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Sample records for external validity evidence

  1. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  2. The external validity of Asperger disorder: lack of evidence from the domain of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J N; Ozonoff, S

    2000-05-01

    The present study compared individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder (AD) in intellectual, motor, visuospatial, and executive function domains. Participants with AD demonstrated significantly higher Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores, significantly larger Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancies, and significantly better visual-perceptual skills than those with HFA. Once the superior intellectual abilities of the AD group were controlled (both statistically through analysis of covariance and by examining IQ-matched subgroups of HFA and AD participants), no significant group differences in motor, visuospatial, or executive functions were evident, save a marginally significant trend toward poorer fine motor performance in the AD group. This suggests that AD may simply be "high-IQ autism" and that separate names for the disorders may not be warranted. The relation of these findings to theories of autism and AD are discussed.

  3. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  4. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  5. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  6. External Validation of the COmorbidity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Nicholas; Davidson, Ross; Ghori, Uzair K; Abdou, Yara; Abukhalaf, Jawad; Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez

    2017-10-01

    The COmorbidity TEst (COTE) is a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-specific co-morbidity score created to predict mortality. Before its wide application at the University of New Mexico we intended to validate it. The study was conducted at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) in Albuquerque, NM, USA, a tertiary academic hospital. Consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of COPD were identified using the hospital's medical records system and included if they were older than 40 years, had smoked at least 20 pack-years and their post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was <0.7 without an alternative diagnosis. The data collected included demographics, co-morbidities as described in the COTE, COPD-specific therapies, spirometry results and mortality. Of 317 patients 51.4% were male, average age was 65.6 ± 9.6 years and the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted (FEV1%) was 52.9 ± 16.9%. 31 (9.8%) patients were on triple long-acting bronchodilator inhaler therapy, 88 (27.8%) on two long-acting bronchodilators and 163 (51.4%) on at least one long-acting bronchodilator. The median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR = 1.9-6.9). Fifty four patients died by the end of the follow-up period and their median COTE of 4 (IQR = 1-8) was significantly higher than for the survivors with COTE = 1 (IQR = 0-6; p = 0.002). In univariable analyses COTE was positively associated while FEV1%, body mass index (BMI) and gender were negatively associated with all-cause mortality. In multivariable analysis BMI, FEV1% and COTE remained independent predictors for mortality. The COTE is an independent predictor of mortality for COPD patients at UNMH.

  7. External validation of the discharge of hip fracture patients score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, Anne J. H.; Flikweert, Elvira R.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Maier, Andrea B.; Bloem, Rolf M.; Pilot, Peter; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    This paper reports the external validation of a recently developed instrument, the Discharge of Hip fracture Patients score (DHP) that predicts discharge location on admission in patients living in their own home prior to hip fracture surgery. The DHP (maximum score 100 points) was applied to 125

  8. External Validity in Policy Evaluations that Choose Sites Purposively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert B; Orr, Larry L; Bell, Stephen H; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of social programs are often carried out in multiple "sites," such as school districts, housing authorities, local TANF offices, or One-Stop Career Centers. Most evaluations select sites purposively following a process that is nonrandom. Unfortunately, purposive site selection can produce a sample of sites that is not representative of the population of interest for the program. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model of purposive site selection. We begin with the proposition that a purposive sample of sites can usefully be conceptualized as a random sample of sites from some well-defined population, for which the sampling probabilities are unknown and vary across sites. This proposition allows us to derive a formal, yet intuitive, mathematical expression for the bias in the pooled impact estimate when sites are selected purposively. This formula helps us to better understand the consequences of selecting sites purposively, and the factors that contribute to the bias. Additional research is needed to obtain evidence on how large the bias tends to be in actual studies that select sites purposively, and to develop methods to increase the external validity of these studies.

  9. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  10. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized mu......-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd......Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  11. Validation of a scenario-based assessment of critical thinking using an externally validated tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Jennifer L; Schmidt, Peggy; Smylie, Dean; Irizarry, Kris; Crocker, Carlos; Tyler, John; Barr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    With medical education transitioning from knowledge-based curricula to competency-based curricula, critical thinking skills have emerged as a major competency. While there are validated external instruments for assessing critical thinking, many educators have created their own custom assessments of critical thinking. However, the face validity of these assessments has not been challenged. The purpose of this study was to compare results from a custom assessment of critical thinking with the results from a validated external instrument of critical thinking. Students from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences were administered a custom assessment of critical thinking (ACT) examination and the externally validated instrument, California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), in the spring of 2011. Total scores and sub-scores from each exam were analyzed for significant correlations using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant correlations between ACT Blooms 2 and deductive reasoning and total ACT score and deductive reasoning were demonstrated with correlation coefficients of 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. No other statistically significant correlations were found. The lack of significant correlation between the two examinations illustrates the need in medical education to externally validate internal custom assessments. Ultimately, the development and validation of custom assessments of non-knowledge-based competencies will produce higher quality medical professionals.

  12. External Validity and Model Validity: A Conceptual Approach for Systematic Review Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Khorsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence rankings do not consider equally internal (IV, external (EV, and model validity (MV for clinical studies including complementary and alternative medicine/integrative health care (CAM/IHC research. This paper describe this model and offers an EV assessment tool (EVAT© for weighing studies according to EV and MV in addition to IV. Methods. An abbreviated systematic review methodology was employed to search, assemble, and evaluate the literature that has been published on EV/MV criteria. Standard databases were searched for keywords relating to EV, MV, and bias-scoring from inception to Jan 2013. Tools identified and concepts described were pooled to assemble a robust tool for evaluating these quality criteria. Results. This study assembled a streamlined, objective tool to incorporate for the evaluation of quality of EV/MV research that is more sensitive to CAM/IHC research. Conclusion. Improved reporting on EV can help produce and provide information that will help guide policy makers, public health researchers, and other scientists in their selection, development, and improvement in their research-tested intervention. Overall, clinical studies with high EV have the potential to provide the most useful information about “real-world” consequences of health interventions. It is hoped that this novel tool which considers IV, EV, and MV on equal footing will better guide clinical decision making.

  13. External validation of the paediatric risk of malignancy index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, A J; Kluivers, K B; Massuger, L F; Coppus, S F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to validate the paediatric risk of malignancy index (PRMI), as previously published. External validation study. Academic hospital: Radboud University Medical Center. Female paediatric patients under the age of 18 years diagnosed with, or treated for, an adnexal mass between January 1999 and October 2013. Information was collected on diagnosis, presenting symptoms, and signs and imaging characteristics. The PRMI was calculated for each patient. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated, and the results were visualised using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve). Histological diagnosis, discriminative performance using the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve and sensitivity and specificity. Seventy-eight patients were included, with a median age of 12 years. A malignant mass was found in 17 patients (21.8%). The PRMI with a cut-off value of 7 resulted in a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 44.1-89.6%) and a specificity of 85.3% (95% CI 73.8-93.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.868 (95% CI 0.756-0.980). The PRMI showed less discriminative capacity than originally published, but its performance was still good; however, further prospective validation studies are needed to define whether the model is useful in daily clinical practice. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. External Validation of the HERNIAscore: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Moses, Maya L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Hannon, Craig; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-09-01

    The HERNIAscore is a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) risk assessment tool that uses only preoperative variables and predictable intraoperative variables. The aim of this study was to validate and modify, if needed, the HERNIAscore in an external dataset. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal malignancy from 2011 through 2015 at a safety-net hospital. The primary end point was clinical postoperative VIH. Patients were stratified into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on HERNIAscore. A revised HERNIAscore was calculated with the addition of earlier abdominal operation as a categorical variable. Cox regression of incisional hernia with stratification by risk class was performed. Incidence rates of clinical VIH formation within each risk class were also calculated. Two hundred and forty-seven patents were enrolled. On Cox regression, in addition to the 3 variables of the HERNIAscore (BMI, COPD, and incision length), earlier abdominal operation was also predictive of VIH. The revised HERNIAscore demonstrated improved predictive accuracy for clinical VIH. Although the original HERNIAscore effectively stratified the risk of an incisional radiographic VIH developing, the revised HERNIAscore provided a statistically significant stratification for both clinical and radiographic VIHs in this patient cohort. We have externally validated and improved the HERNIAscore. The revised HERNIAscore uses BMI, incision length, COPD, and earlier abdominal operation to predict risk of postoperative incisional hernia. Future research should assess methods to prevent incisional hernias in moderate-to-high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validade de construto da versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização: evidências a partir de uma amostra de estudantes universitários Construct validity of the Brazilian version of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory: evidence from a university student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Wander de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Externalização é uma dimensão das diferenças individuais que dá substrato e unifica traços impulsivos e agressivos de personalidade a transtornos mentais relacionados ao uso de substância e à conduta antissocial. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo objetivou apresentar indicadores de validade de construto da versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo psicométrico de orientação correlacional. Foram utilizadas duas técnicas clássicas de representação de construto: análise exploratória de fatores comuns e análise de consistência interna. A amostra consistiu de 258 participantes de ambos os sexos, provenientes de diferentes cursos universitários de duas instituições públicas do estado de Minas Gerais. RESULTADOS: A análise fatorial resultou em um modelo de um fator de segunda ordem (Externalização com três fatores de primeira ordem (dimensões de agressão, de uso de substância e de impulsividade/alienação. Os coeficientes alfa mostraram-se bastante elevados, com índices acima de 0,9 tanto para os três fatores de primeira ordem quanto para o fator geral. CONCLUSÃO: Combinados, os resultados trazem evidências de validade e de fidedignidade para a versão brasileira do Inventário Espectral de Externalização no que tange à sua aplicabilidade a estudantes universitários.BACKGROUND: Externalizing is a dimension of individual differences that undergirds and unites aggressive and impulsive personality traits to psychopathological disorders related to substance use and antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to establish parameters of construct validity for the Brazilian version of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory. METHOD: This is a psychometrical correlacional study design. Two classical techniques of construct representation were implemented: unweighted least squares exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. The sample

  16. External validation of the HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lee; Gomes, Marcelo P V; Al Solaiman, Firas; St John, Julie; Ozaki, Asuka; Raju, Manjunath; Dhariwal, Manoj; Kim, Esther S H

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be challenging. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score has recently been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of HIT. We sought to externally and prospectively validate the HEP score. We prospectively assessed pre-test probability of HIT for 51 consecutive patients referred to our Consultative Service for evaluation of possible HIT between August 1, 2012 and February 1, 2013. Two Vascular Medicine fellows independently applied the 4T and HEP scores for each patient. Two independent HIT expert adjudicators rendered a diagnosis of HIT likely or unlikely. The median (interquartile range) of 4T and HEP scores were 4.5 (3.0, 6.0) and 5 (3.0, 8.5), respectively. There were no significant differences between area under receiver-operating characteristic curves of 4T and HEP scores against the gold standard, confirmed HIT [defined as positive serotonin release assay and positive anti-PF4/heparin ELISA] (0.74 vs 0.73, p = 0.97). HEP score ≥ 2 was 100 % sensitive and 16 % specific for determining the presence of confirmed HIT while a 4T score > 3 was 93 % sensitive and 35 % specific. In conclusion, the HEP and 4T scores are excellent screening pre-test probability models for HIT, however, in this prospective validation study, test characteristics for the diagnosis of HIT based on confirmatory laboratory testing and expert opinion are similar. Given the complexity of the HEP scoring model compared to that of the 4T score, further validation of the HEP score is warranted prior to widespread clinical acceptance.

  17. External model validation of binary clinical risk prediction models in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-08-01

    Clinical risk-prediction models serve an important role in healthcare. They are used for clinical decision-making and measuring the performance of healthcare providers. To establish confidence in a model, external model validation is imperative. When designing such an external model validation study, thought must be given to patient selection, risk factor and outcome definitions, missing data, and the transparent reporting of the analysis. In addition, there are a number of statistical methods available for external model validation. Execution of a rigorous external validation study rests in proper study design, application of suitable statistical methods, and transparent reporting.

  18. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  19. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.

  20. Why a Trade-Off? The Relationship between the External and Internal Validity of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimenez-Buedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the methodological discussion around experiments in economics and other social sciences is framed in terms of the notions of internal and external validity. The standard view is that internal validity and external validity stand in a relationship best described as a trade-off. However, it is also commonly held that internal validity is a prerequisite to external validity. This article addresses the problem of the compatibility of these two ideas and analyzes critically the standard arguments about the conditions under which a trade-off between internal and external validity arises. Our argument stands against common associations of internal validity and external validity with the distinction between field and laboratory experiments and assesses critically the arguments that link the artificiality of experimental settings done in the laboratory with the purported trade-off between internal and external validity. We conclude that the idea of a trade-off or tension between internal and external validity seems, upon analysis, far less cogent than its intuitive attractiveness may lead us to think at first sight.

  1. Expanding the Framework of Internal and External Validity in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    An experiment is deemed to be valid, inasmuch as valid cause-effect relationships are established, if the results are due only to the manipulated independent variable (possess internal validity) and are generalizable to groups, environments, and contexts outside of the experimental settings (possess external validity). Consequently, all…

  2. Improving the external validity of clinical trials: the case of multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services vision and strategic framework on multiple chronic conditions (MCCs incorporates recommendations designed to facilitate research that will improve our knowledge about interventions and systems that will benefit individuals with MCCs (or multimorbidity. The evidence base supporting the management of patients with MCCs will be built both through intervention trials specifically designed to address multimorbidity and identification of MCCs in participants across the clinical trial range. This article specifically focuses on issues relating to external validity with specific reference to trials involving patients with MCCs. The exclusion of such patients from clinical trials has been well documented. Randomized control trials (RCTs are considered the “gold standard” of evidence, but may have drawbacks in relation to external validity, particularly in relation to multimorbidity. It may, therefore, be necessary to consider a broader range of research methods that can provide converging evidence on intervention effects to address MCCs. Approaches can also be taken to increase the usefulness of RCTs in general for providing evidence to inform multimorbidity management. Additional improvements to RCTs would include better reporting of inclusion and exclusion criteria and participant characteristics in relation to MCCs. New trials should be considered in terms of how they will add to the existing evidence base and should inform how interventions may work in different settings and patient groups. Research on treatments and interventions for patients with MCCs is badly needed. It is important that this research includes patient-centered measures and that generalizability issues be explicitly addressed.

  3. External validation of two tools for the clinical diagnosis of acute diverticulitis without imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.; Andeweg, C.S.; Laurell, H.; Daniels, L.; Laméris, W.; Reitsma, J.B.; Hendriks, J.C.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Goor, H.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim External validation and comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of two predictive tools, the emergency department triad and the clinical scoring tool in diagnosing acute diverticulitis. Methods Two derivation datasets were used crosswise for external validation. In addition, both tools were valida

  4. Developing a brief cross-culturally validated screening tool for externalizing disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Most screening instruments for externalizing disorders have been developed and validated in Western children. We developed and validated a brief screening instrument for predicting externalizing disorders in native Dutch children as well as in non-Dutch immigrant children, using predictor

  5. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

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    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  6. Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn D

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed.

  7. Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramspek, Chava L; Voskamp, Pauline Wm; van Ittersum, Frans J; Krediet, Raymond T; Dekker, Friedo W; van Diepen, Merel

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities. A systematic review was performed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To account for missing data, multiple imputation was performed. The original prediction formulae were extracted from selected studies. The probability of death per model was calculated for each individual within the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD). The predictive performance of the models was assessed based on their discrimination and calibration. In total, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. External validation was performed in 1,943 dialysis patients from NECOSAD for a total of seven models. The models performed moderately to well in terms of discrimination, with C-statistics ranging from 0.710 (interquartile range 0.708-0.711) to 0.752 (interquartile range 0.750-0.753) for a time frame of 1 year. According to the calibration, most models overestimated the probability of death. Overall, the performance of the models was poorer in the external validation than in the original population, affirming the importance of external validation. Floege et al's models showed the highest predictive performance. The present study is a step forward in the use of a prediction model as a useful tool for nephrologists, using evidence-based medicine that

  8. Investigating Validity Evidence for the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire

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    Fairchild, Amanda J.; Finney, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study gathered internal structural validity and external criterion validity evidence for the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire (ECR-R) scores. Specifically, confirmatory factor analysis of the data provided general support for the hypothesized two-factor model, and hypothesized relationships with external…

  9. A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation of Cross-Validation and External Test Set Validation in (Q)SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütlein, Martin; Helma, Christoph; Karwath, Andreas; Kramer, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    (Q)SAR model validation is essential to ensure the quality of inferred models and to indicate future model predictivity on unseen compounds. Proper validation is also one of the requirements of regulatory authorities in order to accept the (Q)SAR model, and to approve its use in real world scenarios as alternative testing method. However, at the same time, the question of how to validate a (Q)SAR model, in particular whether to employ variants of cross-validation or external test set validation, is still under discussion. In this paper, we empirically compare a k-fold cross-validation with external test set validation. To this end we introduce a workflow allowing to realistically simulate the common problem setting of building predictive models for relatively small datasets. The workflow allows to apply the built and validated models on large amounts of unseen data, and to compare the performance of the different validation approaches. The experimental results indicate that cross-validation produces higher performant (Q)SAR models than external test set validation, reduces the variance of the results, while at the same time underestimates the performance on unseen compounds. The experimental results reported in this paper suggest that, contrary to current conception in the community, cross-validation may play a significant role in evaluating the predictivity of (Q)SAR models.

  10. Heart rate variability indicates emotional value during pro-social economic laboratory decisions with large external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken, Jonas

    2017-03-10

    The present study investigates the external validity of emotional value measured in economic laboratory experiments by using a physiological indicator of stress, heart rate variability (HRV). While there is ample evidence supporting the external validity of economic experiments, there is little evidence comparing the magnitude of internal levels of emotional stress during decision making with external stress. The current study addresses this gap by comparing the magnitudes of decision stress experienced in the laboratory with the stress from outside the laboratory. To quantify a large change in HRV, measures observed in the laboratory during decision-making are compared to the difference between HRV during a university exam and other mental activity for the same individuals in and outside of the laboratory. The results outside the laboratory inform about the relevance of laboratory findings in terms of their relative magnitude. Results show that psychologically induced HRV changes observed in the laboratory, particularly in connection with social preferences, correspond to large effects outside. This underscores the external validity of laboratory findings and shows the magnitude of emotional value connected to pro-social economic decisions in the laboratory.

  11. Demonstrating Experimenter "Ineptitude" as a Means of Teaching Internal and External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Kimberli R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Internal and external validity are key concepts in understanding the scientific method and fostering critical thinking. This article describes a class demonstration of a "botched" experiment to teach validity to undergraduates. Psychology students (N = 75) completed assessments at the beginning of the semester, prior to and immediately following…

  12. External validation of a clinical scoring system for the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Opmeer, B. C.; Zweers, E. J. K.; van Ballegooie, E.; ter Brugge, H. G.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: A prediction rule for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could be helpful in early detection and increased efficiency of screening. A prediction rule by means of a clinical scoring system is available, but has never been validated externally. The aim of this study was to validate the scoring s

  13. External validation of anti-Müllerian hormone based prediction of live birth in assisted conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Amani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological age and oocyte yield are independent determinants of live birth in assisted conception. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after controlled ovarian stimulation. We have previously assessed the ability of AMH and age to independently predict live birth in an Italian assisted conception cohort. Herein we report the external validation of the nomogram in 822 UK first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods Retrospective cohort consisting of 822 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle at Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine. Analyses were restricted to women aged between 25 and 42 years of age. All women had an AMH measured prior to commencing their first IVF cycle. The performance of the model was assessed; discrimination by the area under the receiver operator curve (ROCAUC and model calibration by the predicted probability versus observed probability. Results Live births occurred in 29.4% of the cohort. The observed and predicted outcomes showed no evidence of miscalibration (p = 0.188. The ROCAUC was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.68, suggesting moderate and similar discrimination to the original model. The ROCAUC for a continuous model of age and AMH was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61, 0.69, suggesting that the original categories of AMH were appropriate. Conclusions We confirm by external validation that AMH and age are independent predictors of live birth. Although the confidence intervals for each category are wide, our results support the assessment of AMH in larger cohorts with detailed baseline phenotyping for live birth prediction.

  14. Checklist for the qualitative evaluation of clinical studies with particular focus on external validity and model validity

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    Vollmar Horst C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their significance and application. In this article, a comprehensive checklist is presented addressing these relevant criteria. Methods The checklist was developed by listing the most commonly used assessment criteria for clinical studies. Additionally, specific lists for individual applications were included. The categories of biases of internal validity (selection, performance, attrition and detection bias correspond to structural, treatment-related and observational differences between the test and control groups. Analogously, we have extended these categories to address external validity and model validity, regarding similarity between the study population/conditions and the general population/conditions related to structure, treatment and observation. Results A checklist is presented, in which the evaluation criteria concerning external validity and model validity are systemised and transformed into a questionnaire format. Conclusion The checklist presented in this article can be applied to both planning and evaluating of clinical studies. We encourage the prospective user to modify the checklists according to the respective application and research question. The higher expenditure needed for the evaluation of clinical studies in systematic reviews is justified, particularly in the light of the influential nature of their conclusions on therapeutic decisions and the creation of clinical guidelines.

  15. How to assess the external validity and model validity of therapeutic trials: a conceptual approach to systematic review methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsan, Raheleh; Crawford, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Background. Evidence rankings do not consider equally internal (IV), external (EV), and model validity (MV) for clinical studies including complementary and alternative medicine/integrative medicine (CAM/IM) research. This paper describe this model and offers an EV assessment tool (EVAT©) for weighing studies according to EV and MV in addition to IV. Methods. An abbreviated systematic review methodology was employed to search, assemble, and evaluate the literature that has been published on EV/MV criteria. Standard databases were searched for keywords relating to EV, MV, and bias-scoring from inception to Jan 2013. Tools identified and concepts described were pooled to assemble a robust tool for evaluating these quality criteria. Results. This study assembled a streamlined, objective tool to incorporate for the evaluation of quality of EV/MV research that is more sensitive to CAM/IM research. Conclusion. Improved reporting on EV can help produce and provide information that will help guide policy makers, public health researchers, and other scientists in their selection, development, and improvement in their research-tested intervention. Overall, clinical studies with high EV have the potential to provide the most useful information about "real-world" consequences of health interventions. It is hoped that this novel tool which considers IV, EV, and MV on equal footing will better guide clinical decision making.

  16. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  17. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Leopold, Daniel R; Burns, G Leonard; Jarrett, Matthew A; Langberg, Joshua M; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willcutt, Erik G

    2016-03-01

    there is initial support for SCT being associated with processing speed, sustained attention, and metacognitive deficits. This meta-analytic review provides strong support for the internal validity of SCT and preliminary support for the external validity of SCT. In terms of diagnostic validity, there is currently not enough evidence to describe SCT in diagnostic terms. Key directions for future research are discussed, including evaluating the conceptualization of SCT as a transdiagnostic construct and the need for longitudinal research. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can findings from randomized controlled trials of social skills training in autism spectrum disorder be generalized? The neglected dimension of external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Choque Olsson, Nora; Bölte, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We extracted data clustered into six overarching themes: source population, included population, context, treatment provider, treatment intervention, and outcome. A total of 15 eligible randomized controlled trials were identified. The eligible population was typically limited to high-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder, and the included population was predominantly male and Caucasian. Scant information about the recruitment of participants was provided, and details about treatment providers and settings were sparse. It was not evident from the trials to what extent acquired social skills were enacted in everyday life and maintained over time. We conclude that the generalizability of the accumulated evidence is unclear and that the determinants of external validity are often inadequately reported. At this point, more effectiveness-oriented randomized controlled trials of equally high internal and external validity are needed. More attention to the determinants of external validity is warranted when this new generation of randomized controlled trials are planned and reported. We provide a tentative checklist for this purpose.

  19. Evaluating Effectiveness of External Auditors’ Report: Empirical Evidence from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes that it is interesting to study the opinion of the auditor as intermediary information between the company and external users throughout audit report. Throughout questionnaire usable data were collected from different participants. The results of this study show that audit report is easily understandable from various stakeholders in Iran and it is cornerstone to investment making decision.

  20. Approaches for externally validated QSAR modelling of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, P; Pilutti, P; Papa, E

    2007-01-01

    Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are recognized mutagens and carcinogens. A set of mutagenicity data (TA100) for 48 nitro-PAHs was modeled by the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) regression method, and OECD principles for QSAR model validation were applied. The proposed Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models are based on two topological molecular descriptors. The models were validated for predictivity by both internal and external validation. For the external validation, three different splitting approaches, D-optimal Experimental Design, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Random Selection by activity sampling, were applied to the original data set in order to compare these methodologies and to select the best descriptors able to model each prediction set chemicals independently of the splitting method applied. The applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach.

  1. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian Aavang; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, J K

    2013-01-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasmino......Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant...... and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0...

  2. Impact of External Cue Validity on Driving Performance in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Scally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the impact of external cue validity on simulated driving performance in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD patients and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Braking points and distance between deceleration point and braking point were analysed for red traffic signals preceded either by Valid Cues (correctly predicting signal, Invalid Cues (incorrectly predicting signal, and No Cues. Results showed that PD drivers braked significantly later and travelled significantly further between deceleration and braking points compared with controls for Invalid and No-Cue conditions. No significant group differences were observed for driving performance in response to Valid Cues. The benefit of Valid Cues relative to Invalid Cues and No Cues was significantly greater for PD drivers compared with controls. Trail Making Test (B-A scores correlated with driving performance for PDs only. These results highlight the importance of external cues and higher cognitive functioning for driving performance in mild to moderate PD.

  3. The Word Associates Format: Validation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Ng, Janice Wun Ching; Garras, John

    2011-01-01

    Although the Word Associates Format (WAF) is becoming more frequently used as a depth-of-knowledge measure, relatively little validation has been carried out on it. This report of two validation studies tackles various important WAF issues yet to be satisfactorily resolved. Study 1 conducted introspective interviews regarding students' WAF…

  4. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  5. External validity of ST elevation myocardial infarction trials : The Zwolle studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasoul, Saman; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Hoorntje, Jan C. A.; Gosselink, A. T. Marcel; Zijlstra, Felix; Suryapranata, Harry; van 't Hof, Arnoud W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Guidelines are mainly based upon results of randomised controlled clinical trials. However, due to low external validity of these trials, their results can not reasonably be applied to all patients in routine practice. In our hospital, all patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

  6. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  7. External Debt and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Isola Adedoyin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1981-2014 based on annual data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin (various issues and abstract of National Bureau of Statistics (NBS. The researcher examined the existence of Co-integration among the underlying variables using Auto-regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model after conducting preliminary statistical test to ascertain the normality of the variables as well as stationary of the data set using descriptive and unit root tests. The result of the ARDL test shows that a significant relationship exists between external debt and economic growth both at the long and short run. The study also examined the causality among the variables using Granger causality test and observed that no causality exist among the variables. The study therefore recommends that government should ensure that loans obtained are used to finance profitable projects that would generate reasonable amount of revenue to service the debts and also adequate record of debt payment obligations should be kept and debt should not be allowed to exceed a maximum limit in order to prevent debt overhang.

  8. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvivier, W.F.; Peeters, R.J.; Beek, van T.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the be

  9. Prognostic models for locally advanced cervical cancer: external validation of the published models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, David; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Fernández, Sara Pedraza; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Gómez, José Fermín Pérez Regadera

    2017-09-01

    To externally validate the prognostic models for predicting the time-dependent outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in an independent cohort. A historical cohort of 297 women with LACC who were treated with radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy from 1999 to 2014 at the 12 de Octubre University Hospital (H12O), Madrid, Spain. The external validity of prognostic models was quantified regarding discrimination, calibration, measures of overall performance, and decision curve analyses. The review identified 8 studies containing 13 prognostic models. Different (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stages, parametrium involvement, hydronephrosis, location of positive nodes, and race) but related cohorts with validation cohort (5-year overall survival [OS]=70%; 5-year disease-free survival [DFS]=64%; average age of 50; and over 79% squamous cell) were evaluated. The following models exhibited good external validity in terms of discrimination and calibration but limited clinical utility: the OS model at 3 year from Kidd et al.'s study (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]=0.69; threshold of clinical utility [TCU] between 36% and 50%), the models of DFS at 1 year from Kidd et al.'s study (AUROC=0.64; TCU between 24% and 32%) and 2 years from Rose et al.'s study (AUROC=0.70; TCU between 19% and 58%) and the distant recurrence model at 5 years from Kang et al.'s study (AUROC=0.67; TCU between 12% and 36%). The external validation revealed the statistical and clinical usefulness of 4 prognostic models published in the literature.

  10. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort : prospective multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, Marije; Kwee, Anneke; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Inge; Evers, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; Hering, Yolanda R; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kirpestein, Cornel; Monincx, Wilma M; Siljee, Jacqueline E; Van 't Zelfde, Annewil; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Vankan-Buitelaar, Simone A; Vonk, Mariska A A W; Wiegers, Therese A; Zwart, Joost J; Franx, Arie; Moons, Karel G M; Koster, Maria P H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: External validation of all published prognostic models in

  11. Psychological capital: Internal and external validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24 on a South African sample

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    Gina Görgens-Ekermans

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological capital (PsyCap is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24. Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA and non-USA studies.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity, reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement of the PCQ-24.Motivation for the study: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured.Main findings: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables.Practical/managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices.Contribution/value-add: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism on a South African sample, was provided in this study.

  12. Survival nomogram for curatively resected Korean gastric cancer patients: multicenter retrospective analysis with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database.We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 2006 at eight centers. Among these centers, six institutions were randomly assigned to the development set, and the other two centers were assigned to the validation set. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model was performed, and discrimination and calibration were evaluated by external validation.Multivariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In the external validation, the concordance index was 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.784-0.878, and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic was 3.92 (P = 0.917.We developed and validated a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer based on a multicenter database. This nomogram can be broadly applied even in general hospitals and is useful for counseling patients, and scheduling follow-up.

  13. Statistical external validation and consensus modeling: a QSPR case study for Koc prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester

    2007-03-01

    The soil sorption partition coefficient (log K(oc)) of a heterogeneous set of 643 organic non-ionic compounds, with a range of more than 6 log units, is predicted by a statistically validated QSAR modeling approach. The applied multiple linear regression (ordinary least squares, OLS) is based on a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors selected by the genetic algorithms-variable subset selection (GA-VSS) procedure. The models were validated for predictivity by different internal and external validation approaches. For external validation we applied self organizing maps (SOM) to split the original data set: the best four-dimensional model, developed on a reduced training set of 93 chemicals, has a predictivity of 78% when applied on 550 validation chemicals (prediction set). The selected molecular descriptors, which could be interpreted through their mechanistic meaning, were compared with the more common physico-chemical descriptors log K(ow) and log S(w). The chemical applicability domain of each model was verified by the leverage approach in order to propose only reliable data. The best predicted data were obtained by consensus modeling from 10 different models in the genetic algorithm model population.

  14. Externally validated QSPR modelling of VOC tropospheric oxidation by NO3 radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, E; Gramatica, P

    2008-01-01

    The troposphere is the principal recipient of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin. The persistence of these compounds in the troposphere is an important factor for the evaluation of their fate, and the possible negative effects to the environment and human health. In this study, the tropospheric lifetime of 166 VOCs, in terms of night-time degradation rates with nitrate radical (NO(3)), was modelled by the quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) approach. The multiple linear regression method was applied, in combination with the genetic algorithm-variable subset selection procedure, to a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated by the DRAGON software. The models were developed according to the OECD principles for regulatory acceptance of QSARs, with particular attention to external validation and applicability domain (AD). The external validation was performed on an unbiased external test set or by splitting the available data using self-organized maps or the random by response approach. The best QSPR models presented in this study showed good internal (range of Q(loo)(2): 89-92%) as well as external predictivity (range of Q(ext)(2): 75-89%). The AD of the models was analysed by the leverage approach, and was represented graphically in the Williams graph.

  15. Evidence for external forcing temporal clustering of great earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Kaldybayev, Azamat; Nurakynov, Serik

    2016-04-01

    It is shown by Bufe and Perkins [2005, BSSA, doi:10.1785/0120040110] and Shearera and Stark [2012, PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118525109] that clustering of great earthquakes in 1950-1965 and 2004-2011 years is highly significant, with a 0.5% probability of random occurrence. Lutikov and Rogozhin [2014, Physics of the Solid Earth] reported on a similar clustering in the end of 19th - beginning of 20ty centuries as well, when strongest earthquakes occurred in Tien Shan (1889, M=8.3; and 1911, M=8.2); Alaska (1899, M=8.0); Kashgaria (1902, M=8.2); Mongolia (1905, M=8.2); San Francisco (1906, M=8.3), China(1906, M=8.3); Columbia (1906, M=8.6). Shearera and Stark [2012] have found that clustering of great earthquakes is analogous to seismic swarms that occur for a limited time. Simultaneously, they mentioned that at present no physical mechanism has been proposed to explain possible global seismicity swarms. Our results suggest that a mechanism responsible for temporal clustering of great earthquakes could be an external one related to the processes in the whole solar system including the Sun. We pay attention that the three marked periods of great earthquake clustering are related closely to the extreme phases of the recent Solar Centennial Gleissberg Cycle, which minimums occurred around of 1913 and 2008 years, and maximum - around of 1960 year. In particular, the great earthquake clustering in 1950-1965 coincides closely with the extremely high 19th eleven year solar cycle lasting from February 1954 to October 1964, while a great earthquake clustering after 2004 year coincides closely with the recent prolonged solar minimum developing after 2000 year. Also, we demonstrate that depending on the structure and composition of the lithosphere, strongest earthquakes may prefer to occur either in high or low solar activity. In particular, data analysis for 32 strongest (M=>7.0) earthquakes occurred in 1973-2014 years in the orogeny region of Eurasia, restricted by coordinates

  16. When All Children Comprehend: Increasing the External Validity of Narrative Comprehension Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas E. Burris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children’s play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children’s later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.

  17. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.

    2007-01-01

    -skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships. Here, we describe an external validation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new...... for sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid...

  18. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use.

  19. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  20. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  1. Development and External Validation of a Prognostic Nomogram for Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Moser, Justin C.; Parrozzani, Raffaele; Bazzi, Marco; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Mocellin, Simone; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Midena, Edoardo; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Aliberti, Camillo; Campana, Luca G.; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) will develop metastatic disease, usually involving the liver. The outcome of metastatic UM (mUM) is generally poor and no standard therapy has been established. Additionally, clinicians lack a validated prognostic tool to evaluate these patients. The aim of this work was to develop a reliable prognostic nomogram for clinicians. Patients and Methods Two cohorts of mUM patients, from Veneto Oncology Institute (IOV) (N=152) and Mayo Clinic (MC) (N=102), were analyzed to develop and externally validate, a prognostic nomogram. Results The median survival of mUM was 17.2 months in the IOV cohort and 19.7 in the MC cohort. Percentage of liver involvement (HR 1.6), elevated levels of serum LDH (HR 1.6), and a WHO performance status=1 (HR 1.5) or 2–3 (HR 4.6) were associated with worse prognosis. Longer disease-free interval from diagnosis of UM to that of mUM conferred a survival advantage (HR 0.9). The nomogram had a concordance probability of 0.75 (SE .006) in the development dataset (IOV), and 0.80 (SE .009) in the external validation (MC). Nomogram predictions were well calibrated. Conclusions The nomogram, which includes percentage of liver involvement, LDH levels, WHO performance status and disease free-interval accurately predicts the prognosis of mUM and could be useful for decision-making and risk stratification for clinical trials. PMID:25780931

  2. Prediction Models and Their External Validation Studies for Mortality of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Uchino, Shigehiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review AKI outcome prediction models and their external validation studies, to describe the discrepancy of reported accuracy between the results of internal and external validations, and to identify variables frequently included in the prediction models. Methods We searched the MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases (until January 2016). Studies were eligible if they derived a model to predict mortality of AKI patients or externally validated at least one of the prediction models, and presented area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUROC) to assess model discrimination. Studies were excluded if they described only results of logistic regression without reporting a scoring system, or if a prediction model was generated from a specific cohort. Results A total of 2204 potentially relevant articles were found and screened, of which 12 articles reporting original prediction models for hospital mortality in AKI patients and nine articles assessing external validation were selected. Among the 21 studies for AKI prediction models and their external validation, 12 were single-center (57%), and only three included more than 1,000 patients (14%). The definition of AKI was not uniform and none used recently published consensus criteria for AKI. Although good performance was reported in their internal validation, most of the prediction models had poor discrimination with an AUROC below 0.7 in the external validation studies. There were 10 common non-renal variables that were reported in more than three prediction models: mechanical ventilation, age, gender, hypotension, liver failure, oliguria, sepsis/septic shock, low albumin, consciousness and low platelet count. Conclusions Information in this systematic review should be useful for future prediction model derivation by providing potential candidate predictors, and for future external validation by listing up the published prediction models. PMID:28056039

  3. Predicting complications in pre-eclampsia : external validation of the fullPIERS model using the PETRA trial dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Joost; Payne, Beth; von Dadelszen, Peter; Groen, Henk; de Vries, Johanna; Magee, Laura A.; Mol, Ben Willem; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The internally validated fulIPIERS model predicts adverse maternal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia within 48 h after eligibility. Our objective was to assess generalizability of this prediction model. Study design: External validation study using prospectively collected data from two

  4. Prognosis in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury : External validation of the IMPACT models and the role of extracranial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingsma, Hester; Andriessen, Teuntje M. J. C.; Haitsema, Iain; Horn, Janneke; van der Naalt, Joukje; Franschman, Gaby; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Vos, Pieter E.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    BACKGROUND: Several prognostic models to predict outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been developed, but few are externally validated. We aimed to validate the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic models in a recent unselected patient

  5. Validity of Diagnostic Evidence for Deceased Cases in Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA WAN; LI-JUN WANG; JUN-FANG WANG; AI-PING CHEN; GONG-HUAN YANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity of the diagnostic evidence for deceased cases in hospitals. Methods All information collected from medical records of the deceased cases in tertiary care health facilities was input into our database. Four diagnosis levels were determined based on level of diagnostic evidence: level I was based on autopsy, pathology or operative exploration, level Ⅱ on physical and laboratory tests plus expert clinical judgment, level Ⅲ on expert clinical judgment, level Ⅳ on postmortem assumptions. After the diagnostic evidence of each deceased case was reviewed by a panel of three experts, the diagnostic level of each diagnosis was determined. Results Among the 2102 medical cases for verbal autopsy study, only 26 (1.24%) afforded diagnostic evidence for level Ⅲ. Among the level Ⅲ evidence-based cases of death, the major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and gastroenterological diseases. According to some special symptoms and medical histories, these cases could be diagnosed by comprehensive clinical judgment. Only one case met the criteria for level Ⅳ. Conclusion Level Ⅰ diagnostic evidence is hard to attain in China because of the traditional concept and economic restriction. The causes for 2101 deaths can be validated by level Ⅱ or Ⅲ diagnostic evidence.

  6. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  7. To whom do the results of the multicenter, randomized, controlled INSECT trial (ISRCTN 24023541 apply? - assessment of external validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Seiler et al: Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures for closure of primary elective midline abdominal incisions: a multicenter randomized trial (INSECT: ISRCTN24023541. Ann Surg 2009, 249(4:576-582. Background Existing evidence suggests that the transfer of results of randomized controlled trials into clinical practice may be limited. Potential reasons can be attributed to aspects of external validity. The aim of this study is to investigate issues related to the external validity of the INSECT trial. Methods All participating surgical departments were categorized and the clinical and baseline characteristics of randomized patients were evaluated. In addition, demographic and clinical data of all screened and randomized patients at the Departments of Surgery in Heidelberg and Erlangen were analyzed. Results Twenty-five centers enrolled a total of 625 patients. These centers included eight primary, 11 secondary, and six tertiary care centers. The tertiary care centers enrolled the most patients (n = 237, 38% followed by the primary care centers (n = 199, 32% and the secondary care centers (n = 189 patients; 30%. The mean number and baseline data of randomized patients did not differ between the three types of care centers (p = 0.09. Overall, the treatment according to protocol was at least 92%. At the Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, 307 patients were screened and 60 out of 130 eligible patients were randomized. There were no differences in demographic and clinical baseline data between included and non-included patients. In Erlangen, 351 patients were screened and 57 out of 106 eligible patients randomized. Conclusions Results of the INSECT trial are applicable to a broad spectrum of patients treated at different hospital levels.

  8. Therapist variation within randomised trials of psychotherapy: implications for precision, internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Rebecca; Roberts, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Nesting of patients within therapists in psychotherapy trials creates an additional level within the design. The multilevel nature of this design has implications for the precision, internal and external validity of estimates of the treatment effect. Prior to or during a trial, psychotherapies are allocated to therapists and therapists are assigned to patients such that the therapist becomes part of the causal pathway from the intervention to the patient. It is therefore important to consider not only the relationship between interventions and patients but also relationships between interventions and therapists and between therapists and patients. Research designs comparing the effects of therapeutic approaches, therapist characteristics and packages of the two can be unified by viewing therapists as an important source of variability within psychotherapy outcome studies. Methodological considerations arising from therapist variation will be discussed, drawing together and building upon the associated psychotherapy and statistical literatures. Parallels will also be made with related designs and methods of analysis.

  9. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  10. Theory of Self- vs. Externally-Regulated LearningTM: Fundamentals, Evidence, and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente-Arias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Self- vs. Externally-Regulated LearningTM has integrated the variables of SRL theory, the DEDEPRO model, and the 3P model. This new Theory has proposed: (a in general, the importance of the cyclical model of individual self-regulation (SR and of external regulation stemming from the context (ER, as two different and complementary variables, both in combination and in interaction; (b specifically, in the teaching-learning context, the relevance of different types of combinations between levels of self-regulation (SR and of external regulation (ER in the prediction of self-regulated learning (SRL, and of cognitive-emotional achievement. This review analyzes the assumptions, conceptual elements, empirical evidence, benefits and limitations of SRL vs. ERL Theory. Finally, professional fields of application and future lines of research are suggested.

  11. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Wilco F; Peeters, Ruth J P; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the best decontamination procedure for hair samples containing cannabinoids has been reached so far. In this study, different protocols with solvents, both organic as well as aqueous, were tested on blank and drug user hair for their performance on removing external cannabis contamination originating from either smoke or indirect contact with cannabis plant material. Smoke contamination was mimicked by exposing hair samples to smoke from a cannabis cigarette and indirect contact contamination by handling hair with cannabis contaminated gloves or hands. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels in the hair samples and wash solvents were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Aqueous surfactant solutions removed more THC contamination compared to water, but much less than organic solvents. Methanol, dichloromethane and chloroform were most efficient in removing THC contamination. Due to its lower environmental impact, methanol was chosen as the preferred decontamination solvent. After testing of different sequential wash steps on externally contaminated blank hair, three protocols performed equally well, removing all normal level and more than 99% of unrealistically high levels of external cannabis contamination. Thorough testing on cannabis users' hair, both as such and after deliberate contamination, showed that using these protocols all contamination could be washed from the hair while no incorporated THC was removed from truly positive samples. The present study provides detailed scientific evidence in support of the recommendations of the Society of Hair Testing: a protocol using a single methanol wash followed by a single aqueous

  12. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  13. Validity and Reliability Evidence for Assessing Holland's Career Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Meireles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTProfessional interests are a synthesis of personal characteristics and function as a guiding factor for one's career choice. This study shows evidence of validity and reliability for the interpretation of the scores of a measure of career types. The responses of 1,265 high school students to 154 items from the Escala de Avaliação dos Tipos Profissionais de Holland (ATPH ENT#091;Assessment Scale of Holland's Career TypesENT#093; were used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the six-factor structure is appropriate and consistent to represent the RIASEC types. Evidence of convergent-discriminant validity of parcels of items was demonstrated to represent the latent factors of the ATPH Scale. Results of multidimensional analysis and phi correlation phi partially confirmed the hypothesis of circularity and congruence among the career types, which are organized in the acronym RASIEC. The implications of these results and study limitations are discussed.

  14. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  15. Traditional use of medicinal agents: a valid source of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel; Staiger, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Traditional knowledge uncovered by serious historical research may help to identify new therapeutic agents. It also plays a part in safety evaluation and drug regulation. So far, however, this way of gaining knowledge is very much neglected in the concept of evidence based medicine, which is in no way contradictory to traditional use. Thus, the true meaning of the word 'tradition' is described, while reliable historical sources are quoted. It is then shown how research into the traditional use of medicinal plants is able to reveal knowledge about efficacy and safety of natural products. Several examples successfully leading to new therapeutic options are given. It is then referred to the concept of 'social validation' developed by the Canadian medical historian John Crellin, who also established guidelines for respective research. Eventually, it is proposed to modify the list of evidence levels by inserting an evidence level 4b 'Traditional use in more than one regional cluster'.

  16. Firms' contribution to the internal and external employability of older employees: evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Anita

    2015-03-01

    In the examination of older employees' employability, one can distinguish between internal and external employability. Internal employability can be measured by individual employment stability, and external employability occurs when employees replace one employment relationship with another. Most studies focus on the personal skills and characteristics that are necessary to maintain employability. However, external factors also contribute to individual employability. Therefore, this study examines which organisational attributes of firms contribute to older employees' employability in Germany. Taking firm and individual characteristics into account, the results of discrete-time survival models show that in specific organisational structures, older employees have higher internal employability. Accordingly, older employees are more likely to maintain employment in the service sector and in recruiting organisations facing (skilled) labour shortages. However, the results also indicate that financially investing organisations facilitate early labour market exits. With regard to older employees' external employability, the results show only little evidence indicating an association between organisational attributes of firms and the likelihood of job change.

  17. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  18. [Assessment of complex PTSD - internal and external validity of a diagnostic interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroske-Leiner, Katja; Hofmann, Arne; Sack, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The diagnostic construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) describes the consequences of early onset and long-term persisting psychological traumatizations. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) - is the German adaptation of the structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES). The present study reports first data regarding the internal validity of the I-kPTBS as well as on the external validity of the diagnosis of complex PTSD. The I-kPTBS was applied in 72 consecutive patients of a specialized outpatient clinic. 31 patients fulfilled the criteria of the diagnosis complex PTSD. 25 suffered from a PTSD but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria of complex PTSD. Both groups where compared regarding their symptoms, resources and reports of childhood events. Internal consistence of the I-kPTBS regarding the sample was good to excellent (alpha = 0.88). As expected, patients with the diagnosis of complex PTSD showed more severe dissociative, depressive and general anxiety symptoms than patients with PTSD alone. Patients fulfilling the criteria of complex PTSD reported a lower age at their first traumatic event, more multiple traumatizations and more often a dissociative disorder as comorbid diagnosis. Patients with complex PTSD show a higher traumaload in childhood and a lower level of compensatory resources. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) describes a consistent diagnostic construct. The results demonstrate that the diagnosis of complex PTSD selects a specific group of patients with early childhood trauma and high symptom level. Specific criteria can differentiate this patient group well from patients that suffer from PTSD alone.

  19. Collective Evidence for Inverse Compton Emission from External Photons in High-Power Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanni; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first collective evidence that Fermi-detected jets of high kinetic power (L(sub kin)) are dominated by inverse Compton emission from upscattered external photons. Using a sample with a broad range in orientation angle, including radio galaxies and blazars, we find that very high power sources (L(sub kin) > 10(exp 45.5) erg/s) show a significant increase in the ratio of inverse Compton to synchrotron power (Compton dominance) with decreasing orientation angle, as measured by the radio core dominance and confirmed by the distribution of superluminal speeds. This increase is consistent with beaming expectations for external Compton (EC) emission, but not for synchrotron self Compton (SSC) emission. For the lowest power jets (L(sub kin) photon fields. Coupled with the evidence that jet power is linked to the jet speed, this finding suggests that external photon fields become the dominant source of seed photons in the jet comoving frame only for the faster and therefore more powerful jets.

  20. The Flanagan Quality of Life Scale: Evidence of Construct Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archenholtz Brigitha

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Quality of Life Scale (QOLS, developed originally by John Flanagan in the 1970's, has been adapted for use in chronic illness groups. Evidence for reliability and validity has been published over the years for both English and translations. This paper presents further evidence of construct validity for persons with chronic conditions as well as across two languages, and gender. Methods A sample of 1241 chronically ill and healthy adults from American and Swedish databases was used to generate factor analyses for both the 15-item original QOLS and the 16-item chronic illness adaptation. Results Analysis of the data suggested that the QOLS has three factors in the healthy sample and across chronic conditions, two languages and gender. Factors that could be labeled (1 Relationships and Material Well-Being, (2 Health and Functioning, and (3 Personal, Social and Community Commitment were identified. Conclusions The QOLS is a valid instrument for measuring domains of quality of life across diverse patient groups.

  1. Evidence Based Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine-Way Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pulok K Mukherjee; Ranjit K Harwansh; Shiv Bahadur; Subhadip Banerjee; Amit Kar

    2016-01-01

    Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM) is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC) of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.

  2. Evidence Based Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine – Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulok K Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.

  3. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  4. External Validation of Models for Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyeon Ku

    Full Text Available To externally validate models to predict LN metastsis; Karakiewicz nomogram, clinical nodal staging score (cNSS, and pathologic nodal staging score (pNSS using a different cohort.Clinicopathologic data from 500 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were analyzed. The overall predictive values of models were compared with the criteria of overall performance, discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness.Presence of pN+ stages was recorded in 117 patients (23.4%. Agreement between clinical and pathologic stage was noted in 174 (34.8%. Based on Nagelkerke's peudo-R2 and brier score, pNSS demonstrated best overall performance. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, showed that pNSS had the best discriminatory ability. In all models, calibration was on average correct (calibration-in-the-large coefficient = zero. On decision curve analysis, pNSS performed better than other models across a wide range of threshold probabilities.When compared to pNSS, current precystectomy models such as the Karakiewicz nomogram and cNSS cannot predict the probability of LN metastases accurately. The findings suggest that the application of pNSS to Asian patients is feasible.

  5. Multicentre external validation of the BIMC model for solid solitary pulmonary nodule malignancy prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soardi, Gian Alberto; Perandini, Simone; Motton, Massimiliano; Montemezzi, Stefania [AOUI Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, Anna Rita; Del Ciello, Annemilia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, Giovanna [UO Chirurgia Toracica, Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, Antonio [UO Radiologia, Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, Laura [UO Pneumologia, Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, Mestre (Italy); Bernhart, Marco [UO Radiologia, Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, Mestre (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To provide multicentre external validation of the Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model by assessing diagnostic accuracy in a cohort of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected in a clinic-based setting. To assess model impact on SPN decision analysis and to compare findings with those obtained via the Mayo Clinic model. Clinical and imaging data were retrospectively collected from 200 patients from three centres. Accuracy was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) areas under the curve (AUCs). Decision analysis was performed by adopting both the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the British Thoracic Society (BTS) risk thresholds. ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.880 (95 % CI, 0.832-0.928) for the BIMC model and of 0.604 (95 % CI, 0.524-0.683) for the Mayo Clinic model. Difference was 0.276 (95 % CI, 0.190-0.363, P < 0.0001). Decision analysis showed a slightly reduced number of false-negative and false-positive results when using ACCP risk thresholds. The BIMC model proved to be an accurate tool when characterising SPNs. In a clinical setting it can distinguish malignancies from benign nodules with minimal errors by adopting current ACCP or BTS risk thresholds and guiding lesion-tailored diagnostic and interventional procedures during the work-up. (orig.)

  6. Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes : systematic literature search and independent external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify existing prediction models for the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and to externally validate them in a large independent cohort. Data sources Systematic search of English, German, and Dutch literature in PubMed until February 2011 to identify prediction models for diabe

  7. Validation of a Switching Operation in the External Grid of Gunfleet Sand Offshore Wind Farm by Means of EMT Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Okholm, J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the voltage signals occurring during a switching operation recorded in the external grid of Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm recorded with an Elspec measurement system. The measurements are compared to electromagnetic (EMT) simulations for validation of the wind farm model...

  8. A Psychometric Validation of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…

  9. External validity of sentiment mining reports: Can current methods identify demographic biases, event biases, and manipulation of reviews?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Bloemen, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Many publications in sentiment mining provide new techniques for improved accuracy in extracting features and corresponding sentiments in texts. For the external validity of these sentiment reports, i.e., the applicability of the results to target audiences, it is important to well analyze data of t

  10. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I.E. Snell (Kym I.E.); H. Hua (Harry); T.P. Debray (Thomas P.A.); J. Ensor (Joie); M.P. Look (Maxime); K.G.M. Moons (Karel G.M.); R.D. Riley (Richard D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. Study Design and Setting We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing c

  11. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  12. Posterior odontoid process angulation in pediatric Chiari I malformation: an MRI morphometric external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Dewan, Michael C; Day, Matthew A; Shannon, Chevis N; Tomycz, Luke; Tulipan, Noel; Wellons, John C

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Osseous anomalies of the craniocervical junction are hypothesized to precipitate the hindbrain herniation observed in Chiari I malformation (CM-I). Previous work by Tubbs et al. showed that posterior angulation of the odontoid process is more prevalent in children with CM-I than in healthy controls. The present study is an external validation of that report. The goals of our study were 3-fold: 1) to externally validate the results of Tubbs et al. in a different patient population; 2) to compare how morphometric parameters vary with age, sex, and symptomatology; and 3) to develop a correlative model for tonsillar ectopia in CM-I based on these measurements. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt University; 78 of these patients had imaging available for review. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. A neuroradiologist retrospectively evaluated preoperative MRI examinations in these 78 patients and recorded the following measurements: McRae line length; obex displacement length; odontoid process parameters (height, angle of retroflexion, and angle of retroversion); perpendicular distance to the basion-C2 line (pB-C2 line); length of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia; caudal extent of the cerebellar tonsils; and presence, location, and size of syringomyelia. Odontoid retroflexion grade was classified as Grade 0, > 90°; Grade I,85°-89°; Grade II, 80°-84°; and Grade III, < 80°. Age groups were defined as 0-6 years, 7-12 years, and 13-17 years at the time of surgery. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test were performed to assess the relationship between age, sex, and symptomatology with these craniometric variables. RESULTS The prevalence of posterior odontoid angulation was 81%, which is almost identical to that in the previous report

  13. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  14. External validation of a claims-based algorithm for classifying kidney-cancer surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deapen Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other malignancies, there is no literature supporting the accuracy of medical claims data for identifying surgical treatments among patients with kidney cancer. We sought to validate externally a previously published Medicare-claims-based algorithm for classifying surgical treatments among patients with early-stage kidney cancer. To achieve this aim, we compared procedure assignments based on Medicare claims with the type of surgery specified in SEER registry data and clinical operative reports. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare data, we calculated the agreement between Medicare claims and SEER data for identification of cancer-directed surgery among 6,515 patients diagnosed with early-stage kidney cancer. Next, for a subset of 120 cases, we determined the agreement between the claims algorithm and the medical record. Finally, using the medical record as the reference-standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the claims algorithm. Results Among 6,515 cases, Medicare claims and SEER data identified 5,483 (84.1% and 5,774 (88.6% patients, respectively, who underwent cancer-directed surgery (observed agreement = 93%, κ = 0.69, 95% CI 0.66 – 0.71. The two data sources demonstrated 97% agreement for classification of partial versus radical nephrectomy (κ = 0.83, 95% CI 0.81 – 0.86. We observed 97% agreement between the claims algorithm and clinical operative reports; the positive predictive value of the claims algorithm exceeded 90% for identification of both partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Medicare claims represent an accurate data source for ascertainment of population-based patterns of surgical care among patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

  15. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean V˙O2 of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% V˙O2PEAK) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak V˙O2 of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% V˙O2PEAK), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L–1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport. PMID:28158252

  16. Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, Matheus; Soares, Pedro Paulo; Araújo, Marcus Paulo; Porto, Flávia; Franchini, Emerson; Bridge, Craig Alan; Gurgel, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Combat simulations have served as an alternative framework to study the cardiorespiratory demands of the activity in combat sports, but this setting imposes rule-restrictions that may compromise the competitiveness of the bouts. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to a full-contact taekwondo combat simulation using a safe and externally valid competitive setting. Twelve male national level taekwondo athletes visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On the first visit, anthropometric and running cardiopulmonary exercise assessments were performed. In the following two to seven days, participants performed a full-contact combat simulation, using a specifically designed gas analyser protector. Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), heart rate (HR) and capillary blood lactate measurements ([La-]) were obtained. Time-motion analysis was performed to compare activity profile. The simulation yielded broadly comparable activity profiles to those performed in competition, a mean [Formula: see text] of 36.6 ± 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (73 ± 6% [Formula: see text]) and mean HR of 177 ± 10 beats.min-1 (93 ± 5% HRPEAK). A peak [Formula: see text] of 44.8 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (89 ± 5% [Formula: see text]), a peak heart rate of 190 ± 13 beats.min-1 (98 ± 3% HRmax) and peak [La-] of 12.3 ± 2.9 mmol.L-1 was elicited by the bouts. Regarding time-motion analysis, combat simulation presented a similar exchange time, a shorter preparation time and a longer exchange-preparation ratio. Taekwondo combats capturing the full-contact competitive elements of a bout elicit moderate to high cardiorespiratory demands on the competitors. These data are valuable to assist preparatory strategies within the sport.

  17. External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deudekom, Floor J.; Postmus, Iris; van der Ham, Danielle J.; Pothof, Alexander B.; Broekhuizen, Karen; Blauw, Gerard J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    Background To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics. Methods PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Results In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63–70) and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45–72). In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%). When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials. Conclusion Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs. PMID:28346503

  18. External Validation of the PECARN Head Trauma Prediction Rules in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kentaro; Uematsu, Satoko; Tetsuhara, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Kato, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2017-03-01

    The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma prediction rules are used to assist computed tomography (CT) decision-making for children with minor head trauma. Although the PECARN rules have been validated in North America and Europe, they have not yet been validated in Asia. In Japan, there are no clinical decision rules for children with minor head trauma. The rate of head CT for children with minor head trauma in Japan is high since CT is widely accessible across the country. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the PECARN rules for identifying clinically important traumatic brain injuries (ciTBI) in children with minor head trauma in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Japan (30,000 patients/year). We enrolled all children younger than 18 years with minor head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale ≥ 14) who presented to the emergency department within 24 hours of their injury between January and December 2013. We retrospectively classified the children into three risk categories according to the PECARN rules. The PECARN rules were considered negative when children were classified into the very-low-risk category. The primary outcome was considered positive when a child had ciTBI defined as head injury resulting in death, neurosurgery, intubation for > 24 hours, or hospital admission ≥ 2 nights with evidence of TBI on CT. Among 2,208 children included in the study, 24 (1.1%) had ciTBI. Sensitivities and specificities of the PECARN rules to predict ciTBI were 85.7% (12/14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.2 to 98.2) and 73.5% (572/778; 95% CI = 70.3 to 76.6), respectively, for children Japan. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles within DSM-IV ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child…

  20. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort: prospective multicentre cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, M.; Kwee, A.; Naaktgeboren, C.A.; Groot, I. de; Evers, I.M.; Groenendaal, F.; Hering, Y.R.; Huisjes, A.J.M.; Kirpestein, C.; Monincx, W.M.; Siljee, J.E.; Zelfde, A. van't; Oirschot, C.M. van; Vankan-Buitelaar, S.A.; Vonk, M.A.A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Zwart, J.J.; Franx, A.; Moons, K.G.M.; Koster, M.P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design: External validation of all published prognostic models in

  1. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-12-15

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users.

  2. Evidence that 'food addiction' is a valid phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Curtis, Claire; Levitan, Robert D; Carter, Jacqueline C; Kaplan, Allan S; Kennedy, James L

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence of 'food addiction' (FA) in sugar- and fat-bingeing animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the legitimacy of this disorder in the human condition. It was also our intention to extend the validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) - the first tool developed to identify individuals with addictive tendencies towards food. Using a sample of obese adults (aged 25-45 years), and a case-control methodology, we focused our assessments on three domains relevant to the characterization of conventional substance-dependence disorders: clinical co-morbidities, psychological risk factors, and abnormal motivation for the addictive substance. Results were strongly supportive of the FA construct and validation of the YFAS. Those who met the diagnostic criteria for FA had a significantly greater co-morbidity with Binge Eating Disorder, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to their age- and weight-equivalent counterparts. Those with FA were also more impulsive and displayed greater emotional reactivity than obese controls. They also displayed greater food cravings and the tendency to 'self-soothe' with food. These findings advance the quest to identify clinically relevant subtypes of obesity that may possess different vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors, and thereby could inform more personalized treatment approaches for those who struggle with overeating and weight gain.

  3. External validity of a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of severe infections caused by MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mical; Bronstein, Ella; Yahav, Dafna; Goldberg, Elad; Bishara, Jihad; Leibovici, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the external validity of a pragmatic, investigator-initiated RCT on treatment of severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we compared patient characteristics and treatment effect estimates for patients included in the RCT versus those excluded. Participants and outcomes The RCT included hospitalised patients with documented or highly-probable invasive MRSA infections who were randomised to vancomycin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment, between 2007 and 2014. A concomitant observational study prospectively included all consecutive patients, between 2008 and 2011, who were excluded from the RCT due to no consent, meningitis, left-sided endocarditis, severe neutropaenia, chronic renal dialysis or treatment with study medications for longer than 48 h. The primary outcomes were clinical failure at day 7 and 30-day mortality for both studies. We compared baseline and infection characteristics, outcome rates and treatment effect estimates for included versus excluded patients. Results The RCT included 252 patients who were compared with 220 excluded patients who were observed. Inability to provide informed consent was the main reason for patient exclusion. Excluded patients’ functional and cognitive performance was significantly poorer than that of included patients. Sepsis was more severe among excluded patients (higher rates of mechanical ventilation, indwelling catheters, septic shock and organ failure). Clinical failure occurred in 83/252 (32.9%) versus 175/220 (79.5%) and deaths in 32 (12.7%) versus 64 (29.1%) for included versus excluded patients, p<0.001 for both comparisons. Comparing vancomycin to TMP-SMX, in the RCT mortality, was non-significantly lower with vancomycin (OR 0.76, 95% CIs 0.36 to 1.62), while in the observational analysis of excluded patients, mortality was significantly higher with vancomycin (OR 2.63, 1.04 to 6.65), p=0.04 for the difference. Conclusions

  4. Multinomial logistic functions in markov chain models of sleep architecture: internal and external validation and covariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, Roberto; Zamuner, Stefano; Mezzalana, Enrica; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Gomeni, Roberto; Hooker, Andrew C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2011-09-01

    Mixed-effect Markov chain models have been recently proposed to characterize the time course of transition probabilities between sleep stages in insomniac patients. The most recent one, based on multinomial logistic functions, was used as a base to develop a final model combining the strengths of the existing ones. This final model was validated on placebo data applying also new diagnostic methods and then used for the inclusion of potential age, gender, and BMI effects. Internal validation was performed through simplified posterior predictive check (sPPC), visual predictive check (VPC) for categorical data, and new visual methods based on stochastic simulation and estimation and called visual estimation check (VEC). External validation mainly relied on the evaluation of the objective function value and sPPC. Covariate effects were identified through stepwise covariate modeling within NONMEM VI. New model features were introduced in the model, providing significant sPPC improvements. Outcomes from VPC, VEC, and external validation were generally very good. Age, gender, and BMI were found to be statistically significant covariates, but their inclusion did not improve substantially the model's predictive performance. In summary, an improved model for sleep internal architecture has been developed and suitably validated in insomniac patients treated with placebo. Thereafter, covariate effects have been included into the final model.

  5. External validation and prediction employing the predictive squared correlation coefficient test set activity mean vs training set activity mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüürmann, Gerrit; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Kühne, Ralph

    2008-11-01

    The external prediction capability of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is often quantified using the predictive squared correlation coefficient, q (2). This index relates the predictive residual sum of squares, PRESS, to the activity sum of squares, SS, without postprocessing of the model output, the latter of which is automatically done when calculating the conventional squared correlation coefficient, r (2). According to the current OECD guidelines, q (2) for external validation should be calculated with SS referring to the training set activity mean. Our present findings including a mathematical proof demonstrate that this approach yields a systematic overestimation of the prediction capability that is triggered by the difference between the training and test set activity means. Example calculations with three regression models and data sets taken from literature show further that for external test sets, q (2) based on the training set activity mean may become even larger than r (2). As a consequence, we suggest to always use the test set activity mean when quantifying the external prediction capability through q (2) and to revise the respective OECD guidance document accordingly. The discussion includes a comparison between r (2) and q (2) value ranges and the q (2) statistics for cross-validation.

  6. Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura-Andrade, José Luiz; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2017-03-01

    To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.

  7. Development and external validation of a faecal immunochemical test-based prediction model for colorectal cancer detection in symptomatic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria Teresa; Álvarez-Sánchez, Victoria; Ferrandez, Ángel; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; ,; Cubiella, Joaquín; Vega, Pablo; Salve, María; Díaz-Ondina, Marta; Blanco, Irene; Macía, Pedro; Sánchez, Eloy; Fernández-Seara, Javier; Alves, María Teresa; Quintero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients based on available biomarkers may improve CRC diagnosis. Our aim was to develop, compare with the NICE referral criteria and externally validate a CRC prediction model, COLONPREDICT, based on clinical and laboratory variables. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms referred for colonoscopy between March 2012 and September 2013 in ...

  8. SU-C-BRF-05: Design and Geometric Validation of An Externally and Internally Deformable, Programmable Lung Motion Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Y; Sawant, A [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Most clinically-deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating, tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are rigid-exterior+rigid-interior or rigid-exterior+deformable-interior. Neither class adequately represents the human anatomy, which is deformable internally as well as externally. We describe the construction and experimental validation of a more realistic, externally- and internally-deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available lung phantom (RS- 1500, RSD Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A 3-axis platform was programmed with sinusoidal and six patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam ‘diaphragm’ that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of mapping the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) trajectories of external and internal radioopaque markers with kV x-ray fluoroscopy and correlating these with optical surface monitoring using the in-room VisionRT system. Results: The phantom correctly reproduced the programmed motion as well as realistic effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.4 mm RMS error for internal as well as external markers. The motion trajectories of internal and external markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R=0.97). Furthermore, motion trajectories of arbitrary points on the deforming phantom surface, as recorded by the VisionRT system also showed a high correlation with respect to the fluoroscopically-measured trajectories of internal markers (R=0.92). Conclusion: We have

  9. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, Sharyn L.; Koons, Heather H.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of validity reflected in a large and diverse sample of published measures used in educational and psychological testing contexts. The current edition of "Mental Measurements Yearbook" served as the data source for this study. The validity aspects investigated included perspective on validity represented, number and…

  10. The predictive and external validity of the STarT Back Tool in Danish primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Kent, Peter; Albert, Hanne B;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The STarT Back Tool (SBT) was recently translated into Danish and its concurrent validity described. This study tested the predictive validity of the Danish SBT. METHODS: Danish primary care patients (n = 344) were compared to a UK cohort. SBT subgroup validity for predicting high activity...... limitation at 3 months' follow-up was assessed using descriptive proportions, relative risks, AUC and odds ratios. RESULTS: The SBT had a statistically similar predictive ability in Danish primary care as in UK primary care. Unadjusted relative risks for poor clinical outcome on activity limitation...

  11. Village sanitation and child health: Effects and external validity in a randomized field experiment in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jeffrey; Spears, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Over a billion people worldwide defecate in the open, with important consequences for early-life health and human capital accumulation in developing countries. We report a cluster randomized controlled trial of a village sanitation intervention conducted in rural Maharashtra, India designed to identify an effect of village sanitation on average child height, an outcome of increasing importance to economists. We find an effect of approximately 0.3 height-for-age standard deviations, which is consistent with observations and hypotheses in economic and health literatures. We further exploit details of the planning and implementation of the experiment to study treatment heterogeneity and external validity.

  12. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Johannes, Kevyn [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, CETHIL, UMR 5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 (France)

    2010-07-15

    In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Type, named Type 260, is developed to model the thermal behavior of an external wall with PCM. This model is presented in this paper and validated using experimental data from the literature. (author)

  13. Distension test in passive external rotation: Validation of a new clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboa, E; López-Graña, G; Barco, R; Antuña, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal validity of a clinical test for the early diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis, called the Distension Test in Passive External Rotation (DTPER). The DTPER is performed with the patient standing up, the arm adducted, and the elbow bent at 90°. From this position, a smooth passive external rotation is started, the affected arm being supporting at the wrist with one hand of the examiner and the other maintaining the adducted elbow until the maximum painless point of the rotation is reached. From this point of maximum external rotation with the arm in adduction and with no pain, an abrupt distension movement is made, increasing the external rotation, causing pain in the shoulder if the test is positive. This term was performed on a group of patients with shoulder pain of many origins, in order to analyse the predictive values, sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio. The DTPER showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 91.8 to 100%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI; 82.4 to 94.8%). The positive predictive value was 0.62 and a likelihood ratio of 10.22 (95% CI; 5.5 to 19.01). False positives were only found in patients with subscapular tendinopathies or glenohumeral arthrosis. The DTPER has a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis, and is excluded when it is practically negative. False positives can easily be identified if there is external rotation with no limits (subscapular tendinopathy) or with a simple shoulder X-ray (glenohumeral arthrosis). Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. No evidence for external genital morphology affecting cryptic female choice and reproductive isolation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur-Viens, Hélène; Polak, Michal; Moehring, Amanda J

    2015-07-01

    Genitalia are one of the most rapidly diverging morphological features in animals. The evolution of genital morphology is proposed to be driven by sexual selection via cryptic female choice, whereby a female selectively uptakes and uses a particular male's sperm on the basis of male genital morphology. The resulting shifts in genital morphology within a species can lead to divergence in genitalia between species, and consequently to reproductive isolation and speciation. Although this conceptual framework is supported by correlative data, there is little direct empirical evidence. Here, we used a microdissection laser to alter the morphology of the external male genitalia in Drosophila, a widely used genetic model for both genital shape and cryptic female choice. We evaluate the effect of precision alterations to lobe morphology on both interspecific and intraspecific mating, and demonstrate experimentally that the male genital lobes do not affect copulation duration or cryptic female choice, contrary to long-standing assumptions regarding the role of the lobes in this model system. Rather, we demonstrate that the lobes are essential for copulation to occur. Moreover, slight alterations to the lobes significantly reduced copulatory success only in competitive environments, identifying precopulatory sexual selection as a potential contributing force behind genital diversification.

  15. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm's different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks.

  16. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  17. External validation of a COPD prediction model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Emerging models for predicting risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require external validation in order to assess their clinical value. We validated a previous model for predicting new onset COPD in a different database. We randomly drew 38,597 case-control pairs (total N = 77,194) of individuals aged ≥35 years and matched for sex, age, and general practice from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. We assessed accuracy of the model to discriminate between COPD cases and non-cases by calculating area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROCAUC) for the prediction scores. Analogous to the development model, ever smoking (OR 6.70; 95%CI 6.41–6.99), prior asthma (OR 6.43; 95%CI 5.85–7.07), and higher socioeconomic deprivation (OR 2.90; 95%CI 2.72–3.09 for highest vs. lowest quintile) increased the risk of COPD. The validated prediction scores ranged from 0–5.71 (ROCAUC 0.66; 95%CI 0.65–0.66) for males and 0–5.95 (ROCAUC 0.71; 95%CI 0.70–0.71) for females. We have confirmed that smoking, prior asthma, and socioeconomic deprivation are key risk factors for new onset COPD. Our model seems externally valid at identifying patients at risk of developing COPD. An impact assessment now needs to be undertaken to assess whether this prediction model can be applied in clinical care settings. PMID:28304375

  18. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this instrument is currently not available in German. The goals of our study were to translate the Dutch Radboud Skills Questionnaire into German and to assess its external criterion validity with the German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Methods We translated the Radboud Skills Questionnaire according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 57 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event was obtained. We assessed the external criterion validity by comparing the German Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the German Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire and calculated the prediction intervals. Results Score values ranged from 55.4 ± 22.0 for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score and 140.1 ± 39.2 for the Radboud Skills Questionnaire. We found a high correlation between the Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (R2 = 0.83. Conclusion This validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire demonstrates that this German version is a simple and accurate instrument to assess and quantify disabilities of patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity for clinical and research purposes

  19. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  20. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  1. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  2. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  3. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  4. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  5. External validity of the Indonesian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth edition (WAIS-IV-ID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwartono, C.; Hidajat, L.L.; Halim, M.S.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV-ID) has been adapted and proved to be valid for its internal structure for Indonesian population. The same structure found as in the American WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-US; Suwartono, Hendriks, Hidajat, Halim, & Kessels, 2015). Despite its strong i

  6. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  7. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  8. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kym I E; Hua, Harry; Debray, Thomas P A; Ensor, Joie; Look, Maxime P; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing calibration and discrimination performance, while accounting for their correlation. The approach estimates a prediction model's average performance, the heterogeneity in performance across populations, and the probability of "good" performance in new populations. This allows different implementation strategies (e.g., recalibration) to be compared. Application is made to a diagnostic model for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a prognostic model for breast cancer mortality. In both examples, multivariate meta-analysis reveals that calibration performance is excellent on average but highly heterogeneous across populations unless the model's intercept (baseline hazard) is recalibrated. For the cancer model, the probability of "good" performance (defined by C statistic ≥0.7 and calibration slope between 0.9 and 1.1) in a new population was 0.67 with recalibration but 0.22 without recalibration. For the DVT model, even with recalibration, there was only a 0.03 probability of "good" performance. Multivariate meta-analysis can be used to externally validate a prediction model's calibration and discrimination performance across multiple populations and to evaluate different implementation strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental validation of a radio frequency photogun as external electron injector for a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stragier, X. F. D.; Luiten, O. J.; van der Geer, S. B.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Brussaard, G. J. H.

    2011-07-01

    A purpose-built RF-photogun as external electron injector for a laser wakefield accelerator has been thoroughly tested. Different properties of the RF-photogun have been measured such as energy, energy spread and transverse emittance. The focus of this study is the investigation of the smallest possible focus spot and focus stability at the entrance of the plasma channel. For an electron bunch with 10 pC charge and 3.7 MeV kinetic energy, the energy spread was 0.5% with a shot-to-shot stability of 0.05%. After focusing the bunch by a pulsed solenoid lens at 140 mm from the middle of the lens, the focal spot was 40 μm with a shot-to-shot stability of 5 μm. Higher charge leads to higher energy spread and to a larger spot size, due to space charge effects. All properties were found to be close to design values. Given the limited energy of 3.7 MeV, the properties are sufficient for this gun to serve as injector for one particular version of laser wakefield acceleration, i.e., injection ahead of the laser pulse. These measured electron bunch properties were then used as input parameters for simulations of electron bunch injection in a laser wakefield accelerator. The arrival time jitter was deduced from measurements of the energy fluctuation, in combination with earlier measurements using THz coherent transition radiation, and is around 150 fs in the present setup. The bunch length in the focus, simulated using particle tracking, depends on the accelerated charge and goes from 100 fs at 0.1 pC to 1 ps at 50 pC. When simulating the injection of the 3.7 MeV electron bunch of 10 pC in front of a 25 TW laser pulse with a waist of 30 μm in a plasma with a density of 0.7 × 1024 m-3, the maximum accelerated charge was found to be 1.2 pC with a kinetic energy of ˜900 MeV and an energy spread of ˜5%. The experiments combined with the simulations show the feasibility of external injection and give a prediction of the output parameters that can be expected from a laser

  10. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and Discriminant Validity Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two studies provide methodogical refinement in the measurement of loneliness, using a revised version of the self-report UCLA Loneliness Scale. Investigates response bias, concurrent validity, and correlated measures. (Author/SS)

  11. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review and external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkens, N A; Algra, A; Greving, J P

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shortcomings. Performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. Background Antiplatelet therapy is widely used in secondary prevention after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the main adverse effect of antiplatelet therapy and is potentially life threatening. Identification of patients at increased risk of bleeding may help target antiplatelet therapy. This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for existing prediction models up to December 2014. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the CHARMS checklist. Prediction models were externally validated in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2, comprising 6602 patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke. We assessed discrimination and calibration of included prediction models. Five prediction models were identified, of which two were developed in patients with previous cerebral ischemia. Three studies assessed major bleeding, one studied intracerebral hemorrhage and one gastrointestinal bleeding. None of the studies met all criteria of good quality. External validation showed poor discriminative performance, with c-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.64 and poor calibration. A limited number of prediction models is available that predict intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy. The methodological quality of the models varied, but was generally low. Predictive performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. In order to

  12. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  13. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  14. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  15. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  16. Development and Validation of Acyclovir HPLC External Standard Method in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of acyclovir in human plasma. The method involves a simple protein precipitation technique. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column using mixture of 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 290 nm. The retention time of acyclovir was 4.12 minutes. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range of 25.0–150.0 ng/mL. Validation studies were achieved by using the fundamental parameters, including accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and range, stability studies, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. It shows recovery at 91.0% which is more precise and accurate compared to the other method. These results indicated that the bioanalytical method was linear, precise, and accurate. The new bioanalytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic linearity study in human plasma.

  17. Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis on routine computed tomography? An external validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, Constantinus F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dijkhuis, Gawein; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, Harald J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis using computed tomography (CT) examinations that happen to visualise the spine can be used to identify patients with osteoporosis. We sought to verify the diagnostic performance of vertebral Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on routine CT examinations for diagnosing osteoporosis in a separate, external population. Consecutive patients who underwent a CT examination of the chest or abdomen and had also received a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test were retrospectively included. CTs were evaluated for vertebral fractures and vertebral attenuation (density) values were measured. Diagnostic performance measures and the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) for diagnosing osteoporosis were calculated. Three hundred and two patients with a mean age of 57.9 years were included, of which 82 (27 %) had osteoporosis according to DXA and 65 (22 %) had vertebral fractures. The diagnostic performance for vertebral HU measurements was modest, with a maximal AUC of 0.74 (0.68 - 0.80). At that optimal threshold the sensitivity was 62 % (51 - 72 %) and the specificity was 79 % (74 - 84 %). We confirmed that simple trabecular vertebral density measurements on routine CT contain diagnostic information related to bone mineral density as measured by DXA, albeit with substantially lower diagnostic accuracy than previously reported. (orig.)

  18. An Assessment of Simultaneous Attainability of Internal and External Economic Stability: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Agboola Oluleye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate whether it is possible to simultaneously achieve internal and external economic stability objectives and to examine the impact of economic stability on economic growth. A model of simultaneous relation was formulated and identified.  Data covering 1970 – 2012 were collected and the technique of Indirect Least Squares (ILS was applied to analyze the data. The study found that there is a trade-off relationship between internal stability and external balance. Achieving external balance is therefore at the expense of internal balance. There is, thus, the need for government to choose between achieving internal balance or external balance. It is therefore the recommendation of this paper that priority attention should be given to internal stability.

  19. External validation of a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley J Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thousands of systematic reviews have been conducted in all areas of health care. However, the methodological quality of these reviews is variable and should routinely be appraised. AMSTAR is a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews. METHODOLOGY: AMSTAR was used to appraise 42 reviews focusing on therapies to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and other acid-related diseases. Two assessors applied the AMSTAR to each review. Two other assessors, plus a clinician and/or methodologist applied a global assessment to each review independently. CONCLUSIONS: The sample of 42 reviews covered a wide range of methodological quality. The overall scores on AMSTAR ranged from 0 to 10 (out of a maximum of 11 with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 3.7 to 5.6 and median 4.0 (range 2.0 to 6.0. The inter-observer agreement of the individual items ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement. Nine items scored a kappa of >0.75 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.96. The reliability of the total AMSTAR score was excellent: kappa 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.00 and Pearson's R 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98. The overall scores for the global assessment ranged from 2 to 7 (out of a maximum score of 7 with a mean of 4.43 (95% CI: 3.6 to 5.3 and median 4.0 (range 2.25 to 5.75. The agreement was lower with a kappa of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.88. Construct validity was shown by AMSTAR convergence with the results of the global assessment: Pearson's R 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.84. For the AMSTAR total score, the limits of agreement were -0.19+/-1.38. This translates to a minimum detectable difference between reviews of 0.64 'AMSTAR points'. Further validation of AMSTAR is needed to assess its validity, reliability and perceived utility by appraisers and end users of reviews across a broader range of systematic reviews.

  20. Education Externalities in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Average and Stochastic Frontier Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada Weir; John Knight

    2000-01-01

    Education will have externality effects in agriculture if, in the course of conducting their own private economic activities, educated farmers raise the productivity of uneducated farmers with whom they come into contact. This paper seeks to determine the potential size and source of such benefits for rural areas of Ethiopia. Average and stochastic frontier production function methodologies are employed to measure productivity and efficiency of farmers. In each case, internal and external ret...

  1. Assessing the external validity of algorithms to estimate EQ-5D-3L from the WOMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Englund, Martin

    2016-10-04

    The use of mapping algorithms have been suggested as a solution to predict health utilities when no preference-based measure is included in the study. However, validity and predictive performance of these algorithms are highly variable and hence assessing the accuracy and validity of algorithms before use them in a new setting is of importance. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive accuracy of three mapping algorithms to estimate the EQ-5D-3L from the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) among Swedish people with knee disorders. Two of these algorithms developed using ordinary least squares (OLS) models and one developed using mixture model. The data from 1078 subjects mean (SD) age 69.4 (7.2) years with frequent knee pain and/or knee osteoarthritis from the Malmö Osteoarthritis study in Sweden were used. The algorithms' performance was assessed using mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error. Two types of prediction were estimated for mixture model: weighted average (WA), and conditional on estimated component (CEC). The overall mean was overpredicted by an OLS model and underpredicted by two other algorithms (P algorithms suffered from overprediction for severe health states and underprediction for mild health states with lesser extent for mixture model. While the mixture model outperformed OLS models at the extremes of the EQ-5D-3D distribution, it underperformed around the center of the distribution. While algorithm based on mixture model reflected the distribution of EQ-5D-3L data more accurately compared with OLS models, all algorithms suffered from systematic bias. This calls for caution in applying these mapping algorithms in a new setting particularly in samples with milder knee problems than original sample. Assessing the impact of the choice of these algorithms on cost-effectiveness studies through sensitivity analysis is recommended.

  2. The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Pieter W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays. Methods We developed DBS extraction protocols for use with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and compared the results with those using matching plasma samples from the same patient. Results Since DBS samples showed poor performance with TPHA and EIA (TPHA sensitivity was 50.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9–61.2% and EIA specificity was 50.4% (95% CI: 43.7–57.1%, only the DBS TPPA was used in the final evaluation. DBS TPPA showed an sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI: 91.3–98.0% and a specificity of 99.0% (95% CI: 98.1–99.5% compared to TPPA using plasma samples as a reference. Conclusion DBS samples can be recommended for use with TPPA, and may be of value for external quality assurance of point-of-care syphilis testing.

  3. A Review of the External Validity of Clinical Trials with Beta-Blockers in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Toukhsati, Samia R.; Thomas, Merlin C.; Jelinek, Michael V.; Hare, David L.; Horowitz, John D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beta-blockers (BBs) are the mainstay prognostic medication for all stages of chronic heart failure (CHF). There are many classes of BBs, each of which has varying levels of evidence to support its efficacy in CHF. However, most CHF patients have one or more comorbid conditions such as diabetes, renal impairment, and/or atrial fibrillation. Patient enrollment to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often excludes those with certain comorbidities, particularly if the symptoms are severe. Consequently, the extent to which evidence drawn from RCTs is generalizable to CHF patients has not been well described. Clinical guidelines also underrepresent this point by providing generic advice for all patients. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence to support the use of BBs in CHF patients with common comorbid conditions. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and the reference lists of reviews for RCTs, post hoc analyses, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that report on use of BBs in CHF along with patient demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS In total, 38 studies from 28 RCTs were identified, which provided data on six BBs against placebo or head to head with another BB agent in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Several studies explored BBs in older patients. Female patients and non-Caucasian race were underrepresented in trials. End points were cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. Comorbid diabetes, renal impairment, or atrial fibrillation was detailed; however, no reference to disease spectrum or management goals as a focus could be seen in any of the studies. In this sense, enrollment may have limited more severe grades of these comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS RCTs provide authoritative information for a spectrum of CHF presentations that support guidelines. RCTs may provide inadequate information for more heterogeneous CHF patient cohorts. Greater Phase IV research may be needed to fill this gap and inform guidelines for a more

  4. Bogus Evidence for the Validity of Student Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Les; And Others

    Researchers often claim validity for student ratings after finding a positive ratings/achievement correlation. This allegedly shows that ratings identify teachers who promote learning. But if students are not randomly assigned to classes, or if the correlation is not computed across classmeans, the correlation may result instead from a student…

  5. Script concordance testing: a review of published validity evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubarsky, S.; Charlin, B.; Cook, D.A.; Chalk, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Script concordance test (SCT) scores are intended to reflect respondents' competence in interpreting clinical data under conditions of uncertainty. The validity of inferences based on SCT scores has not been rigorously established. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to develop a

  6. An inquiry on dimensions of external technology search and their influence on technological innovations: evidence from Chinese firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    during the period 2000–2009. Our findings reveal that Chinese firms' technological innovation performances are related to external technology search in quite different ways from the ones suggested in the extant literature using evidence from developed countries. We find that Chinese firms searching......A central part of technological innovation for industrial firms involves search for new external knowledge. A well‐established stream of literature on firms' external knowledge search has demonstrated that firms investing in broader search may have a great ability to innovate. In this paper, we...... explore the influences of technology search on firms' technological innovation performance along three distinctive dimensions: technical, geographic, and temporal dimensions, using a unique panel data set containing information on Chinese firms that were active in technology in‐licensing and patenting...

  7. External Validation of a Referral Rule for Axial Spondyloarthritis in Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke van Hoeven

    Full Text Available To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA.Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation.Primary care patients aged 18-45 years with CLBP existing more than three months and onset of back pain started before the age of 45 years.The number of axSpA patients according to the ASAS criteria.The referral rule (CaFaSpA referral rule was developed using 364 CLBP patients from 19 primary care practices and contains four easy to use variables; inflammatory back pain, good response to nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, family history of spondyloarthritis and a back pain duration longer than five years. This referral rule is positive when at least two variables are present. Validation of the CaFaSpA rule was accomplished in 579 primary care CLBP patients from 38 practices from other areas. Performance of the referral rule was assessed by c-statistic and calibration plot. To fit the final referral rule the development and validation datasets were pooled leading to a total study population of 943 primary care participants.The referral rule was validated in 579 patients (41% male, mean age 36 (sd7.0. The percentage of identified axSpA patients was 16% (n=95. External validation resulted in satisfactory calibration and reasonable discriminative ability (c-statistics 0.70 [95% CI, 0.64-0.75]. In the pooled dataset sensitivity and specificity of the referral rule were 75% and 58%.The CaFaSpA referral rule for axSpA consists of four easy to use predictors for primary care physicians and has a good predictive value in this validation study. The referral rule has the potential to be a screening tool for primary care by identifying CLBP patients suspected for axSpA.

  8. External Validation of a Referral Rule for Axial Spondyloarthritis in Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeven, Lonneke; Vergouwe, Yvonne; de Buck, P. D. M.; Luime, Jolanda J.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Weel, Angelique E. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Design Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation. Participants Primary care patients aged 18-45 years with CLBP existing more than three months and onset of back pain started before the age of 45 years. Main Outcome The number of axSpA patients according to the ASAS criteria. Methods The referral rule (CaFaSpA referral rule) was developed using 364 CLBP patients from 19 primary care practices and contains four easy to use variables; inflammatory back pain, good response to nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, family history of spondyloarthritis and a back pain duration longer than five years. This referral rule is positive when at least two variables are present. Validation of the CaFaSpA rule was accomplished in 579 primary care CLBP patients from 38 practices from other areas. Performance of the referral rule was assessed by c-statistic and calibration plot. To fit the final referral rule the development and validation datasets were pooled leading to a total study population of 943 primary care participants. Results The referral rule was validated in 579 patients (41% male, mean age 36 (sd7.0). The percentage of identified axSpA patients was 16% (n=95). External validation resulted in satisfactory calibration and reasonable discriminative ability (c-statistics 0.70 [95% CI, 0.64-0.75]). In the pooled dataset sensitivity and specificity of the referral rule were 75% and 58%. Conclusions The CaFaSpA referral rule for axSpA consists of four easy to use predictors for primary care physicians and has a good predictive value in this validation study. The referral rule has the potential to be a screening tool for primary care by identifying CLBP patients suspected for axSpA. PMID:26200904

  9. Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavot, W; Diener, E; Colvin, C R; Sandvik, E

    1991-08-01

    The structure of subjective well-being has been conceptualized as consisting of two major components: the emotional or affective component and the judgmental or cognitive component (Diener, 1984; Veenhoven, 1984). The judgmental component has also been conceptualized as life satisfaction (Andrews & Withey, 1976). Although the affective component of subjective well-being has received considerable attention from researchers, the judgmental component has been relatively neglected. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) was developed as a measure of the judgmental component of subjective well-being (SWB). Two studied designed to validate further the SWLS are reported. Peer reports, a memory measure, and clinical ratings are used as external criteria for validation. Evidence for the reliability and predictive validity of the SWLS is presented, and its performance is compared to other related scales. The SWLS is shown to be a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction, suited for use with a wide range of age groups and applications, which makes possible the savings of interview time and resources compared to many measures of life satisfaction. In addition, the high convergence of self- and peer-reported measures of subjective well-being and life satisfaction provide strong evidence that subjective well-being is a relatively global and stable phenomenon, not simply a momentary judgment based on fleeting influences.

  10. External validation of TNM-C score in three community hospital cohorts for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takayuki; Saito, Kazutaka; Ishioka, Junichiro; Kawano, Keizo; Morimoto, Shinji; Matsuoka, Yoh; Okuno, Tetsuo; Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Noro, Akira; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-02-01

    To assess the general applicability of TNM-C scoring, which consists of TNM classification and preoperative C-reactive protein concentration, the predictive ability of the TNM-C score was externally validated for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) at three community hospitals. Seven hundred patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy after being diagnosed with RCC. Out of the 700 patients, 518 with clear cell carcinoma served as the current study cohort. The predictive ability of the TMN-C score for cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Harrell's concordance index (c-index). The c-index of the TNM-C score was 0.85 in the entire data set. CSS rates were clearly stratified according to the scoring model (pTNM-C score alone (without pathological details) has a high predictive ability for the prognosis of ccRCC patients, it is generally applicable for use in community hospitals.

  11. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  12. Classifying environmental pollutants: Part 3. External validation of the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, H J; Solbé, J; Speksnijder, J; van Leeuwen, C J; Hermens, J L

    2000-04-01

    In order to validate a classification system for the prediction of the toxic effect concentrations of organic environmental pollutants to fish, all available fish acute toxicity data were retrieved from the ECETOC database, a database of quality-evaluated aquatic toxicity measurements created and maintained by the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals. The individual chemicals for which these data were available were classified according to the rulebase under consideration and predictions of effect concentrations or ranges of possible effect concentrations were generated. These predictions were compared to the actual toxicity data retrieved from the database. The results of this comparison show that generally, the classification system provides adequate predictions of either the aquatic toxicity (class 1) or the possible range of toxicity (other classes) of organic compounds. A slight underestimation of effect concentrations occurs for some highly water soluble, reactive chemicals with low log K(ow) values. On the other end of the scale, some compounds that are classified as belonging to a relatively toxic class appear to belong to the so-called baseline toxicity compounds. For some of these, additional classification rules are proposed. Furthermore, some groups of compounds cannot be classified, although they should be amenable to predictions. For these compounds additional research as to class membership and associated prediction rules is proposed.

  13. External Validation of the Lupus Impact Tracker in a Southeastern US Longitudinal Cohort With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jennifer E; Drenkard, Cristina; Kan, Hong; Bao, Gaobin; Dunlop-Thomas, Charmayne; Pobiner, Bonnie; Chang, David J; Jolly, Meenakshi; Lim, S Sam

    2017-06-01

    To examine the external validity of the Lupus Impact Tracker (LIT), a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) tool in a population-based cohort of patients with SLE in Atlanta, Georgia. We modeled the association of LIT scores with patient-reported measures of SLE activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]) and organ damage (self-administered Brief Index of Lupus Damage [SA-BILD]). We investigated the association of LIT scores with general HRQoL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12). Correlation, multivariable regression, and longitudinal analyses using general linear modeling with fixed effects were performed to investigate the association between the LIT and patient-reported disease activity (SLAQ); patient-reported disease damage (SA-BILD); mental health (mental component summary [MCS] of the SF-12); and physical health (physical component summary [PCS] of the SF-12). Demographic trends related to the LIT were also assessed using cross-sectional analysis. The LIT was significantly associated with disease activity (SLAQ), organ damage (SA-BILD), MCS scores, and PCS scores in both adjusted and unadjusted regression analysis (P SLAQ), MCS scores, and PCS scores (P < 0.0001), but not organ damage (SA-BILD). The LIT is a simple, patient-centered tool that can be used to assess HRQoL in patients with SLE. This study provides external validity of the LIT in a population-based cohort with a large number of African American patients with a relatively high disease burden. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. External validation of the APPS, a new and simple outcome prediction score in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D; Schouten, Laura R; Cremer, Olaf L; Ong, David S Y; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    A recently developed prediction score based on age, arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) and plateau pressure (abbreviated as 'APPS') was shown to accurately predict mortality in patients diagnosed with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After thorough temporal external validation of the APPS, we tested the spatial external validity in a cohort of ARDS patients recruited during 3 years in two hospitals in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients with moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition were included in this observational multicenter cohort study from the mixed medical-surgical ICUs of two university hospitals. The APPS was calculated per patient with the maximal airway pressure instead of the plateau pressure as all patients were ventilated in pressure-controlled mode. The predictive accuracy for hospital mortality was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC). Additionally, the score was recalibrated and reassessed. In total, 439 patients with moderate or severe ARDS were analyzed. All-cause hospital mortality was 43 %. The APPS predicted all-cause hospital mortality with moderate accuracy, with an AUC-ROC of 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.67]. Calibration was moderate using the original cutoff values (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit P APPS was moderate, also after recalibration of the score, and thus the APPS does not seem to be fitted for that purpose. The APPS might serve as simple tool for stratification of mortality in patients with moderate or severe ARDS. Without recalibrations, the performance of the APPS was moderate and we should therefore hesitate to blindly apply the score to other cohorts of ARDS patients.

  15. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  16. Does external technology acquisition determine export performance? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Cao, Wei; Zhou, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Although technology profile has been one of the key determinants of firms’ export performance in the international business literature, most research has focused on only the role of internal technology efforts rather than the role of external technology. This study thus aims to extend our...... understanding of the determinants of export performance by examining the impact of the inter-organizational dimension of innovation strategy to export performance, which has been ignored in the prevailing “strategy tripod” perspective of exporting research. This study is based on a sample of 141 Chinese...... indigenous manufacturing firms that engaged in inward technology licensing between 2000 and 2003. The empirical results indicate that external technology acquisitions positively influence Chinese firms’ export performance. Moreover the exporting performance of using external technology varies depending...

  17. Validation of a finite element model of a unilateral external fixator in a rabbit tibia defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunratanakul, Kavin; Kerckhofs, Greet; Lammens, Johan; Vanlauwe, Johan; Schrooten, Jan; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2013-07-01

    In case of large segmental defects in load-bearing bones, an external fixator is used to provide mechanical stability to the defect site. The overall stiffness of the bone-fixator system is determined not only by the fixator design but also by the way the fixator is mounted to the bone. This stiffness is an important factor as it will influence the biomechanical environment to which tissue engineering scaffolds and regenerating tissues are exposed. A finite element (FE) model can be used to predict the system stiffness. The goal of this study is to develop and validate a 3D anatomical FE model of a bone-fixator system which includes a previously developed unilateral external fixator for a large segmental defect model in the rabbit tibia. It was hypothesized that the contact interfaces between bone and fixator screws play a major role for the prediction of the stiffness. In vitro mechanical testing was performed in order to measure the axial stiffness of cortical bone from mid-shaft rabbit tibiae and of the tibia-fixator system, as well as the bending stiffness of individual fixator screws, inserted in bone. μCT-based case-specific FE models of cortical bone and SCREW-BONE specimens were created to simulate the corresponding mechanical test set-ups. The Young's modulus of rabbit cortical bone as well as appropriate screw-bone contact settings were derived from those FE models. We then used the derived settings in an FE model of the tibia-fixator system. The difference between the FE predicted and measured axial stiffness of the tibia-fixator system was reduced from 117.93% to 7.85% by applying appropriate screw-bone contact settings. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of screw-bone contact settings for an accurate fixator stiffness prediction. The validated FE model can further be used as a tool for virtual mechanical testing in the design phase of new tissue engineering scaffolds and/or novel patient-specific external fixation devices.

  18. Validation of evidence-based clinical practice guideline: Nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amel Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Introduction ... 5% of treatment outcome of new smear positive cases.7 Treat- ... well as, to operate the implementation of evidence-based prac- ... (nurses) and the end point beneficiaries (newly diagnosed pa- ..... through sputum test. Also ..... national Standards for tuberculosis care: Diagnosis, Treatment.

  19. Validating evidence based decision making in health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüssler, Emil Karl; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak;

    of Gynecological Surgery we examine factors related to decisions to use mesh. Our results indicate that decisions to use mesh are not evidence based, and cannot be explained neither by FDA safety communications, nor by medical conditions usually assumed to predict its usage. Instead, decisions to use mesh...

  20. Structural relations between coping strategies and Burnout syndrome on health workers: A study of external and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Austria Corrales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate hypothesized structural and functional relationships between coping strategies and factors associated with burnout syndrome in independent samples of health workers from different hospitals and hospital care settings. We applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the scale of Coping with Extreme Risks adapted to the Mexican population, we analyzed the responses of 354 health workers in a tertiary hospital and 300 from a reference hospital. The samples were intentional, non-probability, quota. The group was formed by nurses, paramedics, diagnostics services, physicians and resident physicians. Results confirmed the factor structure of the instruments in the twosamples and showed that the use of active coping strategies (control, information seeking, social support, among others has protective effects on the factors associated withthe syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfillment at work, regardless of the sample, context and type of hospital care. We discuss the results andtheir implications in relation to external validity and findings in other related research.

  1. Using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale With Early Adolescents: Factor Structure, Reliability, Stability, and External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel, Paweł; Humenny, Grzegorz; Rębisz, Sławomir

    2016-12-08

    The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors. Essential unidimensionality (the general factor accounting for three fourth of the common variance) suggest that the interpretation of the subfactors over and above the general factor is inappropriate. The longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor structure of the DJGLS is invariant over time. Correlations with self-rated loneliness, sociometric acceptance/rejection, social self-efficacy, identification with class group, family structure, and gender provide support for the validity of the DJGLS. This implies that it could be used as a measure of loneliness in adolescence, which does not involve references to the school context, making it possible to conduct studies that go beyond school period and compare the intensity of the feeling of loneliness in that group with other age groups.

  2. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  3. Aggressive Behavior between Siblings and the Development of Externalizing Problems: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sibling aggression and the development of externalizing problems using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically sensitive design. The sample consisted of 780 adolescents (390 sibling pairs) who participated in 2 waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project.…

  4. External causes of euro zone inflation differentials : A re-examniation of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Verhoef, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on external causes of Euro Zone inflation differential. Persistent inflation differences may influence inflationary expectations and can amplify regional business cycles. With a uniform nominal interest rate, the domestic real interest rates will be lower in high inflation

  5. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  6. What is sufficient evidence for the reliability and validity of patient-reported outcome measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Marlene H; Reeve, Bryce B; Liepa, Astra M; Stauffer, Joseph W; Hays, Ron D

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the necessary psychometric properties of a patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure. Topics include the importance of reliability and validity, psychometric approaches used to provide reliability and validity estimates, the kinds of evidence needed to indicate that a PRO has a sufficient level of reliability and validity, contexts that may affect psychometric properties, methods available to evaluate PRO instruments when the context varies, and types of reliability and validity testing that are appropriate during different phases of clinical trials. Points discussed include the perspective that the psychometric properties of reliability and validity are on a continuum in which the more evidence one has, the greater confidence there is in the value of the PRO data. Construct validity is the type of validity most frequently used with PRO instruments as few "gold standards" exist to allow the use of criterion validity and content validity by itself only provides beginning evidence of validity. Several guidelines are recommended for establishing sufficient evidence of reliability and validity. For clinical trials, a minimum reliability threshold of 0.70 is recommended. Sample sizes for testing should include at least 200 cases and results should be replicated in at least one additional sample. At least one full report on the development of the instrument and one on the use of the instrument are deemed necessary to evaluate the PRO psychometric properties. Psychometric testing ideally occurs before the initiation of Phase III trials. When testing does not occur prior to a Phase III trial, considerable risk is posed in relation to the ability to substantiate the use of the PRO data. Various qualitative (e.g., focus groups, behavioral coding, cognitive interviews) and quantitative approaches (e.g., differential item functioning testing) are useful in evaluating the reliability and validity of PRO instruments.

  7. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale--Short Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the reliability and validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS)--Short Version, validated with three disciplines (Social Work, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs), and Psychologists), that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes about, and…

  8. Foreign direct investment, institutional development, and environmental externalities: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danny T; Chen, Wendy Y

    2014-03-15

    The question of how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects a host country's natural environment has generated much debate but little consensus. Building on an institution-based theory, this article examines how the institutional development of a host setting affects the degree of FDI-related environmental externalities in China (specifically, industrial sulfur dioxide emissions). With a panel data set of 287 Chinese cities, over the period 2002-2009, this study reveals that FDI in general induces negative environmental externalities. Investments from OECD countries increase sulfur dioxide emissions, whereas FDI from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan shows no significant effect. Institutional development reduces the impacts of FDI across the board. By focusing on the moderating role of institutions, this study sheds new light on the long-debated relationships among FDI, institutions, and the environments of the host countries.

  9. Job Matching Efficiency in Skilled Regions: Evidence on the Microeconomic Foundations of Human Capital Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Heuermann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the literature on the role of local career networks for the quality of labour market matches we investigate whether human capital externalities arise from a higher job matching efficiency in skilled regions. Using two samples of workers in Germany we find that an increase in the regional share of highly qualified workers by one standard deviation is associated with between-job wage growth of about five per cent and with an increase in the annual probability of a job change of about sixty per cent. Wage gains are incurred only by workers changing jobs within industries. We find highly qualified workers in skilled regions to respond to these wage differentials by changing jobs more often within rather than between industries. Taken together, these findings suggest that human capital externalities partly arise because workers in skilled regions have better access to labour market information, which allows them to capitalize on their industry-specific knowledge when changing jobs.

  10. First-trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia: external validity of algorithms in a prospectively enrolled cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N; Magder, L S; Blitzer, M G; Baschat, A A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of published first-trimester prediction algorithms for pre-eclampsia (PE) in a prospectively enrolled cohort of women. A MEDLINE search identified first-trimester screening-prediction algorithms for early-onset (requiring delivery algorithms were applied to this population to calculate predicted probabilities for PE. The performance of the prediction algorithms was compared with that in the original publication and evaluated for factors explaining differences in prediction. Six early and two late PE prediction algorithms were applicable to 871-2962 women, depending on the variables required. The prevalence of early PE was 1.0-1.2% and of late PE was 4.1-5.0% in these patient subsets. One early PE prediction algorithm performed better than in the original publication (80% detection rate (DR) of early PE for 10% false-positive rate (FPR)); the remaining five prediction algorithms underperformed (29-53% DR). Prediction algorithms for late PE also underperformed (18-31% DR, 10% FPR). Applying the screening cut-offs based on the highest Youden index probability scores correctly detected 40-80% of women developing early PE and 71-82% who developed late PE. Exclusion of patients on first-trimester aspirin resulted in DRs of 40-83% and 65-82% for early and late PE, respectively. First-trimester prediction algorithms for PE share a high negative predictive value if applied to an external population but underperform in their ability to correctly identify women who develop PE. Further research is required to determine the factors responsible for the suboptimal external validity. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Criterion validity of 3D trunk accelerations to assess external work and power in able-bodied gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichtry, André; Romkes, Jacqueline; Gobelet, Charles; Brunner, Reinald; Müller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative quantification of gait disorder minimizing time-consuming and cost-intensive laboratory installations remains a challenging task in movement analysis. We examined the criterion validity of global gait mechanics assessed by trunk accelerometry. Eight female and four male volunteer subjects (mean age, 27.5 years; S.D., 5.1 years; weight, 68.7+/-11.3kg; height, 1.74+/-0.08m) without gait dysfunction participated in the study. They walked barefoot over two adjacent force-platforms at self-selected speeds. In addition to ground reaction forces, vertical, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral accelerations of the trunk were simultaneously measured by means of a light tri-axial accelerometer. Mean acceleration cycles of the trunk and the body centre of mass were calculated. Acceleration vectors were integrated twice to obtain velocity and displacement vectors of the trunk and the centre of mass, respectively. Temporal boundaries of right and left functional stance phases were defined by the two intermediate moments between maximum anterior-posterior velocity and minimal vertical displacement. Cross-correlations of the kinematics of the trunk and the centre of mass were determined. External work and corresponding symmetry indicators were computed for both methods. Centre of mass anterior-posterior displacement lagged behind the trunk by 3.5% of the gait cycle. External power correlated highly (r>0.82) between the trunk model and the centre of mass. Work correlated moderately high (r=0.77) between the two methods. Work and power asymmetry indexes correlated moderately high (r>0.64). Our findings suggest that accelerometry has the potential to assess functional kinematics and energy-related outcomes in large cohorts.

  12. Importance of Statistical Evidence in Estimating Valid DEA Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Darold T; Johnson, Matthew; Gleason, John M

    2016-03-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) allows healthcare scholars to measure productivity in a holistic manner. It combines a production unit's multiple outputs and multiple inputs into a single measure of its overall performance relative to other units in the sample being analyzed. It accomplishes this task by aggregating a unit's weighted outputs and dividing the output sum by the unit's aggregated weighted inputs, choosing output and input weights that maximize its output/input ratio when the same weights are applied to other units in the sample. Conventional DEA assumes that inputs and outputs are used in different proportions by the units in the sample. So, for the sample as a whole, inputs have been substituted for each other and outputs have been transformed into each other. Variables are assigned different weights based on their marginal rates of substitution and marginal rates of transformation. If in truth inputs have not been substituted nor outputs transformed, then there will be no marginal rates and therefore no valid basis for differential weights. This paper explains how to statistically test for the presence of substitutions among inputs and transformations among outputs. Then, it applies these tests to the input and output data from three healthcare DEA articles, in order to identify the effects on DEA scores when input substitutions and output transformations are absent in the sample data. It finds that DEA scores are badly biased when substitution and transformation are absent and conventional DEA models are used.

  13. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mokhles, Sahar [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Takkenberg, Johanna J.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Maat, Alex P.W.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Woody, Neil M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.

  14. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  15. Collecting Validity Evidence for the Assessment of Mastery Learning in Simulation-Based Ultrasound Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, L; Nørgaard, L N; Tabor, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To collect validity evidence for the assessment of mastery learning on a virtual reality transabdominal ultrasound simulator. Materials and Methods: We assessed the validity evidence using Messick's framework for validity. The study included 20 novices and 9 ultrasound experts who all...... completed 10 obstetric training modules on a transabdominal ultrasound simulator that provided automated measures of performance for each completed module (i. e., simulator metrics). Differences in the performance of the two groups were used to identify simulator metrics with validity evidence...... for the assessment of mastery learning. The novices continued to practice until they had attained mastery learning level. Results: One-third of the simulator metrics discriminated between the two groups. The median simulator scores from a maximum of 40 metrics were 17.5 percent (range 0 - 45.0 percent) for novices...

  16. Validation of an amino-acid-based radionuclide therapy plus external beam radiotherapy in heterotopic glioblastoma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, Ina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Blass, Georg [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany); Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Samnick, Samuel, E-mail: samnick_s@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Background and purpose: Malignant gliomas represent a major therapeutic challenge because no efficient treatment is currently available. p-[{sup 131}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine ([{sup 131}I]IPA) is a glioma avid radiopharmaceutical that demonstrated antiproliferative and tumoricidal effects in gliomas. The present study validated the therapeutic efficiency of [{sup 131}I]IPA combined with external beam radiotherapy in experimental gliomas. Materials and methods: Glioma cells derived from the primary human A1207, T5135, Tx3868 and M059K glioblastoma cell lines or rat F98 glioma cell line were treated with various doses of [{sup 131}I]IPA, external photon irradiation (RT) or combined [{sup 131}I]IPA/RT treatment. Responsiveness of glioma cells to the different therapy modalities was investigated at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatments by trypan blue, WST-1 assay, propidium iodide and bisbenzimide staining as well as by clonogenic assay. In addition, the therapy-induced DNA damage and repair were evaluated using phosphorylated histone H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX). In vivo, the effectiveness of the combination treatment was validated in human Tx3868 and A1207 glioblastoma xenografts in CD1 nu/nu mice and RNU rats. Results: In vitro, the combination treatment resulted in a greater than additive increase in cytotoxic effect in glioma cell lines. Cell survival rate following a treatment with 1.0 {mu}Ci (37 kBq) of [{sup 131}I]IPA amounted to 70%{+-}15% and 60%{+-}10% after 48 and 72 h, respectively, and decreased under 20% after additional RT with 5 Gy. At higher RT doses, cell survival rate decreased below 5%. As a measure of DNA double-strand break, nuclear {gamma}-H2AX foci were determined as a function of time. Within 24 h, the number of {gamma}-H2AX foci per cell was significantly greater after combined modality compared with the individual treatments. In vivo, when combined with RT, the radionuclide therapy with [{sup 131}I]IPA resulted in an extended tumor growth delay, a reduction

  17. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  18. "To whom do the results of this trial apply?" External validity of a randomized controlled trial involving 130 patients scheduled for primary total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette K; Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Andersen, Niels T

    2007-01-01

    , but they should at least allow patients and clinicians to judge to whom trial results can reasonably be applied. We assessed the external validity of an RCT investigating the efficacy of a fast-track program after total hip replacement. METHODS: 130 patients were identified as potential participants.18 patients...

  19. An external validation of the ETVSS for both short-term and long-term predictive adequacy in 104 pediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, D. A.; Brusse-Keizer, M. G. J.; Hoving, E.W.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to provide external validation of the "Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Success Score (ETVSS)" for both short-term and long-term predictive adequacy. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2007, we collected clinical follow-up data (after 6 and 36 months) of all 104 hydrocephalic childre

  20. Internal and external dynamics in language: Evidence from verb regularity in a historical corpus of English

    CERN Document Server

    Cuskley, Christine F; Castellano, Claudio; Colaiori, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Human languages are rule governed, but almost invariably these rules have exceptions in the form of irregularities. Since rules in language are efficient and productive, the persistence of irregularity is an anomaly. How does irregularity linger in the face of internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) pressures to conform to a rule? Here we address this problem by taking a detailed look at simple past tense verbs in the Corpus of Historical American English. The data show that the language is open, with many new verbs entering. At the same time, existing verbs might tend to regularize or irregularize as a consequence of internal dynamics, but overall, the amount of irregularity sustained by the language stays roughly constant over time. Despite continuous vocabulary growth, and presumably, an attendant increase in expressive power, there is no corresponding growth in irregularity. We analyze the set of irregulars, showing they may adhere to a set of minority rules, allowing for increased stability of irr...

  1. INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS, EXTERNAL FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS AND INVESTMENT CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTANI FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Muhammad AZAM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of internal and external financial constraints on investmentchoice. The data have been taken from 9 major sectors (52 listed firms in the Karachi Stock Exchange namely; Pharmaceutical & Bio Technology, Textile, Sugar, Tobacco, Chemicals, Oil and Gas, Fixed line Telecommunication, Industrial metal and Mining, and Cement sectors for the time period 2004 to 2010 on annual basis. Multiple regression analysis has been done to examine the relationship among firm’s size, dividend payout ratio, firm’s age, and investment. The empirical findings show that there is positive relationship between the firms’ size and investment while a negative relationship exists between firms’ age and investment. It also reports that there is negative relationship between dividend payout ratio and the investment. This shows that if a firm grows old or high dividend payout ratio then it will tend to spend less for expansion as compared to the young firms.

  2. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation.

  3. When Assessment Data Are Words: Validity Evidence for Qualitative Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Kuper, Ayelet; Hatala, Rose; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative scores fail to capture all important features of learner performance. This awareness has led to increased use of qualitative data when assessing health professionals. Yet the use of qualitative assessments is hampered by incomplete understanding of their role in forming judgments, and lack of consensus in how to appraise the rigor of judgments therein derived. The authors articulate the role of qualitative assessment as part of a comprehensive program of assessment, and translate the concept of validity to apply to judgments arising from qualitative assessments. They first identify standards for rigor in qualitative research, and then use two contemporary assessment validity frameworks to reorganize these standards for application to qualitative assessment.Standards for rigor in qualitative research include responsiveness, reflexivity, purposive sampling, thick description, triangulation, transparency, and transferability. These standards can be reframed using Messick's five sources of validity evidence (content, response process, internal structure, relationships with other variables, and consequences) and Kane's four inferences in validation (scoring, generalization, extrapolation, and implications). Evidence can be collected and evaluated for each evidence source or inference. The authors illustrate this approach using published research on learning portfolios.The authors advocate a "methods-neutral" approach to assessment, in which a clearly stated purpose determines the nature of and approach to data collection and analysis. Increased use of qualitative assessments will necessitate more rigorous judgments of the defensibility (validity) of inferences and decisions. Evidence should be strategically sought to inform a coherent validity argument.

  4. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  5. Hypopituitarism after external irradiation. Evidence for both hypothalamic and pituitary origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, N.A.; Bakdash, M.M.; Caderao, J.B.; Cangir, A.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.; Ballantyne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Endocrine complications after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are thought to be relatively rare. The availability of synthetic hypothalamic hormones for clinical investigations and the radioimmunoassay of hormones have enabled us to study function of the hypothalamic pituitary axis in 15 patients who had radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer. Fourteen had evidence of endocrine deficiency. Twelve patients had evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction, 7 developed primary pituitary hormone deficiencies, and 3 developed primary hypothyroidism. These results indicate that (1) secondary hypopituitarism due to a hypothalamic lesion after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer may be more common than suspected in the past; (2) primary hypopituitarism after irradiation of extracranial tumors can occur; and (3) primary hypothyroidism may result from irradiation of regional neck nodes.

  6. Evidence of Validity for the Portilho/Banas Teaching Style Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani de Paula Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe use of instruments with evidence of validity in education research brings advances to the production of knowledge. This article reports the stages of a survey of teaching style and the evidence for its validity. One thousand teachers participated in a study of different levels of education. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a structure of four factors in which 55 items had a factorial load greater than .30. The correlation steps made it possible to identify how the four factors are related to each other. As a final result, the questionnaire was composed of 40 items, distributed into groups of 10 items organized by teaching style. Evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency of the items that make up the instrument was seen. Analysis of variance indicated that the scale is sensitive to individual differences in the comparison among the four different teaching styles and the gender and teaching level variables.

  7. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-05-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The validity evidence for the internal structure was analyzed by principal components analysis with promax rotation. Validity evidence for relations to other variables was tested by comparing the SMMS scores with scores on the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and the exhaustion scale of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) for measuring study stress. Evidence for internal consistency was determined through the Cronbach's alpha for reliability. The analysis showed that the SMMS had a 3-factor structure. The validity in relations to other variables was established as both, the subscales and full scale scores significantly correlated positively with the intrinsic motivation scores and with the more autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation, the correlation decreasing and finally becoming negative towards the extrinsic motivation end of the spectrum. They also had significant negative correlations with amotivation scale of the AMS and exhaustion scale of MBI-SS. The Cronbach's alpha for reliability of the three subscales and full SMMS scores was 0.70, 0.67, 0.55 and 0.79. The strength of motivation for medical school has a three factor structure and acceptable validity evidence was found in our study.

  8. I spy with my little eye: jurors' detection of internal validity threats in expert evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Duckworth, Tejah D

    2010-12-01

    This experiment examined whether jury-eligible community members (N = 223) were able to detect internally invalid psychological science presented at trial. Participants read a simulated child sexual abuse case in which the defense expert described a study he had conducted on witness memory and suggestibility. We varied the study's internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and publication status (published, unpublished). Expert evidence quality ratings were higher for the valid versus missing control group version only. Publication increased ratings of defendant guilt when the study was missing a control group. Variations in internal validity did not influence perceptions of child victim credibility or police interview quality. Participants' limited detection of internal validity threats underscores the need to examine the effectiveness of traditional legal safeguards against junk science in court and improve the scientific reasoning ability of lay people and legal professionals.

  9. External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Zohrabian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on external costs of risky behaviors in the U.S. and provides a framework for estimating them. External costs arise when a person does not bear all the costs of his or her behavior. They provide one of the strongest rationales for government interventions. Although the earlier estimates of external costs no longer have policy relevance, they demonstrated that the existence of external costs was an empirical question. We recommend that the estimates of external costs be updated as insurance structures, environments, and knowledge about these behaviors change. The general aspects of external costs may apply to countries other than the U.S. after taking into account differences in institutional, policy and epidemiological characteristics.

  10. Experimental evidence of landscape reorganization under changing external forcing: implications to climate-driven knickpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and quantifying geomorphic and topologic re-organization of landscape in response to changing climatic or tectonic forcing is of scientific and practical interest. Although several studies have addressed the large-scale response (e.g., change in mean relief), studies on the smaller-scale drainage pattern re-organization and quantification of landscape vulnerability to the timing, magnitude, and frequency of changing forcing are lacking. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of changing precipitation patterns on landscape evolution at the short and long-time scales. High resolution digital elevation (DEM) both in space and time were measured for a range of rainfall patterns and uplift rates. Results from our study show a distinct signature of the precipitation increase on the probabilistic and geometrical structure of landscape features, evident in widening and deepening of channels and valleys, change in drainage patterns within sub-basins and change in the space-time structure of erosional and depositional events. A spatially explicit analysis of the locus of these erosional and depositional events show an acceleration of erosion in the hillslopes when the rainfall intensity is increased, while the incision in fluvial channels is slowed down exhibiting a sediment-flux dependent behavior. Finally, we document the changes in the longitudinal river profiles with increasing precipitation intensity, revealing the formation of knickpoints at certain confluences where large discontinuities in the ratio Qs/Qw are observed.

  11. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical: palivizumab – validation against two external data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerskjold A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ann Haerskjold,1,2 Lonny Henriksen,2 Susanne Way,1 Mikkel Malham,3 Jesper Hallas,4 Lars Pedersen,5 Lone Graff Stensballe1 1The Child and Adolescent Clinic 4072, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2The Research Unit Women's and Children's Health, The Juliane Marie Centre for Women, Children and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark Background: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus in high-risk children. Objective: To assess the registration of palivizumab in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR and to examine if palivizumab reimbursement data obtained from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority could serve as a supplement to data from the DNPR. Methods: Registration of palivizumab exposure in the DNPR between 1999 and 2010 was compared to two external data sources: registration of palivizumab exposure in medical records, and palivizumab reimbursement data. Results: During the study period, 182 children with palivizumab exposure were registered in the DNPR. A total of 207 children were registered for palivizumab reimbursement. The sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR was 26% (20%–34%, and the specificity of no palivizumab registration in the DNPR was 97% (94%–99%, with data from the medical record as the reference. Palivizumab registration sensitivity in reimbursement data was 29% (22%–36%, and the specificity of no palivizumab

  12. A Motor Speech Assessment for Children with Severe Speech Disorders: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A.; McCauley, Rebecca J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Stoeckel, Ruth E.; Baas, Becky S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors report reliability and validity evidence for the Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS), a new test that uses dynamic assessment to aid in the differential diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Participants were 81 children between 36 and 79 months of age who were referred to the…

  13. A Motor Speech Assessment for Children with Severe Speech Disorders: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A.; McCauley, Rebecca J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Stoeckel, Ruth E.; Baas, Becky S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors report reliability and validity evidence for the Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS), a new test that uses dynamic assessment to aid in the differential diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Participants were 81 children between 36 and 79 months of age who were referred to the…

  14. The Classroom Learning Activities Checklist: Validity Evidence of an Observation Tool in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candee, Allyson Joelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Classroom Learning Activities Checklist (CLAC) is proposed as a classroom observation measure that effectively captures the classroom environments and strategies that support self-regulation via task-oriented learning in young students. The CLAC's dimensionality, reliability, and concurrent and predictive validity evidence are…

  15. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  16. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  17. Preliminary Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of a Quantitative Measure of Self-Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Magolda, Marcia Baxter; Yue, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This article presents preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of a measure of self-authorship derived from 18 items in the Career Decision Making Survey. The research conceptualizes a quantitative measure of self-authorship as a three-part score that reflects level of agreement with statements at each of the first three phases of…

  18. Assessing Perceived Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents: New Validity Evidence of Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Lozano, Luis M.; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52…

  19. A Brazilian Portuguese Survey of School Climate: Evidence of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Holst, Bruna; Lisboa, Carolina; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence of the validity and reliability of scores for the newly developed Brazilian Portuguese version of the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (Brazilian DSCS-S). The sample consisted of 378 students, grades 5 through 9, attending four private and three public schools in southern Brazil. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  20. Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Zhao, Zhiguo; Aftandilian, Catherine; Saab, Raya; Wattier, Rachel L; Beauchemin, Melissa; Miller, Tamara P; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Kelly, Michael J; Fernbach, Alison; Jeng, Michael; Schwartz, Cindy L; Dvorak, Christopher C; Shyr, Yu; Moons, Karl G M; Sulis, Maria-Luisa; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables. From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI. The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Real external predictivity of QSAR models: how to evaluate it? Comparison of different validation criteria and proposal of using the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-09-26

    The main utility of QSAR models is their ability to predict activities/properties for new chemicals, and this external prediction ability is evaluated by means of various validation criteria. As a measure for such evaluation the OECD guidelines have proposed the predictive squared correlation coefficient Q(2)(F1) (Shi et al.). However, other validation criteria have been proposed by other authors: the Golbraikh-Tropsha method, r(2)(m) (Roy), Q(2)(F2) (Schüürmann et al.), Q(2)(F3) (Consonni et al.). In QSAR studies these measures are usually in accordance, though this is not always the case, thus doubts can arise when contradictory results are obtained. It is likely that none of the aforementioned criteria is the best in every situation, so a comparative study using simulated data sets is proposed here, using threshold values suggested by the proponents or those widely used in QSAR modeling. In addition, a different and simple external validation measure, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), is proposed and compared with other criteria. Huge data sets were used to study the general behavior of validation measures, and the concordance correlation coefficient was shown to be the most restrictive. On using simulated data sets of a more realistic size, it was found that CCC was broadly in agreement, about 96% of the time, with other validation measures in accepting models as predictive, and in almost all the examples it was the most precautionary. The proposed concordance correlation coefficient also works well on real data sets, where it seems to be more stable, and helps in making decisions when the validation measures are in conflict. Since it is conceptually simple, and given its stability and restrictiveness, we propose the concordance correlation coefficient as a complementary, or alternative, more prudent measure of a QSAR model to be externally predictive.

  2. Real external predictivity of QSAR models. Part 2. New intercomparable thresholds for different validation criteria and the need for scatter plot inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2012-08-27

    The evaluation of regression QSAR model performance, in fitting, robustness, and external prediction, is of pivotal importance. Over the past decade, different external validation parameters have been proposed: Q(F1)(2), Q(F2)(2), Q(F3)(2), r(m)(2), and the Golbraikh-Tropsha method. Recently, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, Lin), which simply verifies how small the differences are between experimental data and external data set predictions, independently of their range, was proposed by our group as an external validation parameter for use in QSAR studies. In our preliminary work, we demonstrated with thousands of simulated models that CCC is in good agreement with the compared validation criteria (except r(m)(2)) using the cutoff values normally applied for the acceptance of QSAR models as externally predictive. In this new work, we have studied and compared the general trends of the various criteria relative to different possible biases (scale and location shifts) in external data distributions, using a wide range of different simulated scenarios. This study, further supported by visual inspection of experimental vs predicted data scatter plots, has highlighted problems related to some criteria. Indeed, if based on the cutoff suggested by the proponent, r(m)(2) could also accept not predictive models in two of the possible biases (location, location plus scale), while in the case of scale shift bias, it appears to be the most restrictive. Moreover, Q(F1)(2) and Q(F2)(2) showed some problems in one of the possible biases (scale shift). This analysis allowed us to also propose recalibrated, and intercomparable for the same data scatter, new thresholds for each criterion in defining a QSAR model as really externally predictive in a more precautionary approach. An analysis of the results revealed that the scatter plot of experimental vs predicted external data must always be evaluated to support the statistical criteria values: in some cases high

  3. External validation of bifactor model of ADHD: explaining heterogeneity in psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive control, and personality trait profiles within DSM-IV ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T

    2011-11-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes.

  4. Teamwork assessment in internal medicine: a systematic review of validity evidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D A; Wingo, Majken T; Comfere, Nneka I; Nelson, Darlene R; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Reed, Darcy A

    2014-06-01

    Valid teamwork assessment is imperative to determine physician competency and optimize patient outcomes. We systematically reviewed published instruments assessing teamwork in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education in general internal medicine and all medical subspecialties. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL and PsycINFO from January 1979 through October 2012, references of included articles, and abstracts from four professional meetings. Two content experts were queried for additional studies. Included studies described quantitative tools measuring teamwork among medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians on single or multi-professional (interprofessional) teams. Instrument validity and study quality were extracted using established frameworks with existing validity evidence. Two authors independently abstracted 30 % of articles and agreement was calculated. Of 12,922 citations, 178 articles describing 73 unique teamwork assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Interrater agreement was intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). Studies involved practicing physicians (142, 80 %), residents/fellows (70, 39 %), and medical students (11, 6 %). The majority (152, 85 %) assessed interprofessional teams. Studies were conducted in inpatient (77, 43 %), outpatient (42, 24 %), simulation (37, 21 %), and classroom (13, 7 %) settings. Validity evidence for the 73 tools included content (54, 74 %), internal structure (51, 70 %), relationships to other variables (25, 34 %), and response process (12, 16 %). Attitudes and opinions were the most frequently assessed outcomes. Relationships between teamwork scores and patient outcomes were directly examined for 13 (18 %) of tools. Scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and Team Climate Inventory have substantial validity evidence and have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Review is limited to quantitative assessments of teamwork in internal

  5. An external validation study reporting poor correlation between the claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity and the disease activity score

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rishi J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Michael E Weinblatt; Shadick, Nancy; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted an external validation study to examine the correlation of a previously published claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity (CIRAS) with disease activity score in 28 joints calculated by using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and the multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MD-HAQ) physical function score. Methods: Patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) and Medicare were identified and t...

  6. External validity of the chiari severity index and outcomes among pediatric chiari I patients treated with intra- or extra-Dural decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Jared M; Merkow, Maxwell B; Brewington, Danielle; Henn, Rosemary E; Sutton, Leslie N; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2017-02-01

    Chiari malformation type-1 (CM-1) may be treated by intradural (ID) or extradural (ED) posterior fossa decompression, although the optimal approach is debated. The Chiari Severity Index (CSI) is a pre-operative metric to predict patient-defined improvement after CM-1 surgery. In this study, we evaluate the results of ID versus ED decompression and assess the external validity of the CSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric CM-1 patients undergoing decompression at a single academic children's hospital. Characteristics of headache, syrinx, and myelopathy were collected to derive CSI grade. The primary outcome measure was pre-operative symptom resolution. The proportion of patients with favorable outcome was tabulated for each of the three CSI grades and compared to previously published results. From 2004 to 2014, 189 patients underwent ID (48%) or ED (52%) decompression at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Follow-up ranged from 1 to 75 months. Rates of symptom resolution (58-64%) and reoperation (8%) were similar regardless of surgical approach. Although proportions of favorable outcomes differed between the CHOP and Washington University (WU) cohorts, the difference was not related to CSI grade (p = 0.63). Furthermore, there was no difference in the proportion of favorable outcomes between the two cohorts regardless of ID (p = 0.26) or ED approach (p = 0.11). Equivalent rates of symptom resolution and reoperation following ID and ED decompression support the ED approach as a first-line surgical option for pediatric CM-1 patients. In addition, our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the generalizability of the CSI and its use in future comparative trials.

  7. Use of automated external defibrillators in cardiac arrest: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the components of a program to deliver early defibrillation that optimizes the effectiveness of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in out-of-hospital and hospital settings, to determine whether AEDs are cost-effective, and if cost-effectiveness was determined, to advise on how they should be distributed in Ontario. Survival in people who have had a cardiac arrest is low, especially in out-of-hospital settings. With each minute delay in defibrillation from the onset of cardiac arrest, the probability of survival decreases by 10%. (1) Early defibrillation (within 8 minutes of a cardiac arrest) has been shown to improve survival outcomes in these patients. However, in out-of-hospital settings and in certain areas within a hospital, trained personnel and their equipment may not be available within 8 minutes. This implies that "first responders" should take up the responsibility of delivering shock. The first responders in out-of-hospital settings are usually bystanders, firefighters, police, and community volunteers. In hospital settings, they are usually nurses. These first responders are not trained in reading electrocardiograms and identifying abnormal heart rhythms restorable by defibrillation. An AED is a device that can analyze a heart rhythm and deliver a shock if needed. Thus, AEDs can be used by first responders to deliver early defibrillation in out-of-hospital and hospital settings. However, simply providing an AED would not likely improve survival outcomes. Rather, AEDs have a role in strengthening the "chain of survival," which includes prompt activation of the 911 telephone system, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rapid defibrillation, and timely advanced life support. In the chain of survival, the first step for a witness of a cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting is to call 911. Second, the witness initiates CPR (if she or he is trained in CPR). If the witness cannot initiate CPR, or the first

  8. Validity and reliability of the Evidence Utilisation in Policymaking Measurement Tool (EUPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, M H; Yazdizadeh, B; Salehi, M; Seyedin, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2017-08-04

    As a well-known theory in studying the effective factors on behaviour, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is frequently used in evaluating the health behaviour of people and healthcare providers, but rarely applied in studying the behaviour of health policymakers. The aim of the present study is to design and validate a TPB-based measurement tool for evidence utilisation in health policymaking (the EUPMT) through a mixed approach using confirmatory factor analysis. The study population consisted of all the specialised units and their employees in the five deputies of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2013. All those eligible were invited to participate in the study, which comprised 373 persons. The reliability of the EUPMT was determined through test-retest and internal consistency. Additionally, its validity was determined by face, content, convergent, discriminant and construct validities. SPSS-20 and LISREL-8.8 were employed to analyse the data. To assess the fitness of the measurement models, three groups of indices were used, i.e. absolute, relative and parsimonious. The content and face validities of the tool were 83% and 67%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha of different constructs ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. In the test-retest method, the intra-class correlations were between 0.75 and 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the penta-factorial structure of the experimental data had acceptable fitness with the TPB (GFI = 0.86, NFI = 0.94, RSMEA = 0.075). TPB is able to explain the behaviour of evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The finalised TPB-based tool has relatively good reliability and validity to assess evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The EUPMT can be applied to determine the status quo of evidence utilisation in health policymaking, whilst designing interventions for its improvement and assessing their outcomes.

  9. External validation of a referral rule for axial spondyloarthritis in primary care patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Hoeven (Lonneke); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); P.D.M. de Buck (P. D M); J.J. Luime (Jolanda); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.E.A.M. Weel (Angelique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To validate and optimize a referral rule to identify primary care patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suspected for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Design Cross-sectional study with data from 19 Dutch primary care practices for development and 38 for validation. Partic

  10. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  11. Validation and standardization of gene expression data for microarray and real time quantitative PCR using universal external RNA controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will introduce newly developed universal external ribonucleic acid (RNA) controls and their applications on different platforms of microarray and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) including SYBR Green® and TaqMan® probe-based chemistries. Data obtained fro...

  12. Evidences of validity and reliability of the Luria-Nebraska Test for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese. Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79. The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision.

  13. Evidences of Reliability and Validity of the Dispositional Envy Scale in Argentinian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jeannette Mola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotional experience of envy goes through different cultures. However, few instruments have been developed for its measurement. Smith et al. (1999 proposed the Dispositional Envy Scale (DES, which has shown good validity properties, stability and internal consistency in psychometric studies conducted with U.S. and Brazilian samples. This research aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of validity and reliability of the DES with samples of participants from Cordoba, Argentina, university students (n = 399 and adults from general population (n = 316. Furthermore, the Psychological Entitlement Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale were applied. Analysis of exploratory and confirmatory factor structure provided evidence about the unidimensionality of the scale. Evidence of adequate internal consistency was obtained. Besides, envy was positively related to entitlement and it was negatively related to subjective happiness.

  14. Validity Evidence for the Reduced Version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Valentini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To gain more insight in family processes, psychometrically tests are required. The present study aimed to adapt a reduced version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI to the Portuguese language and to obtain evidence of its validity. The instrument was administered to a sample of 920 persons (59% female with an average age of 21.3 years. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of five factors explaining approximately 45% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed fit indices above.80. In comparison with other models, the five factor model showed a better fit to the data. Between the YPI and Familiograma (another test of family processes moderate correlations were observed. The results of this study suggest satisfactory evidence of the validity for the YPI in Brazil.

  15. Validity evidence of non-technical skills assessment instruments in simulated anaesthesia crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirativanont, T; Raksamani, K; Aroonpruksakul, N; Apidechakul, P; Suraseranivongse, S

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the validity of two non-technical skills evaluation instruments, the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) behavioural marker system and the Ottawa Global Rating Scale (GRS), to apply them to anaesthesia training. The content validity, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables and consequences were described for validity evidence. Simulated crisis management sessions were initiated during which two trained raters evaluated the performance of postgraduate first-, second- and third-year (PGY-1, PGY-2 and PGY-3) anaesthesia residents. The study included 70 participants, composed of 24 PGY-1, 24 PGY-2 and 22 PGY-3 residents. Both instruments differentiated the non-technical skills of PGY-1 from PGY-3 residents (P technical skills in a simulated anaesthesia setting, but the Ottawa GRS was more practical and had higher reliability.

  16. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport.

  17. Multinomial Logistic Functions in Markov Chain Models of Sleep Architecture: Internal and External Validation and Covariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzotto, Roberto; zamuner, stefano; Mezzalana, Enrica; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Gomeni, Roberto; Hooker, Andrew C; Karlsson, Mats O.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-effect Markov chain models have been recently proposed to characterize the time course of transition probabilities between sleep stages in insomniac patients. The most recent one, based on multinomial logistic functions, was used as a base to develop a final model combining the strengths of the existing ones. This final model was validated on placebo data applying also new diagnostic methods and then used for the inclusion of potential age, gender, and BMI effects. Internal validation w...

  18. Structure-independent cross-validation between residual dipolar couplings originating from internal and external orienting media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Renato; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Lee, Yong-Min; Luchinat, Claudio; Velders, Aldrik H. [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2002-04-15

    Lanthanide-substituted calcium binding proteins are known to partially orient in high magnetic fields. Orientation provides residual dipolar couplings (rdc's). Two of these systems, Tm{sup 3+}- and Dy{sup 3+}-substituted calbindin D{sub 9k}, dissolved in an external orienting medium (nonionic liquid crystalline phase) provide rdc values which are the sum of those induced by the lanthanides and by the liquid crystalline phase on the native calcium binding protein. This structure-independent check shows the innocence of the orienting medium with respect to the structure of the protein in solution. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of lanthanide substitution and external orienting media provides a further effective tool to control and tune the orientation tensor.

  19. [Reliability and external validity of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge about risk and cardiovascular disease and in patients attending Spanish community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariles, Pedro; Pino-Marín, Daniel; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; García-Jiménez, Emilio; Roig-Sánchez, Inés; Faus, María José

    2016-11-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire, with a validation preliminary, to assess knowledge of cardiovascular risk (CVR) and cardiovascular disease in patients attending community pharmacies in Spain. To complement the external validity, establishing the relationship between an educational activity and the increase in knowledge about CVR and cardiovascular disease. Sub-analysis of a controlled clinical study, EMDADER-CV, in which a questionnaire about knowledge concerning CVR was applied at 4 different times. Spanish Community Pharmacies. There were 323 patients in the control group, from the 640 who completed the study. Intraclass correlation coefficient to assess the reliability in 3 comparisons (post-educational activity with week 16, post-educational activity with week 32, and week 16 with week 32); and the non-parametric Friedman test to establish the relationship between an oral and written educational activity with increasing knowledge. For the 323 patients in the 3 comparisons, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.624; 0.608 and 0.801, respectively (fair-good to excellent reliability). So, the Friedman test showed a statistically significant relationship between educational activity and increased knowledge (p < .0001). According to the intraclass correlation coefficient, the questionnaire aimed at assessing the knowledge on CVR and cardiovascular disease has a reliability between acceptable and excellent, which added to the previous validation, shows that the instrument meets the criteria of validity and reliability. Furthermore, the questionnaire showed the ability to relate an increase in knowledge with an educational intervention, feature that complements its external validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of, and initial validity evidence for, the referee self-efficacy scale: a multistudy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D; Feltz, Deborah L; Guillén, Félix; Dithurbide, Lori

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.

  1. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  2. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; van Riel, Sarah J.; Saghir, Zaigham

    2015-01-01

    ; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. Conclusions: High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were......Objectives: Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. Methods: From...... used to evaluate risk discrimination. Results: AUCs of 0.826–0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer...

  3. The Influence of External Information on Collective Bargaining: Survey Evidence of Union and Firm Negotiators in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehr, Alex; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer two questions: 1- To what extent are negotiators in collective bargaining influenced by different types of external information? 2- How can differences in the influence of external information between negotiators be explained by the characteristics of the negotiators and

  4. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy : a systematic review and external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, NA; Algra, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X; Greving, JP|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298701278

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shor

  5. External Validation and Update of a Prediction Rule for the Duration of Sickness Absence Due to Common Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute; Sluiter, J. K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to validate an existing prediction rule (including age, education, depressive/anxiety symptoms, and recovery expectations) for predictions of the duration of sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMDs) and investigate the added value of

  6. External validation and updating of a Dutch prediction model for low hemoglobin deferral in Irish whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Atsma, F.; McSweeney, E.N.; Moons, K.G.; Vergouwe, Y.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sex-specific prediction models for low hemoglobin (Hb) deferral have been developed in Dutch whole blood donors. In the present study, we validated and updated the models in a cohort of Irish whole blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 45,031

  7. 'Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Bakker, Stephan J L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate risk scores to predict occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the Dutch population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twelve basic risk scores and 13 extensive risk scores with biomarkers were used to predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes during 7.5 years in a pros

  8. 'Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Bakker, Stephan J L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate risk scores to predict occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the Dutch population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twelve basic risk scores and 13 extensive risk scores with biomarkers were used to predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes during 7.5 years in a

  9. The Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ): preliminary evidence for reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Marrit K; Castelein, Stynke; Bous, Johan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the psychometric properties of the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ). Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were calculated in a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder using antipsychotics. The ASFQ is a semistructured interview, with good face validity and content validity, that takes on average about 10min to complete. The ASFQ has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84) and good test-retest reliability (mean Spearman's rho=.76). The inter-rater reliability is good for questions about libido, orgasm, erection and ejaculation. Correlation coefficients for calculating convergent validity were modest to good when comparing the ASFQ with the corresponding items on the Subject's Response to Antipsychotics (SRA) questionnaire and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). Based on preliminary evidence, it can be concluded that the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire has reasonable reliability and is available for clinical use and research.

  10. A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Agogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association, due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  11. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of Reliability and Validity for a Children’s Auditory Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lasee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs are commonly utilized clinical measures of attention and response inhibition. While there have been many studies of CPTs that utilize a visual format, there is considerably less research employing auditory CPTs. The current study provides initial reliability and validity evidence for the Auditory Vigilance Screening Measure (AVSM, a newly developed CPT. Participants included 105 five- to nine-year-old children selected from two rural Midwestern school districts. Reliability data for the AVSM was collected through retesting of 42 participants. Validity was evaluated through correlation of AVSM scales with subscales from the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from .62 to .74 for AVSM subscales. A significant (r = .31 correlation was obtained between the AVSM Impulsivity Scale and teacher ratings of inattention. Limitations and implications for future study are discussed.

  13. Evidence of the Construct Validity of the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Beeble, Marisa L; Gregory, Katie A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). Evidence of construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the SEA and an economic outcome, financial resources, as perceived by participants. A sample of 93 women with abusive partners were recruited from a domestic violence organization and interviewed 3 times over a period of 4 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relationship between economic abuse and financial resources over time, controlling for the effects of physical and psychological abuse. The findings indicate that baseline economic abuse was significantly related to baseline financial resources, and within-woman change in economic abuse was significantly predicted change in financial resources over time. The findings suggest that the SEA measures what it is intended to measure: an economic dimension of intimate partner abuse that has damaging economic consequences.

  14. STRUCTURE AND VALIDATION OF A CONTEXTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN SOCIAL SERVICES: AN ORGANIZATION-ORIENTED MEASURE FROM AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moliner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy studies of fine-needle aspiration show wide variation in reporting of study population characteristics: implications for external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Narra, Krishna K; Witt, Benjamin L; Factor, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Study comparisons rest on the assessment of applicability or external validity. Population characteristics are an important component of external validity and, although there has been a heightened awareness of deficiencies in reporting in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies, the reporting of populations in DTA studies has not been investigated. To assess the quality of reporting of population descriptions in DTA studies for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Literature survey of common population parameters and usage patterns in FNAC DTA studies. We randomly selected 20 FNAC DTA studies in 4 categories (salivary glands, lung, thyroid, and pancreas) and determined the frequency of parameter usage. Studies showed considerable variability in reporting patterns. On average, studies reported 2 to 4 parameters to describe study populations. Age, sex, and lesion size were most frequently reported. Sixteen percent of studies did not provide any population description. Population parameters were used to describe the sample population more frequently than to describe the selection process (P = .001). There were significant differences in the number of parameters specified by anatomic site (P = .001). Only 21% of studies provided a flow diagram. Thirty-three percent of studies mentioned the target population. Studies show considerable variability in the description of sample populations and the population selection process. Studies often fail to provide flow diagrams or to provide a clear statement of the research problem. There is considerable opportunity for studies to improve both descriptions of sample populations and the process used to select them.

  16. Assessing relational schemas in parents of children with externalizing behavior disorders: reliability and validity of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2011-02-28

    Direct observational assessment of parent-child interaction is important in clinical intervention with conduct-problem children, but is costly and resource-intensive. We examined the reliability and validity of a brief measure of parents' relational schemas (RSs) regarding their child. Children (aged 4 to 11years) and their families receiving treatment at a clinic for externalizing behavior problems (n=150) or mood/developmental disorders (n=28) were assessed using a multi-method, multi-informant procedure. RSs were coded from Five-Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) using the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS), and were compared with directly observed parent-child interaction and questionnaire measures of family and parental dysfunction and conduct problems. Mothers' and fathers' RS scales were internally consistent and could be reliably coded in under 10min. Less positive RSs and more negative RSs were associated with higher rates of child conduct problems, and were more characteristic of the speech samples of parents of children with externalizing disorders, compared with clinic control parents. RSs demonstrated some associations with parenting behavior and measures of family functioning and symptoms of parental psychopathology, and predicted conduct problems independently of observed parental criticism. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the FAARS assessment of parental RSs in clinic-referred families. This brief measure of parent-child dynamics appears well-suited to 'real-world' (i.e., community) clinical settings in which intensive methods of observation are often not feasible.

  17. New Evidence of Construct Validity Problems for Pettigrew and Meertens' (1995) Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice.

  18. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The "evidence-based practice inventory" : reliability and validity was demonstrated for a novel instrument to identify barriers and facilitators for Evidence Based Practice in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, Nina M; Swennen, Maartje H J; van Wijk, Arjen J; Kalkman, Cor J; van Rheenen, Nanda; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van der Heijden, Geert J M G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To design and validate a practical questionnaire for clinicians, to identify barriers and facilitators for evidence-based practice (EBP), that is, the use of research evidence in patient care. The inventory is ultimately intended for departments to assess local conditions for EBP, to aim

  20. The "evidence-based practice inventory": reliability and validity was demonstrated for a novel instrument to identify barriers and facilitators for Evidence Based Practice in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, N.M.; Swennen, M.H.J.; van Wijk, A.J.; Kalkman, C.J.; van Rheenen, N.; van der Graaf, Y.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To design and validate a practical questionnaire for clinicians, to identify barriers and facilitators for evidence-based practice (EBP), that is, the use of research evidence in patient care. The inventory is ultimately intended for departments to assess local conditions for EBP, to aim

  1. Process evaluation to explore internal and external validity of the "Act in Case of Depression" care program in nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Smalbrugge, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multidisciplinary, evidence-based care program to improve the management of depression in nursing home residents was implemented and tested using a stepped-wedge design in 23 nursing homes (NHs): "Act in case of Depression" (AiD). OBJECTIVE: Before effect analyses, to evaluate AiD proc

  2. Evidence for the validity of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity questionnaire (CAPA) with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth; Larkin, Dawne; Hands, Beth; Howard, Barbara; Parker, Helen

    2009-09-01

    Attraction to physical activity is important to an individual's intrinsic motivation to engage in play, games and sports. While there are instruments designed to measure attraction to physical activity in middle childhood years, the lack of authentic measures in young children has impeded research in this area. In this study we sought to address the validity of a scale to tap young children's attraction to physical activity. Evidence for validity was based on internal consistency, content analysis, and factor structure. Australian school children (180 boys and 154 girls) from school year two, aged 6-8 years, were individually administered a modified version of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity Scale (CAPA) [Brustad RJ. Who will go out to play? Parental and psychological influences on children's attraction to physical activity. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1993;5:210-23; Brustad RJ. Attraction to physical activity in urban school children: parental socialization and gender influences. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996;67:316-23]. The results indicated that internal consistency was acceptable for most of the subscales when negative statements were excluded from the analyses. Factor analysis revealed that the liking of games and sports, liking of physical exertion and exercise, and the importance of exercise subscales were more robust. Second order factor analysis indicated that the overall construct of attraction to physical activity was viable in this age group. With some modifications, the scale appears to provide a valid approach to the measurement of attraction to physical activity in young children.

  3. Development and validation of the ACE tool: assessing medical trainees’ competency in evidence based medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While a variety of instruments have been developed to assess knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine (EBM), few assess all aspects of EBM - including knowledge, skills attitudes and behaviour - or have been psychometrically evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument that evaluates medical trainees’ competency in EBM across knowledge, skills and attitude. Methods The ‘Assessing Competency in EBM’ (ACE) tool was developed by the authors, with content and face validity assessed by expert opinion. A cross-sectional sample of 342 medical trainees representing ‘novice’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘advanced’ EBM trainees were recruited to complete the ACE tool. Construct validity, item difficulty, internal reliability and item discrimination were analysed. Results We recruited 98 EBM-novice, 108 EBM-intermediate and 136 EBM-advanced participants. A statistically significant difference in the total ACE score was observed and corresponded to the level of training: on a 0-15-point test, the mean ACE scores were 8.6 for EBM-novice; 9.5 for EBM-intermediate; and 10.4 for EBM-advanced (p EBM. The ACE tool provides a novel assessment that measures user performance across the four main steps of EBM. To provide a complete suite of instruments to assess EBM competency across various patient scenarios, future refinement of the ACE instrument should include further scenarios across harm, diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24909434

  4. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Stuchlik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1-3% prevalence. OCD is characterized by recurrent thoughts (obsessions and repetitive behaviors (compulsions. The pathophysiology of OCD remains unclear, stressing the importance of pre-clinical studies. The aim of this article is to critically review a proposed animal model of OCD that is characterized by the induction of compulsive checking and behavioral sensitization to the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole.. Changes in this model have been reported at the level of brain structures, neurotransmitter systems and other neurophysiological aspects. In this review, we consider these alterations in relation to the clinical manifestations in OCD, with the aim to discuss and evaluate axes of validity of this model. Our analysis shows that some axes of validity of quinpirole sensitization model (QSM are strongly supported by clinical findings, such as behavioral phenomenology or roles of brain structures. Evidence on predictive validity is contradictory and ambiguous. It is concluded that this model is useful in the context of searching for the underlying pathophysiological basis of the disorder because of the relatively strong biological similarities with OCD.

  5. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): evidence of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver proxy-report version of the Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child in children with CP using CFA. A total of 312 children with CP (mean age: 8.59 years, SD: 2.52 years) and their caregivers participated in this study. The Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child was completed by the caregivers of children with CP. Then, CFA was applied to evaluate the seven-factor measurement structure of the CP QOL-Child. The seven-factor CFA model had an adequate fit to our data as judged by χ(2) statistic and various goodness-of-fit (GOF) indices, including the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). This study provided empirical evidence of the construct validity of the CP QOL-Child to support its use with children with CP in the Chinese speaking society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. External validation of leukocytosis and neutrophilia as a prognostic marker in anal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Huguet, Florence; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chargari, Cyrus; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Schlienger, Michel; Escande, Alexandre; Touboul, Emmanuel; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-07-01

    To validate the prognostic value of leukocyte disorders in anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation. Bi-institutional clinical records from consecutive patients treated between 2001 and 2015 with definitive chemoradiation for anal SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic value of pretreatment leukocyte disorders was examined, with focus on patterns of relapse and survival. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count exceeding 10G/L and 7G/L, respectively. We identified 133 patients, treated in two institutions. Eight% and 7% displayed baseline leukocytosis and neutrophilia, respectively. Estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 88% and 77%, respectively. In univariate analysis, both leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with worse OS, PFS (p<0.01), locoregional control (LRC) and Distant Metastasis Control (DMC) (p<0.05), also after stratification by each institution. In multivariate analysis, leukocytosis and neutrophilia remained as independent risk factors associated with poorer OS, PFS, LRC and DMC (p<0.05). This study validates leukocytosis and neutrophilia as independent prognostic factors in anal SCC patients treated with definitive chemoradiation. Although prospective confirmation is warranted, it is suggested that the leukocyte and neutrophil count parameters are clinically relevant biomarkers to be considered for further clinical investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  8. Evidence for validity within workplace assessment: the Longitudinal Evaluation of Performance (LEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-Clements, Linda; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Hurst, Yvonne; Rennie, James S

    2008-05-01

    The drive towards valid and reliable assessment methods for health professions' training is becoming increasingly focused towards authentic models of workplace performance assessment. This study investigates the validity of such a method, longitudinal evaluation of performance (LEP), which has been implemented in the assessment of postgraduate dental trainees in Scotland. Although it is similar in format to the mini-CEX (mini clinical evaluation exercise) and other tools that use global ratings for assessing performance in the workplace, a number of differences exist in the way in which the LEP has been implemented. These include the use of a reference point for evaluators' judgement that represents the standard expected upon completion of the training, flexibility, a greater range of cases assessed and the use of frequency scores within feedback to identify trainees' progress over time. A range of qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed from 2 consecutive cohorts of trainees in Scotland (2002-03 and 2003-04). There is rich evidence supporting the validity, educational impact and feasibility of the LEP. In particular, a great deal of support was given by trainers for the use of a fixed reference point for judgements, despite initial concerns that this might be demotivating to trainees. Trainers were highly positive about this approach and considered it useful in identifying trainees' progress and helping to drive learning. The LEP has been successful in combining a strong formative approach to continuous assessment with the collection of evidence on performance within the workplace that (alongside other tools within an assessment system) can contribute towards a summative decision regarding competence.

  9. External validation of the DHAKA score and comparison with the current IMCI algorithm for the assessment of dehydration in children with diarrhoea: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adam C; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Rege, Soham; Robertson, Sarah; Schmid, Christopher H; Alam, Nur H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydration due to diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death worldwide, yet no clinical tools for assessing dehydration have been validated in resource-limited settings. The Dehydration: Assessing Kids Accurately (DHAKA) score was derived for assessing dehydration in children with diarrhoea in a low-income country setting. In this study, we aimed to externally validate the DHAKA score in a new population of children and compare its accuracy and reliability to the current Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm. Methods DHAKA was a prospective cohort study done in children younger than 60 months presenting to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute diarrhoea (defined by WHO as three or more loose stools per day for less than 14 days). Local nurses assessed children and classified their dehydration status using both the DHAKA score and the IMCI algorithm. Serial weights were obtained and dehydration status was established by percentage weight change with rehydration. We did regression analyses to validate the DHAKA score and compared the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score and IMCI algorithm with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the weighted κ statistic. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02007733. Findings Between March 22, 2015, and May 15, 2015, 496 patients were included in our primary analyses. On the basis of our criterion standard, 242 (49%) of 496 children had no dehydration, 184 (37%) of 496 had some dehydration, and 70 (14%) of 496 had severe dehydration. In multivariable regression analyses, each 1-point increase in the DHAKA score predicted an increase of 0·6% in the percentage dehydration of the child and increased the odds of both some and severe dehydration by a factor of 1·4. Both the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score were significantly greater than those of the IMCI algorithm. Interpretation The DHAKA score

  10. Establishment and validation of standardized animal models of spinal cord injury by normal external force-caused fracture dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weibing Shuang; Qiang Liu; Shoubin Jiao; Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    The duplication of animal models plays a key role in spinal cord injury research; however, there has been limited study into normal, external force-derived fracture dislocation. This study adopted experimental devices, designed in-house, to construct standardized ventral and dorsal spinal cord injury animal models of 6 g and 17 g falling from a height of 2, 4, and 10 cm, and 15, 30 or 50 g transversal compression on the spinal cord. The results showed that gradual increases in the degree of histopathological injury led to decreased Tarlov and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores for the behavioral test, and increased Ashworth scores for the hind limb. Furthermore, there was a gradual decline in the slope test in the rats with dorsal spinal cord injury that correlated to increases in the falling substance weight or falling height. Similar alterations were observed in the ventral spinal cord injured rats, proportional to the increase in compression weight. Our experimental findings indicate that the standardized experimental rat models of dorsal and ventral spinal cord injury are stable, reliable and reproducible.

  11. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  12. External Validation of a Decision Tool To Guide Post-Operative Management of Patients with Secondary Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jasper J; Ram, Kim; Schultz, Marcus J; Boermeester, Marja A

    Timely identification of patients in need of an intervention for abdominal sepsis after initial surgical management of secondary peritonitis is vital but complex. The aim of this study was to validate a decision tool for this purpose and to evaluate its potential to guide post-operative management. A prospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis in a single hospital. Assessments using the decision tool, based on one intra-operative and five post-operative variables, were performed on the second and third post-operative days and when the patients' clinical status deteriorated. Scores were compared with the clinical reference standard of persistent sepsis based on the clinical course or findings at imaging or surgery. Additionally, the potential of the decision tool to guide management in terms of diagnostic imaging in three previously defined score categories (low, intermediate, and high) was evaluated. A total of 161 assessments were performed in 69 patients. The majority of cases of secondary peritonitis (68%) were caused by perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Post-operative persistent sepsis occurred in 28 patients. The discriminative capacity of the decision tool score was fair (area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic = 0.79). The incidence rate differed significantly between the three score categories (p peritonitis, the decision tool score predicts with fair accuracy whether persistent sepsis is present.

  13. Multicenter external validation of two malignancy risk prediction models in patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET for solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, G.A.; Signorini, M.; Motton, M.; Montemezzi, S. [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, A.R.; Del Ciello, A. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, G. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Chirurgia Toracica, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, A. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Radiologia, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, L.; Zeraj, F. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Pneumologia, Venezia (Italy); Bernhart, M. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Radiologia, Venezia (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To achieve multicentre external validation of the Herder and Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) models. Two hundred and fifty-nine solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected from four major hospitals which underwent 18-FDG-PET characterization were included in this multicentre retrospective study. The Herder model was tested on all available lesions (group A). A subgroup of 180 SPNs (group B) was used to provide unbiased comparison between the Herder and BIMC models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy. Decision analysis was performed by adopting the risk threshold stated in British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Unbiased comparison performed In Group B showed a ROC AUC for the Herder model of 0.807 (95 % CI 0.742-0.862) and for the BIMC model of 0.822 (95 % CI 0.758-0.875). Both the Herder and the BIMC models were proven to accurately predict the risk of malignancy when tested on a large multicentre external case series. The BIMC model seems advantageous on the basis of a more favourable decision analysis. (orig.)

  14. Predictive and External Validity of a Pre-Market Study to Determine the Most Effective Pictorial Health Warning Label Content for Cigarette Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cigarette package pictorial health warning label (HWL) content have primarily used designs that do not allow determination of effectiveness after repeated, naturalistic exposure. This research aimed to determine the predictive and external validity of a pre-market evaluation study of pictorial HWLs. Data were analyzed from: (1) a pre-market convenience sample of 544 adult smokers who participated in field experiments in Mexico City before pictorial HWL implementation (September 2010); and (2) a post-market population-based representative sample of 1765 adult smokers in the Mexican administration of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey after pictorial HWL implementation. Participants in both samples rated six HWLs that appeared on cigarette packs, and also ranked HWLs with four different themes. Mixed effects models were estimated for each sample to assess ratings of relative effectiveness for the six HWLs, and to assess which HWL themes were ranked as the most effective. Pre- and post-market data showed similar relative ratings across the six HWLs, with the least and most effective HWLs consistently differentiated from other HWLs. Models predicting rankings of HWL themes in post-market sample indicated: (1) pictorial HWLs were ranked as more effective than text-only HWLs; (2) HWLs with both graphic and "lived experience" content outperformed symbolic content; and, (3) testimonial content significantly outperformed didactic content. Pre-market data showed a similar pattern of results, but with fewer statistically significant findings. The study suggests well-designed pre-market studies can have predictive and external validity, helping regulators select HWL content. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evidence of validity for the Japanese version of the foot and ankle ability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Cross-sectional study. Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Eighty-three collegiate athletes. All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however, the scores must be interpreted with caution, especially when applied to different populations and other types of

  16. Investigation of External Audit’s Good Practices in the Context of Corporate Governance - Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Boţa-Avram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop an investigation based on an empirical survey over the auditors’ perceptions about the external audit good practices that should be applied or at least recommended in the context of corporate governance. This present study also aims to detect the current applicability of the proposed external audit practices tested through this survey. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, a statistical analysis was conducted based on data obtained from questionnaires submitted to a significant sample of Romanian auditors, all respondents having the quality of members of Chambers of Financial Auditors of Romania, which is the main professional body that has responsibilities in coordinating the audit activity in Romanian context. In spite of the lower response rate, the value of the paper is argued by the fact that the findings are relevant for both academics and practitioners, because it could represent a relevant starting point in developing an integrated framework of good audit practices, including external audit practices and offering, in the same time, potential suggestions for enhancing external audit practices in the corporate governance’s area, anarea which has grown very fast in the last years, since the collapse of Enron in 2001 and the financial scandals of other companies from different countries, which strongly affect the investor confidence in the reliability of its investments.

  17. Micro-evidence on the determinants of innovation in the Netherlands : The relative importance of absorptive capacity and agglomeration externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Martijn J.; Abreu, Maria A.; de Groot, Henri L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the benefits of clustering for innovation have received much attention in the theoretical as well as empirical literature, analyses at the regional level often disregard the characteristics of local firms. We tackle both at the same time: agglomeration externalities (Marshall, Porter, Jacob

  18. How is sentence processing affected by external semantic and syntactic information? Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Schacht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A crucial question for understanding sentence comprehension is the openness of syntactic and semantic processes for other sources of information. Using event-related potentials in a dual task paradigm, we had previously found that sentence processing takes into consideration task relevant sentence-external semantic but not syntactic information. In that study, internal and external information both varied within the same linguistic domain-either semantic or syntactic. Here we investigated whether across-domain sentence-external information would impact within-sentence processing. METHODOLOGY: In one condition, adjectives within visually presented sentences of the structure [Det]-[Noun]-[Adjective]-[Verb] were semantically correct or incorrect. Simultaneously with the noun, auditory adjectives were presented that morphosyntactically matched or mismatched the visual adjectives with respect to gender. FINDINGS: As expected, semantic violations within the sentence elicited N400 and P600 components in the ERP. However, these components were not modulated by syntactic matching of the sentence-external auditory adjective. In a second condition, syntactic within-sentence correctness-variations were combined with semantic matching variations between the auditory and the visual adjective. Here, syntactic within-sentence violations elicited a LAN and a P600 that did not interact with semantic matching of the auditory adjective. However, semantic mismatching of the latter elicited a frontocentral positivity, presumably related to an increase in discourse level complexity. CONCLUSION: The current findings underscore the open versus algorithmic nature of semantic and syntactic processing, respectively, during sentence comprehension.

  19. Logic brightens my day: Evidence for implicit sensitivity to logical validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J; Verde, Michael F; Morsanyi, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the sentences for liking (Experiment 1) and physical brightness (Experiments 2-3). Sentences that followed logically from preceding sentences were judged to be more likable and brighter. Two other factors thought to be linked to implicit processing-sentence believability and facial expression-had similar effects on liking and brightness ratings. The authors conclude that sensitivity to logical structure was implicit, occurring potentially automatically and outside of awareness. They discuss the results within a fluency misattribution framework and make reference to the literature on discourse comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Q Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advancing patient safety during handoffs remains a public health priority. The application of cognitive load theory offers promise, but is currently limited by the inability to measure cognitive load types. Objective: To develop and collect validity evidence for a revised self-report inventory that measures cognitive load types during a handoff. Methods: Based on prior published work, input from experts in cognitive load theory and handoffs, and a think-aloud exercise with residents, a revised Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs was developed. The Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs has items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Students who were second- and sixth-year students recruited from a Dutch medical school participated in four simulated handoffs (two simple and two complex cases. At the end of each handoff, study participants completed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs, Paas’ Cognitive Load Scale, and one global rating item for intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load, respectively. Factor and correlational analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single factor that combined intrinsic and germane loads. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score from the combined intrinsic and germane load items associated, as predicted by cognitive load theory, with a commonly used measure of overall cognitive load (Pearson’s r = 0.83, p < 0.001, case complexity (beta = 0.74, p < 0.001, level of experience (beta = −0.96, p < 0.001, and handoff accuracy (r = −0.34, p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results offer encouragement that intrinsic load during handoffs may be measured via a self-report measure. Additional work is required to develop an adequate measure of extraneous load.

  1. Convergent evidence for construct validity of a 7-point likert scale of lower limb muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness, assessing its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). An additional aim was to examine its sensitivity as measure of symptom of eccentric-contraction muscle damage. Correlational study. Self-administered questionnaires collected in field setting. Twenty-six soccer players. 4-week preseason training camp, which included high-intensity plyometric training sessions. Players self-reported the perceived muscle soreness of the lower limbs using the VAS (criterion measure) and the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. Significant individual correlations were found between the 2 muscle soreness scales (mean r=0.80+/-0.07; range, 0.65 to 0.94). The correlation using the pooled data was 0.81. No significant muscle soreness scale x time interaction was found for standardized measures of muscle soreness (P=0.98). The main factor for time (24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the first plyometric training session) was significant (P=0.0001). Effect sizes for the changes in the Likert and VAS absolute scores during the first 96 hours were similar (partial eta=0.13). The results of this study provide further convergent evidence for the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. The 2 scales showed similar sensitivity to muscle soreness caused by eccentric contractions during the first 96 hours after plyometric exercises.

  2. Experimental evidence validating the computational inference of functional associations from gene fusion events: a critical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promponas, Vasilis J; Ouzounis, Christos A; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    More than a decade ago, a number of methods were proposed for the inference of protein interactions, using whole-genome information from gene clusters, gene fusions and phylogenetic profiles. This structural and evolutionary view of entire genomes has provided a valuable approach for the functional characterization of proteins, especially those without sequence similarity to proteins of known function. Furthermore, this view has raised the real possibility to detect functional associations of genes and their corresponding proteins for any entire genome sequence. Yet, despite these exciting developments, there have been relatively few cases of real use of these methods outside the computational biology field, as reflected from citation analysis. These methods have the potential to be used in high-throughput experimental settings in functional genomics and proteomics to validate results with very high accuracy and good coverage. In this critical survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of 30 most prominent examples of single pairwise protein interaction cases in small-scale studies, where protein interactions have either been detected by gene fusion or yielded additional, corroborating evidence from biochemical observations. Our conclusion is that with the derivation of a validated gold-standard corpus and better data integration with big experiments, gene fusion detection can truly become a valuable tool for large-scale experimental biology.

  3. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Riel, Sarah J. van; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Saghir, Zaigham [Herlev Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hohwue Thomsen, Laura [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Skovgaard, Lene T. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  4. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  5. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  6. Validity Evidence From Ratings of Pediatric Interns and Subinterns on a Subset of Pediatric Milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Teri L; Bhavaraju, Vasudha L; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A; Hicks, Patricia J; Multerer, Sara; Osta, Amanda; McDonnell, Jennifer; Poynter, Sue; Schumacher, Daniel J; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Schwartz, Alan

    2017-06-01

    To investigate evidence for validity of faculty members' pediatric milestone (PM) ratings of interns (first-year residents) and subinterns (fourth-year medical students) on nine subcompetencies related to readiness to serve as a pediatric intern in the inpatient setting. The Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN) and the National Board of Medical Examiners collaborated to investigate the utility of assessments of the PMs for trainees' performance. Data from 32 subinterns and 179 interns at 17 programs were collected from July 2012 through April 2013. Observers used several tools to assess learners. At each site, a faculty member used these data to make judgments about the learner's current developmental milestone in each subcompetency. Linear mixed models were fitted to milestone judgments to examine their relationship with learner's rank and subcompetency. On a 5-point developmental scale, mean milestone levels for interns ranged from 3.20 (for the subcompetency Work effectively as a member of a team) to 3.72 (Humanism) and for subinterns from 2.89 (Organize and prioritize care) to 3.61 (Professionalization). Mean milestone ratings were significantly higher for the Professionalism competency (3.59-3.72) for all trainees compared with Patient Care (2.89-3.24) and Personal and Professional Development (3.33-3.51). Mean intern ratings were significantly higher than mean subintern ratings for all nine subcompetencies except Professionalization, Humanism, and Trustworthiness. The PMs had a coherent internal structure and could distinguish between differing levels of trainees, which supports their validation for documenting developmental progression of pediatric trainees.

  7. Efficacy and External Validity of Electronic and Mobile Phone-Based Interventions Promoting Vegetable Intake in Young Adults: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Monica Marina; Chen, Juliana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-07-28

    Despite social marketing campaigns and behavior change interventions, young adults remain among the lowest consumers of vegetables. The digital era offers potential new avenues for both social marketing and individually tailored programs, through texting, web, and mobile applications. The effectiveness and generalizability of such programs have not been well documented. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and external validity of social marketing, electronic, and mobile phone-based (mHealth) interventions aimed at increasing vegetable intake in young adults. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol will be used to conduct this systematic review. The search strategy will be executed across eleven electronic databases using combinations of the following search terms: "online intervention", "computer-assisted therapy", "internet", "website", "cell phones", "cyber", "telemedicine", "email", "social marketing", "social media", "mass media", "young adult", and "fruit and vegetables". The reference lists of included studies will also be searched for additional citations. Titles and abstracts will be screened against inclusion criteria and full texts of potentially eligible papers will be assessed by two independent reviewers. Data from eligible papers will be extracted. Quality and risk of bias will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias assessment tool respectively. The external validity of the studies will be determined based on components such as reach, adoption, and representativeness of participants; intervention implementation and adaption; and program maintenance and institutionalization. Results will be reported quantitatively and qualitatively. Our research is in progress. A draft of the systematic review is currently being produced for publication by the end of 2015

  8. Externality, internality, and (in)dispensability of grammatical features in speech production: evidence from Czech declension and conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    In 3 picture-word experiments, the authors explored the activation of 2 grammatical features in Czech during lexical access: declensional class of nouns and conjugational class of verbs. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated congruency effects of declensional and conjugational class, respectively. Picture naming times were reliably longer if the declensional or conjugational classes of the pictures' names and the distractors were incongruent. Experiment 3 explored the origin of the congruency effect in more detail. Congruency effects were obtained for declensional class regardless of whether the target name and the distractor differed in form, speaking for competition at the lemma level. These findings are discussed in comparison with gender congruency effects. The authors propose a differentiation between externally and internally specified features of lemmas, especially with respect to the time course of their activation. Internal features that become available only when the lemma is activated (e.g., gender, declensional or conjugational class of nouns and verbs) can be bypassed or not, depending on the grammatical specification of the earlier available external features (like case or number). Following this argument, supposedly inconsistent findings regarding grammatical gender and declensional or conjugational class can be explained straightforwardly.

  9. Mortality from external causes in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Design: All deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results: A total of 5,884 deaths due to external causes were documented over 11,828,253 person-years. Approximately one-quarter of those deaths were to children younger than 15 years. Causes of death were dominated by childhood drowning in Bangladesh, and by transport-related deaths and intentional injuries elsewhere. Detailed mortality rates are presented by cause of death, age group, and sex. Conclusions: The patterns of external cause mortality found here generally corresponded with expectations and other sources of information, but they fill some important gaps in population-based mortality data. They provide an important source of information to inform potentially preventive intervention designs.

  10. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi–English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon’s choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication. PMID:28081136

  11. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.

  12. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-09-28

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  13. Prognostic score for second-line chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: external validation in a phase III trial comparing vinflunine with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Massimo; Krzakowski, Maciej; Fougeray, Ronan; Kowalski, Dariusz M; Gridelli, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    A prognostic index for second-line chemotherapy of NSCLC was previously developed, based on individual patient data (IPD) of nine randomized trials. In order to validate the prognostic score in an external dataset, we analysed IPD of a non-inferiority phase III trial comparing vinflunine vs. docetaxel in second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Primary endpoint of this analysis was overall survival (OS). The following variables were considered for survival analysis and score calculation: gender, performance status, stage of disease, tumour histology, type of first-line treatment, response to first-line treatment. Cox model, stratified by treatment arm, was used for multivariate analysis. Individual prognostic scores were derived, and patients were divided into 3 categories: 9 (worst). All 551 patients enrolled in the trial had complete information for the calculation of prognostic score. Median OS in the whole group was 6.9 months, with similar efficacy in the two treatment arms. Median OS was 12.9, 6.9 and 3.8 months in the best, intermediate and worst category, respectively. Cox model showed a significant effect comparing intermediate vs. best category (Hazard Ratio 1.79, 95%CI 1.31-2.47, p=0.0003) and comparing worst vs. best category (Hazard Ratio 3.25, 95%CI 2.18-4.83, pmodel was high (0.926), indicating a good discrimination according to the proposed three risk categories. Prognostic ability of our score for candidates to second-line treatment in advanced NSCLC was successfully validated, allowing the identification of subgroups of patients with more vs. less favourable outcome. Prognostic score could be useful in daily decision-making in clinical practise, because a better understanding of factors conditioning life expectancy of patients could greatly help a careful evaluation of risks and benefits associated with therapeutic decisions.

  14. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  15. Predicting the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Older Inpatients: External Validation of the GerontoNet ADR Risk Score Using the CRIME Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Mirko; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano

    2017-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people are often preventable, indicating that screening and prevention programs aimed at reducing their rate are needed in this population. The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients. Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4. The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged 18.5 kg/m(2)) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations. This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Schizotypal personality questionnaire: new sources of validity evidence in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Fumero, Ascensión; Paino, Mercedes; de Miguel, Adelia; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2014-09-30

    Schizotypal traits represent the behavioral expression of vulnerability to psychosis in general population. Among the most widely used measurement instruments, we could find the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991). However, some aspects of its psychometric quality have yet to be analyzed. The main goal of the present study was to gather new sources of validity evidence of the SPQ scores in non-clinical young adults. The final sample was made up of 1123 college students (M=20.3 years; S.D.=2.6). The study of the internal structure using exploratory factor analysis revealed that SPQ items were grouped in a theoretical structure of seven second-order factors. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor model (Paranoid) displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than the other hypothetical dimensional models tested. More complex measurement models, such as those tested using second-order confirmatory factor analyses and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, also showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The reliability of the SPQ scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.91. A total of 11 items showed differential functioning by gender. Advances in psychosis phenotype measurement open up new horizons to understand the structure and content of schizotypy.

  17. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  18. Priming Silicic Giant Magma Bodies: Finding Evidence for Internal Forcing Versus External Triggering of Supereruptions by Phase Equilibria Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand what triggers silicic eruptions because of the implications for modern-day systems. The goal of this project is to use phase equilibria modeling (i.e. rhyolite-MELTS) to determine to what extent magmas within the crust are induced to erupt due to external triggers (e.g. earthquakes; new magma injection; neighboring eruptions) and to what extent they naturally evolve to a point where eruption is inevitable (e.g. by fluid exsolution and decrease in magma strength and density). Whole-rock compositions from four rhyolite tuffs across the globe associated with large or supereruptions (Mamaku Tuff, New Zealand; Peach Spring Tuff, SW USA; early and late-erupted Bishop Tuff, California; and Toba Tuff, Indonesia) are studied using rhyolite-MELTS modeling. Key physical properties of magma are strongly affected by the initial volatile content due to fluid exsolution. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track the evolution of fluid exsolution during crystallization. Isobaric (constrained temperature change at constant pressure) and isochoric (constrained temperature change at constant volume) models were run for the four compositions. In constrained-pressure scenarios, fluid is free to exsolve as crystallization proceeds, and the total system volume can increase or decrease accordingly; this would require deformation of the surrounding crust to accommodate the magma volume change. In constrained-volume scenarios, bubble exsolution is limited to the volume change due to crystallization; in this case, pressure can decrease or increase (if bubbles are absent or present). For fixed-pressure scenarios, fluid exsolution is more extensive and leads to internal triggering, at least for fluid-saturated conditions; external triggering is more likely in fluid-undersaturated conditions. For fixed-volume scenarios, none of the systems cross a fragmentation threshold for the crystal contents typically observed in natural pumice. If

  19. External validation of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 in a cohort of 28,357 patients from 147 Italian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniele; Rossi, Carlotta; Anghileri, Abramo; Giardino, Michele; Latronico, Nicola; Radrizzani, Danilo; Langer, Martin; Bertolini, Guido

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the SAPS 3 score predictive ability of hospital mortality in a large external validation cohort. Prospective observational study. A total of 28,357 patients from 147 Italian ICUs joining the Project Margherita national database of the Gruppo italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva (GiViTI). None. Evaluation of discrimination through ROC analysis and of overall goodness-of-fit through the Cox calibration test. Although discrimination was good, calibration turned out to be poor. The general and the South-Europe Mediterranean countries equations overestimated hospital mortality overall (SMR values 0.73 with 95% CI 0.72-0.75 for both equations) and homogeneously across risk classes. Overprediction was confirmed among important subgroups, with SMR values ranging between 0.47 and 0.82. The result strictly supported by our data is that the SAPS 3 score calibrates inadequately in a large sample of Italian ICU patients and thus should not be used for benchmarking, at least in Italian settings.

  20. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  1. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  2. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  3. Evidences of Validity of a Scale for Mapping Professional as Defining Competences and Performance by Brazilian Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco Antonio, Jr.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Rezende; Paschoal, Tatiane; Faiad, Cristiane; Meneses, Paulo Murce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess evidences of construct validity of the Brazilian Scale of Tutors Competences in the field of Open and Distance Learning and to examine if variables such as professional experience, perception of the student´s learning performance and prior experience influence the development of technical and…

  4. Predicting successful intended vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section : external validation of two predictive models in a Dutch nationwide registration-based cohort with a high intended vaginal delivery rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E. N. C.; Melman, S.; van Kuijk, S. M. J.; Grobman, W. A.; Kwee, A.; Mol, B. W. J.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Smits, L. J. M.; Aardenburg, R.; de Boer, K.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; van Dooren, I. M.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kaplan, M.; Kuppens, S. M. I.; Lim, F. T. H.; Sikkema, J. M.; Smid-Koopman, E.; Visser, H.; Vrouenraets, F. P. J. M.; Woiski, M.; Hermens, R. P. M. G.; Scheepers, H. C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo externally validate two models from the USA (entry-to-care [ETC] and close-to-delivery [CTD]) that predict successful intended vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) for the Dutch population. DesignA nationwide registration-based cohort study. SettingSeventeen hospitals in the Netherlands.

  5. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of Multiple Risk Assessment Tools to Predict Mortality for Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy: An External Validation Study Based on Chinese Single-center Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Huang; Tong Li; Lei Xu; Xiao-Min Hu; Da-Wei Duan; Zhi-Bo Li; Xin-Jing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Background:There has been no external validation of survival prediction models for severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in China.The aim of study was to compare the performance of multiple models recently developed for patients with ARDS undergoing ECMO based on Chinese single-center data.Methods:A retrospective case study was performed,including twenty-three severe ARDS patients who received ECMO from January 2009 to July 2015.The PRESERVE (Predicting death for severe ARDS on VV-ECMO),ECMOnet,Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) score,a center-specific model developed for inter-hospital transfers receiving ECMO,and the classical risk-prediction scores of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) were calculated.In-hospital and six-month mortality were regarded as the endpoints and model performance was evaluated by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).Results:The RESP and APACHE Ⅱ scores showed excellent discriminate performance in predicting survival with AUC of 0.835 (95% confidence interval [CI],0.659-1.010,P =0.007) and 0.762 (95% CI,0.558-0.965,P =0.035),respectively.The optimal cutoff values were risk class 3.5 for RESP and 35.5 for APACHE Ⅱ score,and both showed 70.0% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity.The excellent performance of these models was also evident for the pneumonia etiological subgroup,for which the SOFA score was also shown to be predictive,with an AUC of 0.790 (95% CI,0.571-1.009,P =0.038).However,the ECMOnet and the score developed for externally retrieved ECMO patients failed to demonstrate significant discriminate power for the overall cohort.The PRESERVE model was unable to be evaluated fully since only one patient died six months postdischarge.Conclusions:The RESP,APCHAE Ⅱ,and SOFA scorings systems show good

  7. Validity and reliability evidence of the questionnaire for illness representation, the impact of epilepsy, and stigma (QIRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elisabete Abib Pedroso de; Borges, Karina; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina O Santos; Oliveira, Karina da Silva; Nakano, Tatiana de Cássia

    2016-05-20

    The objective of this study was to obtain reliability and validity evidence for the questionnaire of illness representation, the impact of epilepsy, and stigma (QIRIS) for use with adolescents and adults in Brazil. QIRIS consists of 14 questions grouped in three domains (attribution of meaning, impact of disease, and stigma) and was applied to 57 adults with epilepsy. QIRIS internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's α = 0. 866). Significant and strong correlation was found between issues belonging to the same domain, as expected. Three domains have highly significant and positive correlations with the instrument's total score, indicating evidence of content validity. We conclude that QIRIS has psychometric properties and can facilitate a systematic evaluation of the patient's representation according to a biopsychosocial approach that may contribute to clinical practice based on scientific evidence.

  8. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  9. Psychometric instrumentation: reliability and validity of instruments used for clinical practice, evidence-based practice projects and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    It is important for CNSs and other APNs to consider the reliability and validity of instruments chosen for clinical practice, evidence-based practice projects, or research studies. Psychometric testing uses specific research methods to evaluate the amount of error associated with any particular instrument. Reliability estimates explain more about how well the instrument is designed, whereas validity estimates explain more about scores that are produced by the instrument. An instrument may be architecturally sound overall (reliable), but the same instrument may not be valid. For example, if a specific group does not understand certain well-constructed items, then the instrument does not produce valid scores when used with that group. Many instrument developers may conduct reliability testing only once, yet continue validity testing in different populations over many years. All CNSs should be advocating for the use of reliable instruments that produce valid results. Clinical nurse specialists may find themselves in situations where reliability and validity estimates for some instruments that are being utilized are unknown. In such cases, CNSs should engage key stakeholders to sponsor nursing researchers to pursue this most important work.

  10. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health.

  11. External validation of the PROFUND index in polypathological patients from internal medicine and acute geriatrics departments in Aragón.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Cabrerizo García, José Luis; García-Arilla Calvo, Ernesto; Jimeno Saínz, Araceli; Calvo Beguería, Eva; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa M; Bejarano Tello, Esperanza; Caudevilla Martínez, Aránzazu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to validate externally and prospectively the PROFUND index to predict survival of polypathological patients after a year. An observational, prospective and multicenter study was performed. Polypathological patients admitted to an internal medicine or geriatrics department and attended by investigators consecutively between March 1 and June 30, 2011 were included. Data concerning age, gender, comorbidity, Barthel and Lawton-Brody indexes, Pfeiffer questionnaire, socio-familial Gijon scale, delirium, number of drugs and number of admissions during the previous year were gathered for each patient. The PROFUND index was calculated. The follow-up lasted 1 year. A Cox proportional regression model was calculated, and was used to analyze the association of the variables to mortality and C-statistic. 465 polypathological patients, 333 from internal medicine and 132 from geriatrics, were included. One-year mortality is associated with age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.52 95 % CI 1.04-2.12; p = 0.01], presence of neoplasia [HR 2.68 95 % CI 1.71-4.18; p = 0.0001] and dependence for basic activities of daily living [HR 2.34 95 % CI 1.61-3.40; p = 0.0009]. In predicting mortality, the PROFUND index shows good discrimination in patients from internal medicine (C-statistics 0.725 95 % CI 0.670-0.781), but a poor one in those from geriatrics (0.546 95 % CI 0.448-0.644). The PROFUND index is a reliable tool for predicting mortality in internal medicine PP patients.

  12. Independent external validation of radiotherapy and its impact on the accuracy of a nomogram for predicting survival of women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Martin; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Luton, Dominique; Darai, Emile; Rouzier, Roman

    2011-11-01

    To externally validate and assess the impact of radiotherapy on the accuracy of a nomogram for predicting overall survival of women with endometrial cancer. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), we assessed the concordance indexes, the discrimination and the calibration provided by a nomogram for predicting overall survival. Patients were grouped into deciles based on their survival predictions, and the three-year overall survival in each group was compared with the mean predicted probability. Between 1988 and 2006, 64,023 patients were analyzed and divided into two groups: 14,323 patients with adjuvant radiotherapy and 49,700 patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Among the whole population, predicted and observed three-year overall survivals were 85.2% and 85.6% (+/-0.1%) respectively. In patients with adjuvant radiotherapy, overall survivals were 81.0% and 83.1% (+/-0.3%) and in patients without adjuvant radiotherapy, they were 86.5% and 86.3% (+/-0.2%) respectively. The concordance indexes for the whole population, in patients with radiotherapy and in patients without radiotherapy were 0.811 (+/-0.004), 0.751 (+/-0.009) and 0.803 (+/-0.006) respectively. The mean and maximal errors in patients with radiotherapy were 2.1% and 4.0% and in patients without radiotherapy 2.3% and 8.1%. The nomogram can accurately predict three-year overall survival, whether patients undergo adjuvant radiotherapy or not. The nomogram has an improved individual discrimination when compared with the 1988 and the 2009 staging systems for endometrial cancer. It may be useful in the information processed for patients and in building surveillance timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  14. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  15. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  16. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  17. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  18. Early urbanization and mobility at Tell Brak, NE Syria: the evidence from femoral and tibial external shaft shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization at Tell Brak began in the late 5th millennium BCE and the site reached its maximum size in the Late Chalcolithic (LC) 3, ca. 3900-3600 BCE. During that time, a large midden was formed at the edge of the early city, now known as Tell Majnuna. Rescue excavations at Tell Majnuna revealed several clusters of commingled human remains and a cemetery on the top. Several human skeletons dated to the LC 3 and Early Bronze Age (EBA) were found also at Tell Brak itself and it was possible to investigate differences in cross-sectional femoral and tibial shaft shapes between LC 3 and EBA to test the hypothesis that rapid and extensive urbanization in the LC 3 induced increase in mobility. External midshaft and subtrochanteric measurements of at least 152 femora and measurements of 55 tibiae at the nutrient foramen were taken to investigate the differences in the level of terrestrial mobility between four LC 3 and one EBA chronological subsets. Also the correlation was examined between shaft cross-sectional shapes and frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in canines, as a proxy indicator of population stress. Due to post-mortem damage, sex assessment was based only on the size of measured bones. In spite of the limited quality of the gathered data, significant differences in femoral midshaft shape in males were observed between the LC 3 and EBA subsets and the average shape index scores appeared to be correlated with the LEH frequencies. No such result was obtained for females, suggesting that only males were more mobile in the LC 3 and their mobility level was associated with general population stress. In contrast, in females the average shape of subtrochanteric femoral cross-section was more variable between temporal subsets. The patterns of temporal differences in tibial cross-section at the nutrient foramen were not conclusive due to the small sample size. Obtained results suggest that males in the LC 3, the period of rapid urbanization, were more mobile

  19. KAMUTHE video microanalysis system for use in Brazil: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schulz Gattino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background KAMUTHE is a video microanalysis system which observes preverbal communication within the music therapy setting. This system is indicated for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD or multiple disabilities. The purpose of this study was to translate, adapt to Brazilian Portuguese language and analyze some psychometric properties (reliability and validity evidence of KAMUTHE administration in Brazil for individuals with ASD. Participants and procedure Translation, back translation, analysis by judges, and pilot application were performed to obtain evidence of content and face validity. The second part of this study was to administer KAMUTHE in 39 consecutive children with ASD. An individual session of improvisational music therapy was applied to assess the different behaviors included in KAMUTHE. The intra-rater reliability, concurrent validity and convergent validity were analyzed. Results Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were followed and some cultural adaptations were needed. Inter-rater reliability was very good (ICCs 0.95-0.99 for the three child’s behaviors analyzed. Criteria validity with a moderate negative association was found (r = –.38, p = .017 comparing the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the level of ASD along with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Convergent validity was established between the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the two nonlinguistic communication scales (social interaction and interests of the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC with a moderate correlation (r = –.43, p = .005. Conclusions The administration of the KAMUTHE video microanalysis system showed positive results in children with ASD. Further studies are needed to improve the reliability and validity of the instrument in Brazil.

  20. The "evidence-based practice inventory": reliability and validity was demonstrated for a novel instrument to identify barriers and facilitators for Evidence Based Practice in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Nina M; Swennen, Maartje H J; van Wijk, Arjen J; Kalkman, Cor J; van Rheenen, Nanda; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van der Heijden, Geert J M G

    2015-11-01

    To design and validate a practical questionnaire for clinicians, to identify barriers and facilitators for evidence-based practice (EBP), that is, the use of research evidence in patient care. The inventory is ultimately intended for departments to assess local conditions for EBP, to aim and evaluate efforts at improving or maximizing EBP. We derived candidate items from existing EBP scales, psychology, and behavioral economics. In an online Delphi study, 537 international expert clinicians, researchers, teachers, and policymakers interested in EBP identified items with sufficient face and content validity. We piloted and validated the resulting draft inventory among 127 clinicians from various specialties and career stages. The Delphi study started with 114 items and resulted in a draft inventory with 29 items in five dimensions. During the pilot, the inventory was easy to complete within 15 minutes and the items showed sufficient response variation. In four of five dimensions, test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect and the power to discriminate between groups with different expertise was adequate, whereas internal consistency showed that the items generally measured the same construct. On the basis of internal consistency and factor analysis, we excluded three items. The final EBP inventory consists of 26 items in five dimensions: decision making, subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavior control, and intention and behavior. The EBP inventory was developed with support of EBP experts and validated among various academic clinicians. It shows adequate face and content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminative power, and completion will take <15 minutes. We recommend further evaluation of its value in field trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scale of attitudes toward alcohol - Spanish version: evidences of validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Erika Gisseth León; Vargas, Divane de

    2017-08-03

    validate the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in its Spanish version. methodological study, involving 300 Colombian nurses. Adopting the classical theory, confirmatory factor analysis was applied without prior examination, based on the strong historical evidence of the factorial structure of the original scale to determine the construct validity of this Spanish version. To assess the reliability, Cronbach's Alpha and Mc Donalid's Omega coefficients were used. the confirmatory factor analysis indicated the good fit of the scale model in a four-factor distribution, with a cut-off point at 3.2, demonstrating 66.7% of sensitivity. the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in Spanish presented robust psychometric qualities, affirming that the instrument possesses a solid factorial structure and reliability and is capable of precisely measuring the nurses' atittudes towards the phenomenon proposed. validar a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool, versão espanhola. estudo metodológico, realizado com 303 enfermeiros colombianos. Seguindo a teoria clássica, foi aplicada a análise fatorial confirmatória sem exploração preliminar, com base na forte evidência histórica da estrutura fatorial do instrumento original para a validação de construto desta versão em espanhol. Para a avaliação da confiabilidade foram utilizados os coeficientes de Alfa de Cronbach e Ômega de Mc Donald. a análise fatorial confirmatória indicou o bom ajuste do modelo da escala na distribuição de quatro fatores, compreendendo 48 itens em sua versão espanhola. Os índices de confiabilidade foram satisfatórios, com ponto de corte observado em 3,2, demonstrando sensibilidade de 66,7%. a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool no idioma

  2. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Development and Validation of an Evidence-Based Practice Instrument for Nursing Students Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Richard; Moore, Elizabeth R; Wallston, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and validated a theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based self-report instrument to measure nursing students' attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP), perceived support, self-efficacy, and implementation of EBP. There were 348 nursing students at 1 university who completed the measure as a pretest at the beginning of a course designed to teach them about EBP; 164 at the end of the course as a posttest. Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students reported higher EBP implementation scores than Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) students who, in turn, had higher scores than prespecialty students. At the pretest, self-efficacy and network support accounted for 31% of the variance in EBP implementation. Evidence provides initial support for the reliability and validity of this 4-part EBP instrument based on the TPB.

  4. Burnout e hardiness: um estudo de evidência de validade Burnout and hardiness: a study of evidence of validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Mallar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar se professores que trabalham com alunos portadores de necessidades especiais apresentavam-se com hardiness e, conseqüentemente, sem burnout, como também verificar a validade concorrente entre as dimensões dos instrumentos Maslach burnout Inventory e o Personal Views Survey. Participaram 56 professores que trabalhavam exclusivamente com alunos com necessidades especiais, na faixa etária compreendida entre 19 e 54 anos. Verificou-se que cinco professores apresentavam personalidade resistente ao estresse e outros três, que não apresentavam hardiness, apresentavam burnout. Realizada a análise de correlação entre as dimensões dos dois instrumentos, verificou-se que apenas as dimensões Controle e Redução da Realização Pessoal estão positivamente correlacionadas. Assim, pôde-se concluir que há validade concorrente entre os dois instrumentos, e se confirmou a hipótese de que portadores de hardiness conseguem atenuar os efeitos do estresse e desenvolvem menos burnout.The objective of this work was to verify if teachers who work with students with special needs would show hardiness and, consequently, no burnout, and also to verify the concurrent validity between the dimensions of both instrument Maslach burnout Inventory and Personal Views Survey. Fifty-six teachers, who work only whith students with special needs and aged 1954 years old, participated on this study. Five teachers presented resistant personality to stress and other three, who did not showed hardiness, had burnout. After the analysis of correlation among the dimensions of the two instruments, only the dimensions Control and Reduction of the Personal Realization are positively co-related. So, there is a concurrent validity between the two instruments, and it is confirmed the hypothesis that people who have hardiness can attenuate the effects of stress and develop less burnout.

  5. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  6. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  7. The Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ) : Preliminary evidence for reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.K.; Castelein, Stynke; Bous, Johan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A.; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the psychometric properties of the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ). Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were calculated in a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia

  8. The Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ) : preliminary evidence for reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Marrit K; Castelein, Stynke; Bous, Johan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the psychometric properties of the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ). Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were calculated in a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia

  9. Validation of the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Siu-Yin; King, Carina C.; Lam, Eddie T. C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of local residents' perception and reaction to the impacts of mega events. However, there is limited empirical research on the social impacts that shape foreign attitudes toward the host country. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS) to examine viewers'…

  10. Validity evidence of the brazilian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas de Barros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is a skill that allows the practitioner to expand an existing space between stimulus and response, so he/she may make more conscious choices which in turn prevents the perpetuation of dysfunctional patterns of behaviors, contributing to the improvement of his/her well-being. The goal of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS in a sample with 395 participants divided into smokers, people from the general population, college students and meditators. They answered the MAAS and the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to test the factor structure of the MAAS. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and split half were respectively assessed with Cronbach's α and correlation coefficients. Construct validity was examined by correlating the MAAS with psychological well-being. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the meditators' scores on the MAAS with the scores of other participants. After the exploratory factor analysis, the Brazilian MAAS remained a unidimensional scale. Reliability [α = .83; split half = .67 and test-retest = .80 (p < .001] and validity measures were adequate, except the criterion validity which was not confirmed in the mentioned sample.

  11. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  12. Measures of Anomie and Locus-of-Control for Adolescents: Evidence of Factorial Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lynda Henley; Klein, Alice E.

    1981-01-01

    Two scales were submitted together for factor analyses in order to determine the extent to which the dimensions of locus of control and anomie were related from the perspective of adolescents. It was concluded that the instruments measure different constructs and are factorially valid when considered together. (Author/AL)

  13. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes’ inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of

  14. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  15. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  16. Modelling the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment: evidence in the validity chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 1087-1098 OBJECTIVES We previously developed a model of the pre-assessment learning effects of consequential assessment and started to validate it. The model comprises assessment factors, mechanism factors and learning effects. The purpose of this study was to continue th

  17. Using Self-Concept Instruments with High-Ability College Students: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Cunningham, Lindy G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the academic subscales of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire III and Neeman and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for College Students for use with high-ability college students. Participants included 100 high-ability college students and 196 average-ability college students enrolled in a…

  18. Investigating Validity Evidence of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) and presents psychometric findings regarding its validation. The SWLS-C was adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), which is one of the most commonly used measures to assess satisfaction with life in adults. Three subject matter…

  19. Measures of Anomie and Locus-of-Control for Adolescents: Evidence of Factorial Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lynda Henley; Klein, Alice E.

    1981-01-01

    Two scales were submitted together for factor analyses in order to determine the extent to which the dimensions of locus of control and anomie were related from the perspective of adolescents. It was concluded that the instruments measure different constructs and are factorially valid when considered together. (Author/AL)

  20. The Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern and Trait Anxiety: Evidence for Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Warren R.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1980-01-01

    Supports the discriminant validity of the Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern, as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey, in relation to trait anxiety. Future research should include measures of trait anxiety to collaborate findings in a laboratory setting. (Author/JAC)

  1. The Psychopathy Q-Sort. Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…

  2. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed.

  3. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia: Validity evidence and norms for adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA is a battery of tests that assesses six music processing components: scale, contour, interval, rhythm, metric, and music memory. The present study sought to verify the psychometric characteristics of the MBEA in a sample of 150 adolescents aged 14-18 years in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to develop specific norms for this population. We used statistical procedures that explored the dimensional structure of the MBEA and its items, evaluating their adequacy from empirical data, verifying their reliability, and providing evidence of validity. The results for the difficult levels for each test indicated a trend toward higher scores, corroborating previous studies. From the analysis of the criterion groups, almost all of the items were considered discriminatory. The global score of the MBEA was shown to be valid and reliable (r K-R20=0.896 for assessing the musical ability of normal teenagers. Based on the analysis of the items, we proposed a short version of the MBEA. Further studies with larger samples and amusic individuals are necessary to provide evidence of the validity of the MBEA in the Brazilian milieu. The present study brings to the Brazilian context a tool for diagnosing deficits in musical skills and will serve as a basis for comparisons with single case studies and studies of populations with specific neuropsychological syndromes.

  4. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the Student School Engagement Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Cynthia E; Vazirabadi, G Emma; Albanes, Jennifer; Gallagher, John

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of the Student School Engagement Measure (SSEM) with 3 other measures of student well-being: (a) the School Engagement Scale, (b) the Student Engagement Instrument, and (c) the Student Life Satisfaction Survey. The data were analyzed from 370 8th-grade students from 3 middle schools in an urban school district. As hypothesized, strong and significant positive correlations (.80) were found between the SSEM and the 2 measures of engagement (the School Engagement Measure and the Student Engagement Instrument). Also as hypothesized, a weak but significant positive correlation (.35) was found between the SSEM and a measure of life satisfaction (the Student Life Satisfaction Survey). These findings provide additional support for using the SSEM as a valid measure of adolescents' engagement with school.

  5. Assessing residents' written learning goals and goal writing skill: validity evidence for the learning goal scoring rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockspeiser, Tai M; Schmitter, Patricia A; Lane, J Lindsey; Hanson, Janice L; Rosenberg, Adam A; Park, Yoon Soo

    2013-10-01

    To provide validity evidence for use of the Learning Goal Scoring Rubric to assess the quality of written learning goals and residents' goal writing skills. This two-part study used the rubric to assess University of Colorado third-year pediatric residents' written learning goals to obtain validity evidence. In study 1, five raters independently scored 48 goals written in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 by 48 residents, who also responded to the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JeffSPLL). In study 2, two raters independently scored 48 goals written in 2011-2012 by 12 residents. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed rater agreement to provide evidence for response process. Generalizability theory assessed internal structure. Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests and correlations assessed relationship to other variables. Content was matched to published literature and instructional methods. The ICC was 0.71 for the overall rubric. In study 1, where the generalizability study's (G study's) object of measurement was learning goals, the phi coefficient was 0.867. In study 2, where the G study's object of measurement was the resident (goal writing skill), the phi coefficient was 0.751. The total mean score of residents with goal writing training was significantly higher than that of those without (7.54 versus 4.98, P skill.

  6. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-02-06

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  8. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  9. A Big Data-inspired Spatio-temporal Story Model for Forensic Evidence Validation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Digital Forensic Evidence (DFE) are more than digitised computer data chunks. They may contain complicated causality relationships within specific timelines and feature domains. Recent developments in forensic science study have shown that DEF should be treated as part of the concept of “Big Data” formed by the explosively increasing electronic data generated by Internet, social networks, consumer electronics, and public surveillance systems.

  10. Internal and External Validation of a Computer-Assisted Surveillance System for Hospital-Acquired Infections in a 754-Bed General Hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, H Roel A; Lede, Ivar O; Eriksson, John L V; Meijling, Marije G; van der Hoeven, Conrad P; Wille, Jan C; Hopmans, Titia E M; Friedrich, Alex W; Verbrugh, Henri A; Naiemi, Nashwan Al

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate a computer-assisted point-prevalence survey (CAPPS) for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). DESIGN Validation cohort. SETTING A 754-bed teaching hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS For the internal validation of a CAPPS for HAIs, 2,526 patients were included. All patient reco

  11. Evidence for validity and reliability of a French version of the FAAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borloz, Stéphane; Crevoisier, Xavier; Deriaz, Olivier; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Martin, RobRoy L; Luthi, François

    2011-02-08

    The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a self reported questionnaire for patients with foot and ankle disorders available in English, German, and Persian. This study plans to translate the FAAM from English to French (FAAM-F) and assess the validity and reliability of this new version. The FAAM-F Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and sports subscales were completed by 105 French-speaking patients (average age 50.5 years) presenting various chronic foot and ankle disorders. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients between the FAAM-F subscales and the SF-36 scales: Physical Functioning (PF), Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Health (MH) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's Alpha (CA). To assess test re-test reliability, 22 patients filled out the questionnaire a second time to estimate minimal detectable changes (MDC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Correlations for FAAM-F ADL subscale were 0.85 with PF, 0.81 with PCS, 0.26 with MH, 0.37 with MCS. Correlations for FAAM-F Sports subscale were 0.72 with PF, 0.72 with PCS, 0.21 with MH, 0.29 with MCS. CA estimates were 0.97 for both subscales. Respectively for the ADL and Sports subscales, ICC were 0.97 and 0.94, errors for a single measure were 8 and 10 points at 95% confidence and the MDC values at 95% confidence were 7 and 18 points. The FAAM-F is valid and reliable for the self-assessment of physical function in French-speaking patients with a wide range of chronic foot and ankle disorders.

  12. Evidence for validity and reliability of a french version of the FAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballabeni Pierluigi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM is a self reported questionnaire for patients with foot and ankle disorders available in English, German, and Persian. This study plans to translate the FAAM from English to French (FAAM-F and assess the validity and reliability of this new version. Methods The FAAM-F Activities of Daily Living (ADL and sports subscales were completed by 105 French-speaking patients (average age 50.5 years presenting various chronic foot and ankle disorders. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients between the FAAM-F subscales and the SF-36 scales: Physical Functioning (PF, Physical Component Summary (PCS, Mental Health (MH and Mental Component Summary (MCS. Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's Alpha (CA. To assess test re-test reliability, 22 patients filled out the questionnaire a second time to estimate minimal detectable changes (MDC and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. Results Correlations for FAAM-F ADL subscale were 0.85 with PF, 0.81 with PCS, 0.26 with MH, 0.37 with MCS. Correlations for FAAM-F Sports subscale were 0.72 with PF, 0.72 with PCS, 0.21 with MH, 0.29 with MCS. CA estimates were 0.97 for both subscales. Respectively for the ADL and Sports subscales, ICC were 0.97 and 0.94, errors for a single measure were 8 and 10 points at 95% confidence and the MDC values at 95% confidence were 7 and 18 points. Conclusion The FAAM-F is valid and reliable for the self-assessment of physical function in French-speaking patients with a wide range of chronic foot and ankle disorders.

  13. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Educational Needs Assessment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MyoungJin; Dyck, Mary J; Funk, Amy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the revised Educational Needs Assessment (ENA) questionnaire, a 32-item questionnaire designed to assess educational needs of nurses. Data were obtained from 317 nursing home nurses in central Illinois and underwent testing for psychometric properties. The principal component analysis yielded a 6-factor solution that explained 65.9% of the variance and Cronbach's alpha for each factor was satisfactory. The revised ENA can be a useful tool to measure and identify in what areas of educational needs nursing home nurses need to develop their skills to help patients more effectively.

  14. First evidence on the validity and reliability of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing home version (SOS-NH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Schwendimann, René

    2013-01-01

    Background The Safety Organizing Scale is a valid and reliable measure on safety behaviors and practices in hospitals. Purpose of the study This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH). Design and Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of staff survey data, we examined validity and reliability of the 9-item Safety SOS-NH using American Educational Research Association guidelines. Subjects and Setting This sub-study of a larger trial used baseline survey data collected from staff members (n=627) in a variety of work roles in 13 NHs in North Carolina and Virginia, USA. Results Psychometric evaluation of the SOS-NH revealed good response patterns with low average of missing values across all items (3.05%). Analyses of the SOS-NH’s internal structure (e.g., comparative fit indices = 0.929, standardized root mean square error of approximation = 0.045) and consistency (composite reliability = 0.94) suggested its one-dimensionality. Significant between-facility variability, intraclass correlations, within-group agreement and design effect confirmed appropriateness of the SOS-NH for measurement at the NH level, justifying data aggregation. The SOS-NH showed discriminate validity from one related concept, communication openness. Implications Initial evidence regarding validity and reliability of the SOS-NH supports its’ utility in measuring safety behaviors and practices among a wide range of NH staff members, including those with low literacy. Further psychometric evaluation should focus on testing concurrent and criterion validity, using resident outcome measures (e.g., patient fall rates). PMID:23684122

  15. Validity and reliability evidence of the attitudes towards physical activity of Greek prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANTELIS KONSTANTINAKOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess the attitudes of Greek prisoners regarding physical activity and sports. A total of 308 male adult Greek prison inmates participated voluntarily, from three Greek prisons. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors consisting of 11 physical activity and sport items that explained 51.75% of the total variability. These factors were named: a «need for physical activity» (7 items, b «physical activity before and during imprisonment» (2 items, and c «non - participation in physical activity» (2 items. The internal consistency for the whole scale was .70, while reliability indexes ranged from .88 to .58 for the three factors. Results showed that Greek prisoners identified the neediness for physical activities and sport during imprisonment and rated high the respective items. Overall findings showed that the new questionnaire, named Attitudes Towards Physical Activity of Greek Prisoners (ATPA - GP may be perceived as a reliable and valid instrument to identify the attitudes of Greek prison inmates towards physical activity and sports. Further research is required to confirm the present findings, with a wider sample, using confirmatory factor analysis, examining the differences across gender, age, marital status, type of prison, sentence, etc.

  16. RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDE SCALE: FIRST EVIDENCE ON ITS RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE SALVADORIAN SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

  17. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times.

  18. Validity evidence based on internal structure of scores on the Spanish version of the Self-Description Questionnaire-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Hidalgo, María D; Nuñez, Jose C; Castejón, Juan L; García-Fernández, Jose M; Valles, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II). The instrument was administered in a sample of 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the SDQ-II. CFA replicated the correlated II first-order factor structure. Furthermore, hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) was used to examine the hierarchical ordering of self-concept, as measured by scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II. Although a series of HCFA models were tested to assess academic and non-academic components organization, support for those hierarchical models was weaker than for the correlated 11 first-order factor structure. Results also indicated that scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II had internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates within an acceptable range.

  19. AIMD - a validated, simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lokker, Cynthia; Colquhoun, Heather

    2017-03-04

    Proliferation of terms describing the science of effectively promoting and supporting the use of research evidence in healthcare policy and practice has hampered understanding and development of the field. To address this, an international Terminology Working Group developed and published a simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies. This paper presents results of validation work and a second international workgroup meeting, culminating in the updated AIMD framework [Aims, Ingredients, Mechanism, Delivery]. Framework validity was evaluated against terminology schemas (n = 51); primary studies (n = 37); and reporting guidelines (n = 10). Framework components were independently categorized as fully represented, partly represented, or absent by two researchers. Opportunities to refine the framework were systematically recorded. A meeting of the expanded international Terminology Working Group updated the framework by reviewing and deliberating upon validation findings and refinement proposals. There was variation in representativeness of the components across the three types of literature, in particular for the component 'causal mechanisms'. Analysis of primary studies revealed that representativeness of this concept lowered from 92 to 68% if only explicit, rather than explicit and non-explicit references to causal mechanisms were included. All components were very well represented in reporting guidelines, however the level of description of these was lower than in other types of literature. Twelve opportunities were identified to improve the framework, 9 of which were operationalized at the meeting. The updated AIMD framework comprises four components: (1) Aims: what do you want your intervention to achieve and for whom? (2) Ingredients: what comprises the intervention? (3) Mechanisms: how do you propose the intervention will work? and (4) Delivery: how will you deliver the

  20. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity.

  1. Zulliger e habilidade social: evidências de validade no contexto empresarial Zulliger and social skills: validity evidences in business context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Bier Di Domenico Grazziotin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar evidências de validade do Zulliger no Sistema Compreensivo ZSC, focalizando a variável relacionamento, em correlação ao Inventário de Habilidades Sociais IHS. Participaram 19 sujeitos, entre 18 e 43 anos, de uma loja de supermercado. Nos indicadores, destacam-se as correlações das variáveis GHR, H, GPHR, Sum H do ZSC com os fatores GIHS, F3 e F1 do IHS, e variáveis AG, PHR, Sum T com os fatores GIHS e F5. Os resultados contribuíram para asseverar a validade do Zulliger no âmbito empresarial, e comprovaram a presença de um bom relacionamento interpessoal entre os profissionais que trabalham no atendimento ao público, confirmando as expectativas do estudo.The aim of this study was to verify the validity evidence of Zulliger Comprehensive System ZSC focusing the variable `relationship' in correlation to the Social Skills Inventory. Nineteen supermarket workers, aged between 18 and 43 years old, participated in the study. The indicators include the correlations of variables GHR, H, GPHR; Sum H of ZSC with the factors GIHS, F3 and F1 of HIS; and variables AG, PHR, Sum T with the factors GIHS and F5.The results contributed to certify the validity of Zulliger in the business field and prove the presence of good interpersonal relationships among professionals who work with the public, confirming the assumptions of the study.

  2. Rivaroxaban real-world evidence: Validating safety and effectiveness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Tamayo, Sally

    2016-09-28

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of clinical research as they use rigorous methodologies, detailed protocols, pre-specified statistical analyses and well-defined patient cohorts. However, RCTs do not take into account the complexity of real-world clinical decision-making. To tackle this, real-world data are being increasingly used to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of a given therapy in routine clinical practice and in patients who may not be represented in RCTs, addressing key clinical questions that may remain. Real-world evidence plays a substantial role in supporting the use of non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in clinical practice. By providing data on patient profiles and the use of anticoagulation therapies in routine clinical practice, real-world evidence expands the current awareness of NOACs, helping to ensure that clinicians are well-informed on their use to implement patient-tailored clinical decisions. There are various issues with current anticoagulation strategies, including under- or overtreatment and frequent monitoring with VKAs. Real-world studies have demonstrated that NOAC use is increasing (Dresden NOAC registry and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-AF [GARFIELD-AF]), as well as reaffirming the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban previously observed in RCTs (XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation [XANTUS] and IMS Disease Analyzer). This article will describe the latest updates in real-world evidence across a variety of methodologies, such as non-interventional studies (NIS), registries and database analyses studies. It is anticipated that these studies will provide valuable clinical insights into the management of thromboembolism, and enhance the current knowledge on anticoagulant use and outcomes for patients.

  3. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control.

  4. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: External Validation of the Revision of the TNM Stage Groupings in the Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G; Rusch, Valerie W; Vallières, Eric; Groome, Patti; Kennedy, Catherine; Krasnik, Mark; Peake, Michael; Shemanski, Lynn; Bolejack, Vanessa; Crowley, John J; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón

    2017-07-01

    Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC were analyzed separately. The T, N, and overall TNM classifications were evaluated according to clinical, pathologic, and "best" stage (N = 780,294). Multivariate analyses were carried out to adjust for various confounding factors. A combined analysis of the NSCLC cases from both databases was performed to explore differences in overall survival prognosis between the two databases. The databases differed in terms of key factors related to data source. Survival was greater in the IASLC database for all stage categories. However, the eighth edition TNM stage classification system demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity within stage groups and by the consistency within analyses of specific cohorts. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior…

  6. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Martínez, Pilar; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the diagnostic criteria used in the scientific literature published in the past 25 years for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to explore if the epidemiological analysis of diagnostic validity has been used to propose which clinical criteria should be used for diagnostic purposes. We carried out a systematic review of papers on accommodative and non-strabic binocular disorders published from 1986 to 2012 analysing the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS databases. We admitted original articles about diagnosis of these anomalies in any population. We identified 839 articles and 12 studies were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The review shows a wide range of clinical signs and cut-off points between authors. Only 3 studies (regarding accommodative anomalies) assessed diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs. Their results suggest using the accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility for diagnosing accommodative insufficiency and a high positive relative accommodation for accommodative excess. The remaining 9 articles did not analyze diagnostic accuracy, assessing a diagnosis with the criteria the authors considered. We also found differences between studies in the way of considering patients' symptomatology. 3 studies of 12 analyzed, performed a validation of a symptom survey used for convergence insufficiency. Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  8. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  9. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  10. Experimental Evidence for Differential Susceptibility: Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) Moderates Intervention Effects on Toddlers' Externalizing Behavior in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Mesman, Judi; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback…

  11. Screening symptoms of reactive attachment disorder: evidence for measurement invariance and convergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Eleonora; De Schipper, J Clasien; Bosmans, Guy; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-09-01

    The Relationship Problems Questionnaire (RPQ) was developed to screen symptoms of the inhibited and disinhibited subtype of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). This study further examines the psychometric properties of the RPQ in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems by testing its measurement invariance across informants and its convergent validity. Parents and teachers of 152 children [mean age (Mage) = 7.92] from 20 schools for special education filled out the RPQ and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). During a home visit in a subsample of 77 children the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) was administered to the caregiver and the child was observed using an observational schedule for RAD. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the expected two-factor structure for both parent and teacher RPQ. Configural and metric invariance, but no scalar invariance, were obtained across informants. Both RPQ-subscales had acceptable to good internal consistencies and correlated as expected with similar DAI-subscales. Furthermore, the disinhibited RPQ-scale related with observations of the child's approach to a stranger. Finally, significant associations were found between the RPQ and the SDQ. Overall, the RPQ has good psychometric qualities as a multi-informant instrument for RAD-symptoms in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems.

  12. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakad, Amar [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India); Omura, Yoshiharu [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakad, Bharati [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  13. Validating Antibodies to the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor: Antibody Sensitivity Is Not Evidence of Antibody Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalant, Yannick; Brownjohn, Philip W; Bonnet, Amandine; Kleffmann, Torsten; Ashton, John C

    2014-06-01

    Antibody-based methods for the detection and quantification of membrane integral proteins, in particular, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have been plagued with issues of primary antibody specificity. In this report, we investigate one of the most commonly utilized commercial antibodies for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor, a GPCR, using immunoblotting in combination with mass spectrometry. In this way, we were able to develop powerful negative and novel positive controls. By doing this, we are able to demonstrate that it is possible for an antibody to be sensitive for a protein of interest-in this case CB2-but still cross-react with other proteins and therefore lack specificity. Specifically, we were able to use western blotting combined with mass spectrometry to unequivocally identify CB2 protein in over-expressing cell lines. This shows that a common practice of validating antibodies with positive controls only is insufficient to ensure antibody reliability. In addition, our work is the first to develop a label-free method of protein detection using mass spectrometry that, with further refinement, could provide unequivocal identification of CB2 receptor protein in native tissues.

  14. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  15. Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion as a valid model of schizophrenia: evidence from sensory gating study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; ZHANG Chen; XU Yi-feng; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong; TANG Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rat model has been proposed as an experimental model for schizophrenia.NVHL rats display impaired central nervous system (CNS) inhibition,which may lead to a phenomenon similar to P50 sensory gating deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.In this study,we investigated whether sensory gating deficits occurred in the NVHL rat as a model for schizophrenia.Methods We created the NVHL rat model using ibotenate.The P20 and N40 were measured to assess sensory response and gating in NVHL and sham rats.Epidural electrodes recorded evoked potentials (EPs).from which latencies,amplitudes,difference scores (S1-S2),and gating ratios (S2/S1) were assessed.Results Compared with sham controls,prolonged S1 N40 latency and decreased S2 N40 amplitude were detected in the NVHL group.In neither difference scores nor gating ratios,a significant difference was found between NVHL group and sham controls.Conclusions NVHL rats may be a valid animal model for schizophrenia.This strategy will be useful in future neurobiological studies investigating the etiology of schizophrenia.

  16. Validity evidence for the situational judgment test paradigm in emotional intelligence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip

    2012-01-01

    To date, various measurement approaches have been proposed to assess emotional intelligence (EI). Recently, two new EI tests have been developed based on the situational judgment test (SJT) paradigm: the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM). Initial attempts have been made to examine the construct-related validity of these new tests; we extend these findings by placing the tests in a broad nomological network. To this end, 850 undergraduate students completed a personality inventory, a cognitive ability test, a self-report EI test, a performance-based EI measure, the STEU, and the STEM. The SJT-based EI tests were not strongly correlated with personality and fluid cognitive ability. Regarding their relation with existing EI measures, the tests did not capture the same construct as self-report EI measures, but corresponded rather to performance-based EI measures. Overall, these results lend support for the SJT paradigm for measuring EI as an ability.

  17. Inconsistent Responding on the MMPI-2-RF and Uncooperative Attitude: Evidence From Cognitive Performance Validity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Greiffenstein, Manfred F; Wygant, Dustin B; Deslauriers, Cheryl; Arends, Patricia

    2017-06-19

    It is generally well understood that possible reasons for inconsistent responding on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), as measured by the Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales, include reading or language limitations, cognitive impairment, and intentional random responding; however, the interpretive recommendations for the test suggest that higher scores on these scales can also result from an uncooperative test-taking approach. This study utilized a sample of 3,457 predominately non-head injury disability claimants to examine the association between inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF and performance on cognitive tests as well performance validity tests (PVTs), an independent indicator of uncooperative test-taking attitude. Analysis of variance found that both VRIN-r and TRIN-r were associated with statistically lower cognitive test scores. These analyses also supported that TRIN-r was associated with poor performance on collaterally administered PVTs in a subsample of individuals with average reading levels. Illustrating the practical effects of these results, in follow-up relative risk ratio analyses, individuals with elevations on TRIN-r were at up to five times greater risk of PVT failure than those without elevations. Overall, the results of this study provide some support for the interpretation that inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF is associated not only with cognitive/reading problems or limitations but also an uncooperative test-taking approach, particularly for elevated TRIN-r scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity--Evidence from Gazing Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    Full Text Available Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth. We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral. We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel

  19. Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity--Evidence from Gazing Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel perspective on

  20. Role of Chronic Inflammation in Myopia Progression: Clinical Evidence and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of myopia is an important public problem worldwide. We found a higher incidence of myopia among patients with inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (7.9%, uveitis (3.7%, or systemic lupus erythematosus (3.5% compared to those without inflammatory diseases (p < 0.001 using data from children (<18 years old in the National Health Insurance Research database. We then examined the inhibition of myopia by atropine in Syrian hamsters with monocular form deprivation (MFD, an experimental myopia model. We found atropine downregulated inflammation in MFD eyes. The expression levels of c-Fos, nuclear factor κB (NFκB, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were upregulated in myopic eyes and downregulated upon treatment with atropine. The relationship between the inflammatory response and myopia was investigated by treating MFD hamsters with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CSA or the inflammatory stimulators lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN. Myopia progression was slowed by CSA application but was enhanced by LPS and PGN administration. The levels of c-Fos, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α were upregulated in LPS- and PGN-treated eyes and downregulated by CSA treatment. These findings provide clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of myopia.

  1. TIMES-SS - A promising tool for the assessment of skin sensitization hazard. A characterization with respect to the OECD validation principles for (Q)SARs and an external evaluation for predictivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.; Low, Lawrence K.;

    2007-01-01

    with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. Further evaluation of these results highlighted certain inconsistencies which were rationalized by a consideration of reaction chemistry principles for sensitization. Improvements for TIMES-SS were proposed where appropriate. TIMES...... and to be scientifically valid in accordance with the OECD principles for (Q)SAR validation. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic 3D QSARs. Here, we describe the extent to which the five OECD...... principles are met and in particular the results from an external evaluation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising...

  2. Population based external validation of a European predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization of premature infants born 33 to 35 weeks of gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone G; Fullarton, John R; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively collected population-based data on 2529 Danish infants born at 33 to 35 weeks of gestation were used to validate an European predictive model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. The model was found to be robust with a diagnostic accuracy of 65.9% to distinguish bet...

  3. Adverse events of interferon beta-1a: a prospective multi-centre international ICH-GCP-based CRO-supported external validation study in daily practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.; Sindic, C.; Sanders, E.; Hawkins, S.; Linssen, W.; Munster, E. van; Frequin, S.T.F.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to methodological shortcomings the available post-registration data on the adverse events (AEs) occurring in interferon beta-1a (INFb-1a)-treated patients fail to adequately validate phase III data and only partially inform on safety in daily practice. We assessed AEs in relapsing

  4. Adaptation and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Belief and Implementation scales for French-speaking Swiss nurses and allied healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to

  5. Escala de atitudes frente ao uso de drogas: evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva Attitudes toward drugs use scale: evidences of factor and predictive validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva de uma medida de atitudes ante o uso de drogas em geral (EAAUD. MÉTODO: Participaram voluntariamente 276 estudantes universitários de vários cursos, provenientes de uma universidade pública (94,2% e outra particular (5,8% da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. Estes tinham idade média de 21 anos (DP = 3,40; 93,5% eram de jovens de 17 a 25 anos, a maioria solteira (91% e do sexo feminino (65,6%. Além de um conjunto de perguntas demográficas, os participantes preencheram a EAAUD. Esta compreende uma medida formada por quatro itens/adjetivos bipolares (positivo/negativo, gosto/desgosto, bom/ruim e desejável/indesejável respondidos em escala do tipo diferencial semântico, de 9 pontos, variando de - 4 a + 4. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a análise de componentes principais, um único componente emergiu, com todos os itens apresentando saturação acima de |0,40|; este teve valor próprio de 3,17, explicando 79,3% da variância total. Sua consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91. Por meio de regressão logística, comprovou-se que as pontuações na EAAUD predisseram significativamente a condição de ser um usuário de drogas, B = 0,17, Wald (1 = 8,45, p = 0,004. CONCLUSÃO: Tais resultados indicam que esta medida reúne evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva, podendo ser empregada para conhecer o potencial envolvimento dos jovens com drogas. Não obstante, sugerem-se novas pesquisas com amostras maiores e mais diversificadas.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at knowing evidences of factor and predictive validity of a measure of attitudes toward drugs use (ATDUS. METHODS: Participants were 276 volunteer undergraduate students of several courses. They were of a public (94.2% and other private (5.8% university from João Pessoa city (Paraíba, with mean age of 21 years old (SD = 3.40; 93.5% were youths, with age ranging from 17 to 25. Most of

  6. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  7. Devising and external validation of a prognostic classification of metastatic involvement risk to pelvic lymph nodes in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Leusik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – assessing the predictive significance of clinical, histologic and biochemical factors for prediction of metastases in pelvic lymph nodes (MPLN, devising and validating of prognostic classification.Materials and methods. The study enrolled 1140 patients subjected to radical prostatectomy (RPE with standard pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostate adenocarcinoma: 865 of them at the classification devising stage and 275 in the course of validation.Results. According to the findings of multivariate logistic regression analysis, PSA level, the tumor cT stage and Gleason score are independent predictors of MPLN detection after RPE (p < 0.05. The prognostic factors were stratified by score for assessing the detection of regional metastases after RPE, depending on the combination of predictors. In the group of patients with a score estimate of prognostic factors < 10, the MPLN detection rate was significantly lower than in the group of with a score estimate > 15, accounting for 3.5 % and 23.7 % respectively (р < 0.0001. In the course of validating the obtained findings in clinic, metastatic involvement of pelvic lymph nodes found in the result of RPE was diagnosed in 40.0 % of the patients with a score estimate > 15 and only in 1.3 % of those with a total estimate of prognostic factors < 10 (р < 0.0001.

  8. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaar, Annelie; Maas, Mario; Rijn, Rick R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Walenkamp, Monique M.J.; Bentohami, Abdelali; Goslings, J.C. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steyerberg, Ewout W. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jager, L.C. [University of Amsterdam, Emergency Department, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sosef, Nico L. [Spaarne Hospital, Department of Surgery, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Velde, Romuald van [Tergooi Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Hilversum (Netherlands); Ultee, Jan M. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schep, Niels W.L. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maasstadziekenhuis Rotterdam, Department of Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    In most hospitals, children with acute wrist trauma are routinely referred for radiography. To develop and validate a clinical decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required. We prospectively developed and validated a clinical decision rule in two study populations. All children who presented in the emergency department of four hospitals with pain following wrist trauma were included and evaluated for 18 clinical variables. The outcome was a wrist fracture diagnosed by plain radiography. Included in the study were 787 children. The prediction model consisted of six variables: age, swelling of the distal radius, visible deformation, distal radius tender to palpation, anatomical snuffbox tender to palpation, and painful or abnormal supination. The model showed an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83). The sensitivity and specificity were 95.9% and 37.3%, respectively. The use of this model would have resulted in a 22% absolute reduction of radiographic examinations. In a validation study, 7/170 fractures (4.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-8.3%) would have been missed using the decision model. The decision model may be a valuable tool to decide whether radiography in children after wrist trauma is required. (orig.)

  9. Initial construct validity evidence of a virtual human application for competency assessment in breaking bad news to a cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetterman TC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy C Guetterman,1 Frederick W Kron,1 Toby C Campbell,2 Mark W Scerbo,3 Amy B Zelenski,4 James F Cleary,5 Michael D Fetters1 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 3Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 4Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, 5Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Clinical Science Center, Madison, WI, USA Background: Despite interest in using virtual humans (VHs for assessing health care ­communication, evidence of validity is limited. We evaluated the validity of a VH application, MPathic-VR, for assessing performance-based competence in breaking bad news (BBN to a VH patient.Methods: We used a two-group quasi-experimental design, with residents participating in a 3-hour seminar on BBN. Group A (n=15 completed the VH simulation before and after the seminar, and Group B (n=12 completed the VH simulation only after the BBN seminar to avoid the possibility that testing alone affected performance. Pre- and postseminar differences for Group A were analyzed with a paired t-test, and comparisons between Groups A and B were analyzed with an independent t-test.Results: Compared to the preseminar result, Group A’s postseminar scores improved significantly, indicating that the VH program was sensitive to differences in assessing performance-based competence in BBN. Postseminar scores of Group A and Group B were not significantly different, indicating that both groups performed similarly on the VH program.Conclusion: Improved pre–post scores demonstrate acquisition of skills in BBN to a VH patient. Pretest sensitization did not appear to influence posttest assessment. These results provide initial construct validity evidence that the VH program is effective for

  10. Motivational Modulation of Self-Initiated and Externally Triggered Movement Speed Induced by Threat of Shock: Experimental Evidence for Paradoxical Kinesis in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Louise M McDonald

    Full Text Available Paradoxical kinesis has been observed in bradykinetic people with Parkinson's disease. Paradoxical kinesis occurs in situations where an individual is strongly motivated or influenced by relevant external cues. Our aim was to induce paradoxical kinesis in the laboratory. We tested whether the motivation of avoiding a mild electric shock was sufficient to induce paradoxical kinesis in externally-triggered and self-initiated conditions in people with Parkinson's disease tested on medication and in age-matched controls.Participants completed a shock avoidance behavioural paradigm in which half of the trials could result in a mild electric shock if the participant did not move fast enough. Half of the trials of each type were self-initiated and half were externally-triggered. The criterion for avoiding shock was a maximum movement time, adjusted according to each participant's performance on previous trials using a staircase tracking procedure.On trials with threat of shock, both patients with Parkinson's disease and controls had faster movement times compared to no potential shock trials, in both self-initiated and externally-triggered conditions. The magnitude of improvement of movement time from no potential shock to potential shock trials was positively correlated with anxiety ratings.When motivated to avoid mild electric shock, patients with Parkinson's disease, similar to healthy controls, showed significant speeding of movement execution. This was observed in both self-initiated and externally-triggered versions of the task. Nevertheless, in the ET condition the improvement of reaction times induced by motivation to avoid shocks was greater for the PD patients than controls, highlighting the value of external cues for movement initiation in PD patients. The magnitude of improvement from the no potential shock to the potential shock trials was associated with the threat-induced anxiety. This demonstration of paradoxical kinesis in the

  11. Outcome prediction after mild and complicated mild traumatic brain injury: external validation of existing models and identification of new predictors using the TRACK-TBI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingsma, Hester F; Yue, John K; Maas, Andrew I R; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-15

    Although the majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover completely, some still suffer from disabling ailments at 3 or 6 months. We validated existing prognostic models for mTBI and explored predictors of poor outcome after mTBI. We selected patients with mTBI from TRACK-TBI Pilot, an unselected observational cohort of TBI patients from three centers in the United States. We validated two prognostic models for the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) at 6 months after injury. One model was based on the CRASH study data and another from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Possible predictors of 3- and 6-month GOS-E were analyzed with univariate and multi-variable proportional odds regression models. Of the 386 of 485 patients included in the study (median age, 44 years; interquartile range, 27-58), 75% (n=290) presented with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15. In this mTBI population, both previously developed models had a poor performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.49-0.56). In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictors of lower 3- and 6-month GOS-E were older age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Injury caused by assault, extracranial injuries, and lower GCS were also predictive of lower GOS-E. Existing models for mTBI performed unsatisfactorily. Our study shows that, for mTBI, different predictors are relevant as for moderate and severe TBI. These include age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Development of a valid prediction model for mTBI patients requires further research efforts.

  12. Development and External Validation of the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Two Western Risk Calculators in an Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungroh; Park, Man Sik; Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Chanwang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We developed the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer (KPCRC-HG) that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC) of Gleason score 7 or higher at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort (http://acl.snu.ac.kr/PCRC/RISC/). In addition, KPCRC-HG was validated and compared with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Materials and Methods Using a logistic regression model, KPCRC-HG was developed based on the data from 602 previously unscreened Korean men who underwent initial prostate biopsies. Using 2,313 cases in a validation cohort, KPCRC-HG was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator for high-grade cancer (ERSPCRC-HG) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 for high-grade cancer (PCPTRC-HG). The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration plots. Results PC was detected in 172 (28.6%) men, 120 (19.9%) of whom had PC of Gleason score 7 or higher. Independent predictors included prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination findings, transrectal ultrasound findings, and prostate volume. The AUC of the KPCRC-HG (0.84) was higher than that of the PCPTRC-HG (0.79, pcancer prediction model in Korea. It had higher predictive accuracy than PCPTRC-HG in a Korean population and showed similar performance with ERSPCRC-HG in a Korean population. This prediction model could help avoid unnecessary biopsy and reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment in clinical settings. PMID:28046017

  13. Outcome Prediction after Mild and Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: External Validation of Existing Models and Identification of New Predictors Using the TRACK-TBI Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingsma, Hester F.; Yue, John K.; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Cooper, Shelly R.; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Gordon, Wayne A.; Menon, David K.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O.; Puccio, Ava M.; Schnyer, David M.; Valadka, Alex B.; Vassar, Mary J.; Yuh, Esther L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover completely, some still suffer from disabling ailments at 3 or 6 months. We validated existing prognostic models for mTBI and explored predictors of poor outcome after mTBI. We selected patients with mTBI from TRACK-TBI Pilot, an unselected observational cohort of TBI patients from three centers in the United States. We validated two prognostic models for the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) at 6 months after injury. One model was based on the CRASH study data and another from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Possible predictors of 3- and 6-month GOS-E were analyzed with univariate and multi-variable proportional odds regression models. Of the 386 of 485 patients included in the study (median age, 44 years; interquartile range, 27–58), 75% (n=290) presented with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15. In this mTBI population, both previously developed models had a poor performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.49–0.56). In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictors of lower 3- and 6-month GOS-E were older age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Injury caused by assault, extracranial injuries, and lower GCS were also predictive of lower GOS-E. Existing models for mTBI performed unsatisfactorily. Our study shows that, for mTBI, different predictors are relevant as for moderate and severe TBI. These include age, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, and lower education. Development of a valid prediction model for mTBI patients requires further research efforts. PMID:25025611

  14. Are "classical" tests of repeated-sprint ability in football externally valid? A new approach to determine in-game sprinting behaviour in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Skorski, Sabrina; Nopp, Stephan; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of repeated sprinting bouts in elite football. Furthermore, the construct validity of current tests assessing repeated-sprint ability (RSA) was analysed using information of sprinting sequences as they actually occurred during match-play. Sprinting behaviour in official competition was analysed for 19 games of the German national team between August 2012 and June 2014. A sprinting threshold was individually calculated based on the peak velocity reached during in-game sprinting. Players performed 17.2 ± 3.9 sprints per game and during the entire 19 games a total of 35 bouts of repeated sprinting (a minimum of three consecutive sprints with a recovery duration repeated sprinting per player every 463 min. No general decrement in maximal sprinting speed was observed during bouts with up to five consecutive sprints. Results of the present study question the importance of RSA as it is classically defined. They indicate that shorter accelerations are more important in game-specific situations which do not reach speeds necessary to qualify them as sprints. The construct validity of classic tests of RSA in football is not supported by these observations.

  15. Population-Based Validation of the 2014 ISUP Gleason Grade Groups in Patients Treated With Radical Prostatectomy, Brachytherapy, External Beam Radiation, or no Local Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Raisa S; Davis-Bondarenko, Helen; Zaffuto, Emanuele; Tian, Zhe; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Schiffmann, Jonas; Saad, Fred; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Tilki, Derya; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2017-05-01

    To test discriminant ability of the 2014 ISUP Gleason grade groups (GGG) for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiation (EBRT) or no local treatment (NLT) relative to traditional Gleason grading (TGG). In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-database (2004-2009), 2,42,531 non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients were identified, who underwent local treatment (RP, BT, EBRT only) or NLT. Follow-up endpoint was PCSM. Biopsy and/or pathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized as TGG ≤6, 7, 8-10 or GGG: I (≤6), II (3 + 4), III (4 + 3), IV (8), and V (9-10). Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariable Cox regression analyses and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve analyses (AUC) were used. Median follow-up was 76 months (IQR: 59-94). For the four examined treatment modalities, all five GGG strata and all three TGG strata independently predicted PCSM. GGG yielded 1.5-fold or greater HR differences between GGG II and GGG III, and twofold or greater HR differences between GGG IV and GGG V. Relative to TGG, GGG added 0.4-1.1% to AUC. This large population-based cohort study confirms the added discriminant properties of the novel GGG strata and confirms a modest gain in predictive accuracy. Prostate 77: 686-693, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  17. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  18. Prediction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux after pediatric urinary tract infection: external validation study of procalcitonin-based decision rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Leroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity. We aimed to test its reproducibility. STUDY DESIGN: A secondary analysis of prospective series of children with a first UTI. The rule was applied, and predictive ability was calculated. RESULTS: The study included 413 patients (157 boys, VUR ≥3 in 11% from eight centers in five countries. The rule offered a 46% specificity (95% CI, 41-52, not different from the one in the derivation study. However, the sensitivity significantly decreased to 64% (95%CI, 50-76, leading to a difference of 20% (95%CI, 17-36. In all, 16 (34% patients among the 47 with VUR ≥3 were misdiagnosed by the rule. This lack of reproducibility might result primarily from a difference between derivation and validation populations regarding inflammatory parameters (CRP, PCT; the validation set samples may have been collected earlier than for the derivation one. CONCLUSIONS: The rule built to predict VUR ≥3 had a stable specificity (ie. 46%, but a decreased sensitivity (ie. 64% because of the time variability of PCT measurement. Some refinement may be warranted.

  19. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  20. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  1. Motivational Modulation of Self-Initiated and Externally Triggered Movement Speed Induced by Threat of Shock: Experimental Evidence for Paradoxical Kinesis in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Louise M.; Griffin, Harry J.; Angeli, Aikaterini; Torkamani, Mariam; Georgiev, Dejan; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Paradoxical kinesis has been observed in bradykinetic people with Parkinson’s disease. Paradoxical kinesis occurs in situations where an individual is strongly motivated or influenced by relevant external cues. Our aim was to induce paradoxical kinesis in the laboratory. We tested whether the motivation of avoiding a mild electric shock was sufficient to induce paradoxical kinesis in externally-triggered and self-initiated conditions in people with Parkinson’s disease tested on medication and in age-matched controls. Methods Participants completed a shock avoidance behavioural paradigm in which half of the trials could result in a mild electric shock if the participant did not move fast enough. Half of the trials of each type were self-initiated and half were externally-triggered. The criterion for avoiding shock was a maximum movement time, adjusted according to each participant’s performance on previous trials using a staircase tracking procedure. Results On trials with threat of shock, both patients with Parkinson’s disease and controls had faster movement times compared to no potential shock trials, in both self-initiated and externally-triggered conditions. The magnitude of improvement of movement time from no potential shock to potential shock trials was positively correlated with anxiety ratings. Conclusions When motivated to avoid mild electric shock, patients with Parkinson’s disease, similar to healthy controls, showed significant speeding of movement execution. This was observed in both self-initiated and externally-triggered versions of the task. Nevertheless, in the ET condition the improvement of reaction times induced by motivation to avoid shocks was greater for the PD patients than controls, highlighting the value of external cues for movement initiation in PD patients. The magnitude of improvement from the no potential shock to the potential shock trials was associated with the threat-induced anxiety. This demonstration of

  2. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population.

  3. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2016-12-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines.

  4. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Reassessing the Evidence Hierarchy in Asthma : Evaluating Comparative Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, David; Chisholm, Alison; van der Molen, Thys; Roche, Nicolas; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Bousquet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Classical randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in medical evidence because of their high internal validity. However, their necessarily strict design can limit their external validity and the ability to extrapolate these data to real world patients. Therefore, alternatively designed stu

  6. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. METHODS: Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Danish 460.......932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95......% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. CONCLUSION: We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision....

  7. Internally- and Externally-Driven Network Transitions as a Basis for Automatic and Strategic Processes in Semantic Priming: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar eLerner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, semantic priming – the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word – has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target SOA, the relatedness proportion in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model.

  8. Stronger Discounting of External Cause by Action in Human Adults: Evidence for an Action-Based Hypothesis of Visual Collision Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumatsu, Hidemichi

    2013-01-01

    When an actor performs an action on an external object, the actor feels that he or she is exerting a force on that object. By extension, when an observer views a collision between 2 objects, he or she is able to perceive the force that is exerted on the objects during the collision. The latter case is puzzling, as force is not a visual feature per…

  9. Comparing the effects of combined numerical and visuo- spatial psychoeducational trainings conducted by curricular teachers and external trainers. Preliminary evidence across kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Napoleone, V.; Porru, A. M.; Siddu, F.; Lucangeli, D.; Penna, M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of two pencil-and-paper trainings empowering numerical and visuo-spatial abilities in Italian five-year-old kindergarteners. Specifically, the trainings were respectively carried out by the curricular teacher or by an external trainer. The former received a specific training in order to use the psychoeducational programmes with her pupils, whereas the latter received a specific education about the role of numerical and visuo-spatial abilities for school achievement and she was also trained to use psychoeducational trainings in kindergarten schools. At pre-test and post-test nonverbal functions and numeracy knowledge were assessed through a battery of standardized tests. The results show that both the numerical psychoeducational programme and the visuo-spatial one are useful tools to enhance mathematical achievements in kindergarteners. However, when the trainings were proposed by the external trainer, the efficacy of the psychoeducational programmes was more significant. These outcomes seem to be related both to the expertise and the novelty effect of the external trainer on the classroom.

  10. Repurposing a Business Learning Outcomes Assessment to College Students outside of the United States: Validity and Reliability Evidence. Research Report. ETS RR-13-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    One concern when repurposing a test to a new population is whether the test is measuring the same construct in a valid and reliable way that is comparable to the intended population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission and the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness, this study was designed to collect evidence in support…

  11. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  12. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  13. Validity of Qualis database as a predictor of evidence hierarchy and risk of bias in randomized controlled trials: a case study in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Alves Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open-access journals and performed a page-by-page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall-tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials.

  14. Validation of an Evidence-Based Medicine Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hans B; Frohna, John G; Giudice, Erin L

    2013-06-01

    Competence in evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important clinical skill. Pediatrics residents are expected to acquire competence in EBM during their education, yet few validated tools exist to assess residents' EBM skills. We sought to develop a reliable tool to evaluate residents' EBM skills in the critical appraisal of a research article, the development of a written EBM critically appraised topic (CAT) synopsis, and a presentation of the findings to colleagues. Instrument development used a modified Delphi technique. We defined the skills to be assessed while reviewing (1) a written CAT synopsis and (2) a resident's EBM presentation. We defined skill levels for each item using the Dreyfus and Dreyfus model of skill development and created behavioral anchors using a frame-of-reference training technique to describe performance for each skill level. We evaluated the assessment instrument's psychometric properties, including internal consistency and interrater reliability. The EBM Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET) is composed of 14 items that assess residents' EBM and global presentation skills. Resident presentations (N  =  27) and the corresponding written CAT synopses were evaluated using the EBM C-PET. The EBM C-PET had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α  =  0.94). Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess interrater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients for individual items ranged from 0.31 to 0.74; the average intraclass correlation coefficients for the 14 items was 0.67. We identified essential components of an assessment tool for an EBM CAT synopsis and presentation with excellent internal consistency and a good level of interrater reliability across 3 different institutions. The EBM C-PET is a reliable tool to document resident competence in higher-level EBM skills.

  15. On the invalidity of validity scales: evidence from self-reports and observer ratings in volunteer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, R L; McCrae, R R; Riemann, R; Angleitner, A

    2000-03-01

    Because of the potential for bias and error in questionnaire responding, many personality inventories include validity scales intended to correct biased scores or identify invalid protocols. The authors evaluated the utility of several types of validity scales in a volunteer sample of 72 men and 106 women who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1978/1982) and were rated by 2 acquaintances on the observer form of the NEO-PI-R. Analyses indicated that the validity indexes lacked utility in this sample. A partial replication (N = 1,728) also failed to find consistent support for the use of validity scales. The authors illustrate the use of informant ratings in assessing protocol validity and argue that psychological assessors should limit their use of validity scales and seek instead to improve the quality of personality assessments.

  16. The DSM-5 social anxiety disorder severity scale: Evidence of validity and reliability in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Richard T; Mesri, Bita; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-10-30

    With DSM-5, the APA began providing guidelines for anxiety disorder severity assessment that incorporates newly developed self-report scales. The scales share a common template, are brief, and are free of copyright restrictions. Initial validation studies have been promising, but the English-language versions of the scales have not been formally validated in clinical samples. Forty-seven individuals with a principal diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) completed a diagnostic assessment, as well as the DSM-5 SAD severity scale and several previously validated measures. The scale demonstrated internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The next steps in the validation process are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Schizophrenia in the internalizing-externalizing framework: a third dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Roman; Chang, Su-Wei; Fochtmann, Laura J; Mojtabai, Ramin; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sedler, Mark J; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2011-11-01

    Prior studies of common disorders in community-dwelling adults identified internalizing and externalizing spectra of mental illness. We investigated the placement of schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder in this framework and tested the validity of the resulting organization in a clinical population. The data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort (N = 628), which consists of first-admission patients with psychosis recruited from inpatient units throughout Suffolk County, NY (72% response rate). The sample was reassessed multiple times over the following 10 years. Complete diagnostic data were available for 469 participants. Mental health professionals diagnosed 11 target conditions based on semistructured clinical interviews, review of medical records, and reports of significant others. Two validators were included: family history of schizophrenia and 10-year illness course. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV grouping of conditions fit the data poorly. The best alternative classification consisted of three clusters: internalizing, externalizing, and schizophrenic. Both validators supported the coherence and distinctiveness of the schizophrenic cluster. We replicated internalizing and externalizing spectra in a clinical population, identified a schizophrenic spectrum, and provided initial evidence of its validity. These findings suggest that schizotypal personality disorder may be better placed with schizophrenia, antisocial conditions with substance use disorders, and major depression with anxiety disorders.

  18. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  19. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  20. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...

  1. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy: the need for evidence-based data and perioperative technical/technological standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub; Roukos, Dimitrios H; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) is surgically relevant since its close anatomical proximity to the superior thyroid vessels. There is heterogeneity in the EBSLN anatomy and EBSLN damage produces changes in voice that are very heterogenous and difficult to diagnose. The reported prevalence of EBSLN injury widely ranges. EBSLN iatrogenic injury is considered the most commonly underestimated complication in endocrine surgery because vocal assessment underestimates such event and laryngoscopic postsurgical evaluation does not show standardized findings. In order to decrease the risk for EBSLN injury, multiple surgical approaches have been described so far. IONM provides multiple advantages in the EBSLN surgical approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of the monitored approach to the EBSLN. In particular, we summarize, providing our additional remarks, the most relevant aspects of the standardized technique brilliantly described by the INMSG (International Neuromonitoring Study Group). In conclusion, in our opinion, there is currently the need for more prospective randomized trials investigating the electrophysiological and pathological aspects of the EBSLN for a better understanding of the role of IONM in the EBSLN surgery.

  2. Intraoperative Neuromonitoring of the External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve during Thyroidectomy: The Need for Evidence-Based Data and Perioperative Technical/Technological Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mangano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN is surgically relevant since its close anatomical proximity to the superior thyroid vessels. There is heterogeneity in the EBSLN anatomy and EBSLN damage produces changes in voice that are very heterogenous and difficult to diagnose. The reported prevalence of EBSLN injury widely ranges. EBSLN iatrogenic injury is considered the most commonly underestimated complication in endocrine surgery because vocal assessment underestimates such event and laryngoscopic postsurgical evaluation does not show standardized findings. In order to decrease the risk for EBSLN injury, multiple surgical approaches have been described so far. IONM provides multiple advantages in the EBSLN surgical approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of the monitored approach to the EBSLN. In particular, we summarize, providing our additional remarks, the most relevant aspects of the standardized technique brilliantly described by the INMSG (International Neuromonitoring Study Group. In conclusion, in our opinion, there is currently the need for more prospective randomized trials investigating the electrophysiological and pathological aspects of the EBSLN for a better understanding of the role of IONM in the EBSLN surgery.

  3. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  4. Screening for personality disorder with the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS: further evidence of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of personality disorders (PD is costly and time-consuming. There is a need for a brief screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine clinical settings and epidemiological surveys. Aims: To test the validity of the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS as a screen for PD in a clinical sample of substance abusers. Methods Convergent validity of the SAPAS with both categorical and dimensional representations of personality disorders was estimated. Results In this sample, the SAPAS correlated well with dimensional representations of cluster A and C personality disorders, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and recent substance use. The SAPAS was also significantly associated with total number of PD criteria, although correlation with categorical measures of PD was weak. Conclusions The SAPAS is an valid brief screen for PD as assessed dimensionally.

  5. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  6. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  7. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates to d...

  8. Applying the APA/AERA/NCME "Standards": Evidence for the Validity and Reliability of Three Statewide Teaching Assessment Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Lori; Hessling, Peter A.

    The statewide teaching performance assessment instruments being used in Georgia, North Carolina, and Florida were examined. Forty-one reliability and validity studies regarding the instruments in use in each state were collected from state departments and universities. Georgia uses the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instrument. North…

  9. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS): Reliability and Validity Evidence for a New Measure of Relationship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Jayson L.; Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental dimension along which all social and personal relationships vary is closeness. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS) is a 12-item self-report scale measuring the closeness of social and personal relationships. The reliability and validity of the URCS were assessed with college dating couples (N = 192), female friends…

  10. Initial evidence of the reliability and validity of a three-dimensional body rating scale for the congenitally blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane F Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C; Campana, Angela N N B; Rigby, Alan S; Tavares, Maria da Consolação G C F

    2013-02-01

    Research on body dissatisfaction has grown significantly. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring body dissatisfaction in the congenitally blind have yet to be developed. In three studies, we report on development, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and content validity of the Three-dimensional Body Rating Scale (3BRS) for the congenitally blind. In Study 1, 58 people with congenital blindness (28 women, 30 men; M age = 36.7, SD = 13.1) numerically ordered models of the 3BRS and models of the Two-dimensional Body Rating Scale (2BRS), from very thin to the very fat. In Study 2, the construct validity and reliability of the 38RS was assessed. The same participants from Study 1 chose the 3BRS model that represented their ideal body and the 3BRS model that represented their actual body. Two weeks later, a re-test was done. In Study 3, 16 experts judged the content validity of the 3BRS. The psychometric properties of the 3BRS, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  11. How Is Impulsivity Related to Depression in Adolescence? Evidence from a French Validation of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acremont, Mathieu.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. "Personality and Individual Differences, 30," 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and…

  12. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  13. SU-E-T-447: Growth of Metal Whiskers Under External Beam Irradiation: Experimental Evidence and Implications in Medical Electronic Devices for Radiation Therapy Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvydka, D; Warrell, G; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH (United States); Karpov, V; Vasko, A [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Thin metallic protrusions, termed “whiskers,” have been identified as a cause of failure in devices ranging from satellites to pacemakers. For decades, lead was used in tin-based soldering alloys to suppress whisker formation. With the adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances act and the expiration of its exemption on medical devices, including implanted medical devices (IMDs), electronic circuits are required to be lead-free as of July 2014. The effect of radiation on such soldering components remains unknown. Methods: We have irradiated a thin (150 nm) tin metal layer, deposited on a 3 mm thick glass substrate, with a 6 MeV medical linac (Varian TrueBeam) electron beam in five 2-hour long sessions. After receiving ∼10 kGy, whisker growth on the sample was assessed with scanning electron microscopy and compared to a reference sample not exposed to radiation. Results: After 10 hours of irradiation, the sample was found to develop intense whisker infestation, while the reference sample remained in its pristine as-deposited condition. Repeating the same irradiation schedule generated more and longer whiskers. The observed phenomenon can be explained through charge accumulation in the glass substrate, generating an electric field that promotes whisker growth. The observed substrate glass darkening under irradiation points towards development of color centers related to charge trapping. Experiments on the same type of samples with direct application of the external field in a capacitor-like setting also resulted in intense whisker growth. Conclusion: Extreme care should be taken in dealing with all electronic devices, especially IMDs, produced with lead-free solder and components, subject to radiation exposure. While in our experiments strong electric fields were intentionally generated to accelerate whisker growth over hours, in everyday use the circuit soldering may cause problems in a matter of days or months. Designated reliability testing

  14. The Stick Design Test on the assessment of older adults with low formal education: evidences of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Bocardi, Matheus Bortolosso; Cortezzi, Mariana; De Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of visuospatial abilities is usually performed by drawing tasks. In patients with very low formal education, the use of these tasks might be biased by their cultural background. The Stick Design Test was developed for the assessment of this population. We aim to expand the test psychometric properties by assessing its construct, criterion-related and ecological validity in older adults with low formal education. Healthy older adults (n = 63) and Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 92) performed the Stick Design Test, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span Forward and the Clock Drawing Test. Their caregivers answered Personal Care and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living). Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis, convergent correlations (with the Clock Drawing Test), and divergent correlations (with Digit Span Forward); criterion-related validity by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and binary logistic regression; and Ecological validity by correlations with ADL. The test factor structure was composed by one component (R 2 = 64%). Significant correlations with the Clock Drawing Test and Digit Span Forward were found, and the relationship was stronger with the first measure. The test was less associated with formal education than the Clock Drawing Test. It classified about 76% of the participants correctly and had and additive effect with the Mini-Mental State Examination (84% of correct classification). The test also correlated significantly with measures of ADL, suggesting ecological validity. The Stick Design Test shows evidence of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity. It is an interesting alternative to drawing tasks for the assessment of visuospatial abilities.

  15. Validação de variáveis de declarações de óbito por causas externas, Recife, PE, Brasil Validity of death certificate variables in cases of death from external causes, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma de A Barros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Validar, nas declarações de óbitos por causas externas de menores de 20 anos residentes no Recife em 1995, outras variáveis que não a causa básica dos óbitos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se os documentos existentes no Instituto de Medicina Legal de Recife para validar variáveis das declarações de óbitos constantes nos dados oficiais de mortalidade. Analisou-se a concordância pelos índices de Kappa e da sensibilidade. Tendo em vista a metodologia utilizada, os dados da pesquisa foram considerados mais exatos e, como tais, tomados como padrão. RESULTADOS: Para as variáveis que os peritos do Instituto de Medicina Legal entenderam como de sua responsabilidade direta, os resultados mostraram concordância ótima -- sexo, idade e tipo de violência -- ou boa -- tipo de acidente. Porém, para as entendidas como de sua responsabilidade indireta ou como não sendo de sua responsabilidade, importantes discordâncias foram observadas -- local e município de ocorrência do óbito, assistência médica e local do acidente. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam a dissociação entre o objetivo da inclusão das variáveis nas declarações de óbito e seu uso social e a estratégia para obtê-las.OBJECTIVE: To validate variables other than the basic cause of death on death certificates from external causes of residents younger than 20 years old living in Recife, Brazil, in 1995. METHODS: A survey of death records of the Institute of Forensic in Recife was carried out in order to validate death certificate variables included in official mortality registries. Agreement analysis was performed using Kappa indexes and sensitivity. As a result of the methodology used, the study data was considered to be more consistent and therefore regarded as standard. RESULTS: Those variables forensic specialists indicated as their direct responsibility showed an excellent (gender, age, and category of violence and good (type of accident agreement. However, there were

  16. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. METHODS: After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  17. New Empirical Evidence on the Validity and the Reliability of the Early Life Stress Questionnaire in a Polish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Andrzej; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Early Life Stress Questionnaire (ELSQ) is widely used to estimate the prevalence of negative events during childhood, including emotional, physical, verbal, sexual abuse, negligence, severe conflicts, separation, parental divorce, substance abuse, poverty, and so forth. Objective: This study presents the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the ELSQ. It also verifies if early life stress (ELS) is a good predictor of psychopathology symptoms during adulthood. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from two samples. Sample 1 was selected by random quota method from across the country and included 609 participants aged 18-50 years, 306 women (50.2%) and 303 men (49.8%). Sample 2 contained 503 young adults (253 women and 250 men) aged 18–25. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to measure ELSQ internal consistency. The validity was based on the relation to psychopathological symptoms and substance misuse. Results: Results showed good internal consistency and validity. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a six-factor structure of the ELSQ. ELS was related to psychopathology in adulthood, including depressive, sociophobic, vegetative as well as pain symptoms. ELSQ score correlated also with alcohol use, but not nicotine dependence. Moreover, ELS was correlated with stress in adulthood. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the Polish version of the ELSQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing ELS in the Polish population and may be applied in both clinical and community samples.

  18. Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese personal growth initiative scale-II: evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Chang, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (CPGIS-II) using data from a sample of 927 Chinese university students. Consistent with previous findings, confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor model of the CPGIS-II. Reliability analyses indicated that the 4 CPGIS-II subscales, namely Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate test-retest reliability across a 4-week period. In addition, evidence for convergent and incremental validity was found in relation to measures of positive and negative psychological adjustment. Finally, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the 4 personal growth initiative dimensions, especially planfulness, accounted for additional unique variance in psychological adjustment beyond resilience. Some implications for using the CPGIS-II in Chinese are discussed.

  19. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Munkholm, Klaus; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    in the majority of studies. Conclusions: Electronic self-monitoring of mood in depression appears to be a valid measure of mood in contrast to self-monitoring of mood in mania. There are yet few studies on the effect of electronic self-monitoring of mood in bipolar disorder. The evidence of electronic self......Background: Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity...... of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinically relevant outcomes in bipolar disorder. Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature...

  20. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  1. Proposal for levels of evidence schema for validation of a soluble biomarker reflecting damage endpoints in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, and recommendations for study design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Fitzgerald, Oliver; Wells, George A

    2009-01-01

    arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We also aimed to generate consensus on minimum standards for the design of longitudinal studies aimed at validating biomarkers. METHODS: Before the meeting, the Soluble Biomarker Working Group prepared a preliminary framework...... and discussed various models for association and prediction related to the statistical strength domain. In addition, 3 Delphi exercises addressing longitudinal study design for RA, PsA, and AS were conducted within the working group and members of the Assessments in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS...... Biomarker Group has successfully formulated a levels of evidence scheme and a study design template that will provide guidance to conduct validation studies in the setting of soluble biomarkers proposed to replace the measurement of damage endpoints in RA, PsA, and AS....

  2. Wetting dynamics of drop spreading. New evidence for the microscopic validity of the molecular-kinetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seveno, D; Dinter, N; De Coninck, J

    2010-09-21

    We study the spontaneous wetting of liquid drops on FCC solid substrates using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the solid lattice parameter, five different drop/solid dynamic systems are investigated. It is shown that the results are in agreement with the molecular-kinetic theory (MKT) describing the dynamics of wetting. Moreover, it is established that the microscopic parameters resulting from fits using the MKT, the so-called molecular jump frequency at equilibrium and the jump length, correspond to the values that can be estimated directly from the simulations. This agreement strongly supports the validity of the MKT at the microscopic scale.

  3. Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22.3% men of diverse sexualities) of community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. The construct validity of the MRNI-SF General Traditional Masculinity Ideology factor was supported for all 4 of the proposed latent correlations with: (a) Male Role Attitudes Scale; (b) general factor of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46; (c) higher-order factor of Gender Role Conflict Scale; and (d) Personal Attributes Questionnaire-Masculinity Scale. Significant correlations with relevant other latent factors provided concurrent validity evidence for the MRNI-SF specific factors of Negativity toward Sexual Minorities, Importance of Sex, Restrictive Emotionality, and Toughness, with all 8 of the hypothesized relationships supported. However, 3 relationships concerning Dominance were not supported. (The construct validity of the remaining 2 MRNI-SF specific factors-Avoidance of Femininity and Self-Reliance through Mechanical Skills was not assessed.) Comparisons were made, and meaningful differences noted, between the latent correlations emphasized in this study and their raw variable counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of an SEM approach and the unique characteristics of the bifactor model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  5. Structural validity and reliability of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS: Evidence from a large Brazilian community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson W. de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Positive and negative affect are the two psychobiological-dispositional dimensions reflecting proneness to positive and negative activation that influence the extent to which individuals experience life events as joyful or as distressful. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS is a structured questionnaire that provides independent indexes of positive and negative affect. This study aimed to validate a Brazilian interview-version of the PANAS by means of factor and internal consistency analysis. Methods: A representative community sample of 3,728 individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, voluntarily completed the PANAS. Exploratory structural equation model analysis was based on maximum likelihood estimation and reliability was calculated via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the PANAS reliably measures two distinct dimensions of positive and negative affect. Conclusion: The structure and reliability of the Brazilian version of the PANAS are consistent with those of its original version. Taken together, these results attest the validity of the Brazilian adaptation of the instrument.

  6. Using G-Theory to Enhance Evidence of Reliability and Validity for Common Uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2016-04-13

    We applied a new approach to Generalizability theory (G-theory) involving parallel splits and repeated measures to evaluate common uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales based on polytomous and four types of dichotomous scoring. G-theory indices of reliability and validity accounting for specific-factor, transient, and random-response measurement error supported use of polytomous over dichotomous scores as contamination checks; as control, explanatory, and outcome variables; as aspects of construct validation; and as indexes of environmental effects on socially desirable responding. Polytomous scoring also provided results for flagging faking as dependable as those when using dichotomous scoring methods. These findings argue strongly against the nearly exclusive use of dichotomous scoring for the Paulhus Deception Scales in practice and underscore the value of G-theory in demonstrating this. We provide guidelines for applying our G-theory techniques to other objectively scored clinical assessments, for using G-theory to estimate how changes to a measure might improve reliability, and for obtaining software to conduct G-theory analyses free of charge.

  7. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  8. Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Screening System - A presumptive test for the detection of DNA on forensic evidence items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawnay, Nick; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Moore, Dave; Blackman, Stephen; Rendell, Paul; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Nagy, Randy; Wells, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Current assessment of whether a forensic evidence item should be submitted for STR profiling is largely based on the personal experience of the Crime Scene Investigator (CSI) and the submissions policy of the law enforcement authority involved. While there are chemical tests that can infer the presence of DNA through the detection of biological stains, the process remains mostly subjective and leads to many samples being submitted that give no profile or not being submitted although DNA is present. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System was developed to address this issue. It consists of a sampling device, pre-loaded reaction plates and detection instrument. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon™ detection of PCR amplicons to identify the presence and relative amount of DNA on an evidence item and also provides a gender identification result in approximately 75 minutes. This simple-to-use design allows objective data to be acquired by both DNA analyst and non-specialist personnel, to enable a more informed submission decision to be made. The developmental validation study described here tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Screening System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrates that the ParaDNA Screening System identifies the presence of DNA on a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva and touch DNA items. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural validity of the tonic immobility scale in a population exposed to trauma: evidence from two large Brazilian samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reichenheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS. However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075 via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT location parameters were also investigated. RESULTS: An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A and six (alternative B items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are

  10. Internal and External Forces in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a model of language change characterizing the dynamic interaction between internal universal grammar and external linguistic evidence, as mediated by language acquisition. Borrows insights from the study of biological evolution, where internal and external forces interact in similar fashion. Applies the model to explore the loss of the…

  11. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  12. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  13. Vascular function assessed by passive leg movement and flow-mediated dilation: initial evidence of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Groot, H Jonathan; Garten, Ryan S; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-11-01

    The vasodilatory response to passive leg movement (PLM) appears to provide a novel, noninvasive assessment of vascular function. However, PLM has yet to be compared with the established noninvasive assessment of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Therefore, as an initial evaluation of the construct validity of PLM and upright seated and supine PLM as well as brachial (BA) and superficial femoral (SFA) artery FMDs were performed in 10 young (22 ± 1) and 30 old (73 ± 2) subjects. During upright seated PLM, the peak change in leg blood flow (ΔLBF) and leg vascular conductance (ΔLVC) was significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.57 and r = 0.66) and SFA (r = 0.44 and r = 0.41, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Furthermore, although the relationships were not as strong, the supine PLM response was also significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.38 and r = 0.35) and SFA (r = 0.39 and r = 0.35, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Examination of the young and old separately, however, revealed that significant relationships persisted in both groups only for the upright seated PLM response and BA FMD (young: r = 0.73 and r = 0.77; old: r = 0.35 and r = 0.45, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively). Normalizing FMD for shear rate during PLM abrogated all significant relationships between the PLM and FMD response, suggesting a role for nitric oxide (NO) in these associations. Collectively, these data indicate that PLM, particularly upright seated PLM, likely provides an index of vascular health analogous to the traditional FMD test. Given the relative ease of PLM implementation, these data have important positive implications for PLM as a clinical vascular health assessment.

  14. Myxobolus turpisrotundus (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) spores with caudal appendages: investigating the validity of the genus Henneguya with morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Whipps, Christopher M; Gu, Z M; Zeng, L B

    2010-08-01

    Spores of the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang 2009 were observed for the first time bearing caudal appendages. Most spores had the typical Myxobolus spp. morphology, but approximately 10% of spores possessed a spore body that was slightly elongated with a short tail projecting from the spore valve. In other spores, the tail was much more clearly visible and elongate. The spore body of these unusual spores is consistent in morphology and dimension to the normal spores of M. turpisrotundus. Both spore types were found within individual cysts, and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene sequence from parasite cysts of this type was nearly identical to the previously published sequence of M. turpisrotundus from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). The phenomenon of Myxobolus spores with caudal appendages provides additional evidence that the use of this character to separate Myxobolus and Henneguya into distinct genera is not reflective of an evolutionarily accurate classification scheme. Phylogenetic analysis of ssrDNA sequence from Myxobolus and Henneguya species showed clustering of species in some locations of the tree, but ultimately these genera are intermixed. The use of a single character to delineate species in the two most species-rich myxozoan genera has been consistently challenged where DNA analyses are used. The present finding of a single species bearing both Myxobolus-type and Henneguya-type spores emphasizes the inadequacy of this classification scheme, and highlights the need for careful consideration of these variable characteristics when describing myxozoan species.

  15. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  16. Evidencias acerca de la validez de constructo de la escala voluntad de trabajo Evidence For The Construct Validity Of The Will To Work Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Juan Pablo Abal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Voluntad de Trabajo (VT describe la tendencia por la cual una persona se aboca a sus obligaciones realizándolas con responsabilidad, automotivación y precisión. Con el objetivo de recabar evidencias acerca de la validez de constructo se administró un cuestionario inicial de 12 ítems que evalúan VT a 1,123 estudiantes de Psicología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Mediante el análisis clásico de ítems se obtuvo una escala unidimensional de 10 ítems con un Alfa de Cronbach de .71. Se encontraron correlaciones positivas con las subescalas Perseverancia y Dinamismo del Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ. La correlación con la primera fue moderada y con la segunda fue de magnitud inferior. Estos resultados permitieron profundizar el estudio del constructo y aportaron evidencias para establecer su validez.The Will to Work (WW describes the tendency by which a person devotes himself / herself to his / her duties with responsibility, self-motivation and accuracy. With a view to gathering evidence for the construct validity, an initial 12-item questionnaire to evaluate the WW was administered to 1,123 psychology students of the University of Buenos Aires. Through the classical item analysis, an unidimensional 10-item scale was obtained with a Cronbach's Alpha of .71. Positive correlations were found with the Perseverance and Dynamism subscales of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ. The correlation with the former was moderate, whereas the correlation with the latter was lower. These findings allowed for a deeper study of the construct and served as evidence of its validity.

  17. Validity Evidence based on Internal Structure of Scores of the Emotional Quotient-Inventory: Youth Version Short (EQ-i: YV-S) in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, Igor; Freeman, John; Sarasa, Marta; Fernández-Zabala, Arantza; Axpe, Inge

    2016-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of EQ-i: YV-S in Spanish adolescents. The total sample was comprised of 508 participants from Grades 7 to 12, 241 males (47.4%) and 267 females (52.6%), each of whom completed the questionnaires on two separate occasions. Three [intrapersonal (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .86), stress management (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .85) and adaptability (α = .82, CR = .85, and McDonald Omega = .85)] of the four scales had acceptable internal consistency. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used with FACTOR and EQS version 6.1 software to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the EQ-i: YV-S, supporting the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Three models were tested; the best fit to the data was the hierarchical model (S-Bχ2 / df = 2.11, CFI = .93 and RMSEA = .047), which hypothesized that the four specific factors (interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, and adaptability) were explained with a second-order factor, Emotional-Social-Intelligence (ESI). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between general self-concept and EQ-i: YV-S [interpersonal (r = .153, p < .001), intrapersonal (r = .235, p < .001), stress management (r = .145, p < .001), adaptability (r = .311, p < .001) and ESI (r = .360, p < .001)]; ESI showed significant direct power prediction of the general self-concept (.52) as demonstrated through structural equation modeling.

  18. Evidences on the validity of the battery of reasoning tests (BPR-5 for employment selection / Evidências de validade da bateria de provas de raciocínio (BPR-5 para seleção de pessoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Baumgartl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of psychological tests is a common practice among Brazilian companies. These evaluations, however, are done many times without taking into account the efficiency of the instruments that are used for discriminating relevant criteria for a good performance of the employee at work. The purpose of this study was to check evidences on the validity of the BPR-5 test in an organizational context. The sample consisted of 79 employees of a Brazilian electric company. The number of injuries at the workplace was used as criteria. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analyses. The results showed that the criteria of injuries at the workplace presented significant correlations with the tests, indicating correlation with intelligence, especially for employees with less job experience (-0,39; p<0,05. The implications of these results for both research and practice are discussed.

  19. Evidences of validity of bender – gradual scoring system (B-SPG / Evidências de validade do bender – sistema de pontuação gradual (B-SPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gather evidences of validity for the Bender test – Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG, investigating developmental changes based on the relationships between its scores and the ages of the children. The study investigated 1052 children attending from pre-school to fourth grade of eight municipal and state public schools of Campinas (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and the surrounding region. Ages ranged from six to ten years old, with an average of 8,35. The findings indicated that according to the increase of age, the B-SPG scores diminished, suggesting that the distortions progressively diminish as the children become older. Although other studies are suggested, the results presented here are consonant with researches that sought to establish that it is possible too find a maturational character among the figures of the test.

  20. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhacker Sheila E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA. Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores. Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%, general merchandise stores (96%, and restaurants (91%. Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89. Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66 and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91. Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67 and moderate for local health

  1. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper describes multiple sources of validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.8) evidence for physical, life, and earth/space science assessments—part of the Diagnostic Teacher Assessments of Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) project. Validity was strengthened by systematic synthesis of relevant documents, extensive use of external reviewers, and field tests with 900 teachers during assessment development process. Subsequent results from 4,400 teachers, analyzed with Rasch IRT modeling techniques, offer construct and concurrent validity evidence.

  2. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  3. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Aken, M.A. van; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal

  4. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women’s data in six Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahim Sawsan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. Methods We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition, adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. Results The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. Conclusion As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  5. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women's data in six Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; El Asmar, Khalil

    2012-09-17

    Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH) is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition), adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  6. External validation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV in Dutch intensive care units and comparison with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brinkman; F. Bakhshi-Raiez; A. Abu-Hanna; E. de Jonge; R.J. Bosman; L. Peelen; N.F. de Keizer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate and compare the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV in the Dutch intensive care unit (ICU) population to the APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II. Materials and Methods: This is a prospectiv

  7. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents : a validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.A.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  8. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents: A validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  9. Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability / Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items. Participants' scores on these factors were not influenced by their gender or age. These findings are discussed based on literature that describes the psychometric parameters of the JAWS as well as the correlation of affects with demographic variables.

  10. MOTOR IMAGERY AND TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE: THE EXTERNAL FOCUS EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Guillot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is now ample evidence that motor imagery (MI contributes to enhance motor performance. Previous research also demonstrated that directing athletes' attention to the effects of their movements on the environment is more effective than focusing on the action per se. The present study aimed therefore at evaluating whether adopting an external focus during MI contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Twelve high-level young tennis players were included in a test-retest procedure. The effects of regular training were first evaluated. Then, players were subjected to a MI intervention during which they mentally focused on ball trajectory and specifically visualized the space above the net where the serve can be successfully hit. Serve performance was evaluated during both a validated serve test and a real match. The main results showed a significant increase in accuracy and velocity during the ecological serve test after MI practice, as well as a significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during the match. Present data therefore confirmed the efficacy of MI in combination of physical practice to improve tennis serve performance, and further provided evidence that it is feasible to adopt external attentional focus during MI. Practical applications are discussed

  11. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  12. Performance of Multiple Risk Assessment Tools to Predict Mortality for Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy: An External Validation Study Based on Chinese Single-center Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The RESP, APCHAE II, and SOFA scorings systems show good predictive value for intra-hospital survival of ARDS patients treated with ECMO in our single-center evaluation. Future validation should include a larger study with either more patients' data at single-center or by integration of domestic multi-center data. Development of a scoring system with national characteristics might be warranted.

  13. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  14. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  15. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  16. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  17. Validation of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Programs for Adults with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disorders (FallPAIDD: A Modified Otago Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Renfro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD, cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. BACKGROUND: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers, but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to healthcare and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. METHODS: A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC STopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, one-hour group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. RESULTS: Despite the limited number of participants (n=15 and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-Second Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. DISCUSSION: Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study

  18. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  19. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  20. Photochemical-dynamical models of externally FUV irradiated protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Facchini, Stefano; Bisbas, Thomas G; Clarke, Cathie J

    2016-01-01

    There is growing theoretical and observational evidence that protoplanetary disc evolution may be significantly affected by the canonical levels of far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation found in a star forming environment, leading to substantial stripping of material from the disc outer edge even in the absence of nearby massive stars. In this paper we perform the first full radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the flow from the outer rim of protoplanetary discs externally irradiated by such intermediate strength FUV fields, including direct modelling of the photon dominated region (PDR) which is required to accurately compute the thermal properties. We find excellent agreement between our models and the semi-analytic models of Facchini et al. (2016) for the profile of the flow itself, as well as the mass loss rate and location of their "critical radius". This both validates their results (which differed significantly from prior semi-analytic estimates) and our new numerical method, the latter of which can now be ...

  1. Evidências de validade do bender: sistema de pontuação gradual (B-SPG Evidences of validity of bender: gradual scoring system (B-SPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo objetivou buscar evidências de validade para o teste de Bender - Sistema de Pontuação Gradual (B-SPG, por meio da investigação das mudanças desenvolvimentais, expressas pela relação entre os escores com a idade. Fizeram parte do estudo 1052 crianças de oito escolas públicas estaduais e municipais de Campinas e região, de pré-escola à 4ª série do ensino fundamental. As idades variaram entre 6 e 10 anos, com uma média de 8,35 anos. Os achados revelaram que conforme aumentou a idade, diminuiu a pontuação obtida pelo B-SPG, indicando que com o aumento da idade, as distorções da cópia progressivamente diminuem. Embora outros estudos sejam recomendados, os resultados aqui apresentados estão em consonância com trabalhos que buscaram a constatação de que é possível encontrar um caráter maturacional nas figuras do teste.This study aimed to gather evidences of validity for the Bender test - Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG, investigating developmental changes based on the relationships between its scores and the ages of the children. The study investigated 1052 children attending from pre-school to fourth grade of eight municipal and state public schools of Campinas (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and the surrounding region. Ages ranged from six to ten years old, with an average of 8,35. The findings indicated that according to the increase of age, the B-SPG scores diminished, suggesting that the distortions progressively diminish as the children become older. Although other studies are suggested, the results presented here are consonant with researches that sought to establish that it is possible too find a maturational character among the figures of the test.

  2. Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar uma medida de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho para o contexto brasileiro. Especificamente, pretendeu-se conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna da Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, avaliando se as pontuações nos seus fatores diferem em função do gênero e da idade dos participantes. Participaram 298 trabalhadores de centros comerciais de pequeno e médio porte da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. A maioria destes era do sexo feminino (76,8%, com idade média de 26 anos (DP = 6,87. Através de uma análise dos componentes principais (rotação promax foram identificados dois fatores que explicaram conjuntamente 48,1% da variância total: afetos positivos (α = 0,94; 14 itens e afetos negativos (α = 0,87; 13 itens; um fator geral de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho foi também computado (α = 0,95; 27 itens. As pontuações dos participantes nestes fatores não foram influenciadas pelas variáveis gênero e idade. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz do que tem sido escrito sobre os parâmetros desta escala e da relação dos afetos com estas variáveis demográficas.This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items

  3. Evidências de validade da bateria de provas de raciocínio (BPR-5 para seleção de pessoal Evidences on the validity of the battery of reasoning tests (BPR-5 for employment selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Baumgartl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de testes psicológicos é uma prática comum em empresas brasileiras. Estas avaliações, no entanto, muitas vezes são realizadas sem levar em conta a eficácia dos instrumentos utilizados em discriminar critérios relevantes para um bom de desempenho do funcionário em seu posto de trabalho. Nesse sentido o presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar as evidências de validade do BPR-5 em um contexto organizacional. Os participantes foram 79 funcionários de uma empresa de energia elétrica brasileira. Como critério foi utilizado o número de acidentes de trabalho dos funcionários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e análises correlacionais. Nos resultados, o critério utilizado, referente ao número de acidentes de trabalho, correlacionou-se com a inteligência principalmente para funcionários com menor tempo na função (-0,39; pThe use of psychological tests is a common practice among Brazilian companies. These evaluations, however, are done many times without taking into account the efficiency of the instruments that are used for discriminating relevant criteria for a good performance of the employee at work. The purpose of this study was to check evidences on the validity of the BPR-5 test in an organizational context. The sample consisted of 79 employees of a Brazilian electric company. The number of injuries at the workplace was used as criteria. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analyses. The results showed that the criteria of injuries at the workplace presented significant correlations with the tests, indicating correlation with intelligence, especially for employees with less job experience (-0,39; p<0,05. The implications of these results for both research and practice are discussed.

  4. Versão abreviada da Escala Triangular do Amor: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna Brief version of the Triangular Love Scale: evidences of factor validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer os parâmetros psicométricos de uma versão reduzida da Escala Triangular do Amor. Especificamente, procurou-se reunir evidências de sua validade fatorial e consistência interna no contexto paraibano. Participaram 307 estudantes universitários da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, que mantinham um relacionamento heterossexual estável, com idade média de 23,4 anos (dp = 6,22; amplitude de 17 a 56 anos. A maioria foi do sexo feminino (69,4% e solteira (73%. Os participantes responderam a Escala Triangular do Amor e perguntas demográficas. Os resultados apoiaram a adequação psicométrica dessa medida, que apresentou três componentes (rotação varimax; explicando 67,7% da variância total, com Alfas de Cronbach satisfatórios: compromisso (α = 0,88, paixão (α = 0,87 e intimidade (α = 0,86. As mulheres pontuaram mais em compromisso do que fizeram os homens. Estes resultados foram discutidos à luz da literatura, confirmando-se a adequação desta medida. Pesquisas futuras foram sugeridas.This study aimed at knowing the psychometric parameters of a shorted version of the Triangular Love Scale. Specifically, it tried to joint evidences of its factor validity and reliability in the Paraibano milieu. Participants were 307 undergraduate students from João Pessoa (PB, which have a stable heterosexual relationship. Their mean age was 23.4 years old (sd = 6.22; ranging from 17 to 56, most of them female (69.4% and single (73%. They answered the Triangular Love Scale and demographic asks. Results support the psychometric adequacy of this measure, which showed three components (varimax rotation; accounting for 67.7% of the total variance, with satisfactory Cronbach's Alpha: commitment (α = 0.88, passion (α = 0.87, and intimacy (α = 0.86. Women scored higher than men in commitment. These findings were discussed based on literature, confirming the adequacy of the scale. Future studies were suggested too.

  5. Consciência metatextual: evidências de validade para instrumento de medida Consciencia metatextual: evidencias de validez para instrumento de medida Metatextual awareness: evidence of validity for measuring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácia Aparecida Angeli dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    descriptive-correlational study was to investigate the metatextual awareness through a questionnaire especially designed for this purpose, examining its validity in relation to measures of reading comprehension and the criterion for differentiating the school level. 315 students enrolled in the 3rd to 5th grade of elementary public schools, whose ages ranged from 8 to 13 years, with 169 boys. The scores obtained with the measure of the metatextual awareness (QACM were convergent with the score in reading comprehension and the instrument was sensitive to capture the children's progress in identifying the kinds of texts with the advancement of education. Thus, the study provided evidence of validity both in terms of convergence of constructs, identified based on measures related to criteria, distinguishing students by their level of education.

  6. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  7. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  8. The dispositional flow scale-2 as a measure of autotelic personality: an examination of criterion-related validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrod A; Keiser, Heidi N; Skarin, Evan M; Ross, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    The Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2; Jackson & Eklund, 2002) may be one of the most promising measures for assessing Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) construct of "autotelic personality." Despite strong internal validity, external validity of the DFS-2 remains open. We used 2 methods to provide evidence for external validity: (1) multiple-time assessments of experience sampling (1,856 entries generated over 7 days) to derive aggregate indices of criterion validity; and (2) single-time assessments of flow and personality for additional criterion-related validity. For single-time assessments of flow, we used a modified version of the Flow Questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984). To assess personality, we included a measure of the Five-factor traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A path model of NEO domains, DFS-2 global scores, and experience sampling aggregates fit the data well.

  9. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  10. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  11. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J; Kelly, Patrick D; Asman, Andrew J; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R(2) to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  12. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  13. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  14. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  15. It’s the Algorithm! Why Differential Rates of Chronicity and Comorbidity are Not Evidence for the Validity of the Abuse-Dependence Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés, Alvaro; Steinley, Douglas; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the abuse/dependence distinction within alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been increasingly questioned on psychometric and conceptual grounds. Two types of findings are often cited as support for the validity of this distinction: (1) dependence is more persistent than abuse, and (2) dependence is more highly comorbid with other Axis I and Axis II disorders than is abuse. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we examine...

  16. External validation of a preoperative renal stone grading system: reproducibility and inter-rater concordance of the Guy's stone score using preoperative computed tomography and rigorous postoperative stone-free criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsson, Johann P; Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Hyams, Elias S; Pais, Vernon M

    2014-01-01

    To validate the Guy's stone score (GSS) using preoperative computed tomography (CT) and to assess its inter-rater concordance and association with rigorous definitions of stone clearance. The preoperative CT scans of 166 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients treated by a single surgeon were independently reviewed by 2 urology residents and graded according to GSS. Concordance was calculated using Cohen's kappa score. Residual fragments (RFs) were evaluated on CT or plain radiography on postoperative day 1. GSS was correlated with 3 different outcomes; RFs II and III and 20 of 36 cases (56%) pertained to unclear definitions of "partial staghorn stone" and "abnormal anatomy." The GSS is a straightforward grading system of the complexity of renal stones. When applied to preoperative CT scans, it offers good inter-rater concordance and is associated with rigorous endpoints of stone clearance. The inter-rater concordance could be further improved by explicit definitions of abnormal anatomy, partial vs complete staghorn stones, and the size of a calculus that constitutes a separate stone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between external and internal standard calibration in the validation of an analytical method for 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, D; Cialdella, A M; Faranda, P; Tranfo, G

    2006-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene is a metabolite of pyrene, a member of the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) whose toxic properties in some cases include carcinogenicity. The determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine is used as a biological indicator for exposure to PAHs, which is related to the combustion of organic materials, like smoking, living in urban environments, and eating grilled or smoked food. The determination of 1-hydroxypyrene by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection has very good sensitivity but it is not highly specific: this can reduce accuracy in the quantitative determination of low levels of analyte in a complex matrix like urine. An HPLC method that uses triple quadrupole mass detection has been validated with the objective both to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and to achieve the maximum specificity for the analyte in those urine samples that are richer in possible inteferents. The calibration range for 1-hydroxypyrene is from 0.005-0.1 microg/L in the urine of non-smoking healthy volunteers. After solid-phase extraction, samples were analyzed by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In order to obtain reliable results quantitative analysis must be performed by means of the internal standard method (we used deuterium-labelled 1-hydroxypyrene): the method accuracy is not less than 85%. The S/N ratio at a concentration of 0.1 microg/L is about 10, and therefore this can be considered the lowest limit of quantitation. The method performance does not change if urine samples are measured using a calibration curve prepared in methanol, thus reducing the time of analysis and costs.

  18. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  19. An SAT® Validity Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  20. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  1. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  2. 废旧涤/棉混纺织物NIRS定性分析模型的建立与外部验证%The Establishment and External Validation of NIR Qualitative Analysis Model for Waste Polyester-Cotton Blend Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枫; 李文霞; 赵国樑; 唐世君; 李学娇; 吴红梅

    2014-01-01

    model was established by the total sample set ,so the samples were divided into two types of sets :normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set , and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively .After the of models were established the model’s spectral region ,pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results , and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately .The results showed that the model rec-ognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively ,the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation .RC (relation coefficient of calibration ) val-ues of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively ,RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively ,SEC (standard error of calibra-tion) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively ,SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively .A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively .It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyes-ter-cotton blend fabrics .

  3. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed.

  4. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applyi...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value....

  5. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  6. Development and Validity Evidence Supporting a Teamwork and Collaboration Assessment for High School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-08-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; MacCann, Carolyn; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Lydia; Roberts, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Various policy papers and research studies assert that teamwork is one of the most important skills for students to learn if they are to become meaningful contributors to the 21st century workforce. However, outside of organizational psychology and adult populations, few reliable assessments of this construct exist, with suitable validity evidence…

  7. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons : Evidence of stability across age and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L. L.; Boter, H.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Slaets, J. P. J.; Buskens, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail

  8. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  9. Construct Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality: Evidence from Adolescents Referred to Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Smenner, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the construct validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998). A sample of 970 adolescents (16-18 years) with histories of disruptive behavior problems and truancy complete the SRP; a subsample of 290 adolescents also completed the Minnesota…

  10. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index - Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively e

  11. Antisocial sport behaviors survey: instrument development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Miranda P; Hoar, Sharleen

    2015-04-01

    The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

  12. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  13. Evidence of Factorial Validity of Parental Knowledge, Control and Solicitation, and Adolescent Disclosure Scales: When the Ordered Nature of Likert Scales Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability.

  14. Desire thinking as a confounder in the relationship between mindfulness and craving: Evidence from a cross-cultural validation of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun-Baggioni, Nadia; Corman, Maya; Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Gierski, Fabien

    2017-06-15

    Desire thinking and mindfulness have been associated with craving. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and to investigate the relationship between mindfulness, desire thinking and craving among a sample of university students. Four hundred and ninety six university students completed the DTQ and measures of mindfulness, craving and alcohol use. Results from confirmatory factor analyses showed that the two-factor structure proposed in the original DTQ exhibited suitable goodness-of-fit statistics. The DTQ also demonstrated good internal reliability, temporal stability and predictive validity. A set of linear regressions revealed that desire thinking had a confounding effect in the relationship between mindfulness and craving. The confounding role of desire thinking in the relationship between mindfulness and craving suggests that interrupting desire thinking may be a viable clinical option aimed at reducing craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Structural Break(s on the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey: Evidence from Zivot-Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP in Turkey for annual data from 1953 to 2009. While results from both the ADF unit root and the DF-GLS unit root test indicate mixed results, PPP holds for Turkey with the presence of structural breaks which are obtained by Zivot and Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier unit root tests.

  16. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinicall...

  17. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal a

  18. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2016-10-28

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale to Analyze the Environment for Evidence-Based Medicine Learning and Practice by Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Fangqiong

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of residency programs are instituting curricula to include the component of evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles and process. However, these curricula may not be able to achieve the optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because various contextual factors are often overlooked when EBM training is being designed, developed, and…

  20. Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of "Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11" by William Bernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiton, M. Brianna; Alvis, Lindsey J.; Allen, Kenneth; Logid, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a recent book arguing how a concept known as parental alienation syndrome--now parental alienation disorder--should be included in official psychiatric/psychological and medical classification diagnostic manuals. Anecdotal cases and opinion are presented as research and scientific evidence, and stories are presented as…