerckhofs, Greet; Lammens, Johan; Vanlauwe, Johan; Schrooten, Jan; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2013-07-01

    In case of large segmental defects in load-bearing bones, an external fixator is used to provide mechanical stability to the defect site. The overall stiffness of the bone-fixator system is determined not only by the fixator design but also by the way the fixator is mounted to the bone. This stiffness is an important factor as it will influence the biomechanical environment to which tissue engineering scaffolds and regenerating tissues are exposed. A finite element (FE) model can be used to predict the system stiffness. The goal of this study is to develop and validate a 3D anatomical FE model of a bone-fixator system which includes a previously developed unilateral external fixator for a large segmental defect model in the rabbit tibia. It was hypothesized that the contact interfaces between bone and fixator screws play a major role for the prediction of the stiffness. In vitro mechanical testing was performed in order to measure the axial stiffness of cortical bone from mid-shaft rabbit tibiae and of the tibia-fixator system, as well as the bending stiffness of individual fixator screws, inserted in bone. μCT-based case-specific FE models of cortical bone and SCREW-BONE specimens were created to simulate the corresponding mechanical test set-ups. The Young's modulus of rabbit cortical bone as well as appropriate screw-bone contact settings were derived from those FE models. We then used the derived settings in an FE model of the tibia-fixator system. The difference between the FE predicted and measured axial stiffness of the tibia-fixator system was reduced from 117.93% to 7.85% by applying appropriate screw-bone contact settings. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of screw-bone contact settings for an accurate fixator stiffness prediction. The validated FE model can further be used as a tool for virtual mechanical testing in the design phase of new tissue engineering scaffolds and/or novel patient-specific external fixation devices.

  18. Using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale With Early Adolescents: Factor Structure, Reliability, Stability, and External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel, Paweł; Humenny, Grzegorz; Rębisz, Sławomir

    2016-12-08

    The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors. Essential unidimensionality (the general factor accounting for three fourth of the common variance) suggest that the interpretation of the subfactors over and above the general factor is inappropriate. The longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor structure of the DJGLS is invariant over time. Correlations with self-rated loneliness, sociometric acceptance/rejection, social self-efficacy, identification with class group, family structure, and gender provide support for the validity of the DJGLS. This implies that it could be used as a measure of loneliness in adolescence, which does not involve references to the school context, making it possible to conduct studies that go beyond school period and compare the intensity of the feeling of loneliness in that group with other age groups.

  19. The external validity of results derived from ecstasy users recruited using purposive sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Barker, Bridget; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2004-01-07

    -related information.

  20. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway: FY 2016 External Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes an External Review conducted by the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway to solicit feedback on the topics and results of the ongoing II&C research program. This review was held in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Digital I&C Working Group meeting that was held at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on August 9-10, 2016. Given the opportunity to visit INL and see the pathway research projects, NEI agreed that the Working Group would serve as the External Review panel for the purpose of obtaining expert input on the value and timing of the research projects. This consisted of demonstrations in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory followed by presentations on the II&C research program in general as well as the five technology development areas. Following the meeting, the presentations were sent to each of the attendees so they could review them in more detail and refer to them in completing the feedback form. Follow-up activities were conducted with the attendees following the meeting to obtain the completed feedback forms. A total of 13 forms were returned. The feedback forms were reviewed by the pathway to compile the data and comments received, which are documented in the report. In all, the feedback provided by the External Review participants is taken to be a strong endorsement of the types of projects being conducted by the pathway, the value they hold for the nuclear plants, and the general timing of need. The feedback aligns well with the priorities, levels of efforts allocated for the research projects, and project schedules. The feedback also represents realistic observations on the practicality of some aspects of implementing these technologies. In some cases, the participants provided thoughtful challenges to certain assumptions in the formulation of the technologies or in deployment plans. These deserve further review and revision of plans if warranted

  1. First-trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia: external validity of algorithms in a prospectively enrolled cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N; Magder, L S; Blitzer, M G; Baschat, A A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of published first-trimester prediction algorithms for pre-eclampsia (PE) in a prospectively enrolled cohort of women. A MEDLINE search identified first-trimester screening-prediction algorithms for early-onset (requiring delivery algorithms were applied to this population to calculate predicted probabilities for PE. The performance of the prediction algorithms was compared with that in the original publication and evaluated for factors explaining differences in prediction. Six early and two late PE prediction algorithms were applicable to 871-2962 women, depending on the variables required. The prevalence of early PE was 1.0-1.2% and of late PE was 4.1-5.0% in these patient subsets. One early PE prediction algorithm performed better than in the original publication (80% detection rate (DR) of early PE for 10% false-positive rate (FPR)); the remaining five prediction algorithms underperformed (29-53% DR). Prediction algorithms for late PE also underperformed (18-31% DR, 10% FPR). Applying the screening cut-offs based on the highest Youden index probability scores correctly detected 40-80% of women developing early PE and 71-82% who developed late PE. Exclusion of patients on first-trimester aspirin resulted in DRs of 40-83% and 65-82% for early and late PE, respectively. First-trimester prediction algorithms for PE share a high negative predictive value if applied to an external population but underperform in their ability to correctly identify women who develop PE. Further research is required to determine the factors responsible for the suboptimal external validity. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Criterion validity of 3D trunk accelerations to assess external work and power in able-bodied gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichtry, André; Romkes, Jacqueline; Gobelet, Charles; Brunner, Reinald; Müller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative quantification of gait disorder minimizing time-consuming and cost-intensive laboratory installations remains a challenging task in movement analysis. We examined the criterion validity of global gait mechanics assessed by trunk accelerometry. Eight female and four male volunteer subjects (mean age, 27.5 years; S.D., 5.1 years; weight, 68.7+/-11.3kg; height, 1.74+/-0.08m) without gait dysfunction participated in the study. They walked barefoot over two adjacent force-platforms at self-selected speeds. In addition to ground reaction forces, vertical, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral accelerations of the trunk were simultaneously measured by means of a light tri-axial accelerometer. Mean acceleration cycles of the trunk and the body centre of mass were calculated. Acceleration vectors were integrated twice to obtain velocity and displacement vectors of the trunk and the centre of mass, respectively. Temporal boundaries of right and left functional stance phases were defined by the two intermediate moments between maximum anterior-posterior velocity and minimal vertical displacement. Cross-correlations of the kinematics of the trunk and the centre of mass were determined. External work and corresponding symmetry indicators were computed for both methods. Centre of mass anterior-posterior displacement lagged behind the trunk by 3.5% of the gait cycle. External power correlated highly (r>0.82) between the trunk model and the centre of mass. Work correlated moderately high (r=0.77) between the two methods. Work and power asymmetry indexes correlated moderately high (r>0.64). Our findings suggest that accelerometry has the potential to assess functional kinematics and energy-related outcomes in large cohorts.

  3. A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Agogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association, due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  4. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mokhles, Sahar [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Takkenberg, Johanna J.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Maat, Alex P.W.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Woody, Neil M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.

  5. Validation of an amino-acid-based radionuclide therapy plus external beam radiotherapy in heterotopic glioblastoma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, Ina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Blass, Georg [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany); Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Samnick, Samuel, E-mail: samnick_s@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Background and purpose: Malignant gliomas represent a major therapeutic challenge because no efficient treatment is currently available. p-[{sup 131}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine ([{sup 131}I]IPA) is a glioma avid radiopharmaceutical that demonstrated antiproliferative and tumoricidal effects in gliomas. The present study validated the therapeutic efficiency of [{sup 131}I]IPA combined with external beam radiotherapy in experimental gliomas. Materials and methods: Glioma cells derived from the primary human A1207, T5135, Tx3868 and M059K glioblastoma cell lines or rat F98 glioma cell line were treated with various doses of [{sup 131}I]IPA, external photon irradiation (RT) or combined [{sup 131}I]IPA/RT treatment. Responsiveness of glioma cells to the different therapy modalities was investigated at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatments by trypan blue, WST-1 assay, propidium iodide and bisbenzimide staining as well as by clonogenic assay. In addition, the therapy-induced DNA damage and repair were evaluated using phosphorylated histone H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX). In vivo, the effectiveness of the combination treatment was validated in human Tx3868 and A1207 glioblastoma xenografts in CD1 nu/nu mice and RNU rats. Results: In vitro, the combination treatment resulted in a greater than additive increase in cytotoxic effect in glioma cell lines. Cell survival rate following a treatment with 1.0 {mu}Ci (37 kBq) of [{sup 131}I]IPA amounted to 70%{+-}15% and 60%{+-}10% after 48 and 72 h, respectively, and decreased under 20% after additional RT with 5 Gy. At higher RT doses, cell survival rate decreased below 5%. As a measure of DNA double-strand break, nuclear {gamma}-H2AX foci were determined as a function of time. Within 24 h, the number of {gamma}-H2AX foci per cell was significantly greater after combined modality compared with the individual treatments. In vivo, when combined with RT, the radionuclide therapy with [{sup 131}I]IPA resulted in an extended tumor growth delay, a reduction

  6. "To whom do the results of this trial apply?" External validity of a randomized controlled trial involving 130 patients scheduled for primary total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette K; Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Andersen, Niels T

    2007-01-01

    , but they should at least allow patients and clinicians to judge to whom trial results can reasonably be applied. We assessed the external validity of an RCT investigating the efficacy of a fast-track program after total hip replacement. METHODS: 130 patients were identified as potential participants.18 patients...

  7. An external validation of the ETVSS for both short-term and long-term predictive adequacy in 104 pediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, D. A.; Brusse-Keizer, M. G. J.; Hoving, E.W.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to provide external validation of the "Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Success Score (ETVSS)" for both short-term and long-term predictive adequacy. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2007, we collected clinical follow-up data (after 6 and 36 months) of all 104 hydrocephalic childre

  8. How is sentence processing affected by external semantic and syntactic information? Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Schacht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A crucial question for understanding sentence comprehension is the openness of syntactic and semantic processes for other sources of information. Using event-related potentials in a dual task paradigm, we had previously found that sentence processing takes into consideration task relevant sentence-external semantic but not syntactic information. In that study, internal and external information both varied within the same linguistic domain-either semantic or syntactic. Here we investigated whether across-domain sentence-external information would impact within-sentence processing. METHODOLOGY: In one condition, adjectives within visually presented sentences of the structure [Det]-[Noun]-[Adjective]-[Verb] were semantically correct or incorrect. Simultaneously with the noun, auditory adjectives were presented that morphosyntactically matched or mismatched the visual adjectives with respect to gender. FINDINGS: As expected, semantic violations within the sentence elicited N400 and P600 components in the ERP. However, these components were not modulated by syntactic matching of the sentence-external auditory adjective. In a second condition, syntactic within-sentence correctness-variations were combined with semantic matching variations between the auditory and the visual adjective. Here, syntactic within-sentence violations elicited a LAN and a P600 that did not interact with semantic matching of the auditory adjective. However, semantic mismatching of the latter elicited a frontocentral positivity, presumably related to an increase in discourse level complexity. CONCLUSION: The current findings underscore the open versus algorithmic nature of semantic and syntactic processing, respectively, during sentence comprehension.

  9. 78 FR 18253 - Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and... energy conservation standard levels for battery chargers if it is determined that new energy conservation... energy conservation standards for classes of battery chargers and external power supplies....

  10. Influence of external inputs and asymmetry of connections on information-geometric measures involving up to ten neuronal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yimin; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Tatsuno, Masami

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of neural interactions is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. Recently an analysis method based on information geometry (IG) has gained increased attention, and the property of the pairwise IG measure has been studied extensively in relation to the two-neuron interaction. However, little is known about the property of IG measures involving more neuronal interactions. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of external inputs and the asymmetry of connections on the IG measures in cases ranging from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions. First, the analytical relationship between the IG measures and external inputs was derived for a network of 10 neurons with uniform connections. Our results confirmed that the single and pairwise IG measures were good estimators of the mean background input and of the sum of the connection weights, respectively. For the IG measures involving 3 to 10 neuronal interactions, we found that the influence of external inputs was highly nonlinear. Second, by computer simulation, we extended our analytical results to asymmetric connections. For a network of 10 neurons, the simulation showed that the behavior of the IG measures in relation to external inputs was similar to the analytical solution obtained for a uniformly connected network. When the network size was increased to 1000 neurons, the influence of external inputs almost disappeared. This result suggests that all IG measures from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions are robust against the influence of external inputs. In addition, we investigated how the strength of asymmetry influenced the IG measures. Computer simulation of a 1000-neuron network showed that all the IG measures were robust against the modulation of the asymmetry of connections. Our results provide further support for an information-geometric approach and will provide useful insights when these IG measures are applied to real experimental spike data.

  11. Validity of the Prescriber Information in the Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Valentin, Julie; Gesser, Katarina Margareta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the validity of the prescriber information recorded in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR). The prescriber information recorded in the pharmacies' electronic dispensing system was considered to represent the prescriber information recorded...... in the DNPR. Further, the problem of validity of the prescriber information pertains only to non-electronic prescriptions, as these are manually entered into the dispensing system. The recorded prescriber information was thus validated against information from a total of 2,000 non-electronic prescriptions...

  12. Risk perception and information processing: the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess self-reported information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris M R; Mesters, Ilse; Candel, Math J J M; De Vries, Hein; De Vries, Nanne K

    2012-01-01

    The role of information processing in understanding people's responses to risk information has recently received substantial attention. One limitation of this research concerns the unavailability of a validated questionnaire of information processing. This article presents two studies in which we describe the development and validation of the Information-Processing Questionnaire to meet that need. Study 1 describes the development and initial validation of the questionnaire. Participants were randomized to either a systematic processing or a heuristic processing condition after which they completed a manipulation check and the initial 15-item questionnaire and again two weeks later. The questionnaire was subjected to factor reliability and validity analyses on both measurement times for purposes of cross-validation of the results. A two-factor solution was observed representing a systematic processing and a heuristic processing subscale. The resulting scale showed good reliability and validity, with the systematic condition scoring significantly higher on the systematic subscale and the heuristic processing condition significantly higher on the heuristic subscale. Study 2 sought to further validate the questionnaire in a field study. Results of the second study corresponded with those of Study 1 and provided further evidence of the validity of the Information-Processing Questionnaire. The availability of this information-processing scale will be a valuable asset for future research and may provide researchers with new research opportunities.

  13. Prognostic score for second-line chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: external validation in a phase III trial comparing vinflunine with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Massimo; Krzakowski, Maciej; Fougeray, Ronan; Kowalski, Dariusz M; Gridelli, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    A prognostic index for second-line chemotherapy of NSCLC was previously developed, based on individual patient data (IPD) of nine randomized trials. In order to validate the prognostic score in an external dataset, we analysed IPD of a non-inferiority phase III trial comparing vinflunine vs. docetaxel in second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Primary endpoint of this analysis was overall survival (OS). The following variables were considered for survival analysis and score calculation: gender, performance status, stage of disease, tumour histology, type of first-line treatment, response to first-line treatment. Cox model, stratified by treatment arm, was used for multivariate analysis. Individual prognostic scores were derived, and patients were divided into 3 categories: 9 (worst). All 551 patients enrolled in the trial had complete information for the calculation of prognostic score. Median OS in the whole group was 6.9 months, with similar efficacy in the two treatment arms. Median OS was 12.9, 6.9 and 3.8 months in the best, intermediate and worst category, respectively. Cox model showed a significant effect comparing intermediate vs. best category (Hazard Ratio 1.79, 95%CI 1.31-2.47, p=0.0003) and comparing worst vs. best category (Hazard Ratio 3.25, 95%CI 2.18-4.83, pmodel was high (0.926), indicating a good discrimination according to the proposed three risk categories. Prognostic ability of our score for candidates to second-line treatment in advanced NSCLC was successfully validated, allowing the identification of subgroups of patients with more vs. less favourable outcome. Prognostic score could be useful in daily decision-making in clinical practise, because a better understanding of factors conditioning life expectancy of patients could greatly help a careful evaluation of risks and benefits associated with therapeutic decisions.

  14. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  15. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Model Calibration Using Summary-level Information from External Big Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Yi-Hau; Maas, Paige; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-03-01

    Information from various public and private data sources of extremely large sample sizes are now increasingly available for research purposes. Statistical methods are needed for utilizing information from such big data sources while analyzing data from individual studies that may collect more detailed information required for addressing specific hypotheses of interest. In this article, we consider the problem of building regression models based on individual-level data from an "internal" study while utilizing summary-level information, such as information on parameters for reduced models, from an "external" big data source. We identify a set of very general constraints that link internal and external models. These constraints are used to develop a framework for semiparametric maximum likelihood inference that allows the distribution of covariates to be estimated using either the internal sample or an external reference sample. We develop extensions for handling complex stratified sampling designs, such as case-control sampling, for the internal study. Asymptotic theory and variance estimators are developed for each case. We use simulation studies and a real data application to assess the performance of the proposed methods in contrast to the generalized regression (GR) calibration methodology that is popular in the sample survey literature.

  16. Reviewing Reliability and Validity of Information for University Educational Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yusaku

    To better utilize evaluations in higher education, it is necessary to share the methods of reviewing reliability and validity of examination scores and grades, and to accumulate and share data for confirming results. Before the GPA system is first introduced into a university or college, the reliability of examination scores and grades, especially for essay examinations, must be assured. Validity is a complicated concept, so should be assured in various ways, including using professional audits, theoretical models, and statistical data analysis. Because individual students and teachers are continually improving, using evaluations to appraise their progress is not always compatible with using evaluations in appraising the implementation of accountability in various departments or the university overall. To better utilize evaluations and improve higher education, evaluations should be integrated into the current system by sharing the vision of an academic learning community and promoting interaction between students and teachers based on sufficiently reliable and validated evaluation tools.

  17. Validation and Comprehension of Text Information: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In psychological research, the comprehension of linguistic information and the knowledge-based assessment of its validity are often regarded as two separate stages of information processing. Recent findings in psycholinguistics and text comprehension research call this two-stage model into question. In particular, validation can affect…

  18. Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Zhao, Zhiguo; Aftandilian, Catherine; Saab, Raya; Wattier, Rachel L; Beauchemin, Melissa; Miller, Tamara P; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Kelly, Michael J; Fernbach, Alison; Jeng, Michael; Schwartz, Cindy L; Dvorak, Christopher C; Shyr, Yu; Moons, Karl G M; Sulis, Maria-Luisa; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables. From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI. The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Real external predictivity of QSAR models: how to evaluate it? Comparison of different validation criteria and proposal of using the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-09-26

    The main utility of QSAR models is their ability to predict activities/properties for new chemicals, and this external prediction ability is evaluated by means of various validation criteria. As a measure for such evaluation the OECD guidelines have proposed the predictive squared correlation coefficient Q(2)(F1) (Shi et al.). However, other validation criteria have been proposed by other authors: the Golbraikh-Tropsha method, r(2)(m) (Roy), Q(2)(F2) (Schüürmann et al.), Q(2)(F3) (Consonni et al.). In QSAR studies these measures are usually in accordance, though this is not always the case, thus doubts can arise when contradictory results are obtained. It is likely that none of the aforementioned criteria is the best in every situation, so a comparative study using simulated data sets is proposed here, using threshold values suggested by the proponents or those widely used in QSAR modeling. In addition, a different and simple external validation measure, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), is proposed and compared with other criteria. Huge data sets were used to study the general behavior of validation measures, and the concordance correlation coefficient was shown to be the most restrictive. On using simulated data sets of a more realistic size, it was found that CCC was broadly in agreement, about 96% of the time, with other validation measures in accepting models as predictive, and in almost all the examples it was the most precautionary. The proposed concordance correlation coefficient also works well on real data sets, where it seems to be more stable, and helps in making decisions when the validation measures are in conflict. Since it is conceptually simple, and given its stability and restrictiveness, we propose the concordance correlation coefficient as a complementary, or alternative, more prudent measure of a QSAR model to be externally predictive.

  20. Real external predictivity of QSAR models. Part 2. New intercomparable thresholds for different validation criteria and the need for scatter plot inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2012-08-27

    The evaluation of regression QSAR model performance, in fitting, robustness, and external prediction, is of pivotal importance. Over the past decade, different external validation parameters have been proposed: Q(F1)(2), Q(F2)(2), Q(F3)(2), r(m)(2), and the Golbraikh-Tropsha method. Recently, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, Lin), which simply verifies how small the differences are between experimental data and external data set predictions, independently of their range, was proposed by our group as an external validation parameter for use in QSAR studies. In our preliminary work, we demonstrated with thousands of simulated models that CCC is in good agreement with the compared validation criteria (except r(m)(2)) using the cutoff values normally applied for the acceptance of QSAR models as externally predictive. In this new work, we have studied and compared the general trends of the various criteria relative to different possible biases (scale and location shifts) in external data distributions, using a wide range of different simulated scenarios. This study, further supported by visual inspection of experimental vs predicted data scatter plots, has highlighted problems related to some criteria. Indeed, if based on the cutoff suggested by the proponent, r(m)(2) could also accept not predictive models in two of the possible biases (location, location plus scale), while in the case of scale shift bias, it appears to be the most restrictive. Moreover, Q(F1)(2) and Q(F2)(2) showed some problems in one of the possible biases (scale shift). This analysis allowed us to also propose recalibrated, and intercomparable for the same data scatter, new thresholds for each criterion in defining a QSAR model as really externally predictive in a more precautionary approach. An analysis of the results revealed that the scatter plot of experimental vs predicted external data must always be evaluated to support the statistical criteria values: in some cases high

  1. External validation of bifactor model of ADHD: explaining heterogeneity in psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive control, and personality trait profiles within DSM-IV ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T

    2011-11-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes.

  2. An external validation study reporting poor correlation between the claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity and the disease activity score

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rishi J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Michael E Weinblatt; Shadick, Nancy; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted an external validation study to examine the correlation of a previously published claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity (CIRAS) with disease activity score in 28 joints calculated by using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and the multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MD-HAQ) physical function score. Methods: Patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) and Medicare were identified and t...

  3. Cooperate to Validate. Observal-Net Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (followup of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  4. Cooperate to Validate: OBSERVAL-NET Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (follow-up of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder-centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  5. Face validation using 3D information from single calibrated camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, N.; Pnevmatikakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    propose a novel face validation method based on 3D position estimates from a single calibrated camera. This is done by assuming a typical face width; hence the widths of the detected image regions lead to target position estimates. Detected image regions with extreme position estimates can...... then be discarded. We apply our method on the rich dataset of the CLEAR2007 evaluation campaign, comprising 49 thousand annotated indoors images, recorded at five different sites, from four different cameras per site, depicting approximately 122 thousand faces. Our method yields very accurate 3D position estimates...

  6. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: External Validation of the Revision of the TNM Stage Groupings in the Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G; Rusch, Valerie W; Vallières, Eric; Groome, Patti; Kennedy, Catherine; Krasnik, Mark; Peake, Michael; Shemanski, Lynn; Bolejack, Vanessa; Crowley, John J; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón

    2017-07-01

    Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC were analyzed separately. The T, N, and overall TNM classifications were evaluated according to clinical, pathologic, and "best" stage (N = 780,294). Multivariate analyses were carried out to adjust for various confounding factors. A combined analysis of the NSCLC cases from both databases was performed to explore differences in overall survival prognosis between the two databases. The databases differed in terms of key factors related to data source. Survival was greater in the IASLC database for all stage categories. However, the eighth edition TNM stage classification system demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity within stage groups and by the consistency within analyses of specific cohorts. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Satellite information of sea ice for model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, P. P.; Mitra, Ashis K.; Momin, Imranali M.; Mahapatra, Debasis K.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Emergence of extensively large computational facilities have enabled the scientific world to use earth system models for understating the prevailing dynamics of the earth's atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere and their inter relations. The sea ice in the arctic and the Antarctic has been identified as one of the main proxies to study the climate changes. The rapid sea-ice melting in the Arctic and disappearance of multi-year sea ice has become a matter of concern. The earth system models couple the ocean, atmosphere and sea-ice in order to bring out the possible inter connections between these three very important components and their role in the changing climate. The Indian monsoon is seen to be subjected to nonlinear changes in the recent years. The rapid ice melt in the Arctic sea ice is apparently linked to the changes in the weather and climate of the Indian subcontinent. The recent findings reveal the relation between the high events occurs in the Indian subcontinent and the Arctic sea ice melt episodes. The coupled models are being used in order to study the depth of these relations. However, the models have to be validated extensively by using measured parameters. The satellite measurements of sea-ice starts from way back in 1979. There have been many data sets available since then. Here in this study, an evaluation of the existing data sets is conducted. There are some uncertainties in these data sets. It could be associated with the absence of a single sensor for a long period of time and also the absence of accurate in-situ measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements.

  8. Independent external validation of radiotherapy and its impact on the accuracy of a nomogram for predicting survival of women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Martin; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Luton, Dominique; Darai, Emile; Rouzier, Roman

    2011-11-01

    To externally validate and assess the impact of radiotherapy on the accuracy of a nomogram for predicting overall survival of women with endometrial cancer. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), we assessed the concordance indexes, the discrimination and the calibration provided by a nomogram for predicting overall survival. Patients were grouped into deciles based on their survival predictions, and the three-year overall survival in each group was compared with the mean predicted probability. Between 1988 and 2006, 64,023 patients were analyzed and divided into two groups: 14,323 patients with adjuvant radiotherapy and 49,700 patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Among the whole population, predicted and observed three-year overall survivals were 85.2% and 85.6% (+/-0.1%) respectively. In patients with adjuvant radiotherapy, overall survivals were 81.0% and 83.1% (+/-0.3%) and in patients without adjuvant radiotherapy, they were 86.5% and 86.3% (+/-0.2%) respectively. The concordance indexes for the whole population, in patients with radiotherapy and in patients without radiotherapy were 0.811 (+/-0.004), 0.751 (+/-0.009) and 0.803 (+/-0.006) respectively. The mean and maximal errors in patients with radiotherapy were 2.1% and 4.0% and in patients without radiotherapy 2.3% and 8.1%. The nomogram can accurately predict three-year overall survival, whether patients undergo adjuvant radiotherapy or not. The nomogram has an improved individual discrimination when compared with the 1988 and the 2009 staging systems for endometrial cancer. It may be useful in the information processed for patients and in building surveillance timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. External validation of a referral rule for axial spondyloarthritis in primary care patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Hoeven (Lonneke); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); P.D.M. de Buck (P. D M); J.J. Luime (Jolanda); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.E.A.M. Weel (Angelique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Design Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation. Partic

  10. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  11. The relationship between the external environment and physician e-mail communication: The mediating role of health information technology availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R; Menachemi, Nir

    Physician e-mail communication, with patients and other providers, is one of the cornerstones of effective care coordination but varies significantly across physicians. A physician's external environment may contribute to such variations by enabling or constraining a physician's ability to adopt innovations such as health information technology (HIT) that can be used to support e-mail communication. The aim of the study was to examine whether the relationship of the external environment and physician e-mail communication with patients and other providers is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. The data were obtained from the Health Tracking Physician Survey (2008) and the Area Resource File (2008). Cross-sectional multivariable subgroup path analysis was used to investigate the mediating role of HIT availability across 2,850 U.S. physicians. Solo physicians' perceptions about malpractice were associated with 0.97 lower odds (p communication with patients and other providers, as compared to group and hospital practices, even when mediated by HIT availability. Subgroup analyses indicated that different types of practices are responsive to the different dimensions of the external environment. Specifically, solo practitioners were more responsive to the availability of resources in their environment, with per capita income associated with lower likelihood of physician e-mail communication (OR = 0.99, p information technology availability, which in turn was associated with a greater likelihood of communicating via e-mail with patients (OR = 1.02, p communication and the external environment is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. Efforts to improve physician e-mail communication and HIT adoption may need to reflect the varied perceptions of different types of practices.

  12. The MBTI and social information processing: an incremental validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John A; Lanning, Kevin; Hooker, Karen

    2002-06-01

    The ability of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to predict performance on social cognitive tasks tapping information processing effort was assessed. Judgment and intuition interacted to predict amount of attributional adjustment on a dispositional attribution task. The MBTI scales predicted processing above and beyond measures of the five factors, rational-experiential preferences, and causal uncertainty. The relevance of these results for interpretation of the MBTI indexes is discussed.

  13. Validation and standardization of gene expression data for microarray and real time quantitative PCR using universal external RNA controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will introduce newly developed universal external ribonucleic acid (RNA) controls and their applications on different platforms of microarray and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) including SYBR Green® and TaqMan® probe-based chemistries. Data obtained fro...

  14. Audit in public administration’s information systems - External or internal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drljača, D.; Latinović, B.

    2017-05-01

    Audit of the information system, thanks to the increased use of ICT and related cyber-crime, becomes a very important process in modern companies and institutions. It is usual to engage or outsource a third party for independent financial audit. But what about auditing of the information system of public administration institutions? This paper gives an introduction to possible aspects of information system’s audit with the aim to discuss possible answer on the question in the title.

  15. Informal Learning with Technology: The Effects of Self-Constructing Externalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnik, Gregor; Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Especially in the context of technology-enhanced informal learning, it is crucial to understand how to design information sources in such a way that learners are not overwhelmed by the demands of the learning process, but at the same time are engaged in higher order thinking processes. Guidance aids learners in dealing with the demands of a…

  16. Validation of the French version of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Loundou, Anderson; Capdevila, Xavier; Bruder, Nicolas; Auquier, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    .... The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-report questionnaire comprising six questions that have been developed and validated to evaluate the preoperative anxiety of patients...

  17. Multinomial Logistic Functions in Markov Chain Models of Sleep Architecture: Internal and External Validation and Covariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzotto, Roberto; zamuner, stefano; Mezzalana, Enrica; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Gomeni, Roberto; Hooker, Andrew C; Karlsson, Mats O.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-effect Markov chain models have been recently proposed to characterize the time course of transition probabilities between sleep stages in insomniac patients. The most recent one, based on multinomial logistic functions, was used as a base to develop a final model combining the strengths of the existing ones. This final model was validated on placebo data applying also new diagnostic methods and then used for the inclusion of potential age, gender, and BMI effects. Internal validation w...

  18. Teaching post-mortem external examination in undergraduate medical education--the formal and the informal curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Fischer-Bruegge, Dorothee; Fabian, Merle; Raupach, Tobias; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Harendza, Sigrid

    2011-07-15

    In undergraduate medical education, the training of post-mortem external examination on dead bodies might evoke strong emotional reactions in medical students that could counteract the intended learning goals. We evaluated student perception of a forensic medicine course, their perceived learning outcome (via self-assessment) and possible tutor-dependent influences on the overall evaluation of the course by a questionnaire-based survey among 150 medical students in Hamburg, Germany. The majority of students identified post-mortem external examination as an important learning objective in undergraduate medical education and did not feel that the dignity of the deceased was offended by the course procedures. After the course, more than 70% of the students felt able to perform an external examination and to fill in a death certificate. Respectful behavior of course tutors towards the deceased entailed better overall course ratings by students (pformal curriculum) as well as tutor behavior (informal curriculum) in undergraduate education in forensic medicine. Furthermore, we suggest embedding teaching in forensic medicine in longitudinal curricula on death and dying and on the health consequences of interpersonal violence.

  19. Structure-independent cross-validation between residual dipolar couplings originating from internal and external orienting media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Renato; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Lee, Yong-Min; Luchinat, Claudio; Velders, Aldrik H. [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2002-04-15

    Lanthanide-substituted calcium binding proteins are known to partially orient in high magnetic fields. Orientation provides residual dipolar couplings (rdc's). Two of these systems, Tm{sup 3+}- and Dy{sup 3+}-substituted calbindin D{sub 9k}, dissolved in an external orienting medium (nonionic liquid crystalline phase) provide rdc values which are the sum of those induced by the lanthanides and by the liquid crystalline phase on the native calcium binding protein. This structure-independent check shows the innocence of the orienting medium with respect to the structure of the protein in solution. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of lanthanide substitution and external orienting media provides a further effective tool to control and tune the orientation tensor.

  20. [Reliability and external validity of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge about risk and cardiovascular disease and in patients attending Spanish community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariles, Pedro; Pino-Marín, Daniel; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; García-Jiménez, Emilio; Roig-Sánchez, Inés; Faus, María José

    2016-11-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire, with a validation preliminary, to assess knowledge of cardiovascular risk (CVR) and cardiovascular disease in patients attending community pharmacies in Spain. To complement the external validity, establishing the relationship between an educational activity and the increase in knowledge about CVR and cardiovascular disease. Sub-analysis of a controlled clinical study, EMDADER-CV, in which a questionnaire about knowledge concerning CVR was applied at 4 different times. Spanish Community Pharmacies. There were 323 patients in the control group, from the 640 who completed the study. Intraclass correlation coefficient to assess the reliability in 3 comparisons (post-educational activity with week 16, post-educational activity with week 32, and week 16 with week 32); and the non-parametric Friedman test to establish the relationship between an oral and written educational activity with increasing knowledge. For the 323 patients in the 3 comparisons, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.624; 0.608 and 0.801, respectively (fair-good to excellent reliability). So, the Friedman test showed a statistically significant relationship between educational activity and increased knowledge (p < .0001). According to the intraclass correlation coefficient, the questionnaire aimed at assessing the knowledge on CVR and cardiovascular disease has a reliability between acceptable and excellent, which added to the previous validation, shows that the instrument meets the criteria of validity and reliability. Furthermore, the questionnaire showed the ability to relate an increase in knowledge with an educational intervention, feature that complements its external validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  2. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; van Riel, Sarah J.; Saghir, Zaigham

    2015-01-01

    ; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. Conclusions: High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were......Objectives: Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. Methods: From...... used to evaluate risk discrimination. Results: AUCs of 0.826–0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer...

  3. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy : a systematic review and external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, NA; Algra, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X; Greving, JP|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298701278

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shor

  4. External Validation and Update of a Prediction Rule for the Duration of Sickness Absence Due to Common Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute; Sluiter, J. K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to validate an existing prediction rule (including age, education, depressive/anxiety symptoms, and recovery expectations) for predictions of the duration of sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMDs) and investigate the added value of

  5. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  6. External validation and updating of a Dutch prediction model for low hemoglobin deferral in Irish whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Atsma, F.; McSweeney, E.N.; Moons, K.G.; Vergouwe, Y.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sex-specific prediction models for low hemoglobin (Hb) deferral have been developed in Dutch whole blood donors. In the present study, we validated and updated the models in a cohort of Irish whole blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 45,031

  7. 'Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Bakker, Stephan J L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate risk scores to predict occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the Dutch population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twelve basic risk scores and 13 extensive risk scores with biomarkers were used to predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes during 7.5 years in a pros

  8. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  9. 'Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Bakker, Stephan J L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate risk scores to predict occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the Dutch population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twelve basic risk scores and 13 extensive risk scores with biomarkers were used to predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes during 7.5 years in a

  10. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  11. Translation and validation of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS) for use in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Mina; Moerman, Nelly; Fukuhara, Shunichi; van Dam, F S A M; Muller, M J; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2002-06-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a very common phenomenon that adversely affects a patient's physical and psychological outcome. To evaluate subjective complaints such as anxiety, use of a validated psychological instrument is essential. In this study, we translated, culturally adapted and validated the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS) for use in Japan. One hundred and twenty-six preoperative patients participated in this cross-sectional study. The psychometric properties of the APAIS evaluated by factor analysis, correlation with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and Cronbach's alpha were very similar to those of the original Dutch and English versions. Female gender and a high information requirement were associated with high preoperative anxiety. In conclusion, the Japanese version of the APAIS is a valid and reliable instrument for screening Japanese patients for preoperative anxiety and information requirements. Female gender and high information requirement may be associated with high preoperative anxiety.

  12. STRUCTURE AND VALIDATION OF A CONTEXTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN SOCIAL SERVICES: AN ORGANIZATION-ORIENTED MEASURE FROM AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moliner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy studies of fine-needle aspiration show wide variation in reporting of study population characteristics: implications for external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Narra, Krishna K; Witt, Benjamin L; Factor, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Study comparisons rest on the assessment of applicability or external validity. Population characteristics are an important component of external validity and, although there has been a heightened awareness of deficiencies in reporting in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies, the reporting of populations in DTA studies has not been investigated. To assess the quality of reporting of population descriptions in DTA studies for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Literature survey of common population parameters and usage patterns in FNAC DTA studies. We randomly selected 20 FNAC DTA studies in 4 categories (salivary glands, lung, thyroid, and pancreas) and determined the frequency of parameter usage. Studies showed considerable variability in reporting patterns. On average, studies reported 2 to 4 parameters to describe study populations. Age, sex, and lesion size were most frequently reported. Sixteen percent of studies did not provide any population description. Population parameters were used to describe the sample population more frequently than to describe the selection process (P = .001). There were significant differences in the number of parameters specified by anatomic site (P = .001). Only 21% of studies provided a flow diagram. Thirty-three percent of studies mentioned the target population. Studies show considerable variability in the description of sample populations and the population selection process. Studies often fail to provide flow diagrams or to provide a clear statement of the research problem. There is considerable opportunity for studies to improve both descriptions of sample populations and the process used to select them.

  14. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Consistent interpretation of molecular simulation kinetics using Markov state models biased with external information

    CERN Document Server

    Rudzinski, Joseph F; Bereau, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular simulations can provide microscopic insight into the physical and chemical driving forces of complex molecular processes. Despite continued advancement of simulation methodology, model errors may lead to inconsistencies between simulated and reference (e.g., from experiments or higher-level simulations) observables. To bound the microscopic information generated by computer simulations within reference measurements, we propose a method that reweights the microscopic transitions of the system to improve consistency with a set of coarse kinetic observables. The method employs the well-developed Markov state modeling framework to efficiently link microscopic dynamics with long-time scale constraints, thereby consistently addressing a wide range of time scales. To emphasize the robustness of the method, we consider two distinct coarse-grained models with significant kinetic inconsistencies. When applied to the simulated conformational dynamics of small peptides, the reweighting procedure systematically ...

  16. Validation of the Spanish version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Romero, Manuel; Morales-Asencio, Jos? Miguel; Morales-Fern?ndez, Angelines; Canca-Sanchez, Jose Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Reinaldo-Lapuerta, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative anxiety is a frequent and challenging problem with deleterious effects on the development of surgical procedures and postoperative outcomes. To prevent and treat preoperative anxiety effectively, the level of anxiety of patients needs to be assessed through valid and reliable measuring instruments. One such measurement tool is the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), of which a Spanish version has not been validated yet. Objective To perform a ...

  17. Adverse events of interferon beta-1a: a prospective multi-centre international ICH-GCP-based CRO-supported external validation study in daily practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.; Sindic, C.; Sanders, E.; Hawkins, S.; Linssen, W.; Munster, E. van; Frequin, S.T.F.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to methodological shortcomings the available post-registration data on the adverse events (AEs) occurring in interferon beta-1a (INFb-1a)-treated patients fail to adequately validate phase III data and only partially inform on safety in daily practice. We assessed AEs in relapsing

  18. Communication: Consistent interpretation of molecular simulation kinetics using Markov state models biased with external information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Joseph F.; Kremer, Kurt; Bereau, Tristan

    2016-02-01

    Molecular simulations can provide microscopic insight into the physical and chemical driving forces of complex molecular processes. Despite continued advancement of simulation methodology, model errors may lead to inconsistencies between simulated and reference (e.g., from experiments or higher-level simulations) observables. To bound the microscopic information generated by computer simulations within reference measurements, we propose a method that reweights the microscopic transitions of the system to improve consistency with a set of coarse kinetic observables. The method employs the well-developed Markov state modeling framework to efficiently link microscopic dynamics with long-time scale constraints, thereby consistently addressing a wide range of time scales. To emphasize the robustness of the method, we consider two distinct coarse-grained models with significant kinetic inconsistencies. When applied to the simulated conformational dynamics of small peptides, the reweighting procedure systematically improves the time scale separation of the slowest processes. Additionally, constraining the forward and backward rates between metastable states leads to slight improvement of their relative stabilities and, thus, refined equilibrium properties of the resulting model. Finally, we find that difficulties in simultaneously describing both the simulated data and the provided constraints can help identify specific limitations of the underlying simulation approach.

  19. External validation of leukocytosis and neutrophilia as a prognostic marker in anal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Huguet, Florence; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chargari, Cyrus; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Schlienger, Michel; Escande, Alexandre; Touboul, Emmanuel; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-07-01

    To validate the prognostic value of leukocyte disorders in anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation. Bi-institutional clinical records from consecutive patients treated between 2001 and 2015 with definitive chemoradiation for anal SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic value of pretreatment leukocyte disorders was examined, with focus on patterns of relapse and survival. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count exceeding 10G/L and 7G/L, respectively. We identified 133 patients, treated in two institutions. Eight% and 7% displayed baseline leukocytosis and neutrophilia, respectively. Estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 88% and 77%, respectively. In univariate analysis, both leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with worse OS, PFS (p<0.01), locoregional control (LRC) and Distant Metastasis Control (DMC) (p<0.05), also after stratification by each institution. In multivariate analysis, leukocytosis and neutrophilia remained as independent risk factors associated with poorer OS, PFS, LRC and DMC (p<0.05). This study validates leukocytosis and neutrophilia as independent prognostic factors in anal SCC patients treated with definitive chemoradiation. Although prospective confirmation is warranted, it is suggested that the leukocyte and neutrophil count parameters are clinically relevant biomarkers to be considered for further clinical investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity of the Prescriber Information in the Danish National Prescription Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Valentin, Julie; Gesser, Katarina Margareta; Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the validity of the prescriber information recorded in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR). The prescriber information recorded in the pharmacies' electronic dispensing system was considered to represent the prescriber information recorded in the DNPR. Further, the problem of validity of the prescriber information pertains only to non-electronic prescriptions, as these are manually entered into the dispensing system. The recorded prescriber information was thus validated against information from a total of 2000 non-electronic prescriptions at five Danish community pharmacies. The validity of the recorded prescriber information was measured at the level of the individual prescriber and the prescriber type, respectively. The proportion of non-electronic prescriptions with incorrect registrations was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.6-24.3) when considering individual prescriber identifiers and 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1-19.5) when considering prescriber type. When excluding prescriptions specifically registered as 'missing prescriber identifier', the proportions decreased to 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2-11.0) and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.2-5.1), respectively. The positive predictive values for the classification of prescriber types were in the range of 94.0-99.2%, while the sensitivity ranged between 64.6% and 91.8%. With a maximum of 14% non-electronic prescriptions of all prescriptions in the DNPR in 2015, this corresponds to correct classification of prescriber types in the DNPR of at least 97.5%. In conclusion, the prescriber information in the DNPR was found to be valid, especially in recent years. Researchers should be aware of the low sensitivity towards prescriptions from private practicing specialists.

  1. External validation of the DHAKA score and comparison with the current IMCI algorithm for the assessment of dehydration in children with diarrhoea: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adam C; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Rege, Soham; Robertson, Sarah; Schmid, Christopher H; Alam, Nur H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydration due to diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death worldwide, yet no clinical tools for assessing dehydration have been validated in resource-limited settings. The Dehydration: Assessing Kids Accurately (DHAKA) score was derived for assessing dehydration in children with diarrhoea in a low-income country setting. In this study, we aimed to externally validate the DHAKA score in a new population of children and compare its accuracy and reliability to the current Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm. Methods DHAKA was a prospective cohort study done in children younger than 60 months presenting to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute diarrhoea (defined by WHO as three or more loose stools per day for less than 14 days). Local nurses assessed children and classified their dehydration status using both the DHAKA score and the IMCI algorithm. Serial weights were obtained and dehydration status was established by percentage weight change with rehydration. We did regression analyses to validate the DHAKA score and compared the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score and IMCI algorithm with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the weighted κ statistic. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02007733. Findings Between March 22, 2015, and May 15, 2015, 496 patients were included in our primary analyses. On the basis of our criterion standard, 242 (49%) of 496 children had no dehydration, 184 (37%) of 496 had some dehydration, and 70 (14%) of 496 had severe dehydration. In multivariable regression analyses, each 1-point increase in the DHAKA score predicted an increase of 0·6% in the percentage dehydration of the child and increased the odds of both some and severe dehydration by a factor of 1·4. Both the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score were significantly greater than those of the IMCI algorithm. Interpretation The DHAKA score

  2. Establishment and validation of standardized animal models of spinal cord injury by normal external force-caused fracture dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weibing Shuang; Qiang Liu; Shoubin Jiao; Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    The duplication of animal models plays a key role in spinal cord injury research; however, there has been limited study into normal, external force-derived fracture dislocation. This study adopted experimental devices, designed in-house, to construct standardized ventral and dorsal spinal cord injury animal models of 6 g and 17 g falling from a height of 2, 4, and 10 cm, and 15, 30 or 50 g transversal compression on the spinal cord. The results showed that gradual increases in the degree of histopathological injury led to decreased Tarlov and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores for the behavioral test, and increased Ashworth scores for the hind limb. Furthermore, there was a gradual decline in the slope test in the rats with dorsal spinal cord injury that correlated to increases in the falling substance weight or falling height. Similar alterations were observed in the ventral spinal cord injured rats, proportional to the increase in compression weight. Our experimental findings indicate that the standardized experimental rat models of dorsal and ventral spinal cord injury are stable, reliable and reproducible.

  3. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  4. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  5. Development and Validation of a Standardized Tool for Prioritization of Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy; Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir

    2016-01-01

    To validate the utility and effectiveness of a standardized tool for prioritization of information sources for early detection of diseases. The tool was developed with input from diverse public health experts garnered through survey. Ten raters used the tool to evaluate ten information sources and reliability among raters was computed. The Proc mixed procedure with random effect statement and SAS Macros were used to compute multiple raters' Fleiss Kappa agreement and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance. Ten disparate information sources evaluated obtained the following composite scores: ProMed 91%; WAHID 90%; Eurosurv 87%; MediSys 85%; SciDaily 84%; EurekAl 83%; CSHB 78%; GermTrax 75%; Google 74%; and CBC 70%. A Fleiss Kappa agreement of 50.7% was obtained for ten information sources and 72.5% for a sub-set of five sources rated, which is substantial agreement validating the utility and effectiveness of the tool. This study validated the utility and effectiveness of a standardized criteria tool developed to prioritize information sources. The new tool was used to identify five information sources suited for use by the KIWI system in the CEZD-IIR project to improve surveillance of infectious diseases. The tool can be generalized to situations when prioritization of numerous information sources is necessary.

  6. External Validation of a Decision Tool To Guide Post-Operative Management of Patients with Secondary Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jasper J; Ram, Kim; Schultz, Marcus J; Boermeester, Marja A

    Timely identification of patients in need of an intervention for abdominal sepsis after initial surgical management of secondary peritonitis is vital but complex. The aim of this study was to validate a decision tool for this purpose and to evaluate its potential to guide post-operative management. A prospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis in a single hospital. Assessments using the decision tool, based on one intra-operative and five post-operative variables, were performed on the second and third post-operative days and when the patients' clinical status deteriorated. Scores were compared with the clinical reference standard of persistent sepsis based on the clinical course or findings at imaging or surgery. Additionally, the potential of the decision tool to guide management in terms of diagnostic imaging in three previously defined score categories (low, intermediate, and high) was evaluated. A total of 161 assessments were performed in 69 patients. The majority of cases of secondary peritonitis (68%) were caused by perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Post-operative persistent sepsis occurred in 28 patients. The discriminative capacity of the decision tool score was fair (area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic = 0.79). The incidence rate differed significantly between the three score categories (p peritonitis, the decision tool score predicts with fair accuracy whether persistent sepsis is present.

  7. Identifying Personality Pathology Associated With Major Depressive Episodes: Incremental Validity of Informant Reports

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Major limitations are associated with the use of a single source of information to assess personality pathology. The construct validity of standardized interviews and informant reports on personality pathology has been established relative to other measures of personality pathology, but it is also important to consider these measures in relation to other constructs that should be related to personality pathology. One example is major depression. In this study, we evaluated whether less common...

  8. Multicenter external validation of two malignancy risk prediction models in patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET for solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, G.A.; Signorini, M.; Motton, M.; Montemezzi, S. [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, A.R.; Del Ciello, A. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, G. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Chirurgia Toracica, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, A. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Radiologia, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, L.; Zeraj, F. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Pneumologia, Venezia (Italy); Bernhart, M. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Radiologia, Venezia (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To achieve multicentre external validation of the Herder and Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) models. Two hundred and fifty-nine solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected from four major hospitals which underwent 18-FDG-PET characterization were included in this multicentre retrospective study. The Herder model was tested on all available lesions (group A). A subgroup of 180 SPNs (group B) was used to provide unbiased comparison between the Herder and BIMC models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy. Decision analysis was performed by adopting the risk threshold stated in British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Unbiased comparison performed In Group B showed a ROC AUC for the Herder model of 0.807 (95 % CI 0.742-0.862) and for the BIMC model of 0.822 (95 % CI 0.758-0.875). Both the Herder and the BIMC models were proven to accurately predict the risk of malignancy when tested on a large multicentre external case series. The BIMC model seems advantageous on the basis of a more favourable decision analysis. (orig.)

  9. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2017-03-14

    The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n

  10. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  11. Predictive and External Validity of a Pre-Market Study to Determine the Most Effective Pictorial Health Warning Label Content for Cigarette Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cigarette package pictorial health warning label (HWL) content have primarily used designs that do not allow determination of effectiveness after repeated, naturalistic exposure. This research aimed to determine the predictive and external validity of a pre-market evaluation study of pictorial HWLs. Data were analyzed from: (1) a pre-market convenience sample of 544 adult smokers who participated in field experiments in Mexico City before pictorial HWL implementation (September 2010); and (2) a post-market population-based representative sample of 1765 adult smokers in the Mexican administration of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey after pictorial HWL implementation. Participants in both samples rated six HWLs that appeared on cigarette packs, and also ranked HWLs with four different themes. Mixed effects models were estimated for each sample to assess ratings of relative effectiveness for the six HWLs, and to assess which HWL themes were ranked as the most effective. Pre- and post-market data showed similar relative ratings across the six HWLs, with the least and most effective HWLs consistently differentiated from other HWLs. Models predicting rankings of HWL themes in post-market sample indicated: (1) pictorial HWLs were ranked as more effective than text-only HWLs; (2) HWLs with both graphic and "lived experience" content outperformed symbolic content; and, (3) testimonial content significantly outperformed didactic content. Pre-market data showed a similar pattern of results, but with fewer statistically significant findings. The study suggests well-designed pre-market studies can have predictive and external validity, helping regulators select HWL content. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  13. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  14. Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Key Developments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornavold, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the gradual introduction of arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe. While the debate on how to identify, assess and recognise learning achievements acquired outside formal education and training institutions has been going on for several decades, we can now observe that these approaches are…

  15. Reliability and validity test of a Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J. (Jos) van Helvoort; Frank Huysmans; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Ellen Sjoer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the research was to measure reliability and validity of the Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy (Van Helvoort, 2010). Design/methodology/approach: Percentages of agreement and Intraclass Correlation were used to describe interrater reliability. For the determination

  16. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Riel, Sarah J. van; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Saghir, Zaigham [Herlev Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hohwue Thomsen, Laura [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Skovgaard, Lene T. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  17. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms for Use in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jordan T; Carle, Adam C; Wootton, Janet; Liberio, Brianna; Lee, Jiha; Schanberg, Laura E; Ying, Jun; Morgan DeWitt, Esi; Brunner, Hermine I

    2017-01-01

    To validate the pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms (PROMIS-SFs) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a clinical setting. At 3 study visits, childhood-onset SLE patients completed the PROMIS-SFs (anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, physical function-mobility, physical function-upper extremity, pain interference, and peer relationships) using the PROMIS assessment center, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) legacy measures (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters [SMILEY], and visual analog scales [VAS] of pain and well-being). Physicians rated childhood-onset SLE activity on a VAS and completed the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000. Using a global rating scale of change (GRC) between study visits, physicians rated change of childhood-onset SLE activity (GRC-MD1: better/same/worse) and change of patient overall health (GRC-MD2: better/same/worse). Questionnaire scores were compared in support of validity and responsiveness to change (external standards: GRC-MD1, GRC-MD2). In this population-based cohort (n = 100) with a mean age of 15.8 years (range 10-20 years), the PROMIS-SFs were completed in less than 5 minutes in a clinical setting. The PROMIS-SF scores correlated at least moderately (Pearson's r ≥ 0.5) with those of legacy HRQoL measures, except for the SMILEY. Measures of childhood-onset SLE activity did not correlate with the PROMIS-SFs. Responsiveness to change of the PROMIS-SFs was supported by path, mixed-model, and correlation analyses. To assess HRQoL in childhood-onset SLE, the PROMIS-SFs demonstrated feasibility, internal consistency, construct validity, and responsiveness to change in a clinical setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Validation of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebowale I

    2017-01-01

    This study is an adaptation of the widely used DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of hospital information systems in a developing country. A survey research design was adopted in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 442 health information management personnel in five Nigerian teaching hospitals. A structural equation modeling technique was used to validate the model's constructs. It was revealed that system quality significantly influenced use (β = 0.53, p 0.05), but it significantly influenced perceived net benefits (β = 0.21, p 0.05). The study validates the DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of a hospital information system in a developing country. Importantly, system quality and use were found to be important measures of hospital information system success. It is, therefore, imperative that hospital information systems are designed in such ways that are easy to use, flexible, and functional to serve their purpose.

  19. Validation of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study is an adaptation of the widely used DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of hospital information systems in a developing country. Methods A survey research design was adopted in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 442 health information management personnel in five Nigerian teaching hospitals. A structural equation modeling technique was used to validate the model's constructs. Results It was revealed that system quality significantly influenced use (β = 0.53, p 0.05), but it significantly influenced perceived net benefits (β = 0.21, p 0.05). Conclusions The study validates the DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of a hospital information system in a developing country. Importantly, system quality and use were found to be important measures of hospital information system success. It is, therefore, imperative that hospital information systems are designed in such ways that are easy to use, flexible, and functional to serve their purpose. PMID:28261532

  20. External validation of nomograms for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients treated with definitive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obtained from 160 M0 penile cancer patients who underwent primary tumor excision and regional lymphadenectomy between 1990 and 2008. The predicted probabilities of cancer-specific mortality were calculated from 3 nomograms that were based on different disease stage definitions and tumor grade. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed to compare model performance. The discrimination ability was similar in nomograms using the TNM classification or American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (Harrell’s concordance index = 0.817 and 0.832, respectively), whereas it was inferior for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results staging (Harrel ’s concordance index = 0.728). Better agreement with the observed cancer-specific mortality was shown for the model consisting of TNM classification and tumor grade, which also achieved favorable clinical net benefit, with a threshold probability in the range of 0 to 42%. The nomogram consisting of TNM classification and tumor grading was shown to have better performance for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients who underwent definitive surgery. Our data support the integration of this model in decision-making and trial design.

  1. Validation study of the EORTC information questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-INFO25) in Iranian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Safiri, Saeid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2015-07-01

    Developing a tool for measuring patient's needs is a vital step in the process of cancer treatment and research. In recent years, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) made a questionnaire to measure cancer patients' received information. Since validity and reliability of any instrument should be evaluated in the new environment and culture, the aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the EORTC QLQ-INFO25 in Iranian cancer patients. One hundred seventy-three patients with different stages of cancer filled questionnaire EORTC QLQ-INFO25, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC IN-PATSAT32. Twenty-five patients answered the questionnaire twice at an interval of 2 weeks. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation, test retest, inter-rater agreement (IRA), and exploratory factorial analyses. Using a conservative approach, the IRA for the overall relevancy and clarity of the tool was 87/86% and 83.33%, respectively. Overall appropriateness and clarity were 94.13 and 91.87%, respectively. Overall integrity of the instrument was determined to be 85%. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all domains and total inventory were top 70 and 90%, respectively. Interclass correlation index ranges between 0.708 and 0.965. Exploratory factorial analyses demonstrate six fields suitable for instrument. Correlation between areas of the questionnaires EORTC QLQ-INFO25 and EORTC in-Patsat32 represents the convergent validity of the questionnaire. Also, results show a standard divergent validity in all domains of the questionnaire (Rho EORTC QLQ-INFO25 and EORTC QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-INFO25 is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the perception of information in cancer patients.

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Czech Version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleníková, Renáta; Homzová, Pavlína; Homza, Miroslav; Bužgová, Radka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Czech version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. For reliability and validity testing, two instruments measuring preoperative anxiety were administered to the participants on the same occasion, (APAIS and the Spielberg State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S)). The sample consisted of 344 patients undergoing elective surgery. Reliability of APAIS anxiety subscale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Reliability of APAIS information subscale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.78. The APAIS anxiety subscale correlated significantly with the STAI-S (0.69). Women scored significantly higher on anxiety scales than men. APAIS may be a useful tool to measure preoperative anxiety in Czech patients undergoing elective surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and External Validity of Electronic and Mobile Phone-Based Interventions Promoting Vegetable Intake in Young Adults: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Monica Marina; Chen, Juliana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-07-28

    Despite social marketing campaigns and behavior change interventions, young adults remain among the lowest consumers of vegetables. The digital era offers potential new avenues for both social marketing and individually tailored programs, through texting, web, and mobile applications. The effectiveness and generalizability of such programs have not been well documented. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and external validity of social marketing, electronic, and mobile phone-based (mHealth) interventions aimed at increasing vegetable intake in young adults. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol will be used to conduct this systematic review. The search strategy will be executed across eleven electronic databases using combinations of the following search terms: "online intervention", "computer-assisted therapy", "internet", "website", "cell phones", "cyber", "telemedicine", "email", "social marketing", "social media", "mass media", "young adult", and "fruit and vegetables". The reference lists of included studies will also be searched for additional citations. Titles and abstracts will be screened against inclusion criteria and full texts of potentially eligible papers will be assessed by two independent reviewers. Data from eligible papers will be extracted. Quality and risk of bias will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias assessment tool respectively. The external validity of the studies will be determined based on components such as reach, adoption, and representativeness of participants; intervention implementation and adaption; and program maintenance and institutionalization. Results will be reported quantitatively and qualitatively. Our research is in progress. A draft of the systematic review is currently being produced for publication by the end of 2015

  4. Fire Suppression M and S Validation (Status and Challenges), Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Authorized for Public Release; distribution is...unlimited 1 Fire Suppression M&S Validation (Status & Challenges) Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange 14-15 Oct 2015 Dr. Vamshi M. Korivi US...Inhibition of JP-8 Combustion Physical Acting Agents • Dilute heat • Dilute reactants Ex: water, nitrogen Chemical Acting Agents • Reduce flame

  5. Validation of the French version of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Loundou, Anderson; Capdevila, Xavier; Bruder, Nicolas; Auquier, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundMost patients are anxious before surgery. The level of preoperative anxiety depends on several factors and merits an objective evaluation. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-report questionnaire comprising six questions that have been developed and validated to evaluate the preoperative anxiety of patients. This global index assesses three separate areas: anxiety about anaesthesia, anxiety about surgery, and the desire ...

  6. The validation and translation of Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Sandall, Jane

    2011-04-01

    to translate the original English version of the Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice (MMIC) into Greek, to adapt it culturally to Greece, and to determine its psychometric properties for the assessment of informed choice in antenatal screening for Down syndrome. survey using self-administrated questionnaires. public hospital in Athens, Greece. 135 pregnant women with gestational age between 11th and 20th week just prior to having antenatal screening for Down syndrome. 96% of women had a positive attitude towards screening and 45% had a good level of knowledge concerning the screening process for Down syndrome. Using a standard measure of informed choice, validated for use in Greek, it was found that 44% of women made an informed choice, and thus 56% of women made an uninformed choice. The internal consistency of the scales was good; Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.76 for the attitude scale and 0.64 for the knowledge scale, suggesting that all items were appropriate to measure. The performed factor analysis of the attitude scale indicated three factors with an eigenvalue over 1.0. Those factors were responsible for 87% of the variance. this study indicates that the Greek version of the MMIC appears to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring informed choice in antenatal screening for Down syndrome. Due to its short length and consumption of time, it seems to be a practical instrument for use in Greek antenatal clinics. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of the Malay version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fahmi, Z; Lai, L L; Loh, P S

    2015-08-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a significant problem worldwide that may affect patients' surgical outcome. By using a simple and reliable tool such as the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), anaesthesiologists would be able to assess preoperative anxiety adequately and accurately. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Malay version of APAIS (Malay-APAIS), and assess the factors associated with higher anxiety scores. The authors performed forward and backward translation of APAIS into Malay and then tested on 200 patients in the anaesthetic clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre. Psychometric analysis was performed with factor analysis, internal consistency and correlation with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-state). A good correlation was shown with STAI-state (r = 0.59). Anxiety and need for information both emerged with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.93 and 0.90 respectively). Female gender, surgery with a higher risk and need for information were found to be associated with higher anxiety scores. On the other hand, previous experience with surgery had lower need for information. The Malay-APAIS is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of patients' preoperative anxiety and their need for information. By understanding and measuring patient's concerns objectively, the perioperative management will improve to a much higher standard of care.

  8. Analyzing Multiple Informant Data on Child and Adolescent Behavior Problems: Predictive Validity and Comparison of Aggregation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    We compared the predictive validity of five aggregation methods for multiple informant data on child and adolescent behavior problems. In addition, we compared the predictive validity of these aggregation methods with single informant scores. Data were derived from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 175). Maternal and…

  9. Predicting the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Older Inpatients: External Validation of the GerontoNet ADR Risk Score Using the CRIME Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Mirko; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano

    2017-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people are often preventable, indicating that screening and prevention programs aimed at reducing their rate are needed in this population. The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients. Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4. The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged 18.5 kg/m(2)) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations. This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.

  10. External validation of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 in a cohort of 28,357 patients from 147 Italian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniele; Rossi, Carlotta; Anghileri, Abramo; Giardino, Michele; Latronico, Nicola; Radrizzani, Danilo; Langer, Martin; Bertolini, Guido

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the SAPS 3 score predictive ability of hospital mortality in a large external validation cohort. Prospective observational study. A total of 28,357 patients from 147 Italian ICUs joining the Project Margherita national database of the Gruppo italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva (GiViTI). None. Evaluation of discrimination through ROC analysis and of overall goodness-of-fit through the Cox calibration test. Although discrimination was good, calibration turned out to be poor. The general and the South-Europe Mediterranean countries equations overestimated hospital mortality overall (SMR values 0.73 with 95% CI 0.72-0.75 for both equations) and homogeneously across risk classes. Overprediction was confirmed among important subgroups, with SMR values ranging between 0.47 and 0.82. The result strictly supported by our data is that the SAPS 3 score calibrates inadequately in a large sample of Italian ICU patients and thus should not be used for benchmarking, at least in Italian settings.

  11. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  12. Field Validation of Food Service Listings: A Comparison of Commercial and Online Geographic Information System Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases. PMID:23066385

  13. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases.

  14. Predicting successful intended vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section : external validation of two predictive models in a Dutch nationwide registration-based cohort with a high intended vaginal delivery rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E. N. C.; Melman, S.; van Kuijk, S. M. J.; Grobman, W. A.; Kwee, A.; Mol, B. W. J.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Smits, L. J. M.; Aardenburg, R.; de Boer, K.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; van Dooren, I. M.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kaplan, M.; Kuppens, S. M. I.; Lim, F. T. H.; Sikkema, J. M.; Smid-Koopman, E.; Visser, H.; Vrouenraets, F. P. J. M.; Woiski, M.; Hermens, R. P. M. G.; Scheepers, H. C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo externally validate two models from the USA (entry-to-care [ETC] and close-to-delivery [CTD]) that predict successful intended vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) for the Dutch population. DesignA nationwide registration-based cohort study. SettingSeventeen hospitals in the Netherlands.

  15. Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittus Robert S

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians reading the medical literature attempt to determine whether research studies are valid. However, articles with negative results may not provide sufficient information to allow physicians to properly assess validity. Methods We analyzed all original research articles with negative results published in 1997 in the weekly journals BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine as well as those published in the 1997 and 1998 issues of the bimonthly Annals of Internal Medicine (N = 234. Our primary objective was to quantify the proportion of studies with negative results that comment on power and present confidence intervals. Secondary outcomes were to quantify the proportion of these studies with a specified effect size and a defined primary outcome. Stratified analyses by study design were also performed. Results Only 30% of the articles with negative results comment on power. The reporting of power (range: 15%-52% and confidence intervals (range: 55–81% varied significantly among journals. Observational studies of etiology/risk factors addressed power less frequently (15%, 95% CI, 8–21% than did clinical trials (56%, 95% CI, 46–67%, p Conclusion Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results.

  16. Constructing valid density matrices on an NMR quantum information processor via maximum likelihood estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in

    2016-09-07

    Estimation of quantum states is an important step in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples and compare with the standard method of state estimation. - Highlights: • State estimation using maximum likelihood method was performed on an NMR quantum information processor. • Physically valid density matrices were obtained every time in contrast to standard quantum state tomography. • Density matrices of several different entangled and separable states were reconstructed for two and three qubits.

  17. [Informed consent in anaesthesiology: period of notice as a requisite of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

    2014-02-01

    The analysis of one of the requisites of the validity of the informed consent, the notice period, during which the patient should be provided with information, so that he/she can reflect and fully exercise his/her Kantian right of self-determination. National legislation appears to be insufficient when dealing with this issue, which is compensated for in some regional legislations. We conclude by pointing the need to provide the patient with information with sufficient notice prior to operations, so that he/she can ponder over his/her decision. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimized method for atmospheric signal reduction in irregular sampled InSAR time series assisted by external atmospheric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    errors and the master atmospheric delays are first removed in a pre-processing step before the atmospheric filters are applied. The first adaptive filter type is using a filter kernel of Gaussian shape and is adaptively adjusting the width (defined in days) of this filter until the correlation of extracted and modeled atmospheric signal power is maximized. If atmospheric properties vary along the time series, this approach will lead to filter setting that are adapted to best reproduce atmospheric conditions at a certain observation epoch. Despite the superior performance of this first filter design, its Gaussian shape imposes non-physical relative weights onto acquisitions that ignore the known atmospheric noise in the data. Hence, in our second approach we are using atmospheric a-priori information to adaptively define the full shape of the atmospheric filter. For this process, we use a so-called normalized convolution (NC) approach that is often used in image reconstruction. Several NC designs will be presented in this paper and studied for relative performance. A cross-validation of all developed algorithms was done using both synthetic and real data. This validation showed designed filters are outperforming conventional filter methods that particularly useful for regions with limited data coverage or lack of a deformation field prior.

  19. Validation of the Spanish version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Romero, Manuel; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Morales-Fernández, Angelines; Canca-Sanchez, Jose Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Reinaldo-Lapuerta, Jose Antonio

    2017-06-07

    Preoperative anxiety is a frequent and challenging problem with deleterious effects on the development of surgical procedures and postoperative outcomes. To prevent and treat preoperative anxiety effectively, the level of anxiety of patients needs to be assessed through valid and reliable measuring instruments. One such measurement tool is the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), of which a Spanish version has not been validated yet. To perform a Spanish cultural adaptation and empirical validation of the APAIS for assessing preoperative anxiety in the Spanish population. A two-step forward/back translation of the APAIS scale was performed to ensure a reliable Spanish cultural adaptation. The final Spanish version of the APAIS questionnaire was administered to 529 patients between the ages of 18 to 70 undergoing elective surgery at hospitals of the Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol (Spain). Cronbach's alpha, homogeneity index, intra-class correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis were calculated to assess internal consistency and criteria and construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a one-factor model was better fitted than a two-factor model, with good fitting patterns (root mean square error of approximation: 0.05, normed-fit index: 0.99, goodness-of-fit statistic: 0.99). The questionnaire showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.84) and a good correlation with the Goldberg Anxiety Scale (CCI: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.68). The Spanish version of the APAIS is a valid and reliable preoperative anxiety measurement tool and shows psychometric properties similar to those obtained by similar previous studies.

  20. The cancer information overload (CIO) scale: establishing predictive and discriminant validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Carcioppolo, Nick; King, Andy J; Scherr, Courtney L; Jones, Christina L; Niederdieppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Survey data suggests that approximately three-fourths of adults are overwhelmed by cancer information - a construct we label cancer information overload (CIO). A significant limitation of existing research is that it relies on a single-item measure. The objective of the current study is to develop and validate a multi-item measure of CIO. Study 1 (N=209) surveyed healthcare and manufacturing employees at eight worksites. Colonoscopy insurance claims data were culled eighteen months later to evaluate the predictive validity of CIO. Study 2 (N=399) surveyed adults at seven shopping malls. CIO and cancer fatalism were measured to examine the properties of the two constructs. Study 1 identified a reliable 8-item CIO scale that significantly predicted colonoscopy insurance claims 18 months after the initial survey. Study 2 confirmed the factor structure identified in Study 1, and demonstrated that CIO, cancer fatalism about prevention, and cancer fatalism about treatment are best modeled as three distinct constructs. The perception that there are too many recommendations about cancer prevention to know which ones to follow is an indicator of CIO, a widespread disposition that predicts colon cancer screening and is related to, but distinct from, cancer fatalism. Many adults exhibit high CIO, a disposition that undermines health efforts. Communication strategies that mitigate CIO are a priority. In the short-term, health care providers and public health professionals should monitor the amount of information provided to patients and the public. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review to collate information on external communication as a basis of innovation success (Deliverable 2.2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of work package 2: “Identify success factors” is to identify relevant success factors and barriers in the scientific literature on internal (between relevant disciplines) and external (from and to the public and end-users) communication strategies to enhance food technology innovation

  2. External validation of the PROFUND index in polypathological patients from internal medicine and acute geriatrics departments in Aragón.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Cabrerizo García, José Luis; García-Arilla Calvo, Ernesto; Jimeno Saínz, Araceli; Calvo Beguería, Eva; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa M; Bejarano Tello, Esperanza; Caudevilla Martínez, Aránzazu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to validate externally and prospectively the PROFUND index to predict survival of polypathological patients after a year. An observational, prospective and multicenter study was performed. Polypathological patients admitted to an internal medicine or geriatrics department and attended by investigators consecutively between March 1 and June 30, 2011 were included. Data concerning age, gender, comorbidity, Barthel and Lawton-Brody indexes, Pfeiffer questionnaire, socio-familial Gijon scale, delirium, number of drugs and number of admissions during the previous year were gathered for each patient. The PROFUND index was calculated. The follow-up lasted 1 year. A Cox proportional regression model was calculated, and was used to analyze the association of the variables to mortality and C-statistic. 465 polypathological patients, 333 from internal medicine and 132 from geriatrics, were included. One-year mortality is associated with age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.52 95 % CI 1.04-2.12; p = 0.01], presence of neoplasia [HR 2.68 95 % CI 1.71-4.18; p = 0.0001] and dependence for basic activities of daily living [HR 2.34 95 % CI 1.61-3.40; p = 0.0009]. In predicting mortality, the PROFUND index shows good discrimination in patients from internal medicine (C-statistics 0.725 95 % CI 0.670-0.781), but a poor one in those from geriatrics (0.546 95 % CI 0.448-0.644). The PROFUND index is a reliable tool for predicting mortality in internal medicine PP patients.

  3. External validity of the chiari severity index and outcomes among pediatric chiari I patients treated with intra- or extra-Dural decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Jared M; Merkow, Maxwell B; Brewington, Danielle; Henn, Rosemary E; Sutton, Leslie N; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2017-02-01

    Chiari malformation type-1 (CM-1) may be treated by intradural (ID) or extradural (ED) posterior fossa decompression, although the optimal approach is debated. The Chiari Severity Index (CSI) is a pre-operative metric to predict patient-defined improvement after CM-1 surgery. In this study, we evaluate the results of ID versus ED decompression and assess the external validity of the CSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric CM-1 patients undergoing decompression at a single academic children's hospital. Characteristics of headache, syrinx, and myelopathy were collected to derive CSI grade. The primary outcome measure was pre-operative symptom resolution. The proportion of patients with favorable outcome was tabulated for each of the three CSI grades and compared to previously published results. From 2004 to 2014, 189 patients underwent ID (48%) or ED (52%) decompression at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Follow-up ranged from 1 to 75 months. Rates of symptom resolution (58-64%) and reoperation (8%) were similar regardless of surgical approach. Although proportions of favorable outcomes differed between the CHOP and Washington University (WU) cohorts, the difference was not related to CSI grade (p = 0.63). Furthermore, there was no difference in the proportion of favorable outcomes between the two cohorts regardless of ID (p = 0.26) or ED approach (p = 0.11). Equivalent rates of symptom resolution and reoperation following ID and ED decompression support the ED approach as a first-line surgical option for pediatric CM-1 patients. In addition, our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the generalizability of the CSI and its use in future comparative trials.

  4. The cross-informant concordance and concurrent validity of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children in a community sample of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Mosko, Orion; Chang, Bonny; Ha, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    The Borderline Personality Disorder Features Scale for Children (BPFSC) is currently the only dimensional measure specifically developed to assess borderline features in children and adolescents. Few studies have investigated this measure for its concurrent validity and concordance between youth self-report and parent-report versions. To this end, the current study had two aims: (1) to investigate the cross-informant concordance (youth self-report vs. parent-report) of the BPFSC; and (2) to examine the concurrent validity of the BPFSC by showing that youth scoring high on the BPFSC also show poor clinical and psychosocial functioning, as measured by a standard Axis I scale. A community sample (N = 171) of boys between the ages of 8 and 18 completed the BPFSC and a self-report measure of Axis I psychopathology. Parents completed a newly developed parent-report version of the BPFSC (BPFSP) and a standard measure of Axis I psychopathology to index clinical and psychosocial functioning. Findings confirmed expectations. Modest concordance between parent- and self-report ratings were found. In addition, youth with borderline features showed poorer clinical and psychosocial functioning in all domains, especially where externalizing problems were concerned. Concurrent validity and modest parent-child concordance were demonstrated for the BPFSC. The BPFSC and BPFSP show promise as dimensional measures to assess borderline features in boys. However, a criterion validity study is needed before the measure can be used.

  5. Design and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate the usability of computerized critical care information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dincklage, Falk; Lichtner, Gregor; Suchodolski, Klaudiusz; Ragaller, Maximilian; Friesdorf, Wolfgang; Podtschaske, Beatrice

    2016-06-03

    The implementation of computerized critical care information systems (CCIS) can improve the quality of clinical care and staff satisfaction, but also holds risks of disrupting the workflow with consecutive negative impacts. The usability of CCIS is one of the key factors determining their benefits and weaknesses. However, no tailored instrument exists to measure the usability of such systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire that measures the usability of CCIS. Following a mixed-method design approach, we developed a questionnaire comprising two evaluation models to assess the usability of CCIS: (1) the task-specific model rates the usability individually for several tasks which CCIS could support and which we derived by analyzing work processes in the ICU; (2) the characteristic-specific model rates the different aspects of the usability, as defined by the international standard "ergonomics of human-system interaction". We tested validity and reliability of the digital version of the questionnaire in a sample population. In the sample population of 535 participants both usability evaluation models showed a strong correlation with the overall rating of the system (multiple correlation coefficients ≥0.80) as well as a very high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.93). The novel questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the usability of CCIS and can be used to study the influence of the usability on their implementation benefits and weaknesses.

  6. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy also has various unique aspects. For one thing, this industry also suffers from a problem partly rooted in the incredibly broad definition of the term “cybercrime”. This article seeks to provide insights and analysis into this phenomenon, which is expected to advance our understanding into cybercrime-related information.

  7. Are "classical" tests of repeated-sprint ability in football externally valid? A new approach to determine in-game sprinting behaviour in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Skorski, Sabrina; Nopp, Stephan; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of repeated sprinting bouts in elite football. Furthermore, the construct validity of current tests assessing repeated-sprint ability (RSA) was analysed using information of sprinting sequences as they actually occurred during match-play. Sprinting behaviour in official competition was analysed for 19 games of the German national team between August 2012 and June 2014. A sprinting threshold was individually calculated based on the peak velocity reached during in-game sprinting. Players performed 17.2 ± 3.9 sprints per game and during the entire 19 games a total of 35 bouts of repeated sprinting (a minimum of three consecutive sprints with a recovery duration repeated sprinting per player every 463 min. No general decrement in maximal sprinting speed was observed during bouts with up to five consecutive sprints. Results of the present study question the importance of RSA as it is classically defined. They indicate that shorter accelerations are more important in game-specific situations which do not reach speeds necessary to qualify them as sprints. The construct validity of classic tests of RSA in football is not supported by these observations.

  8. Planning of reach-and-grasp movements: effects of validity and type of object information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, L. D.; Engelbrecht, S. F.; Berthier, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    Individuals are assumed to plan reach-and-grasp movements by using two separate processes. In 1 of the processes, extrinsic (direction, distance) object information is used in planning the movement of the arm that transports the hand to the target location (transport planning); whereas in the other, intrinsic (shape) object information is used in planning the preshaping of the hand and the grasping of the target object (manipulation planning). In 2 experiments, the authors used primes to provide information to participants (N = 5, Experiment 1; N = 6, Experiment 2) about extrinsic and intrinsic object properties. The validity of the prime information was systematically varied. The primes were succeeded by a cue, which always correctly identified the location and shape of the target object. Reaction times were recorded. Four models of transport and manipulation planning were tested. The only model that was consistent with the data was 1 in which arm transport and object manipulation planning were postulated to be independent processes that operate partially in parallel. The authors suggest that the processes involved in motor planning before execution are primarily concerned with the geometric aspects of the upcoming movement but not with the temporal details of its execution.

  9. Record of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: validation of the hospital information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System for the appropriate recording of hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. METHOD: the hospital information system records for conditions which are sensitive to ambulatory care, and for those which are not, were considered for analysis, taking the medical records as the gold standard. Through simple random sampling, a sample of 816 medical records was defined and selected by means of a list of random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULT: the sensitivity was 81.89%, specificity was 95.19%, the positive predictive value was 77.61% and the negative predictive value was 96.27%. In the study setting, the Hospital Information System (SIH was more specific than sensitive, with nearly 20% of care sensitive conditions not detected. CONCLUSION: there are no validation studies in Brazil of the Hospital Information System records for the hospitalizations which are sensitive to primary health care. These results are relevant when one considers that this system is one of the bases for assessment of the effectiveness of primary health care.

  10. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  11. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  12. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonietz, Karl K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E. [JPL/CAL Tech; Rotman, Douglas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Walker, Bruce C. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  13. 75 FR 59294 - Comment Request for Information Collection for The Data Validation Requirement for Employment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... technical assistance from ETA's data validation contractor throughout the validation process. Resources. The... electronically to ETA in the same manner as other reports. The results are stored in a data base in ETA's... validation tools by contacting ETA's data validation contractor. II. Review Focus The Department of Labor...

  14. The validation of the Yonsei CArbon Retrieval algorithm with improved aerosol information using GOSAT measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonjin; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Boesch, Hartmut; Goo, Tae-Young; Cho, Chunho

    2017-04-01

    Although several CO2 retrieval algorithms have been developed to improve our understanding about carbon cycle, limitations in spatial coverage and uncertainties due to aerosols and thin cirrus clouds are still remained as a problem for monitoring CO2 concentration globally. Based on an optimal estimation method, the Yonsei CArbon Retrieval (YCAR) algorithm was developed to retrieve the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) using the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measurements with optimized a priori CO2 profiles and aerosol models over East Asia. In previous studies, the aerosol optical properties (AOP) are the most important factors in CO2 retrievals since AOPs are assumed as fixed parameters during retrieval process, resulting in significant XCO2 retrieval error up to 2.5 ppm. In this study, to reduce these errors caused by inaccurate aerosol optical information, the YCAR algorithm improved with taking into account aerosol optical properties as well as aerosol vertical distribution simultaneously. The CO2 retrievals with two difference aerosol approaches have been analyzed using the GOSAT spectra and have been evaluated throughout the comparison with collocated ground-based observations at several Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites. The improved YCAR algorithm has biases of 0.59±0.48 ppm and 2.16±0.87 ppm at Saga and Tsukuba sites, respectively, with smaller biases and higher correlation coefficients compared to the GOSAT operational algorithm. In addition, the XCO2 retrievals will be validated at other TCCON sites and error analysis will be evaluated. These results reveal that considering better aerosol information can improve the accuracy of CO2 retrieval algorithm and provide more useful XCO2 information with reduced uncertainties. This study would be expected to provide useful information in estimating carbon sources and sinks.

  15. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. METHODS: Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Danish 460.......932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95......% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. CONCLUSION: We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision....

  16. Automated identification of wound information in clinical notes of patients with heart diseases: Developing and validating a natural language processing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Lai, Kenneth; Dowding, Dawn; Lei, Victor J; Zisberg, Anna; Bowles, Kathryn H; Zhou, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electronic health records are being increasingly used by nurses with up to 80% of the health data recorded as free text. However, only a few studies have developed nursing-relevant tools that help busy clinicians to identify information they need at the point of care. This study developed and validated one of the first automated natural language processing applications to extract wound information (wound type, pressure ulcer stage, wound size, anatomic location, and wound treatment) from free text clinical notes. First, two human annotators manually reviewed a purposeful training sample (n=360) and random test sample (n=1100) of clinical notes (including 50% discharge summaries and 50% outpatient notes), identified wound cases, and created a gold standard dataset. We then trained and tested our natural language processing system (known as MTERMS) to process the wound information. Finally, we assessed our automated approach by comparing system-generated findings against the gold standard. We also compared the prevalence of wound cases identified from free-text data with coded diagnoses in the structured data. The testing dataset included 101 notes (9.2%) with wound information. The overall system performance was good (F-measure is a compiled measure of system's accuracy=92.7%), with best results for wound treatment (F-measure=95.7%) and poorest results for wound size (F-measure=81.9%). Only 46.5% of wound notes had a structured code for a wound diagnosis. The natural language processing system achieved good performance on a subset of randomly selected discharge summaries and outpatient notes. In more than half of the wound notes, there were no coded wound diagnoses, which highlight the significance of using natural language processing to enrich clinical decision making. Our future steps will include expansion of the application's information coverage to other relevant wound factors and validation of the model with external data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Internal and External Validation of a Computer-Assisted Surveillance System for Hospital-Acquired Infections in a 754-Bed General Hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, H Roel A; Lede, Ivar O; Eriksson, John L V; Meijling, Marije G; van der Hoeven, Conrad P; Wille, Jan C; Hopmans, Titia E M; Friedrich, Alex W; Verbrugh, Henri A; Naiemi, Nashwan Al

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate a computer-assisted point-prevalence survey (CAPPS) for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). DESIGN Validation cohort. SETTING A 754-bed teaching hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS For the internal validation of a CAPPS for HAIs, 2,526 patients were included. All patient reco

  18. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2012-09-01

    Clark and Chalmers (1998) claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: (1) the agent has constant access to the resource; (2) the information in the resource is directly available; (3) retrieved information is automatically endorsed; (4) information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external memories, but the criteria still do not capture the function of memory. An adequate account of memory function, compatible with its evolution and its roles in prospection and imagination, suggests that external memory performs a function not performed by biological memory systems. External memory is thus not memory. This has implications for: extended mind theorizing, ecological validity of memory research, the causal theory of memory.

  19. [Infant food diversification: Is the information available on the Internet valid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, T; Carsin, A; Chabrol, B; Fabre, A

    2016-07-01

    The Internet provides easy access to information on health, but the quality and validity of this information are variable. To evaluate the quality of websites and the information provided on the timing and consequences of food diversification for infants. We analyzed the websites addressing infant food diversification that appeared on the first two pages of the search engines Google, Yahoo, and Bing. The websites were selected from four different queries. We initially assessed (a) the structure of the websites with two instruments (the Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Health Information on the Internet (HITI) and NetScoring) and (b) the presence of certification (quality label Health on the Net [HON] Code). Secondly, we evaluated the content of the websites concerning the time of introducing five classes of foods (gluten, fat, allergenic foods, solid foods, and animal protein), the duration of breastfeeding, and four potential consequences of food diversification (allergy, nutritional, autoimmune, and cardiovascular). Our repository was based on the most recent recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics published in 2008. In all, 19 websites were included. Six of 19 websites scored above average on the two instruments (average: 131.26/312 with NetScoring and 46.73/104 with HITI). No correlation was observed between the referencing of websites analyzed and the notes obtained with both instruments. A majority of the websites analyzed were consistent with the recommendation favoring breast milk (100%), the age of introducing meat proteins (74%), and the age of introducing gluten (63%). A majority of the websites disagreed on the age of introducing solid foods (16%). As four consequences, only the risk of allergy (63%) was cited by a majority of the sites. There was a small nonsignificant correlation between the results obtained for the website about introducing solid foods and the results obtained for the websites analyzed with the NetScoring and HITI

  20. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  1. Statement on the validity and robustness of information provided on irradiated iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF notification concerning the use of an unauthorised irradiated colouring agent (brown iron oxide as coatings of food supplements, the European Commission asked EFSA to assess the scientific validity and robustness of three documents i two safety assessments from two pharmaceutical companies including information on the manufacturing process of iron oxides, and ii one safety assessment on gamma irradiated iron oxides in food supplements provided by a consultant. According to the supplier of iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172, the aim of the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment was to eliminate microbiological contamination. Iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172 are authorised food additives in the EU. EFSA noted that the gamma irradiation of iron oxides (yellow, red, black and brown has not been previously evaluated by other Scientific Committees dealing with foodstuffs, pharmaceutical products or cosmetics and that the irradiation doses applied to iron oxides in this particular case are higher than the doses currently authorised in the EU for “other food and food ingredients”. EFSA also noted that some evidence is available in the literature demonstrating a reduction of iron(III to iron(II due to 60Co-gamma irradiation and, that the food additive black iron oxide, as authorised in the EU, contains iron in both (II and (III valence states. Therefore, an increase in the content of divalent iron would not be of safety concern per se. However, EFSA also notes that the information on irradiated iron oxides provided is very limited and insufficient to substantiate the claim that iron oxides are not expected to undergo any chemical transformation upon irradiation. In order to demonstrate the chemical stability of iron oxide during the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment, EFSA recommends to carry out some further analyses.

  2. Discovery and validation of information theory-based transcription factor and cofactor binding site motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruipeng; Mucaki, Eliseos J; Rogan, Peter K

    2016-11-28

    Data from ChIP-seq experiments can derive the genome-wide binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) and other regulatory proteins. We analyzed 765 ENCODE ChIP-seq peak datasets of 207 human TFs with a novel motif discovery pipeline based on recursive, thresholded entropy minimization. This approach, while obviating the need to compensate for skewed nucleotide composition, distinguishes true binding motifs from noise, quantifies the strengths of individual binding sites based on computed affinity and detects adjacent cofactor binding sites that coordinate with the targets of primary, immunoprecipitated TFs. We obtained contiguous and bipartite information theory-based position weight matrices (iPWMs) for 93 sequence-specific TFs, discovered 23 cofactor motifs for 127 TFs and revealed six high-confidence novel motifs. The reliability and accuracy of these iPWMs were determined via four independent validation methods, including the detection of experimentally proven binding sites, explanation of effects of characterized SNPs, comparison with previously published motifs and statistical analyses. We also predict previously unreported TF coregulatory interactions (e.g. TF complexes). These iPWMs constitute a powerful tool for predicting the effects of sequence variants in known binding sites, performing mutation analysis on regulatory SNPs and predicting previously unrecognized binding sites and target genes.

  3. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  4. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  5. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European Union's…

  6. Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2009-01-01

    This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

  7. A new test of the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument: Measuring the impact of informal care giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hoefman (Renske); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); S. Looren De Jong (Sandra); E. Orlewska (William Ken); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Most economic evaluations of health care programmes do not consider the effects of informal care, while this could lead to suboptimal policy decisions. This study investigates the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument, which measures and values carer effects, in a new po

  8. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  9. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  10. Observability considerations for multi-sensor and product fusion: Bias, information content, and validation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Christopher, S. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    With the successful development of many aerosol products from the NASA A-train as well as new operational geostationary and polar orbiting sensors, the scientific community now has a host of new parameters to use in their analyses. The variety and quality of products has reached a point where the community has moved from basic observation-based science to sophisticated multi-component research that addresses the complex atmospheric environment. In order for these satellite data contribute to the science their uncertainty levels must move from semi-quantitative to quantitative. Initial attempts to quantify uncertainties have led to some recent debate in the community as to the efficacy of aerosol products from current and future NASA satellite sensors. In an effort to understand the state of satellite product fidelity, the Naval Research Laboratory and a newly reformed Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) aerosol panel have both initiated assessments of the nature of aerosol remote sensing uncertainty and bias. In this talk we go over areas of specific concern based on the authors’ experiences with the data, emphasizing the multi-sensor problem. We first enumerate potential biases, including retrieval, sampling/contextual, and cognitive bias. We show examples of how these biases can subsequently lead to the pitfalls of correlated/compensating errors, tautology, and confounding. The nature of bias is closely related to the information content of the sensor signal and its subsequent application to the derived aerosol quantity of interest (e.g., optical depth, flux, index of refraction, etc.). Consequently, purpose-specific validation methods must be employed, especially when generating multi-sensor products. Indeed, cloud and lower boundary condition biases in particular complicate the more typical methods of regressional bias elimination and histogram matching. We close with a discussion of sequestration of uncertainty in multi-sensor applications of

  11. VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTED DRUG USE INFORMATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mahek; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Hamidovic, Ajna; Borrego, Matthew; Rayburn, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study assesses validity of self-report for the use of major classes of illicit drugs and opioid-maintenance therapy among pregnant women at a substance abuse treatment program. Methods Analyses used data collected from 83 pregnant women in a prospective cohort study at the University of New Mexico. Study participants with a history of substance abuse were screened and, if eligible, enrolled during an early prenatal care visit. A follow-up interview was conducted shortly after delivery. Self-reported information about drug use later in pregnancy was compared with urine drug screen (UDS) results collected during the third trimester. Simple kappa (k) and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) coefficients were calculated as the measures of agreement. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report for each drug class were estimated using UDS as the ‘gold standard’. Results The sample included a large proportion of ethnic minority (80% Hispanic/Latina and 7% American Indian) and socially disadvantaged (50% < less than high school education and 94% Medicaid-insured) pregnant women. On average, patients had 4.8 ± 3.0 urine drug screens during the third trimester. Sensitivity of self-report was low (<60%) for all classes of illicit drugs; however, marijuana and opioids demonstrated slightly higher sensitivity (57.9% and 58.3%, respectively) than other classes (<47%). Conclusions This study found substantial underreporting for all classes of illicit drugs among pregnant women in a substance abuse treatment program. Rates of underreporting are expected to be higher among the general population of pregnant women. PMID:26175273

  12. Linear combination of one-step predictive information with an external reward in an episodic policy gradient setting: a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan eZahedi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in the field of embodied artificial intelligence is the open-ended autonomous learning of complex behaviours. Our approach is to use task-independent, information-driven intrinsic motivation(s to support task-dependent learning. The work presented here is a preliminary step in which we investigate the predictive information (the mutual information of the past and future of the sensor stream as an intrinsic drive, ideally supporting any kind of task acquisition. Previous experiments have shown that the predictive information (PI is a good candidate to support autonomous, open-ended learning of complex behaviours, because a maximisation of the PI corresponds to an exploration of morphology- and environment-dependent behavioural regularities. The idea is that these regularities can then be exploited in order to solve any given task. Three different experiments are presented and their results lead to the conclusion that the linear combination of the one-step PI with an external reward function is not generally recommended in an episodic policy gradient setting. Only for hard tasks a great speed-up can be achieved at the cost of an asymptotic performance lost.

  13. TIMES-SS - A promising tool for the assessment of skin sensitization hazard. A characterization with respect to the OECD validation principles for (Q)SARs and an external evaluation for predictivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.; Low, Lawrence K.;

    2007-01-01

    with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. Further evaluation of these results highlighted certain inconsistencies which were rationalized by a consideration of reaction chemistry principles for sensitization. Improvements for TIMES-SS were proposed where appropriate. TIMES...... and to be scientifically valid in accordance with the OECD principles for (Q)SAR validation. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic 3D QSARs. Here, we describe the extent to which the five OECD...... principles are met and in particular the results from an external evaluation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising...

  14. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  15. Population based external validation of a European predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization of premature infants born 33 to 35 weeks of gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone G; Fullarton, John R; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively collected population-based data on 2529 Danish infants born at 33 to 35 weeks of gestation were used to validate an European predictive model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. The model was found to be robust with a diagnostic accuracy of 65.9% to distinguish bet...

  16. Improvement of GPS ambiguity resolution using prior height information. Part Ⅰ: The method by using height validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is an attractive method to combine GPS observations with the information from other surveying system to improve the ambiguity resolution. This research is conducted to investigate how to obtain the prior height information in bathymetric surveying by GPS positioning and how to use the prior height information and to obtain a robust result. The authors deal with the collection and the description of the prior height and the method using height validation to improve the ambiguity resolution. The principle of the method, the relationships between the height threshold and the ambiguity search space are presented. A method to determine the threshold for the height validation is suggested. The field tests are carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  17. Informing radar retrieval algorithm development using an alternative soil moisture validation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Wagner, W.

    2009-12-01

    Applying basic data assimilation techniques to the evaluation of remote-sensing products can clarify the impact of sensor design issues on the value of retrievals for hydrologic applications. For instance, the impact of incidence angle on the accuracy of radar surface soil moisture retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently-extensive ground-based soil moisture observations for validation purposes. In this presentation we will describe and apply a data assimilation evaluation technique for scatterometer-based surface soil moisture retrievals that does not require ground-based soil moisture observations to examine the sensitivity of retrieval skill to variations in incidence angle. Past results with the approach have shown that it is capable of detecting relative variations in the correlation between anomalies in remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals and ground-truth soil moisture measurements. Application of the evaluation approach to the TU-Wien WARP5.0 European Space Radar (ERS) soil moisture data set over two regional-scale (~1000 km) domains in the Southern United States indicates a relative reduction in anomaly correlation-based skill of between 20% and 30% when moving between the lowest ( 50 degrees) incidence angle ranges. These changes in anomaly-based correlation provide a useful proxy for relative variations in the value of estimates for data assimilation applications and can therefore be used to inform the design of appropriate retrieval algorithms. For example, the observed sensitivity of correlation-based skill with incidence angle is in approximate agreement with soil moisture retrieval uncertainty predictions made using the WARP5.0 backscatter model. However, the coupling of a bare soil backscatter model with the so-called "vegetation water cloud" model is shown to generally over-estimate the impact of incidence angle on retrieval skill

  18. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  19. Devising and external validation of a prognostic classification of metastatic involvement risk to pelvic lymph nodes in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Leusik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – assessing the predictive significance of clinical, histologic and biochemical factors for prediction of metastases in pelvic lymph nodes (MPLN, devising and validating of prognostic classification.Materials and methods. The study enrolled 1140 patients subjected to radical prostatectomy (RPE with standard pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostate adenocarcinoma: 865 of them at the classification devising stage and 275 in the course of validation.Results. According to the findings of multivariate logistic regression analysis, PSA level, the tumor cT stage and Gleason score are independent predictors of MPLN detection after RPE (p < 0.05. The prognostic factors were stratified by score for assessing the detection of regional metastases after RPE, depending on the combination of predictors. In the group of patients with a score estimate of prognostic factors < 10, the MPLN detection rate was significantly lower than in the group of with a score estimate > 15, accounting for 3.5 % and 23.7 % respectively (р < 0.0001. In the course of validating the obtained findings in clinic, metastatic involvement of pelvic lymph nodes found in the result of RPE was diagnosed in 40.0 % of the patients with a score estimate > 15 and only in 1.3 % of those with a total estimate of prognostic factors < 10 (р < 0.0001.

  20. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaar, Annelie; Maas, Mario; Rijn, Rick R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Walenkamp, Monique M.J.; Bentohami, Abdelali; Goslings, J.C. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steyerberg, Ewout W. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jager, L.C. [University of Amsterdam, Emergency Department, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sosef, Nico L. [Spaarne Hospital, Department of Surgery, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Velde, Romuald van [Tergooi Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Hilversum (Netherlands); Ultee, Jan M. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schep, Niels W.L. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maasstadziekenhuis Rotterdam, Department of Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    In most hospitals, children with acute wrist trauma are routinely referred for radiography. To develop and validate a clinical decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required. We prospectively developed and validated a clinical decision rule in two study populations. All children who presented in the emergency department of four hospitals with pain following wrist trauma were included and evaluated for 18 clinical variables. The outcome was a wrist fracture diagnosed by plain radiography. Included in the study were 787 children. The prediction model consisted of six variables: age, swelling of the distal radius, visible deformation, distal radius tender to palpation, anatomical snuffbox tender to palpation, and painful or abnormal supination. The model showed an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83). The sensitivity and specificity were 95.9% and 37.3%, respectively. The use of this model would have resulted in a 22% absolute reduction of radiographic examinations. In a validation study, 7/170 fractures (4.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-8.3%) would have been missed using the decision model. The decision model may be a valuable tool to decide whether radiography in children after wrist trauma is required. (orig.)

  1. On the validation of solids represented with the international standards for geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, H.

    2013-01-01

    The international standards for geographic information provide unambiguous definitions of geometric primitives, with the aim of fostering exchange and interoperability in the geographical information system (GIS) community. In two dimensions, the standards are wellaccepted and there are algorithms (

  2. Outcome prediction after mild and complicated mild traumatic brain injury: external validation of existing models and identification of new predictors using the TRACK-TBI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingsma, Hester F; Yue, John K; Maas, Andrew I R; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-15

    Although the majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover completely, some still suffer from disabling ailments at 3 or 6 months. We validated existing prognostic models for mTBI and explored predictors of poor outcome after mTBI. We selected patients with mTBI from TRACK-TBI Pilot, an unselected observational cohort of TBI patients from three centers in the United States. We validated two prognostic models for the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) at 6 months after injury. One model was based on the CRASH study data and another from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Possible predictors of 3- and 6-month GOS-E were analyzed with univariate and multi-variable proportional odds regression models. Of the 386 of 485 patients included in the study (median age, 44 years; interquartile range, 27-58), 75% (n=290) presented with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15. In this mTBI population, both previously developed models had a poor performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.49-0.56). In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictors of lower 3- and 6-month GOS-E were older age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Injury caused by assault, extracranial injuries, and lower GCS were also predictive of lower GOS-E. Existing models for mTBI performed unsatisfactorily. Our study shows that, for mTBI, different predictors are relevant as for moderate and severe TBI. These include age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Development of a valid prediction model for mTBI patients requires further research efforts.

  3. Development and External Validation of the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Two Western Risk Calculators in an Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungroh; Park, Man Sik; Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Chanwang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We developed the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer (KPCRC-HG) that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC) of Gleason score 7 or higher at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort (http://acl.snu.ac.kr/PCRC/RISC/). In addition, KPCRC-HG was validated and compared with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Materials and Methods Using a logistic regression model, KPCRC-HG was developed based on the data from 602 previously unscreened Korean men who underwent initial prostate biopsies. Using 2,313 cases in a validation cohort, KPCRC-HG was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator for high-grade cancer (ERSPCRC-HG) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 for high-grade cancer (PCPTRC-HG). The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration plots. Results PC was detected in 172 (28.6%) men, 120 (19.9%) of whom had PC of Gleason score 7 or higher. Independent predictors included prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination findings, transrectal ultrasound findings, and prostate volume. The AUC of the KPCRC-HG (0.84) was higher than that of the PCPTRC-HG (0.79, pcancer prediction model in Korea. It had higher predictive accuracy than PCPTRC-HG in a Korean population and showed similar performance with ERSPCRC-HG in a Korean population. This prediction model could help avoid unnecessary biopsy and reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment in clinical settings. PMID:28046017

  4. Outcome Prediction after Mild and Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: External Validation of Existing Models and Identification of New Predictors Using the TRACK-TBI Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingsma, Hester F.; Yue, John K.; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Cooper, Shelly R.; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Gordon, Wayne A.; Menon, David K.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O.; Puccio, Ava M.; Schnyer, David M.; Valadka, Alex B.; Vassar, Mary J.; Yuh, Esther L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover completely, some still suffer from disabling ailments at 3 or 6 months. We validated existing prognostic models for mTBI and explored predictors of poor outcome after mTBI. We selected patients with mTBI from TRACK-TBI Pilot, an unselected observational cohort of TBI patients from three centers in the United States. We validated two prognostic models for the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) at 6 months after injury. One model was based on the CRASH study data and another from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Possible predictors of 3- and 6-month GOS-E were analyzed with univariate and multi-variable proportional odds regression models. Of the 386 of 485 patients included in the study (median age, 44 years; interquartile range, 27–58), 75% (n=290) presented with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15. In this mTBI population, both previously developed models had a poor performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.49–0.56). In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictors of lower 3- and 6-month GOS-E were older age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Injury caused by assault, extracranial injuries, and lower GCS were also predictive of lower GOS-E. Existing models for mTBI performed unsatisfactorily. Our study shows that, for mTBI, different predictors are relevant as for moderate and severe TBI. These include age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Development of a valid prediction model for mTBI patients requires further research efforts. PMID:25025611

  5. German Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED: Reliability, Validity, and Cross-Informant Agreement in a Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegand-Grefe Silke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychometric properties and cross-informant agreement of a German translation of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED were assessed in a clinical sample Methods 102 children and adolescents in outpatient psychotherapy and their parents filled out the SCARED and Youth Self Report/Child Behaviour Checklist (YSR/CBCL. Results The German SCARED showed good internal consistency for both parent and self-report version, and proved to be convergently and discriminantly valid when compared with YSR/CBCL scales. Cross-informant agreement was moderate with children reporting both a larger number as well as higher severity of anxiety symptoms than their parents. Conclusion In conclusion, the German SCARED is a valid and reliable anxiety scale and may be used in a clinical setting

  6. C市信息港外网网络结构及技术浅析%C City Information Port External Network Structure and Technical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关嵘

    2012-01-01

    Informatization is current world economy and social development trend. Advance informatization construction, to improve the modernization level of management, improve work efficiency, is of great significance. C city information port infrastructure construction for the C city informatization development provides a safe, reliable, efficient network platform. This paper analyses and studies the C city information port external network structure, and the use of network technology to do brief analysis.%信息化是当今世界经济和社会发展的大趋势。推进信息化建设,对于提高新现代化管理水平,提高工作效率都具有重要的意义。C市信息港基础网络的建设为C市信息化的发展提供了一个安全、可靠、高效的网络平台。文章分析和研究了C市信息港外网网络结构,并对所使用的网络技术做简要分析。

  7. Validity and reliability testing of two instruments to measure breast cancer patients' concerns and information needs relating to radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjanson Linda J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to determine the most effective approach to patient education or tailor education interventions for patients in radiotherapy without tools that assess patients' specific radiation therapy information needs and concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop psychometrically sound tools to adequately determine the concerns and information needs of cancer patients during radiation therapy. Patients and Methods Two tools were developed to (1 determine patients concerns about radiation therapy (RT Concerns Scale and (2 ascertain patient's information needs at different time point during their radiation therapy (RT Information Needs Scale. Tools were based on previous research by the authors, published literature on breast cancer and radiation therapy and information behaviour research. Thirty-one breast cancer patients completed the questionnaire on one occasion and thirty participants completed the questionnaire on a second occasion to facilitate test-retest reliability. One participant's responses were removed from the analysis. Results were analysed for content validity, internal consistency and stability over time. Results Both tools demonstrated high internal consistency and adequate stability over time. The nine items in the RT Concerns Scale were retained because they met all pre-set psychometric criteria. Two items were deleted from the RT Information Needs Scale because they did not meet content validity criteria and did not achieve pre-specified criteria for internal consistency. This tool now contains 22 items. Conclusion This paper provides preliminary data suggesting that the two tools presented are reliable and valid and would be suitable for use in trials or in the clinical setting.

  8. Towards a Generic Information Data Model for Verification, Validation & Accreditation VV&A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roza, Z.C.; Voogd, J.M.; Giannoulis, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Generic Methodology for Verification, Validation and Acceptance (GM-VV) is intended to provide a common generic framework for making formal and well balanced acceptance decisions on a specific usage of models, simulations and data. GM-VV will offer the international M&S community with a Verifica

  9. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  10. Population-Based Validation of the 2014 ISUP Gleason Grade Groups in Patients Treated With Radical Prostatectomy, Brachytherapy, External Beam Radiation, or no Local Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Raisa S; Davis-Bondarenko, Helen; Zaffuto, Emanuele; Tian, Zhe; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Schiffmann, Jonas; Saad, Fred; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Tilki, Derya; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2017-05-01

    To test discriminant ability of the 2014 ISUP Gleason grade groups (GGG) for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiation (EBRT) or no local treatment (NLT) relative to traditional Gleason grading (TGG). In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-database (2004-2009), 2,42,531 non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients were identified, who underwent local treatment (RP, BT, EBRT only) or NLT. Follow-up endpoint was PCSM. Biopsy and/or pathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized as TGG ≤6, 7, 8-10 or GGG: I (≤6), II (3 + 4), III (4 + 3), IV (8), and V (9-10). Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariable Cox regression analyses and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve analyses (AUC) were used. Median follow-up was 76 months (IQR: 59-94). For the four examined treatment modalities, all five GGG strata and all three TGG strata independently predicted PCSM. GGG yielded 1.5-fold or greater HR differences between GGG II and GGG III, and twofold or greater HR differences between GGG IV and GGG V. Relative to TGG, GGG added 0.4-1.1% to AUC. This large population-based cohort study confirms the added discriminant properties of the novel GGG strata and confirms a modest gain in predictive accuracy. Prostate 77: 686-693, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  12. Prediction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux after pediatric urinary tract infection: external validation study of procalcitonin-based decision rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Leroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity. We aimed to test its reproducibility. STUDY DESIGN: A secondary analysis of prospective series of children with a first UTI. The rule was applied, and predictive ability was calculated. RESULTS: The study included 413 patients (157 boys, VUR ≥3 in 11% from eight centers in five countries. The rule offered a 46% specificity (95% CI, 41-52, not different from the one in the derivation study. However, the sensitivity significantly decreased to 64% (95%CI, 50-76, leading to a difference of 20% (95%CI, 17-36. In all, 16 (34% patients among the 47 with VUR ≥3 were misdiagnosed by the rule. This lack of reproducibility might result primarily from a difference between derivation and validation populations regarding inflammatory parameters (CRP, PCT; the validation set samples may have been collected earlier than for the derivation one. CONCLUSIONS: The rule built to predict VUR ≥3 had a stable specificity (ie. 46%, but a decreased sensitivity (ie. 64% because of the time variability of PCT measurement. Some refinement may be warranted.

  13. Pfizer Global Virtual Library (PGVL): a chemistry design tool powered by experimentally validated parallel synthesis information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiyue; Peng, Zhengwei; Sutton, Scott C; Na, Jim; Kostrowicki, Jaroslav; Yang, Bo; Thacher, Thomas; Kong, Xianjun; Mattaparti, Sarathy; Zhou, Joe Zhongxiang; Gonzalez, Javier; Ramirez-Weinhouse, Michele; Kuki, Atsuo

    2012-11-12

    An unprecedented amount of parallel synthesis information was accumulated within Pfizer over the past 12 years. This information was captured by an informatics tool known as PGVL (Pfizer Global Virtual Library). PGVL was used for many aspects of drug discovery including automated reactant mining and reaction product formation to build a synthetically feasible virtual compound collection. In this report, PGVL is discussed in detail. The chemistry information within PGVL has been used to extract synthesis and design information using an intuitive desktop Graphic User Interface, PGVL Hub. Several real-case examples of PGVL are also presented.

  14. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. Method: At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE Results: The CDR-NI scores (0, 0.5, 1 showed good internal consistency (Crohnbach's a 0.83-0.84, inter-rater reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating, good agreement (κ 0.79 with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37 and dementia (n = 4 and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p Conclusion: Owing to the protocol of the interviews, assessments and structured observations gathered during the two visits, CDR-NI provides valid and reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.

  16. The convergent validity of three surveys as alternative sources of health information to the 2011 UK census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz; Moon, Graham

    2014-09-01

    Censuses have traditionally been a key source of localised information on the state of a nation's health. Many countries are now adopting alternative approaches to the traditional census, placing such information at risk. The purpose of this paper is to inform debate about whether existing social surveys could provide an adequate 'base' for alternative model-based small area estimates of health data in a post traditional census era. Using a case study of 2011 UK Census questions on self-assessed health and limiting long term illness, we examine the extent to which the results from three large-scale surveys - the Health Survey for England, the Crime Survey for England and Wales and the Integrated Household Survey - conform to census output. Particularly in the case of limiting long term illness, the question wording renders comparisons difficult. However, with the exception of the general health question from the Health Survey for England all three surveys meet tests for convergent validity.

  17. A comparative study of information-based source number estimation methods and experimental validations on mechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zhousuo; Cao, Hongrui; He, Zhengjia; Zhu, Guanwen

    2014-04-25

    This paper investigates one eigenvalue decomposition-based source number estimation method, and three information-based source number estimation methods, namely the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Minimum Description Length (MDL) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and improves BIC as Improved BIC (IBIC) to make it more efficient and easier for calculation. The performances of the abovementioned source number estimation methods are studied comparatively with numerical case studies, which contain a linear superposition case and a both linear superposition and nonlinear modulation mixing case. A test bed with three sound sources is constructed to test the performances of these methods on mechanical systems, and source separation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the experimental studies. This work can benefit model order selection, complexity analysis of a system, and applications of source separation to mechanical systems for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis purposes.

  18. A Comparative Study of Information-Based Source Number Estimation Methods and Experimental Validations on Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates one eigenvalue decomposition-based source number estimation method, and three information-based source number estimation methods, namely the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Minimum Description Length (MDL and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC, and improves BIC as Improved BIC (IBIC to make it more efficient and easier for calculation. The performances of the abovementioned source number estimation methods are studied comparatively with numerical case studies, which contain a linear superposition case and a both linear superposition and nonlinear modulation mixing case. A test bed with three sound sources is constructed to test the performances of these methods on mechanical systems, and source separation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the experimental studies. This work can benefit model order selection, complexity analysis of a system, and applications of source separation to mechanical systems for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis purposes.

  19. Internally- and Externally-Driven Network Transitions as a Basis for Automatic and Strategic Processes in Semantic Priming: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar eLerner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, semantic priming – the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word – has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target SOA, the relatedness proportion in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model.

  20. A formal design verification and validation on the human factors of a computerized information system in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Jae Chang; Cheon, Se Woo; Jung, Kwang Tae; Baek, Seung Min; Han, Seung; Park, Hee Suk; Son, Ki Chang; Kim, Jung Man; Jung Yung Woo

    1999-11-01

    This report describe a technical transfer under the title of ''A formal design verification and validation on the human factors of a computerized information system in nuclear power plants''. Human factors requirements for the information system designs are extracted from various regulatory and industrial standards and guidelines, and interpreted into a more specific procedures and checklists for verifying the satisfaction of those requirements. A formalized implementation plan is established for human factors verification and validation of a computerized information system in nuclear power plants. Additionally, a Computer support system, named as DIMS-web (design Issue Management System), is developed based upon web internet environment so as to enhance the implementation of the human factors activities. DIMS-Web has three maine functions: supporting requirements review, tracking design issues, and management if issues screening evaluation. DIMS-Web shows its benefits in practice through a trial application to the design review of CFMS for YGN nuclear unit 5 and 6. (author)

  1. Functional and Behavioral Product Information Representation and Consistency Validation for Collaboration in Product Lifecycle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    Information models that represent the function, assembly and behavior of artifacts are critical in the conceptual development of a product and its evaluation. Much research has been conducted in this area; however, existing models do not relate function, behavior and structure in a comprehensive and consistent way. In this work, NIST's Core…

  2. The Development and Validation of Scores on the Mathematics Information Processing Scale (MIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Kenneth C.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new 87-item Mathematics Information Processing Scale that explores learning strategies, metacognitive problem-solving skills, and attentional deployment. Results with 340 college students support the use of the instrument, for which factor analysis identified five theoretically…

  3. Functional and Behavioral Product Information Representation and Consistency Validation for Collaboration in Product Lifecycle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    Information models that represent the function, assembly and behavior of artifacts are critical in the conceptual development of a product and its evaluation. Much research has been conducted in this area; however, existing models do not relate function, behavior and structure in a comprehensive and consistent way. In this work, NIST's Core…

  4. Perseverance time of informal carers. A new concept in dementia care. Validation and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aim Because of the expected increase of dementia patients in the next decades and the growing demand for formal care, an important question appears: how to predict and influence the caring possibilities of informal carers. We introduce the concept perseverance time, describedas

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Annie Kammerer Consulting, Rye, NH (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Risk-Informed Margin Management Industry Application on External Events. More specifically, combined events, seismically induced external flooding analyses for a generic nuclear power plant with a generic site soil, and generic power plant system and structure. The focus of this report is to define the problem above, set up the analysis, describe the methods to be used, tools to be applied to each problem, and data analysis and validation associated with the above.

  6. Multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities based on valid information evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yunxia; Qiu, Shenghai

    2013-01-01

    Complex product development will inevitably face the design planning of the multi-coupled activities, and overlapping these activities could potentially reduce product development time, but there is a risk of the additional cost. Although the downstream task information dependence to the upstream task is already considered in the current researches, but the design process overall iteration caused by the information interdependence between activities is hardly discussed; especially the impact on the design process' overall iteration from the valid information accumulation process. Secondly, most studies only focus on the single overlapping process of two activities, rarely take multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities into account; especially the inherent link between product development time and cost which originates from the overlapping process of multi coupled activities. For the purpose of solving the above problems, as to the insufficiency of the accumulated valid information in overlapping process, the function of the valid information evolution (VIE) degree is constructed. Stochastic process theory is used to describe the design information exchange and the valid information accumulation in the overlapping segment, and then the planning models of the single overlapping segment are built. On these bases, by analyzing overlapping processes and overlapping features of multi-coupling activities, multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping planning models are built; by sorting overlapping processes and analyzing the construction of these planning models, two conclusions are obtained: (1) As to multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping of multi coupled activities, the total decrement of the task set development time is the sum of the time decrement caused by basic overlapping segments, and minus the sum of the time increment caused by multiple overlapping segments; (2) the total increment of development cost is the sum of the cost

  7. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  8. Validation of computerized diagnostic information in a clinical database from a national equine clinic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenvall Agneta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized diagnostic information offers potential for epidemiological research; however data accuracy must be addressed. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness and correctness of diagnostic information in a computerized equine clinical database compared to corresponding hand written veterinary clinical records, used as gold standard, and to assess factors related to correctness. Further, the aim was to investigate completeness (epidemiologic sensitivity, correctness (positive predictive value, specificity and prevalence for diagnoses for four body systems and correctness for affected limb information for four joint diseases. Methods A random sample of 450 visits over the year 2002 (nvisits = 49,591 was taken from 18 nation wide clinics headed under one company. Computerized information for the visits selected and copies of the corresponding veterinary clinical records were retrieved. Completeness and correctness were determined using semi-subjective criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with correctness for diagnosis. Results Three hundred and ninety six visits had veterinary clinical notes that were retrievable. The overall completeness and correctness were 91% and 92%, respectively; both values considered high. Descriptive analyses showed significantly higher degree of correctness for first visits compared to follow up visits and for cases with a diagnostic code recorded in the veterinary records compared to those with no code noted. The correctness was similar regardless of usage category (leisure/sport horse, racing trotter and racing thoroughbred or gender. For the four body systems selected (joints, skin and hooves, respiratory, skeletal the completeness varied between 71% (respiration and 91% (joints and the correctness ranged from 87% (skin and hooves to 96% (respiration, whereas the specificity was >95% for all systems. Logistic regression showed that

  9. Validation of Biomarker-based risk prediction models

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Ankerst, Donna P.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing availability and use of predictive models to facilitate informed decision making highlights the need for careful assessment of the validity of these models. In particular, models involving biomarkers require careful validation for two reasons: issues with overfitting when complex models involve a large number of biomarkers, and inter-laboratory variation in assays used to measure biomarkers. In this paper we distinguish between internal and external statistical validation. Inte...

  10. Migration and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Inclusion, Exclusion or Polarisation in the Recognition of Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of…

  11. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  12. Performance of Multiple Risk Assessment Tools to Predict Mortality for Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy: An External Validation Study Based on Chinese Single-center Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Huang; Tong Li; Lei Xu; Xiao-Min Hu; Da-Wei Duan; Zhi-Bo Li; Xin-Jing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Background:There has been no external validation of survival prediction models for severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in China.The aim of study was to compare the performance of multiple models recently developed for patients with ARDS undergoing ECMO based on Chinese single-center data.Methods:A retrospective case study was performed,including twenty-three severe ARDS patients who received ECMO from January 2009 to July 2015.The PRESERVE (Predicting death for severe ARDS on VV-ECMO),ECMOnet,Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) score,a center-specific model developed for inter-hospital transfers receiving ECMO,and the classical risk-prediction scores of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) were calculated.In-hospital and six-month mortality were regarded as the endpoints and model performance was evaluated by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).Results:The RESP and APACHE Ⅱ scores showed excellent discriminate performance in predicting survival with AUC of 0.835 (95% confidence interval [CI],0.659-1.010,P =0.007) and 0.762 (95% CI,0.558-0.965,P =0.035),respectively.The optimal cutoff values were risk class 3.5 for RESP and 35.5 for APACHE Ⅱ score,and both showed 70.0% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity.The excellent performance of these models was also evident for the pneumonia etiological subgroup,for which the SOFA score was also shown to be predictive,with an AUC of 0.790 (95% CI,0.571-1.009,P =0.038).However,the ECMOnet and the score developed for externally retrieved ECMO patients failed to demonstrate significant discriminate power for the overall cohort.The PRESERVE model was unable to be evaluated fully since only one patient died six months postdischarge.Conclusions:The RESP,APCHAE Ⅱ,and SOFA scorings systems show good

  13. Smart Aquifer Characterisation validated using Information Theory and Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The field data acquisition required to characterise aquifer systems are time consuming and expensive. Decisions regarding field testing, the type of field measurements to make and the spatial and temporal resolution of measurements have significant cost repercussions and impact the accuracy of various predictive simulations. The Smart Aquifer Characterisation (SAC) research programme (New Zealand (NZ)) addresses this issue by assembling and validating a suite of innovative methods for characterising groundwater systems at the large, regional and national scales. The primary outcome is a suite of cost effective tools and procedures provided to resource managers to advance the understanding and management of groundwater systems and thereby assist decision makers and communities in the management of their groundwater resources, including the setting of land use limits that protect fresh water flows and quality and the ecosystems dependent on that fresh water. The programme has focused novel investigation approaches including the use of geophysics, satellite remote sensing, temperature sensing and age dating. The SMART (Save Money And Reduce Time) aspect of the programme emphasises techniques that use these passive cost effective data sources to characterise groundwater systems at both the aquifer and the national scale by: • Determination of aquifer hydraulic properties • Determination of aquifer dimensions • Quantification of fluxes between ground waters and surface water • Groundwater age dating These methods allow either a lower cost method for estimating these properties and fluxes, or a greater spatial and temporal coverage for the same cost. To demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the methods a 'data worth' analysis is undertaken. The data worth method involves quantification of the utility of observation data in terms of how much it reduces the uncertainty of model parameters and decision focussed predictions which depend on these parameters. Such

  14. Depressogenic cognitive styles: predictive validity, information processing and personality characteristics, and developmental origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Whitehouse, W G; Hogan, M E; Tashman, N A; Steinberg, D L; Rose, D T; Donovan, P

    1999-06-01

    Two of the major cognitive theories of depression, the theory of Beck [Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row. and Beck, A. T. (1987) Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: an International Quarterly, 1, 5-37] and the hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, (1989) Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372], include the hypothesis that particular negative cognitive styles increase individuals' likelihood of developing episodes of depression, in particular, a cognitively mediated subtype of depression, when they encounter negative life events. The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project is a two-site, prospective longitudinal study designed to test this cognitive vulnerability hypothesis, as well as the other etiological hypotheses of Beck's and the hopelessness theories of depression. In this article, based on CVD project findings to date, we review evidence that the hypothesized depressogenic cognitive styles do indeed confer vulnerability for clinically significant depressive disorders and suicidality. In addition, we present evidence regarding moderators of these depressogenic cognitive styles, the information processing and personality correlates of these styles and the possible developmental antecedents of these styles. We end with a consideration of future research directions and the clinical implications of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

  15. Child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems 12 months postburn : the potential role of preburn functioning, parental posttraumatic stress, and informant bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, M.R.; van de Schoot, R.; Boekelaar, A.; Hendrickx, H.; Geenen, R.; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment after pediatric burn injury may be a challenge for children as well as their parents. This prospective study examined associations of internalizing and externalizing problems in children and adolescents 12 months postburn with preburn functioning, and parental acute and chronic posttrauma

  16. Unfreezing cognitions during an intractable conflict: Does an external incentive for negotiating peace and (low levels of) collective angst increase information seeking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran

    2016-03-01

    A core feature of intractable conflicts is the tendency to cognitively freeze on existing, pro-ingroup beliefs. In three experiments, conducted in the context of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, we tested the idea that an external incentive for negotiating peace helps unfreeze cognitions. In Experiment 1, making salient that peace with the Palestinians would reduce the Iranian nuclear threat (an external incentive) led to a process of unfreezing. In Experiment 2, we examined whether collective angst as an emotional sentiment (i.e., concern for the ingroup's future vitality as a temporally stable emotional disposition) moderated the aforementioned external incentive-cognitive unfreezing link. As predicted, external incentive salience promoted cognitive unfreezing, but only among people low in collective angst (i.e., people who are not concerned for the ingroup's future). In Experiment 3, we sought to replicate the results of Experiment 2. However, socio-political forces (i.e., a significant upswing in tensions between Palestinians and Israelis) likely served to freeze cognitions to such an extent that thawing was not possible by the means demonstrated in Experiments 1 and 2. The importance of confidence in a peace process is discussed in the context of efforts to unfreeze cognitions during an intractable conflict. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  18. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. METHOD: Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  19. Validity and Reliability of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computerized Adaptive Tests in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Shanthini; Szymonifka, Jackie; Burket, Jayme C; Berman, Jessica R; Kirou, Kyriakos A; Levine, Alana B; Sammaritano, Lisa R; Mandl, Lisa A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the construct validity and the test-retest reliability of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computerized adaptive tests (CAT) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Adults with SLE completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, LupusQoL-US version ("legacy instruments"), and 14 selected PROMIS CAT. Using Spearman correlations, PROMIS CAT were compared with similar domains measured with legacy instruments. CAT were also correlated with the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) disease activity and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI) scores. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using ICC. There were 204 outpatients with SLE enrolled in the study and 162 completed a retest. PROMIS CAT showed good performance characteristics and moderate to strong correlations with similar domains in the 2 legacy instruments (r = -0.49 to 0.86, p < 0.001). However, correlations between PROMIS CAT and the SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity and SDI were generally weak and statistically insignificant. PROMIS CAT test-retest ICC were good to excellent, ranging from 0.72 to 0.88. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show that PROMIS CAT are valid and reliable for many SLE-relevant domains. Importantly, PROMIS scores did not correlate well with physician-derived measures. This disconnect between objective signs and symptoms and the subjective patient disease experience underscores the crucial need to integrate patient-reported outcomes into clinical care to ensure optimal disease management.

  20. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  1. Validação de variáveis de declarações de óbito por causas externas, Recife, PE, Brasil Validity of death certificate variables in cases of death from external causes, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma de A Barros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Validar, nas declarações de óbitos por causas externas de menores de 20 anos residentes no Recife em 1995, outras variáveis que não a causa básica dos óbitos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se os documentos existentes no Instituto de Medicina Legal de Recife para validar variáveis das declarações de óbitos constantes nos dados oficiais de mortalidade. Analisou-se a concordância pelos índices de Kappa e da sensibilidade. Tendo em vista a metodologia utilizada, os dados da pesquisa foram considerados mais exatos e, como tais, tomados como padrão. RESULTADOS: Para as variáveis que os peritos do Instituto de Medicina Legal entenderam como de sua responsabilidade direta, os resultados mostraram concordância ótima -- sexo, idade e tipo de violência -- ou boa -- tipo de acidente. Porém, para as entendidas como de sua responsabilidade indireta ou como não sendo de sua responsabilidade, importantes discordâncias foram observadas -- local e município de ocorrência do óbito, assistência médica e local do acidente. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam a dissociação entre o objetivo da inclusão das variáveis nas declarações de óbito e seu uso social e a estratégia para obtê-las.OBJECTIVE: To validate variables other than the basic cause of death on death certificates from external causes of residents younger than 20 years old living in Recife, Brazil, in 1995. METHODS: A survey of death records of the Institute of Forensic in Recife was carried out in order to validate death certificate variables included in official mortality registries. Agreement analysis was performed using Kappa indexes and sensitivity. As a result of the methodology used, the study data was considered to be more consistent and therefore regarded as standard. RESULTS: Those variables forensic specialists indicated as their direct responsibility showed an excellent (gender, age, and category of violence and good (type of accident agreement. However, there were

  2. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  3. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  4. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  5. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  6. Using linked electronic data to validate algorithms for health outcomes in administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Ju; Lee, Todd A; Pickard, Alan Simon; Shoaibi, Azadeh; Schumock, Glen T

    2015-08-01

    The validity of algorithms used to identify health outcomes in claims-based and administrative data is critical to the reliability of findings from observational studies. The traditional approach to algorithm validation, using medical charts, is expensive and time-consuming. An alternative method is to link the claims data to an external, electronic data source that contains information allowing confirmation of the event of interest. In this paper, we describe this external linkage validation method and delineate important considerations to assess the feasibility and appropriateness of validating health outcomes using this approach. This framework can help investigators decide whether to pursue an external linkage validation method for identifying health outcomes in administrative/claims data.

  7. A Perspective on External Field QED

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the conference Quantum Mathematical Physics held in Regensburg in 2014, we give our perspective on the external field problem in quantum electrodynamics (QED), i.e., QED without photons in which the sole interaction stems from an external, time-dependent, four-vector potential. Among others, this model was considered by Dirac, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson as a model to describe the phenomenon of electron-positron pair creation in regimes in which the interaction between electrons can be neglected and a mean field description of the photon degrees of freedom is valid (e.g., static field of heavy nuclei or lasers fields). Although it may appear as second easiest model to study, it already bares a severe divergence in its equations of motion preventing any straight-forward construction of the corresponding evolution operator. In informal computations of the vacuum polarization current this divergence leads to the need of the so-called charge renormalization. In an attempt to provide a bridge between...

  8. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  9. Les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance de l’auditeur externe: une étude exploratoire auprès des préparateurs de l’information financière tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Mohamed Ali Brahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à déterminer les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance perçue de l’auditeur externe. Afin d’atteindre notre objectif nous avons menée une analyse fondée sur une première phase qualitative et une deuxième quantitative. Cette dernière repose sur un questionnaire adressé à 87 préparateurs d’information financière tunisiens. Notre étude a révélé que les préparateurs de l’information financière construisent leurs perception en privilégiant essentiellement la réputation de l’auditeur externe, suivi par la taille du cabinet, le contrôle de la profession et la responsabilité juridique, les liens personnels, les incompatibilités, les honoraires, la dépendance financière et la rotation des auditeurs.

  10. 3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lin, Linyu [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.

  11. An automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, María; Lalín, Rosario; Martínez, Diego

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays, providing interoperability between different biomedical terminologies is a critical issue for efficient information sharing. One problem making interoperability difficult is the lack of automated methods simplifying the mapping process. In this study, we propose an automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Our approach applies a sequential combination of two basic matching methods classically used in ontology matching. First, a lexical technique identifies similar strings between the external terminology and the UMLS. Second, a structure-based technique validates, in part, the lexical alignment by computing paths to top-level concepts and checking the compatibility of these top-level concepts across the external terminology and the UMLS. The method was applied to the mapping of the large-scale biomedical thesaurus EMTREE to the complete UMLS Metathesaurus. In total, 47.9% coverage of EMTREE terms was reached, leading to 80% coverage of EMTREE concepts. Our method has revealed a high compatibility in 6 out of 15 top-level categories across terminologies. The validation of lexical mappings ranges over 75.8% of the total lexical alignment. Overall, the method rules out a total of 6927 (7.9%) lexical mappings, with a global precision of 78%.

  12. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  13. Estimating the distribution of external causes in hospital data from injury diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Kavi; Shahraz, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lozano, Rafael; Murray, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    Hospital discharge datasets are a key source for estimating the incidence of non-fatal injuries. While hospital records usually document injury diagnosis (e.g. traumatic brain injury, femur fracture, etc.) accurately, they often contain poor quality information on external causes (e.g. road traffic crashes, falls, fires, etc.), if such data is recorded at all. However, estimating incidence by external causes is essential for designing effective prevention strategies. Thus, we developed a method for estimating the number of hospital admissions due to each external cause based on injury diagnosis. We start with a prior probability distribution of external causes for each case (based on victim age and sex) and use Bayesian inference to update the probabilities based on the victim's injury diagnoses. We validate the method on a trial dataset in which both external causes and injury diagnoses are known and demonstrate application to two problems: redistribution of cases classified to ill-defined external causes in one hospital data system; and, estimation of external causes in another hospital data system that only records nature of injuries. In comparison with age-sex proportional distribution (the method usually employed), we found the Bayesian method to be a significant improvement for generating estimates of incidence for many external causes (e.g. fires, drownings, poisonings). But the method, performed poorly in distinguishing between falls and road traffic injuries, both of which are characterized by similar injury codes in our datasets. While such stop gap methods can help derive additional information, hospitals need to incorporate accurate external cause coding in routine record keeping.

  14. [Creation and validation of an instrument to identify nursing activities in pediatric wards: information for determining workload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for identifying nursing activities performed in a pediatric ward and to provide a basis for defining the workload of these units. The instrument was developed by selecting the activities relevant to pediatric nursing from the Nursing Intervention Classification and then submitting them to a panel of judges for validation. The panel considered the selected activities relevant and representative of pediatric nursing practice. Now that representative activities for the nursing workload have been identified, we envision new studies to verify their usefulness in practice. Determining the amount of time each activity takes to perform will help to develop a system for measuring the workloads of nursing teams in pediatric wards.

  15. Creation and validation of an instrument to identify nursing activities in pediatric wards: information for determining workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci Cristiano Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for identifying nursing activities performed in a pediatric ward and to provide a basis for defining the workload of these units. The instrument was developed by selecting the activities relevant to pediatric nursing from the Nursing Intervention Classification and then submitting them to a panel of judges for validation. The panel considered the selected activities relevant and representative of pediatric nursing practice. Now that representative activities for the nursing workload have been identified, we envision new studies to verify their usefulness in practice. Determining the amount of time each activity takes to perform will help to develop a system for measuring the workloads of nursing teams in pediatric wards.

  16. Acquiring and producing sentences: Whether learners use verb-specific or verb-general information depends on cue validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi eThothathiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning to produce sentences involves learning patterns that enable the generation of new utterances. Language contains both verb-specific and verb-general regularities that are relevant to this capacity. Previous research has focused on whether one source is more important than the other. We tested whether the production system can flexibly learn to use either source, depending on the predictive validity of different cues in the input. Participants learned new sentence structures in a miniature language paradigm. In three experiments, we manipulated whether individual verbs or verb-general mappings better predicted the structures heard during learning. Evaluation of participants’ subsequent production revealed that they could use either the structural preferences of individual verbs or abstract meaning-to-form mappings to construct new sentences. Further, this choice varied according to cue validity. These results demonstrate flexibility within the production architecture and the importance of considering how language was learned when discussing how language is used.

  17. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  18. Data-Informed Decision Making on High-Impact Strategies: Developing and Validating an Instrument for Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.; Ma, Xin; Reeves, Patricia L.; Burt, Walter L.; Rainey, J. Mark; Yuan, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors connect 3 streams of literature to develop an instrument for measuring the degree to which principals engage in data-informed decision making on high-impact strategies that are empirically associated with higher student achievement. The 3 literature streams are (a) the importance of data-informed decision making, (b) the…

  19. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  20. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;

    2011-01-01

    the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials.......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions...

  1. Understanding latent structures of clinical information logistics: A bottom-up approach for model building and validating the workflow composite score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esdar, Moritz; Hübner, Ursula; Liebe, Jan-David; Hüsers, Jens; Thye, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Clinical information logistics is a construct that aims to describe and explain various phenomena of information provision to drive clinical processes. It can be measured by the workflow composite score, an aggregated indicator of the degree of IT support in clinical processes. This study primarily aimed to investigate the yet unknown empirical patterns constituting this construct. The second goal was to derive a data-driven weighting scheme for the constituents of the workflow composite score and to contrast this scheme with a literature based, top-down procedure. This approach should finally test the validity and robustness of the workflow composite score. Based on secondary data from 183 German hospitals, a tiered factor analytic approach (confirmatory and subsequent exploratory factor analysis) was pursued. A weighting scheme, which was based on factor loadings obtained in the analyses, was put into practice. We were able to identify five statistically significant factors of clinical information logistics that accounted for 63% of the overall variance. These factors were "flow of data and information", "mobility", "clinical decision support and patient safety", "electronic patient record" and "integration and distribution". The system of weights derived from the factor loadings resulted in values for the workflow composite score that differed only slightly from the score values that had been previously published based on a top-down approach. Our findings give insight into the internal composition of clinical information logistics both in terms of factors and weights. They also allowed us to propose a coherent model of clinical information logistics from a technical perspective that joins empirical findings with theoretical knowledge. Despite the new scheme of weights applied to the calculation of the workflow composite score, the score behaved robustly, which is yet another hint of its validity and therefore its usefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  2. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. METHODS: Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external...

  3. Health Literacy INDEX: development, reliability, and validity of a new tool for evaluating the health literacy demands of health information materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Casey, Chris; Leme, Luisa; Thompson, Tess; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Jacobsen, Heather; Sterling, Ryan; Oguntimein, Joy; Filler, Carl; Culbert, Arthur; Rooney, Megan; Lapka, Christy

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus on how best to assess the health literacy demands of health information materials. Comprehensive, reliable, and valid assessment tools are needed. The authors report on the development, refinement, and testing of Health Literacy INDEX, a new tool reflecting empirical evidence and best practices. INDEX is comprised of 63 indicators organized into 10 criteria: plain language, clear purpose, supporting graphics, user involvement, skill-based learning, audience appropriateness, user instruction, development details, evaluation methods, and strength of evidence. In a sample of 100 materials, intercoder agreement was high: 90% or better for 52% of indicators, and above 80% for nearly all others. Overall scores generated by INDEX were highly correlated with average ratings from 12 health literacy experts (r = 0.89, p Literacy INDEX is a comprehensive tool with evidence for reliability and validity that can be used to evaluate the health literacy demands of health information materials. Although improvement in health information materials is just one aspect of mitigating the effects of limited health literacy on health outcomes, it is an essential step toward a more health literate public.

  4. External validation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV in Dutch intensive care units and comparison with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brinkman; F. Bakhshi-Raiez; A. Abu-Hanna; E. de Jonge; R.J. Bosman; L. Peelen; N.F. de Keizer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate and compare the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV in the Dutch intensive care unit (ICU) population to the APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II. Materials and Methods: This is a prospectiv

  5. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents : a validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.A.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  6. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents: A validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  7. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  8. Gestão das fontes externas de informação: uma análise dos fatores que influenciam o desempenho inovador Management of external sources of information: an analysis of factors influencing the innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clandia Maffini Gomes

    2011-01-01

    reference for developing processes of sustainable technological innovation. Managing sources of information not only helps an organization harmonize the potential inside and outside sources of information but also helps organizations broaden their activities geared to stimulating and bringing about innovation. Companies today are setting up more and more alliances in order to make use of outside sources of information for innovation, but they still lack explicit management strategies. A survey was carried out in Brazilian industrial companies with innovative characteristics, and the aim was to provide new inferences on the relationships between the management of outside sources of technology information and the innovative performance of the companies studied. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to study the relationship between practices for managing external sources of information and the innovative performance of the enterprise. The research can be characterized as quantitative. The data were collected through questionnaires from enterprises seen as having substancial technological innovation activities. The bivariate and multivariate independent and dependent variables suggest the existence of an association between the management of outside sources of technology information and innovative performance. Especially important here is how the different types of sources of information influence the indicators related to products innovation and how the type of access to technology affects the indicators related to processes innovation. The findings of the study suggest many significant relationships between the innovation performance of the enterprise and the types of sources of technological information used and the access modalities to their external sources of technolgical information. The results indicate a trend towards increased use of external sources of information.

  9. Semi-global output consensus of discrete-time multi-agent systems with input saturation and external disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Housheng; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problem of leader-following output consensus of a linear discrete-time multi-agent system with input saturation and external disturbances. Low-gain state feedback technique and output regulation theory are used to deal with the output consensus of multi-agent systems with input saturation and external disturbances. Both the cases with identical and non-identical disturbances are discussed in the multi-agent systems. For the case of identical external disturbance, the output consensus can be attained when the directed graph has no loop and there exists at least one directed path from the leader to every follower agent. For the case of non-identical external disturbances, the output consensus can be achieved if the directed graph is strongly connected and detailed balanced, and at least one follower can have access to the information of the leader. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validation of the proposed design.

  10. Performance of Multiple Risk Assessment Tools to Predict Mortality for Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy: An External Validation Study Based on Chinese Single-center Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The RESP, APCHAE II, and SOFA scorings systems show good predictive value for intra-hospital survival of ARDS patients treated with ECMO in our single-center evaluation. Future validation should include a larger study with either more patients' data at single-center or by integration of domestic multi-center data. Development of a scoring system with national characteristics might be warranted.

  11. An ancestry informative marker set for determining continental origin: validation and extension using human genome diversity panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Peter K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case-control genetic studies of complex human diseases can be confounded by population stratification. This issue can be addressed using panels of ancestry informative markers (AIMs that can provide substantial population substructure information. Previously, we described a panel of 128 SNP AIMs that were designed as a tool for ascertaining the origins of subjects from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, and East Asia. Results In this study, genotypes from Human Genome Diversity Panel populations were used to further evaluate a 93 SNP AIM panel, a subset of the 128 AIMS set, for distinguishing continental origins. Using both model-based and relatively model-independent methods, we here confirm the ability of this AIM set to distinguish diverse population groups that were not previously evaluated. This study included multiple population groups from Oceana, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North and South America, and Europe. In addition, the 93 AIM set provides population substructure information that can, for example, distinguish Arab and Ashkenazi from Northern European population groups and Pygmy from other Sub-Saharan African population groups. Conclusion These data provide additional support for using the 93 AIM set to efficiently identify continental subject groups for genetic studies, to identify study population outliers, and to control for admixture in association studies.

  12. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  13. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  14. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  15. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  16. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  17. Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2011-07-14

    Abstract Background Nowadays, more and more clinical scales consisting in responses given by the patients to some items (Patient Reported Outcomes - PRO), are validated with models based on Item Response Theory, and more specifically, with a Rasch model. In the validation sample, presence of missing data is frequent. The aim of this paper is to compare sixteen methods for handling the missing data (mainly based on simple imputation) in the context of psychometric validation of PRO by a Rasch model. The main indexes used for validation by a Rasch model are compared. Methods A simulation study was performed allowing to consider several cases, notably the possibility for the missing values to be informative or not and the rate of missing data. Results Several imputations methods produce bias on psychometrical indexes (generally, the imputation methods artificially improve the psychometric qualities of the scale). In particular, this is the case with the method based on the Personal Mean Score (PMS) which is the most commonly used imputation method in practice. Conclusions Several imputation methods should be avoided, in particular PMS imputation. From a general point of view, it is important to use an imputation method that considers both the ability of the patient (measured for example by his\\/her score), and the difficulty of the item (measured for example by its rate of favourable responses). Another recommendation is to always consider the addition of a random process in the imputation method, because such a process allows reducing the bias. Last, the analysis realized without imputation of the missing data (available case analyses) is an interesting alternative to the simple imputation in this context.

  18. Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébille Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, more and more clinical scales consisting in responses given by the patients to some items (Patient Reported Outcomes - PRO, are validated with models based on Item Response Theory, and more specifically, with a Rasch model. In the validation sample, presence of missing data is frequent. The aim of this paper is to compare sixteen methods for handling the missing data (mainly based on simple imputation in the context of psychometric validation of PRO by a Rasch model. The main indexes used for validation by a Rasch model are compared. Methods A simulation study was performed allowing to consider several cases, notably the possibility for the missing values to be informative or not and the rate of missing data. Results Several imputations methods produce bias on psychometrical indexes (generally, the imputation methods artificially improve the psychometric qualities of the scale. In particular, this is the case with the method based on the Personal Mean Score (PMS which is the most commonly used imputation method in practice. Conclusions Several imputation methods should be avoided, in particular PMS imputation. From a general point of view, it is important to use an imputation method that considers both the ability of the patient (measured for example by his/her score, and the difficulty of the item (measured for example by its rate of favourable responses. Another recommendation is to always consider the addition of a random process in the imputation method, because such a process allows reducing the bias. Last, the analysis realized without imputation of the missing data (available case analyses is an interesting alternative to the simple imputation in this context.

  19. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required by... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available...

  20. Image-based medical expert teleconsultation in acute care of injuries. A systematic review of effects on information accuracy, diagnostic validity, clinical outcome, and user satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hasselberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. DATA SOURCES: Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. METHOD: The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. RESULTS: Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological

  1. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  2. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 24 May 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Physics Performances of CMS by Dr Albert De Roeck / CERN An overview will be given of the physics capabilities of the CMS detector at the LHC. CMS is now completing its Physics Technical Design reports, summarizing the expected detector performance in a first volume and the physics reach with up to 30 fb-1 in the second volume. Results on the performance of the CMS detector as obtained from detailed simulations are presented for realistic operating conditions, and validated where possible against test beam and cosmic ray data. Procedures to measure the performance from early LHC data will be described. Finally, a selected number of results from new physics studies will be presented. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : J.-S. Graulich

  3. U.S. residential consumer product information: Validation of methods for post-stratification weighting of Amazon Mechanical Turk surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    We present two post-stratification weighting methods to validate survey data collected using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Two surveys focused on appliance and consumer electronics devices were administered in the spring and summer of 2012 to each of approximately 3,000 U.S. households. Specifically, the surveys asked questions about residential refrigeration products, televisions (TVs) and set-top boxes (STBs). Filtered data were assigned weights using each of two weighting methods, termed “sequential” and “simultaneous,” by examining up to eight demographic variables (income, education, gender, race, Hispanic origin, number of occupants, ages of occupants, and geographic region) in comparison to reference U.S. demographic data from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Five key questions from the surveys (number of refrigerators, number of freezers, number of TVs, number of STBs and primary service provider) were evaluated with a set of statistical tests to determine whether either method improved the agreement of AMT with reference data, and if so, which method was better. The statistical tests used were: differences in proportions, distributions of proportions (using Pearson’s chi-squared test), and differences in average numbers of devices as functions of all demographic variables. The results indicated that both methods generally improved the agreement between AMT and reference data, sometimes greatly, but that the simultaneous method was usually superior to the sequential method. Some differences in sample populations were found between the AMT and reference data. Differences in the proportion of STBs reflected large changes in the STB market since the time our reference data was acquired in 2009. Differences in the proportions of some primary service providers suggested real sample bias, with the possible explanation that AMT user are more likely to subscribe to providers who also provide home internet service. Differences in

  4. O sistema de informações sobre mortalidade: problemas e propostas para o seu enfrentamento II - Mortes por causas externas The national mortality information system: problems and proposals for solving them II - Deaths due to external causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Prado de Mello Jorge

    2002-08-01

    with the external cause which prompted the lesion that led to death, a decision was made to analyze all these deaths, even cases in which the information in the original DC could be considered appropriate. The aim of this research was to verify the level and amount of proper information put into the DC and up to what extent the ones labeled as inadequate could be enhanced; it also aimed to verify the gains provided by using a very simple method for recovering information. There were 320 deaths due to external causes, in the last quarter of 2000, in 15 Brazilian municipalities with heterogeneous demographic, social and economic characteristics, in the states of Sergipe, São Paulo, Mato Grosso. The clarification of each situation was obtained through consultation to autopsy reports in Forensic Institutes, reports at police stations and, whenever necessary, home visits. The results showed important changes in these causes of death. The numbers of deaths due to homicides, suicides and transportation accidents grew, respectively, six fold, two-fold and 90% after the investigation in relation to the original DC; and there was a significant decrease in deaths due to unknown external causes. Although deaths due to external causes are known to be better informed than deaths due to natural causes, there is much to be done in order to solve the problem of ill-defined causes. The adoption of this very simple and accessible methodology can lead to the desired improvement in these data.

  5. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  6. Validation of a geographic information system model for mapping the risk of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum, S; Puotinen, M L; Skerratt, L F; Chan, B; Sothoeun, S

    2007-02-28

    Maps showing gradations of risk of fasciolosis due to Fasciola gigantica in Cambodia were produced using geographic information systems (GIS) technology in conjunction with determinants of fasciolosis. A comparison between levels of risk predicted by the maps and field measurements of prevalence in 11 provinces (n=1406) showed general agreement, which suggested the epidemiological determinants and weightings used to produce the maps were appropriate. However, due to logistical constraints, prevalence was measured at the provincial level and animals were not randomly sampled (and thus were unlikely to be representative of variability within provinces). To address this, additional field work was carried out to measure prevalence in more detail--faecal samples were collected from a randomly selected set of animals in four districts across a representative province for areas predicted to be at high risk (n=311), moderate risk (n=268) and no risk (n=262). As with the original field survey, the results show general agreement between prevalence and risk predicted by the maps, with the best fit found for areas predicted to be at high risk.

  7. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J; Kelly, Patrick D; Asman, Andrew J; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R(2) to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  10. Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information and Assessment of Electronic Health Literacy in a National Sample of Internet Users: Validity and Reliability of the e-HLS Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Gül; Yeatts, Dale; Hughes, Susan; Hudson, Cassie; Bell, Valarie

    2016-07-11

    The Internet, with its capacity to provide information that transcends time and space barriers, continues to transform how people find and apply information to their own lives. With the current explosion in electronic sources of health information, including thousands of websites and hundreds of mobile phone health apps, electronic health literacy is gaining an increasing prominence in health and medical research. An important dimension of electronic health literacy is the ability to appraise the quality of information that will facilitate everyday health care decisions. Health information seekers explore their care options by gathering information from health websites, blogs, Web-based forums, social networking websites, and advertisements, despite the fact that information quality on the Internet varies greatly. Nonetheless, research has lagged behind in establishing multidimensional instruments, in part due to the evolving construct of health literacy itself. The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of a new electronic health literacy (ehealth literacy) measure in a national sample of Internet users with specific attention to older users. Our paper is motivated by the fact that ehealth literacy is an underinvestigated area of inquiry. Our sample was drawn from a panel of more than 55,000 participants maintained by Knowledge Networks, the largest national probability-based research panel for Web-based surveys. We examined the factor structure of a 19-item electronic Health Literacy Scale (e-HLS) through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity on sample of adults (n=710) and a subsample of older adults (n=194). The AMOS graphics program 21.0 was used to construct a measurement model, linking latent factors obtained from EFA with 19 indicators to determine whether this factor structure achieved a good fit with our entire sample and the subsample (age ≥ 60

  11. [Conception and Content Validation of a Questionnaire Relating to the Potential Need for Information of Visually Impaired Persons with Regard to Services and Contact Persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Hechler, T; Witt, U; Krummenauer, F

    2015-12-01

    A questionnaire was drafted to identify the needs of visually impaired persons and to optimize their access to non-medical support and services. Subjects had to rate a list of 15 everyday activities that are typically affected by visual impairment (for example, being able to orient themselves in the home environment), by indicating the degree to which they perceive each activity to be affected, using a four-stage scale. They had to evaluate these aspects by means of a relevance assessment. The needs profile derived from this is then correlated with individualized information for assistance and support. The questionnaire shall be made available for use by subjects through advisers in some ophthalmic practices and via the internet. The validity of the content of the proposed tool was evaluated on the basis of a survey of 59 experts in the fields of medical, optical and psychological care and of persons involved in training initiatives. The experts were asked to rate the activities by relevance and clarity of the wording and to propose methods to further develop and optimize the content. The validity of the content was quantified according to a process adopted in the literature, based on the parameters Interrater Agreement (IRA) and Content Validity Index (CVI). The results of all responses (n = 19) and the sub-group analysis suggest that the questionnaire adequately reflects the potential needs profile of visually impaired persons. Overall, there was at least 80% agreement among the 19 experts for 93% of the proposed parameterisation of the activities relating to the relevance and clarity of the wording. Individual proposals for optimization of the design of the questionnaire were adopted.

  12. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk.

  13. Validation of a geographic information system for the evaluation of the soil radon exhalation potential in South-Tyrol and Veneto (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolo, A.; Verdi, L

    2001-07-01

    The PERS (soil radon exhalation potential) project was promoted by ANPA (Italian Environmental Protection Agency) together with the Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Rome: the aim was to produce a geographic information system allowing the discovery of regions with different radon exhalation potential starting from some territorial knowledge. Some environmental measurements were carried out within this project in selected areas in South-Tyrol and Veneto. The measurement of radon in springwater and groundwater as well as in soil gas plays a decisive role for the validation of the algorithm for computing the PERS. Along with technical aspects, a possible use of the PERS method by the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and by other agencies is discussed with the scope of identifying radon prone areas, as stated in the Italian 'Decreto Legislativo' 26 May 2000, n. 241. Moreover the forecasting power of PERS regarding indoor radon concentration is analysed. (author)

  14. A mathematical method for verifying the validity of measured information about the flows of energy resources based on the state estimation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderin, A. V.; Sof'in, V. V.; Samoylenko, V. O.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts aimed at improving energy efficiency in all branches of the fuel and energy complex shall be commenced with setting up a high-tech automated system for monitoring and accounting energy resources. Malfunctions and failures in the measurement and information parts of this system may distort commercial measurements of energy resources and lead to financial risks for power supplying organizations. In addition, measurement errors may be connected with intentional distortion of measurements for reducing payment for using energy resources on the consumer's side, which leads to commercial loss of energy resource. The article presents a universal mathematical method for verifying the validity of measurement information in networks for transporting energy resources, such as electricity and heat, petroleum, gas, etc., based on the state estimation theory. The energy resource transportation network is represented by a graph the nodes of which correspond to producers and consumers, and its branches stand for transportation mains (power lines, pipelines, and heat network elements). The main idea of state estimation is connected with obtaining the calculated analogs of energy resources for all available measurements. Unlike "raw" measurements, which contain inaccuracies, the calculated flows of energy resources, called estimates, will fully satisfy the suitability condition for all state equations describing the energy resource transportation network. The state equations written in terms of calculated estimates will be already free from residuals. The difference between a measurement and its calculated analog (estimate) is called in the estimation theory an estimation remainder. The obtained large values of estimation remainders are an indicator of high errors of particular energy resource measurements. By using the presented method it is possible to improve the validity of energy resource measurements, to estimate the transportation network observability, to eliminate

  15. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  16. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  17. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  18. External validation of a preoperative renal stone grading system: reproducibility and inter-rater concordance of the Guy's stone score using preoperative computed tomography and rigorous postoperative stone-free criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsson, Johann P; Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Hyams, Elias S; Pais, Vernon M

    2014-01-01

    To validate the Guy's stone score (GSS) using preoperative computed tomography (CT) and to assess its inter-rater concordance and association with rigorous definitions of stone clearance. The preoperative CT scans of 166 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients treated by a single surgeon were independently reviewed by 2 urology residents and graded according to GSS. Concordance was calculated using Cohen's kappa score. Residual fragments (RFs) were evaluated on CT or plain radiography on postoperative day 1. GSS was correlated with 3 different outcomes; RFs II and III and 20 of 36 cases (56%) pertained to unclear definitions of "partial staghorn stone" and "abnormal anatomy." The GSS is a straightforward grading system of the complexity of renal stones. When applied to preoperative CT scans, it offers good inter-rater concordance and is associated with rigorous endpoints of stone clearance. The inter-rater concordance could be further improved by explicit definitions of abnormal anatomy, partial vs complete staghorn stones, and the size of a calculus that constitutes a separate stone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  20. Comparison between external and internal standard calibration in the validation of an analytical method for 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, D; Cialdella, A M; Faranda, P; Tranfo, G

    2006-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene is a metabolite of pyrene, a member of the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) whose toxic properties in some cases include carcinogenicity. The determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine is used as a biological indicator for exposure to PAHs, which is related to the combustion of organic materials, like smoking, living in urban environments, and eating grilled or smoked food. The determination of 1-hydroxypyrene by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection has very good sensitivity but it is not highly specific: this can reduce accuracy in the quantitative determination of low levels of analyte in a complex matrix like urine. An HPLC method that uses triple quadrupole mass detection has been validated with the objective both to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and to achieve the maximum specificity for the analyte in those urine samples that are richer in possible inteferents. The calibration range for 1-hydroxypyrene is from 0.005-0.1 microg/L in the urine of non-smoking healthy volunteers. After solid-phase extraction, samples were analyzed by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In order to obtain reliable results quantitative analysis must be performed by means of the internal standard method (we used deuterium-labelled 1-hydroxypyrene): the method accuracy is not less than 85%. The S/N ratio at a concentration of 0.1 microg/L is about 10, and therefore this can be considered the lowest limit of quantitation. The method performance does not change if urine samples are measured using a calibration curve prepared in methanol, thus reducing the time of analysis and costs.

  1. Validity Judgment of Recommended Information in Trust Model%信任模型中推荐信息有效性评判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐仕喜

    2012-01-01

    在大规模、开放、动态的分布式物联网环境中,相当一部分推荐者为了最大限度地提高自身的收益,倾向于给出不公正的推荐信息.与一般主观判断算法不同,提出了均值受限熵推荐信息可靠性判断算法,构建了适用于物联网环境的具有可靠推荐能力的信任模型,通过客观判断出总体推荐信息的可靠性,并过滤掉随机发布的不负责任的推荐信息、个人不合理的推荐信息以及不公平的推荐信息.实验结果表明,算法与实际相符,所构建的物联网环境的可靠推荐能力的信任模型更具有客观性.%In large-scale, open, dynamic and distributed networking environment, a considerable part of the recommended are based on their own interests and to maximize their own gains, they give unfair recom- mended information. Unlike the general subjective judgment algorithm, the validity judgment algorithm of recommended information in trust model was proposed based on the mean constrained entropy. A trust model was proposed which has reliable ability to recommend and is applicable to the net- work environment. It can subjectively judge the reliability of the general recommendation information and filter out randomly released and irresponsible information, personally unreasonable recommended information as well as unfair recommended information. The experimental results show that the algorithm is consistent with the reality of networking environment. And the reliable recommendation trust model is more objective.

  2. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  3. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  4. 废旧涤/棉混纺织物NIRS定性分析模型的建立与外部验证%The Establishment and External Validation of NIR Qualitative Analysis Model for Waste Polyester-Cotton Blend Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枫; 李文霞; 赵国樑; 唐世君; 李学娇; 吴红梅

    2014-01-01

    model was established by the total sample set ,so the samples were divided into two types of sets :normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set , and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively .After the of models were established the model’s spectral region ,pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results , and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately .The results showed that the model rec-ognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively ,the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation .RC (relation coefficient of calibration ) val-ues of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively ,RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively ,SEC (standard error of calibra-tion) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively ,SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively .A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively .It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyes-ter-cotton blend fabrics .

  5. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  6. Validation of the depression item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in a three-month observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Maihoefer, Catherine C; Lawrence, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is an NIH Roadmap initiative devoted to developing better measurement tools for assessing constructs relevant to the clinical investigation and treatment of all diseases-constructs such as pain, fatigue, emotional distress, sleep, physical functioning, and social participation. Following creation of item banks for these constructs, our priority has been to validate them, most often in short-term observational studies. We report here on a three-month prospective observational study with depressed outpatients in the early stages of a new treatment episode (with assessments at intake, one-month follow-up, and three-month follow-up). The protocol was designed to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression item bank (administered as a computerized adaptive test, CAT) with two legacy self-report instruments: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD; Radloff, 1977) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999). PROMIS depression demonstrated strong convergent validity with the CESD and the PHQ-9 (with correlations in a range from .72 to .84 across all time points), as well as responsiveness to change when characterizing symptom severity in a clinical outpatient sample. Identification of patients as "recovered" varied across the measures, with the PHQ-9 being the most conservative. The use of calibrations based on models from item response theory (IRT) provides advantages for PROMIS depression both psychometrically (creating the possibility of adaptive testing, providing a broader effective range of measurement, and generating greater precision) and practically (these psychometric advantages can be achieved with fewer items-a median of 4 items administered by CAT-resulting in less patient burden).

  7. HOW DO FIRMS SOURCE EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE FOR INNOVATION? ANALYSING EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE SOURCING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KI H. KANG; JINA KANG

    2009-01-01

    In the era of "open innovation", external knowledge is a very important source for technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between external knowledge and performance of technology innovation. The effect of external knowledge on the performance of technology innovation can vary with different external knowledge sourcing methods. We identify three ways of external knowledge sourcing: information transfer from informal network, R&D collaboration and technology acqui...

  8. Two-dimensional radial laser scanning for circular marker detection and external mobile robot tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Mercè; Pallejà, Tomàs; Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Moreno, Javier; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-11-28

    This paper presents the use of an external fixed two-dimensional laser scanner to detect cylindrical targets attached to moving devices, such as a mobile robot. This proposal is based on the detection of circular markers in the raw data provided by the laser scanner by applying an algorithm for outlier avoidance and a least-squares circular fitting. Some experiments have been developed to empirically validate the proposal with different cylindrical targets in order to estimate the location and tracking errors achieved, which are generally less than 20 mm in the area covered by the laser sensor. As a result of the validation experiments, several error maps have been obtained in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty of any location computed. This proposal has been validated with a medium-sized mobile robot with an attached cylindrical target (diameter 200 mm). The trajectory of the mobile robot was estimated with an average location error of less than 15 mm, and the real location error in each individual circular fitting was similar to the error estimated with the obtained error maps. The radial area covered in this validation experiment was up to 10 m, a value that depends on the radius of the cylindrical target and the radial density of the distance range points provided by the laser scanner but this area can be increased by combining the information of additional external laser scanners.

  9. Two-Dimensional Radial Laser Scanning for Circular Marker Detection and External Mobile Robot Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of an external fixed two-dimensional laser scanner to detect cylindrical targets attached to moving devices, such as a mobile robot. This proposal is based on the detection of circular markers in the raw data provided by the laser scanner by applying an algorithm for outlier avoidance and a least-squares circular fitting. Some experiments have been developed to empirically validate the proposal with different cylindrical targets in order to estimate the location and tracking errors achieved, which are generally less than 20 mm in the area covered by the laser sensor. As a result of the validation experiments, several error maps have been obtained in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty of any location computed. This proposal has been validated with a medium-sized mobile robot with an attached cylindrical target (diameter 200 mm. The trajectory of the mobile robot was estimated with an average location error of less than 15 mm, and the real location error in each individual circular fitting was similar to the error estimated with the obtained error maps. The radial area covered in this validation experiment was up to 10 m, a value that depends on the radius of the cylindrical target and the radial density of the distance range points provided by the laser scanner but this area can be increased by combining the information of additional external laser scanners.

  10. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  11. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  12. External costs of photovoltaics. What is it based on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Alsema, E.A. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of the European ExternE research projects was to develop a methodology to calculate the external costs caused by energy production and consumption. External costs are defined as the monetary quantification of the socio-environmental damage, expressed in eurocents per kWh. As such, it can provide a scientific basis for policy decisions and legislative proposals like subsidizing cleaner technologies and energy taxes to 'internalize' the external costs. The ExternE 2003 brochure gives the impression that electricity production from photovoltaics leads to a greater health damage than the electricity production from gas or nuclear power. However, the external cost figures for electricity production in the EU and in Germany are given without references, so it is not clear on which information it is based. This paper aims to retrieve the input data that was used for the calculation of the external costs of photovoltaic systems. Apparently, the two tables 'External cost figures for electricity production in the EU for existing technologies' and 'Quantified marginal external costs of electricity production in Germany' are based on different calculations. For example the sum of external costs for the different technologies given in the first table are not equal to the values presented in the second.

  13. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  14. Validade de construto da versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização: evidências a partir de uma amostra de estudantes universitários Construct validity of the Brazilian version of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory: evidence from a university student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Wander de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Externalização é uma dimensão das diferenças individuais que dá substrato e unifica traços impulsivos e agressivos de personalidade a transtornos mentais relacionados ao uso de substância e à conduta antissocial. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo objetivou apresentar indicadores de validade de construto da versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo psicométrico de orientação correlacional. Foram utilizadas duas técnicas clássicas de representação de construto: análise exploratória de fatores comuns e análise de consistência interna. A amostra consistiu de 258 participantes de ambos os sexos, provenientes de diferentes cursos universitários de duas instituições públicas do estado de Minas Gerais. RESULTADOS: A análise fatorial resultou em um modelo de um fator de segunda ordem (Externalização com três fatores de primeira ordem (dimensões de agressão, de uso de substância e de impulsividade/alienação. Os coeficientes alfa mostraram-se bastante elevados, com índices acima de 0,9 tanto para os três fatores de primeira ordem quanto para o fator geral. CONCLUSÃO: Combinados, os resultados trazem evidências de validade e de fidedignidade para a versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização no que tange à sua aplicabilidade a estudantes universitários.BACKGROUND: Externalizing is a dimension of individual differences that undergirds and unites aggressive and impulsive personality traits to psychopathological disorders related to substance use and antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to establish parameters of construct validity for the Brazilian version of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory. METHOD: This is a psychometrical correlacional study design. Two classical techniques of construct representation were implemented: unweighted least squares exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. The sample

  15. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  16. Validation Measures in CMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Khraiwesh, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provide information about its quality and reliability. This paper identifies general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering In...

  17. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  18. External Validity: From Do-calculus to Transportability Across Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    separation: One more step into causal thinking. Structural Equation Modeling 10 289–311. Hedges, L. V. and Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta...Biostatistics 7 1–14. Pearl, J. (2012a). The causal foundations of structural equation modeling . In Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling (R. H. Hoyle, ed

  19. Prediction of spatial soil property information from ancillary sensor data using ordinary linear regression: Model derivations, residual assumptions and model validation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial measurements of ancillary sensor data, such as bulk soil electrical conductivity or remotely sensed imagery data, are commonly used to characterize spatial variation in soil or crop properties. Geostatistical techniques like kriging with external drift or regression kriging are often use...

  20. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  1. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  2. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  3. Stabilization of Externally Slung Helicopter Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    maximum slir^ Loao weighting and " vertical bounce ." The last question provides information on multi-point suspension of external 1oads. PHASE...an allowable cargo load, and vertical bounce . 110 Maximum Sling Load Weight The maximum sling load lifted by a CH-47B helicopter under...changes were made in their flying technique except for very smooth flight control inputs when lifting an ACL. Vertical Bounce Fifteen of the forty Army

  4. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  5. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  6. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  7. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 June 2006 17:00-Stückelberg Auditorium Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Processing with Superconducting Circuits Prof. A. Wallraff /ETH Zürich I will describe recent experiments with superconducting circuits in which we have demonstrated the coherent interaction of a two-level system and a single mode of a cavityfield. Such a feat was previously only realizable in atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. In our circuit we have generated coherent superpositions between asingle photon and a single superconducting qubit and have used photons to perform a quantum non-demolition measurement of the state of the qubit. This new regime ofmatter-light interaction in a circuit, allows us to both perform state of the art quantum optics experiments and to realize new elements for a quantum information processor. For additional information and publications please visit: http://www.solid.phys....

  8. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  9. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  10. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  11. KEUNTUNGAN PENGGUNAAN EXTERNAL FUNCTION PADA DATABASE POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrun Hartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Database id a central data for an information system, there were many database system applications that revolve both paid and free. PostgreSQL is one of the free database system and it has the powerful feature, one of the feature that make it different with others sysem is a function features, where the users can make their function by them selves by using spesific programming language, then it can be called return for executed. In this research the writer tries for conducting additional data testing by using INSERT Query and External Function Query on the terminal/command prompt and web browser. From the result of the trial, the research found that the average of time in additional data processing on the terminal/command prompt by using INSERT Query was 185.293 ms and the average of time External Function Query proccess was 129.52 ms, while the average of time in additional data processing on web browser by using INSERT Query was 168.363 ms and External Function Query was 145.64 ms. There was a difference both of the query, but the important thing and should be noted that external function is a command was defined by stand alone by the user, this matter lets the user to determine a specify command that they need.

  12. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  13. Reducing, Maintaining, or Escalating Uncertainty? The Development and Validation of Four Uncertainty Preference Scales Related to Cancer Information Seeking and Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty is a central characteristic of many aspects of cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Brashers's (2001) uncertainty management theory details the multifaceted nature of uncertainty and describes situations in which uncertainty can both positively and negatively affect health outcomes. The current study extends theory on uncertainty management by developing four scale measures of uncertainty preferences in the context of cancer. Two national surveys were conducted to validate the scales and assess convergent and concurrent validity. Results support the factor structure of each measure and provide general support across multiple validity assessments. These scales can advance research on uncertainty and cancer communication by providing researchers with measures that address multiple aspects of uncertainty management.

  14. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed.

  15. Ideological systems and its validation: a neutrosophic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Nescolarde-Selva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologies face two critical problems in the reality, the problem of commitment and the problem of validation. Commitment and validation are two separate phenomena, in spite of the near universal myth that the human is committed because his beliefs are valid. Ideologies not only seem external and valid but also worth whatever discomforts believing entails. In this paper the authors develop a theory of social commitment and social validation using concepts of validation of neutrosophic logic.

  16. Linking Recognition Practices and National Qualifications Frameworks: International Benchmarking of Experiences and Strategies on the Recognition, Validation and Accreditation (RVA) of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Duvekot, Ruud, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is the outcome of the international conference organized by UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), in collaboration with the Centre for Validation of Prior Learning at Inholland University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands, and in partnership with the French National Commission for UNESCO that was held in Hamburg in…

  17. Impact of Organizational Slack Resource on External Search Breadth from the Perspective of Formal and Informal Search%组织冗余资源对外部知识搜索宽度的影响研究--基于正式与非正式搜索的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 樊钱涛; 郑健壮

    2015-01-01

    As the SMEs are actively engaging in open innovation to utilize and exploit external knowledge and technologies, an important research issue is that whether the scarcity of resource will promote or impede their external knowledge search from the sources or actors such as customers,suppliers,competitors,and universities.Based on the perspective of formal and informal search,it explores the impact of organizational slack resource on external search breadth by using a survey of 21 7 manufacturing SMEs in Zhejiang province.The empirical results show that unabsorbed slack resource has significant positive effect on both formal and informal search breadth,and absorbed slack resource also positively impact informal search breadth.%随着中小企业越来越多地利用外部知识和技术于创新活动,一个重要的研究问题是:因“小企业缺陷”而与生俱来的组织资源缺乏会促进还是会阻碍它们的外部知识搜索活动?基于正式-非正式搜索的视角,采用问卷调查方法,以217家浙江中小型制造企业为研究样本,分析了组织冗余资源对外部知识搜索宽度的影响作用,结果发现:未吸收冗余资源对正式搜索宽度和非正式搜索宽度均具有正向的显著作用,而已吸收冗余资源仅对非正式搜索宽度具有正向的显著作用。

  18. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  19. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Lundi 4 décembre 2006 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg The Physics Behind the LHC Prof. Gian Francesco Giudice / CERN-TH   What do physicists want to discover with experiments at the LHC? What are we going to learn from the Higgs boson? What are the new phenomena that could be observed at the LHC? I will try to answer these questions using language accessible also to non-expert. More information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  20. External meeting: GENEVA UNIVERSITY

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 10 May 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINARat 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium ZEUS: A detector for HERA by Andrée Robichaud-Véronneau / DPNC, Université de Genè ve HERA is the first lepton-proton collider in the world where a center of mass energy of 318 GeV is reached. Since 1992, the ZEUS detector is gating luminosity from it to probe QCD and look for exotic phenomena of fundamental particle physics. A history and overview of the detector and collider will be presented as well as important physics contributions made by the ZEUS experiment to the understanding of our world. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : J.-S. Graulich

  1. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  2. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  3. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  4. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  5. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  7. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Lundi 20 novembre 2006 COLLOQUIUM 17:00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Electrical correlation measurements in quantum nano-structures Dr. Stefan Oberholzer / Basel University Measuring the current-voltage characteristics of small conductors is widely used to characterize their electronic transport properties. In addition to such time-averaged measurements, correlation measurements between temporal fluctuations (noise) around the time-averaged mean current provide us with very important supplementary information about electrical transport. In this talk, I review our experimental work on shot noise, noise which originates from the granularity of charge and the diffraction of the electronic wave-function, and especially address the fundamental relation between electronic scattering experiments and the statistical properties of indist...

  8. Predicting sex offender recidivism. I. Correcting for item overselection and accuracy overestimation in scale development. II. Sampling error-induced attenuation of predictive validity over base rate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I; Grove, William M

    2008-06-01

    The authors demonstrate a statistical bootstrapping method for obtaining unbiased item selection and predictive validity estimates from a scale development sample, using data (N = 256) of Epperson et al. [2003 Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) technical paper: Development, validation, and recommended risk level cut scores. Retrieved November 18, 2006 from Iowa State University Department of Psychology web site: http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/ approximately dle/mnsost_download.htm] from which the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) was developed. Validity (area under receiver operating characteristic curve) reported by Epperson et al. was .77 with 16 items selected. The present analysis yielded an asymptotically unbiased estimator AUC = .58. The present article also focused on the degree to which sampling error renders estimated cutting scores (appropriate to local [varying] recidivism base rates) nonoptimal, so that the long-run performance (measured by correct fraction, the total proportion of correct classifications) of these estimated cutting scores is poor, when they are applied to their parent populations (having assumed values for AUC and recidivism rate). This was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation over a range of AUC and recidivism rate values. Results indicate that, except for the AUC values higher than have ever been cross-validated, in combination with recidivism base rates severalfold higher than the literature average [Hanson and Morton-Bourgon, 2004, Predictors of sexual recidivism: An updated meta-analysis. (User report 2004-02.). Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada], the user of an instrument similar in performance to the MnSOST-R cannot expect to achieve correct fraction performance notably in excess of what is achievable from knowing the population recidivism rate alone. The authors discuss the legal implications of their findings for procedural and substantive due process in

  9. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  10. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  11. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  12. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  13. An update of preliminary perspectives gained from Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) submittal reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.; Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sewell, R.; Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1998-03-01

    As a result of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, virtually every operating commercial nuclear power reactor in the US has performed an assessment of severe accident risk due to external events. To date, the USNRC staff has received 63 IPEEE submittals and will receive an additional 11 by mid 1998. Currently, 49 IPEEE submittals are under various stages ore view. This paper is based on the information available for those 41 plants for which at least preliminary Technical Evaluation Reports have been prepared by the review teams. The goal of the review is to ascertain whether the licensee`s IPEEE process is capable of identifying external events-induced severe accident vulnerabilities and cost-effective safety improvements to either eliminate or reduce the impact of these vulnerabilities. The review does not, however, attempt to validate or verify the results of the licensee`s IPEEE. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an update on the preliminary perspectives and insights gained from the IPEEE process.

  14. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  15. Validation of the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument in different study settings: findings from The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, J E; van Exel, N J A; Kempen, G I J M; Moll van Charante, E P; den Elzen, W P J; Jansen, A P D; Krabbe, P F M; Steunenberg, B; Steyerberg, E W; Olde Rikkert, M G M; Melis, R J F

    2015-05-01

    Validity is a contextual aspect of a scale which may differ across sample populations and study protocols. The objective of our study was to validate the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument (CarerQol) across two different study design features, sampling framework (general population vs. different care settings) and survey mode (interview vs. written questionnaire). Data were extracted from The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS, www.topics-mds.eu ), a pooled public-access data set with information on >3,000 informal caregivers throughout the Netherlands. Meta-correlations and linear mixed models between the CarerQol's seven dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and caregiver's level of happiness (CarerQol-VAS) and self-rated burden (SRB) were performed. The CarerQol-7D dimensions were correlated to the CarerQol-VAS and SRB in the pooled data set and the subgroups. The strength of correlations between CarerQol-7D dimensions and SRB was weaker among caregivers who were interviewed versus those who completed a written questionnaire. The directionality of associations between the CarerQol-VAS, SRB and the CarerQol-7D dimensions in the multivariate model supported the construct validity of the CarerQol in the pooled population. Significant interaction terms were observed in several dimensions of the CarerQol-7D across sampling frame and survey mode, suggesting meaningful differences in reporting levels. Although good scientific practice emphasises the importance of re-evaluating instrument properties in individual research studies, our findings support the validity and applicability of the CarerQol instrument in a variety of settings. Due to minor differential reporting, pooling CarerQol data collected using mixed administration modes should be interpreted with caution; for TOPICS-MDS, meta-analytic techniques may be warranted.

  16. Siblings versus Parents and Friends: Longitudinal Linkages to Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N.; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative…

  17. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  18. Mapping the mean monthly precipitation of a small island using kriging with external drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the spatial distribution of mean annual and monthly precipitation in a small island (1128 km2) named Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles. Only 35 meteorological stations are available on the territory, which has a complex topography. With a digital elevation model (DEM), 17 covariates that are likely to explain precipitation were built. Several interpolation methods, such as regression-kriging (MLRK, PCRK,and PLSK) and external drift kriging (EDK) were tested using a cross-validation procedure. For the regression methods, predictors were chosen by established techniques whereas a new approach is proposed to select external drifts in a kriging which is based on a stepwise model selection by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with three different skill scores. Results show that using methods with no predictors such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) or universal kriging (UK) is inappropriate in such a territory. EDK appears to outperform regression methods for any criteria, and selecting predictors by our approach improves the prediction of mean annual precipitation compared to kriging with only elevation as drift. Finally, the predicting performance was also studied by varying the size of the training set leading to less conclusive results for EDK and its performance. Nevertheless, the proposed method seems to be a good way to improve the mapping of climatic variables in a small island.

  19. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  20. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  1. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  2. The dialogic validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition in apprentic......This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition...

  3. 我国非正规金融规制外在效应的实证研究%An Empirical Research on External Effects of China's Informal Financial Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车丽华; 陈晓红

    2012-01-01

    围绕非正规金融规制的外在效应开展实证研究,从非正规金融的直接效应和规制介入对于非正规金融的间接效应两个层面出发进行分析,为我国非正规金融规制体系的构建提供实证支持。研究表明,资金提供者对资金需求主体融资具有直接的正面作用;资金需求主体可以通过非正规金融直接进行融资;其次规制介入对于非正规金融的间接效应,政府规制对于资金提供者向资金需求主体融资的转化具有显著的促进作用,并得出相关政策建议。%Informal finance in the world is very common.In view of preventing financial risks and stabilizing the financial order of consideration,it is very important and urgent to study the informal financial regulatory issues in the context of reality.This paper empirically studies the direct effect of informal finance and the indirect effects of regulation intervention on informal finance so as to provide empirical support for Chinese regulation system of informal finance.Studies have shown that:(1) the main funders have a direct positive effect on the financing of the main bodies of financial demand,who can directly raise funds through informal finance;(2) regulation intervention has indirect effects on informal financing,and government regulation plays a significant role in promoting the conversion of funders to the main bodies of financial demand who raise funds.Finally relevant policy recommendations are made.

  4. 农民工职业健康困境的经济学分析:外部成本、信息不对称和供求关系%Economic Analysis of the Plight of Migrant Workers' Occupational Health:External Cost.Information Asymmetry and Supply-demand Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鸣鸾; 周旭东

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers in China had contributed greatly to the urban and rural economic boom, while their occupational health had been seriously undermined.We analyzed the plight of migrant workers' poor occupational health from external cost, information asymmetry and supply-demand relationship.We also pro posed to improve migrant workers' occupational health by internalizing external cost and removing information asymmetry between migrant workers and their employers.%农民工已成为我国城市和农村经济发展的主要力量,但他们的职业健康却面临着严重的威胁.文章从外部成本、信息不对称和供求关系分析农民工职业健康困境的原因,通过外部成本内部化,消除农民工和企业之间的职业危害信息不对称,改善农民工的职业健康.

  5. Using Reframing in the External Communication Process of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Any organization, in order to avoid an information attack from the external environment, creates connections with key persons: leaders of opinion, administrators of rival companies, local officials. There are three types of external communication: operational, strategic and promotional. In the communication process there are at least three categories of barriers: language barriers, perception and environment barriers. Using reframing in the external communication allows its adjustment and optimization in order to send a certain message as correctly as possible. Using reframing allows for a certain situation to be approaches from different angles, it allows a better adaptation of the employees‘ behaviours to the environment, of the organization or customers‘ needs.

  6. Problems with plastered external heat insulation. Probleme mit verputzter Aussenwaermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, H.; Foglia, A.; Preisig, H.; Pfefferkorn, J.

    1984-01-01

    Concerning execution, maintenance and service life, walls with plastered external heat insulation constitute an economic method. Owing to experience gained with plastered external heat insulation, it is possible today to provide reliable information on requirements made on ground material and operational execution. The author intends to contribute to a prevention of defects by giving concise examples. A survey on different types of external heat insulation is followed by a treatment of the problem areas of roof-edge connection, base end under ground, modernization of old buildings and cracks in plaster. Principal statements are made concerning steam diffusion, planning, materials and execution.

  7. External Correlates of the MMPI-2 Content Component Scales in Mental Health Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bradley A.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    External correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Content Component Scales were identified using an inpatient sample of 544 adults. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) produced correlates of the Content Component Scales, demonstrating external validity with…

  8. Schizophrenia in the internalizing-externalizing framework: a third dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Roman; Chang, Su-Wei; Fochtmann, Laura J; Mojtabai, Ramin; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sedler, Mark J; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2011-11-01

    Prior studies of common disorders in community-dwelling adults identified internalizing and externalizing spectra of mental illness. We investigated the placement of schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder in this framework and tested the validity of the resulting organization in a clinical population. The data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort (N = 628), which consists of first-admission patients with psychosis recruited from inpatient units throughout Suffolk County, NY (72% response rate). The sample was reassessed multiple times over the following 10 years. Complete diagnostic data were available for 469 participants. Mental health professionals diagnosed 11 target conditions based on semistructured clinical interviews, review of medical records, and reports of significant others. Two validators were included: family history of schizophrenia and 10-year illness course. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV grouping of conditions fit the data poorly. The best alternative classification consisted of three clusters: internalizing, externalizing, and schizophrenic. Both validators supported the coherence and distinctiveness of the schizophrenic cluster. We replicated internalizing and externalizing spectra in a clinical population, identified a schizophrenic spectrum, and provided initial evidence of its validity. These findings suggest that schizotypal personality disorder may be better placed with schizophrenia, antisocial conditions with substance use disorders, and major depression with anxiety disorders.

  9. In vitro test of external Qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reading Melissa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practitioners of the alternative medical practice 'external Qigong' generally claim the ability to emit or direct "healing energy" to treat patients. We investigated the ability of experienced Qigong practitioners to enhance the healthy growth of cultured human cells in a series of studies, each following a rigorously designed protocol with randomization, blinding and controls for variability. Methods Qigong practitioners directed healing intentionality toward normal brain cell cultures in a basic science laboratory. Qigong treatments were delivered for 20 minutes from a minimum distance of 10 centimeters. Cell proliferation was measured by a standard colony-forming efficiency (CFE assay and a CFE ratio (CFE for treated samples/CFE for sham samples was the dependent measure for each experiment. Results During a pilot study (8 experiments, a trend of increased cell proliferation in Qigong-treated samples (CFE Qigong/sham ratios > 1.0 was observed (P = 0.162. In a formal study (28 experiments, a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036. In a replication study (60 experiments, no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465. Conclusion We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed.

  10. Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology and anger expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

  11. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  12. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  13. Evaluation on Chinese Military Information Website's Efficiency Based on DEA and External Recognition%基于DEA和外部认可的中文军事信息网站效率评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨选辉; 葛伟

    2014-01-01

    从投入产出的角度构建了中文军事信息网站效率评价的指标体系,运用数据包络分析法的C2 R评价模型,对我国16个主要的军事信息网站进行了定量分析,结果表明:其中11个军事网站为DEA相对有效,另外5个军事网站为相对非有效;军事信息网站的效率与页面平均大小、页面标签率、网页更新率等紧密相关,与网站连通率、网页易到达率、链路完整性等基本无关。此外,对相对非有效的网站进行了有效性改进空间分析,根据结果给出了提高网站效率的有效建议。%From the perspective of input and output, an index system of efficiency evaluation for Chinese military information websites is constructed in this thesis. Then the efficiency of 16 Chinese military information websites is analyzed based on the C2 R Model in DEA. The result shows that 11 of these websites are relatively effective and the other 5 are relatively non-effective. The efficiency of military in-formation websites is related to Average Page Size, Tagged Percentage, Update Rating etc. , while it has nothing to do with Connected Percentage, Easy Access Percentage, and Linkage Integrity. By an analysis of room for improvement, this thesis also gives suggestions to improve the efficiency of the non-effective websites.

  14. Validation Measures in CMMI

    CERN Document Server

    Khraiwesh, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provide information about its quality and reliability. This paper identifies general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI). CMMI is a framework for improvement and assessment of a software development process. CMMI needs a measurement program that is practical. The method we used to define the measures is to apply the Goal Question Metrics (GQM) paradigm to the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area in CMMI.

  15. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  16. Assessing eGovernment Systems Success: A Validation of the DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of the Internet and World Wide Web applications, people are increasingly interacting with government to citizen (G2C) eGovernment systems. It is therefore important to measure the success of G2C eGovernment systems from the citizen's perspective. While general information systems (IS) success models have received much…

  17. [Introduction of an accreditation system for hospital informed consent forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Picazo, J J; Tomás-Garcia, N; Calle-Urra, J E; Parra-Hidalgo, P; Valverde-Iniesta, J J

    2015-01-01

    To describe an accreditation system for informed consent forms (ICF) in a tertiary hospital, as an intervention to improve their quality, and to check the improvements achieved. Following an external evaluation of the ICF quality in a public hospital in Murcia (Spain), an accreditation committee set the ICF requirements and associated procedures. Effectiveness is assessed by comparing two external evaluations carried out by the EMCA Program (2011 and 2013) and based on 19 criteria and a sample of 60 ICF for every public hospital in Murcia Region. To be accredited, every ICF must meet the 19 external criteria plus 5 based on legibility, readability and scientific and technical validity. A form to fill in the contents of every ICF was agreed, which would be reviewed, approved and validated for five years. Before the implementation, 8.2 defects/ICF were detected. The accreditation system obtained an 89% improvement (0.9 defects/ICF) and achieved significant improvements in 18 criteria, 16 of which are benchmarked. The accreditation system achieved a substantial improvement in the ICF (obtaining a better result in external evaluations) and guarantees their contents, legibility and readability. This system needs to be extended to other hospitals, since it is not clear whether common ICFs would be suitable. However, this improvement is structural and does not guarantee that the overall information/consent procedure is done properly, thus complementary strategies for measurement and improvement are required. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Air Flow in the Ventilated Insulating Air Layer of the External Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunská, Jana; Bullová, Iveta; Špaková, Miroslava

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with problems of impact of air flow in ventilated insulating air layer of the external wall on behaviour of thermal-technical parameters of the proposed external structure (according principles of STN 73 0549, which is not valid now), by comparing them in the calculation according to the valid STN standards, where air flow in the ventilated air layer is not taken into account, as well as by comparing them with behavior of thermal-technical parameters in the proposal of sandwich external wall with the contact heat insulation system without air cavity.

  19. Transfer of noncovalent chiral information along an optically inactive helical peptide chain: allosteric control of asymmetry of the C-terminal site by external molecule that binds to the N-terminal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaka, Naoki; Inai, Yoshihito

    2009-02-20

    This study aims at demonstrating end-to-end transfer of noncovalent chiral information along a peptide chain. The domino-type induction of helical sense is proven by using achiral peptides 1-m of bis-chromophoric sequence with different chain lengths: H-(Aib-Delta(Z)Phe)(m)-(Aib-Delta(Z)Bip)(2)-Aib-OCH(3) [m = 2, 4, and 6; Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid; Delta(Z)Phe = (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydrophenylalanine; Delta(Z)Bip = (Z)-beta-(4,4'-biphenyl)-alpha,beta-didehydroalanine]. They all showed the tendency to adopt a 3(10)-helix. Whereas peptide 1-m originally shows no circular dichroism (CD) signals, marked CD signals were induced at around 270-320 nm based on both the beta-aryl didehydroresidues by chiral Boc-proline (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl). The observed CD spectra were interpreted on the basis of the exciton chirality method and theoretical CD simulation of several helical conformations that were energy-minimized. The experimental and theoretical CD analysis reveals that Boc-l-proline induces the preference for a right-handed helicity in the whole chain of 1-m. Such noncovalent chiral induction was not observed in the corresponding N-terminally protected 1-m. Obviously, helicity induction in 1-m originates from the binding of Boc-proline to the N-terminal site. In the 17-mer (1-6), the information of helix sense reaches the 16th residue from the N-terminus. We have monitored precise transfer of noncovalent chiral stimulus along a helical peptide chain. The present study also proposes a primitive allosteric model of a single protein-mimicking backbone. Here chiral molecule binding the N-terminal site of 1-6 controls the chiroptical signals and helical sense of the C-terminal site about 30 A away.

  20. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  1. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  2. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  3. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  4. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  5. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  6. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  7. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  8. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  9. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  10. Syntactic networks, do they contribute valid information on syntactic development in children?. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by J. Cong and H. Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Anat

    2014-12-01

    In the target article [1] Cong and Liu provide a clear and informative introduction to the use of complex networks in research studying language. I would like to add the perspective of a researcher of language acquisition who has been hopeful that network theory illuminates processes of development [2,3], but feels a certain difficulty with studies applying network analysis to the development of syntax.

  11. Contracting for Competitive Supply Chains under Network Externalities and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on network externalities and demand uncertainty environment, supply chain competition model is built; we identify the valid mechanism for the alternative range of profit-sharing contracts and also analyze the effect of product substitutability coefficient and network externalities on the alliance and profit-sharing contract. The results show that the vertical alliance contributes profit improvement to both the manufacturer and the retailer when the impact of network externalities on the product substitutability is not strong. However, vertical alliance will be out of operation when the effect of network externalities on the product substitutability is strong.

  12. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  13. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Lagana

    Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  14. Perturbative neutrino pair creation by an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, H

    2004-01-01

    We consider the rate of fermion-antifermion pair creation by an external field. We derive a rate formula that is valid for a coupling with arbitrary vector and axial vector components to first order in perturbation theory. This is then applied to study the creation of neutrinos by nuclear matter, a problem with astrophysical relevance. We present an estimate for the creation rate per unit volume, compare this to previous results and comment on the role of the neutrino mass.

  15. Impulsive Flocking of Dynamical Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flocking motion of multiagent systems is influenced by various external disturbances in complex environment. By applying disturbance observer, flocking of multiagent systems with exogenous disturbances is studied. Based on the robust features of impulsive control, a distributed impulsive control protocol is presented with disturbance observer, and flocking motion of multiagent systems is analyzed. Moreover, a sufficient condition is obtained to ensure the flocking motion of multiagent systems following a leader. Finally, simulation results show the validity of the theoretical conclusion.

  16. 75 FR 80830 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Technology Transfer Center External Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Center External Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of... satisfaction of TTC's external customers with TTC customer services; collect information of preferred...

  17. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  18. Information Global Marketing Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandar Grubor

    2010-01-01

    Global marketing management needs to be implemented based on valid, i.e. reliable, timely, verifiable and high-quality marketing information, which will enable valid decision-making in global business operations...

  19. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  20. EO Model for Tacit Knowledge Externalization in Socio-Technical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: A vital business activity within socio-technical enterprises is tacit knowledge externalization, which elicits and explicates tacit knowledge of enterprise employees as external knowledge. The aim of this paper is to integrate diverse aspects of externalization through the Enterprise Ontology model. Background: Across two decades, researchers have explored various aspects of tacit knowledge externalization. However, from the existing works, it is revealed that there is no uniform representation of the externalization process, which has resulted in divergent and contradictory interpretations across the literature. Methodology\t: The Enterprise Ontology model is constructed step-wise through the conceptual and measurement views. While the conceptual view encompasses three patterns that model the externalization process, the measurement view employs certainty-factor model to empirically measure the outcome of the externalization process. Contribution: The paper contributes towards knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is the Enterprise Ontology model that integrates diverse aspects of externalization. The second contribution is a Web application that validates the model through a case study in banking. Findings: The findings show that the Enterprise Ontology model and the patterns are pragmatic in externalizing the tacit knowledge of experts in a problem-solving scenario within a banking enterprise. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Consider the diverse aspects (what, where, when, why, and how during the tacit knowledge externalization process. Future Research:\tTo extend the Enterprise Ontology model to include externalization from partially automated enterprise systems.