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Sample records for external uniform magnetic

  1. Pose control of the chain composed of magnetic particles using external uniform and gradient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient

  2. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmehran, O.; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter

  3. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmehran, O., E-mail: oveis87@yahoo.com; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M., E-mail: gorji@nit.ac.ir; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-11-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter.

  4. Chiral and parity symmetry breaking for planar fermions: Effects of a heat bath and uniform external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity-violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion antifermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength, and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate for different fermion species in a uniform electric field through the replacement B→-iE.

  5. Numerical study of chaotic oscillations in the electron beam with virtual cathode in the external non-uniform magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hramov, Alexander E., E-mail: aeh@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation); Koronovskii, Alexey A., E-mail: alkor@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Semen, E-mail: KurkinSA@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-05

    In this Letter the results of theoretical investigations of the chaotic microwave oscillator based on the electron beam with a virtual cathode are presented. Nonlinear non-stationary processes in these electron systems are studied by means of numerical analysis of 2.5D model. It was discovered that the non-uniform external magnetic field value controls the dynamical regime of oscillations in the virtual cathode oscillator. The processes of the chaotization of output microwave radiation are described and interpreted from the point of view of the formation and interaction of electron structures (bunches) in the electron beams. The numerical results have shown that the investigated electron system with virtual cathode could be considered as a promising controlled source of wideband chaotic oscillations in the microwave range.

  6. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  7. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  8. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  9. Nonlinear dynamics and chaotization of oscillations of a virtual cathode in an annular electron beam in a uniform external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkin, S. A.; Koronovski, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from a numerical study of the effect of an external magnetic field on the conditions and mechanisms for the formation of a virtual cathode in a relativistic electron beam. Characteristic features of the nonlinear dynamics of an electron beam with a virtual cathode are considered when the external magnetic field is varied. Various mechanisms are investigated by which the virtual cathode oscillations become chaotic and their spectrum becomes a multifrequency spectrum, thereby complicating the dynamics of the vircator system. A general mechanism for chaotization of the oscillations of a virtual cathode in a vircator system is revealed: the electron structures that form in an electron beam interact by means of a common space charge field to give rise to additional internal feedback. That the oscillations of a virtual cathode change from the chaotic to the periodic regime is due to the suppression of the mechanism for forming secondary electron structures.

  10. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  11. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  12. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelevina, D.A.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  13. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, D.A., E-mail: pelevina.daria@gmail.com; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-06-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  14. Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.

  15. Dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Niu Xiaodong; Ye Xiaojiang; Li Mingjun; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in externally applied uniform magnetic fields are investigated by a laboratory-made cone-plate rheometer in this study. In particular, the effects of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties (the complex dynamic modulus) of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are studied. In the investigation, three viscoelastic magnetic fluids are made by mixing a magnetic fluid and a viscoelastic fluid with different mass ratios. As a supplementation to the experimental investigation, a theoretical analysis is also presented. The present study shows that the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and the concentrations of the magnetic particles in the test fluids. Theoretical analysis qualitatively explains the present findings. - Highlights: ► The dynamic rheological properties of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields are investigated. ► Both the magnetic field strength and the concentration of the magnetic particles in the fluids have significant effects on the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids. ► Theoretical prediction and analysis qualitatively explains the present findings.

  16. Uniform magnetic targeting of magnetic particles attracted by a new ferromagnetic biological patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ning; Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Kai; Ma, Jiaqi; Gong, Yongyong; Wang, Qixin; Huang, Zheyong

    2018-02-01

    A new non-toxic ferromagnetic biological patch (MBP) was designed in this paper. The MBP consisted of two external layers that were made of transparent silicone, and an internal layer that was made of a mixture of pure iron powder and silicon rubber. Finite-element analysis showed that the local inhomogeneous magnetic field (MF) around the MBP was generated when MBP was placed in a uniform MF. The local MF near the MBP varied with the uniform MF and shape of the MBP. Therefore, not only could the accumulation of paramagnetic particles be adjusted by controlling the strength of the uniform MF, but also the distribution of the paramagnetic particles could be improved with the different shape of the MBP. The relationship of the accumulation of paramagnetic particles or cells, magnetic flux density, and fluid velocity were studied through in vitro experiments and theoretical considerations. The accumulation of paramagnetic particles first increased with increment in the magnetic flux density of the uniform MF. But when the magnetic flux density of the uniform MF exceeded a specific value, the magnetic flux density of the MBP reached saturation, causing the accumulation of paramagnetic particles to fall. In addition, the adsorption morphology of magnetic particles or cells could be improved and the uniform distribution of magnetic particles could be achieved by changing the shape of the MBP. Also, MBP may be used as a new implant to attract magnetic drug carrier particles in magnetic drug targeting. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:98-107, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis and Optimization for Uniformity of Magnetic Field Driving the Giant Magnetostriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Ye, H; Liu, Y T; Yao, S M

    2006-01-01

    Giant magnetostriction actuator based on material Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe2 and electromagnetic transform has characteristics of high frequency response, large output power and etc, but it has a high demand for the uniformity of magnetic field driver and magnetic intensity. Object to the problem, a multi-scale external concavity structure is proposed, by means of inducting the hollow column coil structure, building the model of coil magnetic distribution and analyzing by finite element analysis method. The analysis results show that uniformity of the model magnetic field is dependent upon magnetic intensity and scales, and the boundary condition of material. As the scale increases, magnetic uniformity is enhanced, but the magnetic intensity is decreased. Taking consideration both of magnetic field distribution and magnetic intensity, threescale structure is determined as optimum structure

  18. Uniform magnetic fields in density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellgren, Erik I.; Laestadius, Andre; Helgaker, Trygve; Kvaal, Simen; Teale, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    We construct a density-functional formalism adapted to uniform external magnetic fields that is intermediate between conventional density functional theory and Current-Density Functional Theory (CDFT). In the intermediate theory, which we term linear vector potential-DFT (LDFT), the basic variables are the density, the canonical momentum, and the paramagnetic contribution to the magnetic moment. Both a constrained-search formulation and a convex formulation in terms of Legendre-Fenchel transformations are constructed. Many theoretical issues in CDFT find simplified analogs in LDFT. We prove results concerning N-representability, Hohenberg-Kohn-like mappings, existence of minimizers in the constrained-search expression, and a restricted analog to gauge invariance. The issue of additivity of the energy over non-interacting subsystems, which is qualitatively different in LDFT and CDFT, is also discussed.

  19. Magnetic phase shift reconstruction for uniformly magnetized nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); De Graef, Marc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kavanagh, Karen L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    A new analytical model is developed for the magnetic phase shift of uniformly magnetized nanowires with ideal cylindrical geometry. The model is applied to experimental data from off-axis electron holography measurements of the phase shift of CoFeB nanowires, and the saturation induction of a selected wire, as well as its radius, aspect ratio, position and orientation, is determined by fitting the model parameters. The saturation induction value of 1.7 T of the CoFeB nanowire is found to be similar, to be within the measurement error, to values reported in the literature. - Highlights: • We describe a mathematical model for the magnetic phase shift of a cylindrical nanowire. • We discuss electron holography experiments on magnetic nanowires. • We obtain an accurate fit of the measured magnetic phase shift profile. • We extract the magnetic induction of the nanowire from the phase shift model. • The magnetic induction of 1.7 T agrees well with literature results.

  20. A charged black hole in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Chaudhury, S.; Dowerah, S.

    1983-01-01

    We present here an investigation of the event horizon of a charged black hole embedded in a uniform magnetic field studying the Gaussian curvature. It is shown that the Gauss-Bonnet theorem holds for this magnetized black hole and for a magnetized Kerr black hole

  1. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  2. Deflection modeling of permanent magnet spherical chains in the presence of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donoghue, Kilian, E-mail: kilianod@rennes.ucc.ie; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig, E-mail: padraig@alum.mit.edu

    2013-10-15

    This work examines the interaction of permanently magnetised spheres in the presence of external magnetic fields at the millimetre scale. Static chain formation and deflection models are described for N spheres in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical models are presented for the two sphere case by neglecting the effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy while details of a numerical approach to solve a chain of N spheres are shown. The model is experimentally validated using chain deflections in 4.5 mm diameter spheres in groups of 2, 3 and 4 magnets in the presence of uniform magnetic fields, neglecting gravitational effects, with good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental results. This spherical chain structure could be used as an end effector for catheters as a deflection mechanism for magnetic guidance. The spherical point contacts result in large deflections for navigation around tight corners in endoluminal minimally invasive clinical applications. - Highlights: • We model the interaction of magnetic spheres with uniform external fields. • Analytical models are presented for two spheres interacting with an external field. • Numerical methods are used to model the interaction of N spheres in chain formations. • These models are tested experimentally. • We report good agreement between experiment and theory.

  3. Deflection modeling of permanent magnet spherical chains in the presence of external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, Kilian; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the interaction of permanently magnetised spheres in the presence of external magnetic fields at the millimetre scale. Static chain formation and deflection models are described for N spheres in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical models are presented for the two sphere case by neglecting the effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy while details of a numerical approach to solve a chain of N spheres are shown. The model is experimentally validated using chain deflections in 4.5 mm diameter spheres in groups of 2, 3 and 4 magnets in the presence of uniform magnetic fields, neglecting gravitational effects, with good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental results. This spherical chain structure could be used as an end effector for catheters as a deflection mechanism for magnetic guidance. The spherical point contacts result in large deflections for navigation around tight corners in endoluminal minimally invasive clinical applications. - Highlights: • We model the interaction of magnetic spheres with uniform external fields. • Analytical models are presented for two spheres interacting with an external field. • Numerical methods are used to model the interaction of N spheres in chain formations. • These models are tested experimentally. • We report good agreement between experiment and theory

  4. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe 3 O 4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  5. One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive

  6. Molecular response to a time-independent non-uniform magnetic-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faglioni, F.; Ligabue, A.; Pelloni, S.; Soncini, A.; Lazzeretti, P.

    2004-01-01

    The response of a molecule to a static inhomogeneous magnetic-field is rationalized via multipole magnetic susceptibilities and induced magnetic multipole and anapole moments. The energy of the molecule interacting with the external field is expressed as a Taylor series in the powers of the field and its gradient at the origin of the coordinate system. It involves magnetic multipole tensors of increasing rank, which can be evaluated via quantum mechanical approaches. An electronic energy shift is caused by the feed-back interaction between the induced magnetic dipole moment and the external magnetic field, and between the induced magnetic quadrupole moment and the gradient of the magnetic field. It is shown that, for a static magnetic field with uniform gradient, the magnetic quadrupole moment is origin-dependent, but the total interaction energy and the induced magnetic dipole are invariant to a translation of the coordinate system. The formal advantages of a Geertsen approach to third- and fourth-rank mixed-multipole susceptibilities are discussed

  7. Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems

  8. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  9. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-01-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx∕∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300–600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T∕m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm di...

  10. The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.

  11. Spin-lattice dynamics simulation of external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Chui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of field-induced magnetization in ferromagnetic materials has been an active topic in the last dozen years, yet a dynamic treatment of distance-dependent exchange integral has been lacking. In view of that, we employ spin-lattice dynamics (SLD simulations to study the external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron. Our results show that an external field can increase the inflection point of the temperature. Also the model provides a better description of the effect of spin correlation in response to an external field than the mean-field theory. An external field has a more prominent effect on the long range magnetic order than on the short range counterpart. Furthermore, an external field allows the magnon dispersion curves and the uniform precession modes to exhibit magnetic order variation from their temperature dependence.

  12. Influence of nonuniform external magnetic fields and anode--cathode shaping on magnetic insulation in coaxial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostrom, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Coaxial transmission lines, used to transfer the high voltage pulse into the diode region of a relativistic electron beam generator, have been studied using the two-dimensional time-dependent fully relativistic and electromagnetic particle simulation code CCUBE. A simple theory of magnetic insulation that agrees well with simulation results for a straight cylindrical coax in a uniform external magnetic field is used to interpret the effects of anode--cathode shaping and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Loss of magnetic insulation appears to be minimized by satisfying two conditions: (1) the cathode surface should follow a flux surface of the external magnetic field; (2) the anode should then be shaped to insure that the magnetic insulation impedance, including transients, is always greater than the effective load impedance wherever there is an electron flow in the anode--cathode gap

  13. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Polarization of spin-1 particles without an anomalous magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    The polarization operator projections onto four directions remain unchanged for spin-1 particles without an anomalous magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field. The approximate conservation of the polarization operator projections onto the horizontal axes of the cylindrical coordinate system takes place.

  15. Effect of external magnetic effect of external magnetic field annealing on magnetic texture of Mo containing NANOPERM-type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanuch, T.; Miglierini, M.; Greneche, J.-M.; Skorvanek, I.; Schaaf, P.

    2006-01-01

    External magnetic fields are known to modify microstructure of materials during their solidification and/or crystallisation. In an external magnetic field strong particle to particle interactions lead to a highly anisotropic microstructure. If the alloy is in ferromagnetic state, stronger particle magnetization - external field interactions and also particle-to-particle couplings are expected. To reveal the magnetic texture, originally amorphous precursors of Fe 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 were annealed at 510 grad C and 550 grad C in an external longitudinal and transverse magnetic field of 0.025 T and 0.8 T, respectively. Magnetic measurements were applied to follow the changes of saturation magnetization and coercive force. Moessbauer experiments were performed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature to provide an information about orientation of with respect to an external magnetic field. The obtained results were compared with those achieved on zero field annealed samples. We can conclude that such a low external magnetic fields applied during crystallisation cause no significant changes in the magnetic microstructural anisotropy. Afterwards, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was applied to investigate possible changes at the surface of the ribbon as a function of annealing temperature and applied magnetic field. We observed combination of uniaxial anisotropy, which originates from the shape anisotropy, and four-fold anisotropy, which is a contribution from crystallites of nanometre size embedded in the residual amorphous matrix. We expect more pronounced effects on cobalt substituted (Fe1 -x Co x ) 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 alloy. (authors)

  16. Generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for uniformly magnetized bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpico, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Napoli ' FedericoII' , Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: serpico@unina.it; Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), I-10135 Turin (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, University of Napoli ' Parthenope' , I-80133 Naples (Italy); Bonin, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), I-10135 Turin (Italy)

    2008-02-01

    We consider generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) deterministic dynamics in uniformly magnetized bodies. The dynamics take place on the unit sphere {sigma}, and are characterized by a vector field v tangential to {sigma}. By using Helmholtz decomposition on {sigma}, it is proven that v is uniquely defined by two potentials {chi} and {psi}. Potential {chi} can be identified with the free energy of the system, while {psi} describes non-conservative interactions of the system with the environment. The presence of {psi} modifies the usual energy balance of LLG dynamics. Instead of purely relaxation dynamics we may have steady injection of energy through non-conservative interactions. The implications of the new form of the energy balance are discussed in detail.

  17. Uniform magnetic excitations in NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Kuhn, L.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of isolated disc shaped NiO nanoparticles was studied at the RITA-II triple axis spectrometer at SINQ (PSI) using the newly implemented multi-analyser blade imaging mode. The particles were 13 nm in diameter and had a thickness of about 2.5 nm. A non-dispersive spin excitation was observed...... at the antiferromagnetic ((1)/(2) (1)/(2) (1)/(2)) reflection at a scattering vector of kappa = 1.30 angstrom(-1), at an energy of 2 0.51 +/- 0.02 meV. This is shown to be due to uniform magnetic excitations in the nanoparticles. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Exact periodic and solitonic states of the spinor condensates in a uniform external potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hai [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051 (China); Yang, Shi-Jie, E-mail: yangshijie@tsinghua.org.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We propose a method to analytically solve the one-dimensional coupled nonlinear Gross–Pitaevskii equations which govern the motion of the spinor Bose–Einstein condensates. In a uniform external potential, several classes of exact periodic and solitonic solutions, either in real or in complex forms, are obtained for both the F=1 and F=2 condensates for the Hamiltonian comprising the kinetic energy, the linear and the quadratic Zeeman energies. Real solutions take the form of composite soliton trains. Complex solutions correspond to the mass counter-flows as well as spin currents. These solutions are general that contains neither approximations nor constraints on the system parameters.

  19. High magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat with 'warm' aperture diameter of 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements using a NMR-magnetometer are given. The MPT set-up is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR, Dubna

  20. Novel attempt to create uniform magnetic-field space generated by face-to-face settled HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Ichiju, Kana; Higa, Kazuya; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Yokoyama, Kazuya; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Various experimental attempts have been made to obtain a uniform magnetic field in the space between face-to-face HTS bulk magnets that could possibly be utilized as NMR magnets. In general, the magnetic fields emitted from the magnetic pole surfaces containing HTS bulk magnets are characterized as non-uniform field distributions. Since the NMR magnets require highly uniform magnetic-field spaces, it has been assumed to be difficult to form uniform magnetic-field spaces between magnetic poles placed face-to-face. The authors modified the shapes of the magnetic-field distribution from convex to concave by attaching ferromagnetic iron plates to the pole surfaces. The magnets were then set face-to-face with various gaps of 30-70 mm, and the experimental data on magnetic-field uniformity was precisely measured in the space. In order to detect the NMR signals, the target performance for uniformity was set as 1,500 ppm throughout the 4-mm span on the x-axis, which is equivalent to performance in the past when the world's first detection of NMR signals was observed in the bore of hollow-type HTS bulk magnets. When we combined the concave and convex field distributions to compensate the uneven field distributions, the data of the best uniformity reached 358 ppm and 493 ppm in the 30 mm and 50 mm gaps, respectively, which exceeded the target value for the purpose of detecting the NMR signals within the space. Furthermore, it was shown that the field distributions change from concave to convex shape without any change at 1.1 T in the range from 7 to 11 mm in the 30-mm gap, indicating that the distributions are uniform. This suggests the possibility that the uniform magnetic-field space between the HTS bulk magnets set face-to-face expands. (author)

  1. High uniformity magnetic coil for search of neutron electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galvan, A., E-mail: apg@caltech.edu [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Plaster, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506 (United States); Boissevain, J.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W.; Mendenhall, M.P.; Schmid, R. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Alarcon, R.; Balascuta, S. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2011-12-21

    We present in this article a prototype magnetic coil that has been developed for a new search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The gradients of the magnetic field generated by the coil have been optimized to reduce known systematic effects and to yield long polarization lifetimes of the trapped particles sampling the highly uniform magnetic field. Measurements of the field uniformity of this prototype magnetic coil are also presented.

  2. Motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers controlled by an external magnetic field for sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Popp, J., E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Borin, D.Yu., E-mail: dmitry.borin@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Stepanov, G.V., E-mail: gstepanov@mail.ru [State Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 105118 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The development of sensor systems with a complex adaptive regulation of the operating sensitivity and behaviour is an actual scientific and technical challenge. Smart materials like magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) are seen as one potential solution for this problem, since their mechanical properties may be controlled by external magnetic fields. The present paper deals with the investigation of elastic and damping properties of MSE containing magnetically soft particles under the influence of a uniform magnetic field. Based on the measurement of the first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of a fixed beam, the effective Young's modulus is evaluated theoretically and also numerically using Finite Element Method. It is shown that this parameter, as well as the first eigenfrequency of the beam, increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The results are aimed to develop an acceleration sensor with adaptive magnetically controllable sensitivity range for the detection of external mechanical stimuli of the environment. - Highlights: • The motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) with magnetically soft particles is investigated. • The first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of an MSE beam can be controlled by a uniform magnetic field. • Based on the experimental results, the effective Young's modulus of the system is evaluated theoretically and numerically. • The Young's modulus increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. • The controlled mechanical compliance of MSE may be used for development of sensor systems with adaptive sensitivity range.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic flow in a rectangular duct under a uniform transverse magnetic field at high Hartmann number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we consider fully developed, laminar, unidirectional flow of uniformly conducting, incompressible fluid through a rectangular duct of uniform cross-section. An externally applied magnetic field acts parallel to one pair of opposite walls and induced velocity and magnetic fields are generated in a direction parallel to the axis of the duct. The governing equations and boundary conditions for the latter fields are introduced and study is then concentrated on the special case of a duct having all walls non-conducting. For values of the Hartmann number M>>1, classical asymptotic analysis reveals the leading terms in the expansions of the induced fields in all key regions, with the exception of certain boundary layers near the corners of the duct. The order of magnitude of the affect of the latter layers on the flow-rate is discussed and closed-form solutions are obtained for the induced fields near the corners of the duct. Attempts were made to formulate a concise Principle of Minimum Singularity to enable the correct choice of eigen functions for the various field components in the boundary layers on the walls parallel to the applied field. It was found, however, that these components are best found by taking the outer expansion of the closed-form solution in those boundary-layers near the corners of the duct where classical asymptotic analysis is not applicable. (author)

  4. Magnetic fields and uniformity of radio frequency power deposition in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas with crossed internal oscillating currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    ) discharge modes using two miniature magnetic probes. It is shown that the radial uniformity and depth of the rf power deposition can be improved as compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled plasmas with external flat spiral ("pancake") antennas. Relatively deeper rf power deposition...... in the plasma source results in more uniform profiles of the optical emission intensity, which indicates on the improvement of the plasma uniformity over large chamber volumes. The results of the numerical modeling of the radial magnetic field profiles are found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental...

  5. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from −1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  6. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on dielectric two-phase bubbly flows using the level set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.; Hadidi, A.; Nimvari, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the behavior of a single bubble in a dielectric viscous fluid under a uniform magnetic field has been simulated numerically using the Level Set method in two-phase bubbly flow. The two-phase bubbly flow was considered to be laminar and homogeneous. Deformation of the bubble was considered to be due to buoyancy and magnetic forces induced from the external applied magnetic field. A computer code was developed to solve the problem using the flow field, the interface of two phases, and the magnetic field. The Finite Volume method was applied using the SIMPLE algorithm to discretize the governing equations. Using this algorithm enables us to calculate the pressure parameter, which has been eliminated by previous researchers because of the complexity of the two-phase flow. The finite difference method was used to solve the magnetic field equation. The results outlined in the present study agree well with the existing experimental data and numerical results. These results show that the magnetic field affects and controls the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble. - Highlights: ►A bubble behavior was simulated numerically. ► A single bubble behavior was considered in a dielectric viscous fluid. ► A uniform magnetic field is used to study a bubble behavior. ► Deformation of the bubble was considered using the Level Set method. ► The magnetic field affects the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble.

  7. Plasma cluster acceleration by means of external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracik, J.; Maloch, J.; Sobra, K.

    1975-01-01

    The electromagnetic shock tubes are used not only for shock wave creation and study but also for pulse plasma acceleration. By applying the rail acceleration the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plasma cluster velocity can be increased. In the present work is theoretically and experimentally confirmed the external magnetic field influence on the plasma cluster acceleration when the 'snow plough' model is used. (Auth.)

  8. Floating and flying ferrofluid bridges induced by external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongchao; Zhou, Yixin; Liu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    A ferrofluid is a mixture that exhibits both magnetism and fluidity. This merit enables the ferrofluid to be used in a wide variety of areas. Here we show that a floating ferrofluid bridge can be induced between two separated boards under a balanced external magnetic field generated by two magnets, while a flying ferrofluid bridge can be induced under an unbalanced external magnetic field generated by only one magnet. The mechanisms of the ferrofluid bridges were discussed and the corresponding mathematical equations were also established to describe the interacting magnetic force between the ferro particles inside the ferrofluid. This work answered a basic question that, except for the well-known floating water bridges that are related to electricity, one can also build up a liquid bridge that is related to magnetism.

  9. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...

  10. External magnetic field configurations for EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevier, B.

    1982-08-01

    The strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field for stabilization of a pinch in an Extrap configuration can be created in various ways. Some possibilities both for the linear case and for the toroidal case are discussed. (author)

  11. Buoyant convection during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.

  12. Generation of uniform magnetic field using a spheroidal helical coil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Yavuz; Aktaş, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Uniformity of magnetic fields are of great importance especially in magnetic resonance studies, namely in magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications (NMR, FMR, ESR, EPR etc.) and magnetic resonance imaging applications (MRI, FMRI). Field uniformity is also required in some other applications such as eddy current probes, magnetometers, magnetic traps, particle counters etc. Here we proposed a coil winding regime, which follows the surface of a spheroid (an ellipsoid of rotation); in light of previous theoretical studies suggesting perfect uniformity for a constant ampere per turn in the axial direction thereof. We demonstrated our theoretical results from finite element calculations suggesting 0.15% of field uniformity for the proposed structure, which we called a Spheroidal Helical Coil. (paper)

  13. Confinement of laser plasma expansion with strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-bo; Hu, Guang-yue; Liang, Yi-han; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yu-lin; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The evolutions of laser ablation plasma, expanding in strong (∼10 T) transverse external magnetic field, were investigated in experiments and simulations. The experimental results show that the magnetic field pressure causes the plasma decelerate and accumulate at the plasma-field interface, and then form a low-density plasma bubble. The saturation size of the plasma bubble has a scaling law on laser energy and magnetic field intensity. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation results support the observation and find that the scaling law (V max ∝ E p /B 2, where V max is the maximum volume of the plasma bubble, E p is the absorbed laser energy, and B is the magnetic field intensity) is effective in a broad laser energy range from several joules to kilo-joules, since the plasma is always in the state of magnetic field frozen while expanding. About 15% absorbed laser energy converts into magnetic field energy stored in compressed and curved magnetic field lines. The duration that the plasma bubble comes to maximum size has another scaling law t max ∝ E p 1/2/B 2. The plasma expanding dynamics in external magnetic field have a similar character with that in underdense gas, which indicates that the external magnetic field may be a feasible approach to replace the gas filled in hohlraum to suppress the wall plasma expansion and mitigate the stimulated scattering process in indirect drive ignition.

  14. Liquid-metal flow in a rectangular duct with a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper treats liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls. A transverse magnetic field changes from a uniform strength upstream to a weaker uniform strength downstream. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. If the magnetic field changes gradually over a long duct length, the velocity and pressure are nearly uniform in each cross section and the flow differs slightly from locally fully developed flow. If the magnetic field changes more abruptly over a shorter duct length, the velocity and pressure are much larger near the walls parallel to the magnetic field than in the central part of duct. Solutions for the pressure drops due to the magnetic field change are presented

  15. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  16. Influence of external magnetic field on the etching of a steel ball in an aqueous solution of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ilchenko M.; Yu, Gorobets O.; Bondar, I.A.; Gaponov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of change of shape of a steel ball was revealed as a result of its etching in an aqueous solution of nitric acid under influence of an external magnetic field. The elongation of a ferromagnetic ball was observed along the direction of an external magnetic field while etching took place uniformly in all the directions without magnetic field application. The steel ball etching in a magnetic field is characterized by formation of three cylindrically symmetric regions with different etching rates and surface structures, divided from each other by clear borders (namely, the pole, equator and transition regions are formed). The non-monotone dependences of etching rate, surface structure of a sample and sample shape after etching on an external magnetic field are observed.

  17. Moessbauer study of the fast magnetization reversal forced in permalloy and invar by an external rf magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopcewicz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of fast magnetization reversal leading to fast relaxation of the hyperfine field (collapse effect) forced by an external rf magnetic field is studied using the Moessbauer technique for permalloy and invar. The rf collapse and sideband effects are investigated as a function of external rf field, frequency, and intensity. The collapse of the hfs spectrum through unresolved hfs spectrum, triangular shape to a single line, as well as the formation of sidebands is observed. The rf collapse effect is attributed to the rf forced uniform rotation of internal magnetization which causes fast magnetization reversal leading to fast relaxation of the hyperfine field as a result of which the average field at the Moessbauer nuclei is reduced to zero. The difference of the magnetization reversal process in permalloy and invar are discussed. It is shown that the origin of collapse and sideband effects is totaly different: the collapse effect being of purely magnetic origin while the formation of sidebands is due to the rf induced mechanical vibrations of iron atoms within the sample. It is possible to damp sidebands without affecting the collapse effect. The results obtained show that the application of the rf field to ferromagnetic materials gives a unique possibility to force, simulate, and control the relaxation effects in ferromagnetic materials. (author)

  18. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Fedotov, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  19. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  20. Ballistic charge carrier transmission through graphene multi-barrier structures in uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A; Dragoman, D

    2014-01-01

    We investigate charge carrier transport in graphene multi-barrier structures placed in a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient is found analytically by generalizing the transfer matrix method for the case of graphene regions subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient through the structure can be modulated by varying the gate voltages, the magnetic field and/or the width of the gated regions. Such a configuration could be used in multiple-valued logic circuits, since it has several output states with discrete and easily selectable transmission/current values. (paper)

  1. Radical polarization in double switching of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukzen, N.N.; Morozov, V.A.; Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical treatment of radical spin evolution under the action of double switching of external magnetic field is proposed. Account is taken of evolution of the radical spin state during laser pulse which generates paramagnetic particles. It is shown that the most effective beats in the nuclear magnetization of diamagnetic products of recombination occur upon the jump into zero magnetic field after laser pulse. The phase of observed beats bears information about the type of the initial radical polarization. The frequency of the beats is determined by radical hyperfine structure. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) external fields and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, C.; Boom, R.W.; Eyssa, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses preferred SMES configurations and the external magnetic fields which they generate. Possible biological effects of fields are reviewed briefly. It is proposed that SMES units be fenced at the 10 gauss (1 mT) level to keep unrestricted areas safe, even for persons with cardiac pacemakers. For a full size 5000 MWh (1.8 x 10 13 J) SMES the magnetic field decreases to 10 gauss at a radial distance of 2 km from the center of the coil. Other considerations related to the environmental impact of large SMES magnetic fields are discussed briefly

  3. Centrifugal pumping during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1996-08-01

    Centrifugal pumping flows are produced in the melt by the rotations of crystal and crucible during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals. This paper treats the centrifugal pumping effects with a steady, strong, non-uniform axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields ranging from a uniform axial field to a "cusp" field, which has a purely radial field at the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We present the numerical solutions for the centrifugal pumping flows as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp one, and for arbitrary Hartmann number. Since the perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not likely, we also investigate the effects of a slight misalignment.

  4. Magnetic cloud fit by uniform-twist toroidal flux ropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandas, Marek; Romashets, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 608, December (2017), A118/1-A118/12 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06065S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * coronal mass ejections * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  5. Spherical Magnetic Vortex in an External Potential Field: A Dissipative Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the dissipative evolution of a spherical magnetic vortex with a force-free internal structure, located in a resistive medium and held in equilibrium by the potential external field. The magnetic field inside the sphere is force-free (the model of Chandrasekhar in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 1, 1956). Topologically, it is a set of magnetic toroids enclosed in spherical layers. A new exact MHD solution has been derived, describing a slow, uniform, radial compression of a magnetic spheroid under the pressure of an ambient field, when the plasma density and pressure are growing inside it. There is no dissipation in the potential field outside the sphere, but inside the sphere, where the current density can be high enough, the magnetic energy is continuously converted into heat. Joule dissipation lowers the magnetic pressure inside the sphere, which balances the pressure of the ambient field. This results in radial contraction of the magnetic sphere with a speed defined by the conductivity of the plasma and the characteristic spatial scale of the magnetic field inside the sphere. Formally, the sphere shrinks to zero within a finite time interval (magnetic collapse). The time of compression can be relatively small, within a day, even for a sphere with a radius of about 1 Mm, if the magnetic helicity trapped initially in the sphere (which is proportional to the number of magnetic toroids in the sphere) is quite large. The magnetic system is open along its axis of symmetry. On this axis, the magnetic and electric fields are strictly radial and sign-variable along the radius, so the plasma will be ejected along the axis of magnetic sphere outwards in both directions (as jets) at a rate much higher than the diffusive one, and the charged particles will be accelerated unevenly, in spurts, creating quasi-regular X-ray spikes. The applications of the solution to solar flares are discussed.

  6. High-order coupled cluster method study of frustrated and unfrustrated quantum magnets in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnell, D J J; Zinke, R; Richter, J; Schulenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    We apply the coupled cluster method (CCM) in order to study the ground-state properties of the (unfrustrated) square-lattice and (frustrated) triangular-lattice spin-half Heisenberg antiferromagnets in the presence of external magnetic fields. Approximate methods are difficult to apply to the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet because of frustration, and so, for example, the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method suffers from the 'sign problem'. Results for this model in the presence of magnetic field are rarer than those for the square-lattice system. Here we determine and solve the basic CCM equations by using the localized approximation scheme commonly referred to as the 'LSUBm' approximation scheme and we carry out high-order calculations by using intensive computational methods. We calculate the ground-state energy, the uniform susceptibility, the total (lattice) magnetization and the local (sublattice) magnetizations as a function of the magnetic field strength. Our results for the lattice magnetization of the square-lattice case compare well to the results from QMC approaches for all values of the applied external magnetic field. We find a value for the magnetic susceptibility of χ = 0.070 for the square-lattice antiferromagnet, which is also in agreement with the results from other approximate methods (e.g., χ = 0.0669 obtained via the QMC approach). Our estimate for the range of the extent of the (M/M s =) 1/3 magnetization plateau for the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet is 1.37 SWT = 0.0794. Higher-order calculations are thus suggested for both SWT and CCM LSUBm calculations in order to determine the value of χ for the triangular lattice conclusively.

  7. Magnetic structures in ultra-thin Holmium films: Influence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Mello, V.D. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Anselmo, D.H.A.L. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: mvasconcelos@ect.ufrn.br [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    We address the magnetic phases in very thin Ho films at the temperature interval between 20 K and 132 K. We show that slab size, surface effects and magnetic field due to spin ordering impact significantly the magnetic phase diagram. Also we report that there is a relevant reduction of the external field strength required to saturate the magnetization and for ultra-thin films the helical state does not form. We explore the specific heat and the susceptibility as auxiliary tools to discuss the nature of the phase transitions, when in the presence of an external magnetic field and temperature effects. The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip structures. - Highlights: • We analyze the magnetic phases of very thin Ho films in the temperature interval 20–132 K. • We show that slab size, etc. due to spin ordering may impact the magnetic phase diagram. • All magnetic phase transitions, for strong magnetic fields, are marked by the specific heat. • The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip one.

  8. On Ising - Onsager problem in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmanski, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to solving the Ising - Onsager problem in external magnetic field is investigated. The expression for free energy on one Ising spin in external field both for the two dimensional and three dimensional Ising model with interaction of the nearest neighbors are derived. The representations of free energy being expressed by multidimensional integrals of Gauss type with the appropriate dimensionality are shown. Possibility of calculating the integrals and the critical indices on the base of the derived representations for free energy is investigated

  9. Smoothing and instability with magnetic field in a non-uniformly laser-irradiated planar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Epperlein, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the magneto-hydrodynamic response of a planar target to non-uniformities in energy deposition by a laser. The amplitude of the non-uniformities are assumed small and the equations are linearised in small perturbations about the solution for steady planar ablation driven by uniform laser energy deposition. The grad(n)xgrad(T) magnetic field source is included, along with Nernst convection and the Righi-Leduc heat flow. The magnetic field is shown to give a small increase in smoothing. A source term for magnetic field is included to simulate the effects of the Weibel instability. The instability is not strong enough to overcome the smoothing processes under the present assumptions. (author)

  10. Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

    2015-08-01

    We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.

  11. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-11-01

    The plasma of Hall thruster type in external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V kinetic simulations using PIC MCC method. The periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities is formed and becomes more pronounced with increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. This leads to formation of two-dimensional double-layers structure in cylindrical plasma chamber. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to nineteen potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered on the wall is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  12. Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

    2015-01-01

    We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin–rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation. (paper)

  13. Study on the plasma diode in the external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental investigations of plasma diode with cathode plasma formation on the basis of an incomplete charge over dielectric surface in the external longitudinal magnetic field with the intensity of Hsub(z) up to 2000 Oe are presented. It is demonstrated that at the 150-250 keV diode voltage and the current density of up to 300 A/cm 2 the homogeneity of the current density over transverse cross section is preserved up to the cell size of metallic grid onto cathode with the change of the magnetic field up to 2000 Oe [ru

  14. Effects of anomalous magnetic moment and temperature on pair production in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, W.; Bauhoff, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is re-examined the problem of spontaneous pair creation in an external magnetic field. In contrast to earlier findings, it is shown that pair production does not occur due to the anomalous magnetic moment interaction. However, pairs may be observed in a situation of thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperatures. (author)

  15. RF Magnetic Field Uniformity of Rectangular Planar Coils for Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    magnetic, potassium chlorate , nuclear quadrupole resonance, uniform field, coil, surface coil I. INTRODUCTION QR is a magnetic resonance phenomenon...material that will be used is this investigation is potassium chlorate (KCLO3). This paper utilizes the NQR signals detection from KCLO3 to determine the...frequency of potassium chlorate (KCLO3), and matched to a 50 ohm input impedance using L-network circuit of capacitors. Fig.1 shows a diagram of the

  16. Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.

    1991-01-01

    A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs

  17. Control of field uniformity for a large superconducting storage ring magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.45 Tesla, 14.2 meter diameter ''superferric'' magnet is in an advanced stage of construction at BNL. This magnet will be used to store muons for a planned ultra-precise measurement of their anomalous magnetic moment g-2. This measurement requires a magnetic field uniformity of 1 PPM with a knowledge of the field over the muon orbits to 0.1 PPM. The methods built into the design to produce ultra-high field uniformity will be described. Large deviations from the ideal circularly symmetric uniform shape of the iron flux path are required to accommodate transfer lines and superconducting current leads, as well as apparatus for beam injection. Shimming methods to correct for the perturbations due to these large holes will be presented. The pole pieces consist of 36 closely fitting 10 degree arc sections butted together to produce a very good approximation to a continuous 360 degree ring magnet. However, in the cast of a possible quench of the superconducting coils, significant eddy currents will be induced which will circulate within the confines of each 10 degree pole piece. At the great precision required, these eddy currents may leave very small but significant aberrations in the field even after they decay away, because of slight changes in the orientation of the magnetization. Surface coil possibilities to correct for this effect will be described

  18. Analysis of blood flow with nanoparticles induced by uniform magnetic field through a circular cylinder with fractional Caputo derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Butt, Asma Rashid; Raza, Nauman; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alzahrani, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The magneto hydrodynamic blood flow in the presence of magnetic particles through a circular cylinder is investigated. To calculate the impact of externally applied uniform magnetic field, the blood is electrically charged. Initially the fluid and circular cylinder is at rest but at time t =0+ , the cylinder starts to oscillate along its axis with velocity fsin (Ωt) . To obtain the mathematical model of blood flow with fractional derivatives Caputo fractional operator is employed. The solutions for the velocities of blood and magnetic particles are procured semi analytically by using Laplace transformation method. The inverse Laplace transform has been calculated numerically by using MATHCAD computer software. The obtained results of velocities are presented in Laplace domain in terms of modified Bessel function I0 (·) . The obtained results satisfied all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The hybrid technique that is employed here less computational effort and time cost as compared to other techniques used in literature. As the limiting cases of our results the solutions of the flow model with ordinary derivatives has been procured. Finally, the impact of Reynolds number Re, fractional parameter α and Hartmann number Ha is analyzed and portrayed through graphs. It is worthy to pointing out that fractional derivatives brings remarkable differences as compared to ordinary derivatives. It also has been observed that velocity of blood and magnetic particles is weaker under the effect of transverse magnetic field.

  19. Heating of charged particles by electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro; Shimojo, Takashi.

    1978-02-01

    Increase in kinetic energy of a charged particle, affected by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field, is obtained for both the initial and later stages. Detrapping time of the particle from the potential dent of the electrostatic wave and energy increase during trapping of the particle is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are carried out to support theoretical results. (auth.)

  20. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations

  1. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  2. A 3D numerical simulation of mixed convection of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field in a vertical tube using two phase mixture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminfar, Habib, E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpourfard, Mousa, E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz, P.O. Box 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narmani Kahnamouei, Yousef, E-mail: Narmani87@ms.tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, results of applying a non-uniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid (kerosene and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) flow in a vertical tube have been reported. The hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of the flow are investigated numerically using the two phase mixture model and the control volume technique. Two positive and negative magnetic field gradients have been examined. Based on the obtained results the Nusselt number can be controlled externally using the magnetic field with different intensity and gradients. It is concluded that the magnetic field with negative gradient acts similar to Buoyancy force and augments the Nusselt number, while the magnetic field with positive gradient decreases it. Also with the negative gradient of the magnetic field, pumping power increases and vice versa for the positive gradient case. - Highlights: We model hydrothermal behavior of a ferrofluid flow using two phase mixture model. Various external non-uniform magnetic fields were implemented in a vertical tube. Nusselt number can be controlled using the magnetic field with different gradients. The magnetic field is more effective in low Reynolds numbers. Heat transfer enhancement using the magnetic field needs high pumping power.

  3. Orbits of two electrons released from rest in a uniform transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-03-01

    Two identical charged particles released from rest repel each other radially. A uniform perpendicular magnetic field will then cause their trajectories to curve into a flower petal pattern. The orbit of each particle is approximately circular with a long period for a strong magnetic field, whereas it becomes a figure-eight for a weak magnetic field with each lobe completed in a cyclotron period. For example, such radially bound motions arise for two-dimensional electron gases. The level of treatment is appropriate for an undergraduate calculus-based electromagnetism course.

  4. Reflection of Plane Waves in Generalized Thermoelastic Half Space under the Action of Uniform Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Maity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection of longitudinal displacement waves in a generalized thermoelastic half space under the action of uniform magnetic field has been investigated. The magnetic field is applied in such a direction that the problem can be considered as a two-dimensional one. The discussion is based on the three theories of generalized thermoelasticity: Lord-Shulman (L-S, Green-Lindsay (G-L, and Green-Naghdi (G-N with energy dissipation. We compute the possible wave velocities for different models. Amplitude ratios have been presented. The effects of magnetic field on various subjects of interest are discussed and shown graphically.

  5. Formation of uniform magnetic structures and epitaxial hydride phases in Nd/Pr superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    , and that the stacking sequence is coherent over many bilayer repeats. The neutron measurements show that for the hexagonal sites of the dhcp structure, the Nd magnetic order propagates coherently through the Pr, whereas the order on the cubic sites is either suppressed or confined to single Nd blocks. It is also shown...... that the singlet ground state of Pr is perturbed to produce a local moment on the hexagonal sites, so that in some cases there is a uniform magnetic structure throughout the superlattice. These results cast new light on the theory of magnetic interactions in rare-earth superlattices. Within a few months of growth...

  6. Five-dimensional rotating black hole in a uniform magnetic field: The gyromagnetic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.N.; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2004-01-01

    In four-dimensional general relativity, the fact that a Killing vector in a vacuum spacetime serves as a vector potential for a test Maxwell field provides one with an elegant way of describing the behavior of electromagnetic fields near a rotating Kerr black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field. We use a similar approach to examine the case of a five-dimensional rotating black hole placed in a uniform magnetic field of configuration with biazimuthal symmetry that is aligned with the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry spacetime. Assuming that the black hole may also possess a small electric charge we construct the five-vector potential of the electromagnetic field in the Myers-Perry metric using its three commuting Killing vector fields. We show that, like its four-dimensional counterparts, the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole rotating in a uniform magnetic field produces an inductive potential difference between the event horizon and an infinitely distant surface. This potential difference is determined by a superposition of two independent Coulomb fields consistent with the two angular momenta of the black hole and two nonvanishing components of the magnetic field. We also show that a weakly charged rotating black hole in five dimensions possesses two independent magnetic dipole moments specified in terms of its electric charge, mass, and angular momentum parameters. We prove that a five-dimensional weakly charged Myers-Perry black hole must have the value of the gyromagnetic ratio g=3

  7. A method for real time detecting of non-uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The principle of measuring magnetic signatures for observing diverse objects is widely used in Near Surface work (unexploded ordnance (UXO); engineering & environmental; archaeology) and security and vehicle detection systems as well. As a rule, the magnitude of the signals to be measured is much lower than that of the quasi-uniform Earth magnetic field. Usually magnetometers for these purposes contain two or more spatially separated sensors to estimate the full tensor gradient of the magnetic field or, more frequently, only partial gradient components. The both types (scalar and vector) of magnetic sensors could be used. The identity of the scale factors and proper alignment of the sensitivity axes of the vector sensors are very important for deep suppression of the ambient field and detection of weak target signals. As a rule, the periodical calibration procedure is used to keep matching sensors' parameters as close as possible. In the present report we propose the technique for detection magnetic anomalies, which is almost insensitive to imperfect matching of the sensors. This method based on the idea that the difference signals between two sensors are considerably different when the instrument is rotated or moved in uniform and non-uniform fields. Due to the misfit of calibration parameters the difference signal observed at the rotation in the uniform field is similar to the total signal - the sum of the signals of both sensors. Zero change of the difference and total signals is expected, if the instrument moves in the uniform field along a straight line. In contrast, the same move in the non-uniform field produces some response of each of the sensors. In case one measures dB/dx and moves along x direction, the sensors signals is shifted in time with the lag proportional to the distance between sensors and the speed of move. It means that the difference signal looks like derivative of the total signal at move in the non-uniform field. So, using quite simple

  8. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the

  9. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  10. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450±10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000±10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600±10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance

  11. Modification of Turbulence Structures in a Channel Flow by Uniform Magnetic Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Choi, H.; Kim, J.

    1997-11-01

    Effects of electromagnetic forcing on the near-wall turbulence are investigated by applying a uniform magnetic flux in a turbulent channel flow in the streamwise and spanwise directions, respectively. The base flow is a fully developed turbulent channel flow and the direct numerical simulation technique is used. The electromagnetic force induced from the magnetic fluxes reduces the intensity of the wall-layer structures and thus drag is significantly reduced. The wall-normal and spanwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stress decrease with the increased magnetic flux in both directions. The streamwise velocity fluctuations increase with the streamwise magnetic flux, whereas they decrease with the spanwise magnetic flux. It is also shown that the spanwise magnetic flux is much more effective than the streamwise magnetic flux in reducing the skin-friction drag. Instantaneous Lorentz force vectors show that the flow motions by the near-wall vortices are directly inhibited by the spanwise magnetic flux, while they are less effectively inhibited by the streamwise magnetic flux. Other turbulence statistics that reveal the effects of the applied magnetic forcing will be presented. ^* Supported by KOSEF Contract No. 965-1008-003-2 and ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-0352.

  12. Label-Free Alignment of Nonmagnetic Particles in a Small Uniform Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Rui Ge; Wang, Z P; Ramanujan, R V

    2018-01-01

    Label-free manipulation of biological entities can minimize damage, increase viability and improve efficiency of subsequent analysis. Understanding the mechanism of interaction between magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in an inverse ferrofluid can provide a mechanism of label-free manipulation of such entities in a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic force, induced by relative magnetic susceptibility difference between nonmagnetic particles and surrounding magnetic particles as well as particle-particle interaction were studied. Label-free alignment of nonmagnetic particles can be achieved by higher magnetic field strength (Ba), smaller particle spacing (R), larger particle size (rp1), and higher relative magnetic permeability difference between particle and the surrounding fluid (Rμr). Rμr can be used to predict the direction of the magnetic force between both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles. A sandwich structure, containing alternate layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic particle chains, was studied. This work can be used for manipulation of nonmagnetic particles in lab-on-a-chip applications.

  13. Macroscale particle simulation of externally driven magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1991-09-01

    Externally driven reconnection, assuming an anomalous particle collision model, is numerically studied by means of a 2.5D macroscale particle simulation code in which the field and particle motions are solved self-consistently. Explosive magnetic reconnection and energy conversion are observed as a result of slow shock formation. Electron and ion distribution functions exhibit large bulk acceleration and heating of the plasma. Simulation runs with different collision parameters suggest that the development of reconnection, particle acceleration and heating do not significantly depend on the parameters of the collision model. (author)

  14. Probe branes thermalization in external electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Ebrahim, H.; Rezaei, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We study thermalization on rotating probe branes in AdS 5 ×S 5 background in the presence of constant external electric and magnetic fields. In the AdS/CFT framework this corresponds to thermalization in the flavour sector in field theory. The horizon appears on the worldvolume of the probe brane due to its rotation in one of the sphere directions. For both electric and magnetic fields the behaviour of the temperature is independent of the probe brane dimension. We also study the open string metric and the fluctuations of the probe brane in such a set-up. We show that the temperatures obtained from open string metric and observed by the fluctuations are larger than the one calculated from the induced metric

  15. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjeres, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery

  16. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb 3 Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7 Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  17. Classical understanding of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeong Deok [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Woosuk University, Wanju, Cheonbuk, 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Taeseung, E-mail: tschoi@swu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Food System, College of Natural Science, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    Recently, interesting observations on electron vortex beams have been made. We propose a classical model that shows vortex-like motion due to suitably-synchronized motion of each electron's cyclotron motion in a uniform magnetic field. It is shown that some basic features of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field, such as azimuthal currents, the relation between energy and kinetic angular momentum, and the parallel-axis theorem are understandable by using this classical model. We also show that the time-dependence of kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams could be understood as an effect of a specific nonuniform distribution of classical electrons. - Highlights: • A classical model for electron vortex beams is proposed. • The basic features of azimuthal currents could be understood by using this model. • The kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams is intuitively understandable.

  18. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  19. Experimental characterization of MHD pressure drop of liquid sodium flow under uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Park, Jon Ho; Kim, Jong Man; Nam, Ho Yoon; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic field has many effects on the hydraulic pressure drop of fluids with high electrical conductivity. The theoretical solution about MHD pressure drop is sought for the uniform current density model with simplified physical geometry. Using the MHD equation in the rectangular duct of the sodium liquid flow under a transverse magnetic field, the electrical potential is sought in terms of the duct geometry and the electrical parameters of the liquid metal and duct material. By the product of the induced current inside the liquid metal and transverse magnetic field, the pressure gradients is found as a function of the duct size and the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal. The theoretically predicted pressure drop is compared with experimental results on the change of flow velocity and magnetic flux density

  20. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  1. Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao, E-mail: chaodong@iphy.ac.cn [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Wenlu [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Ding, E-mail: dli@ustc.edu.cn [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is derived which has the same form as the case of no magnetic field but with different Fokker-Planck coefficients. The coefficients are calculated explicitly within the binary collision model, which are free from infinite sums of Bessel functions. They can be used to investigate relaxation and transport phenomena conveniently. The kinetic equation is also manipulated into the Landau form from which it is straightforward to compare with previous results and prove the conservation laws.

  2. Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Ding

    2016-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is derived which has the same form as the case of no magnetic field but with different Fokker-Planck coefficients. The coefficients are calculated explicitly within the binary collision model, which are free from infinite sums of Bessel functions. They can be used to investigate relaxation and transport phenomena conveniently. The kinetic equation is also manipulated into the Landau form from which it is straightforward to compare with previous results and prove the conservation laws.

  3. Liquid metal flow in a large-radius elbow with a uniform magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, T.J.; Walker, J.S.

    1988-07-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal flow in an elbow between two straight, rectangular ducts. There is a uniform magnetic field in the plane of the elbow. The duct has thin, electrically conducting walls. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Solutions for the velocity at each cross section of the elbow and for the pressure drop due to three-dimensional effects are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  4. Hard and soft supersymmetry breaking for ‘graphinos’ in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ortíz, S; Raya, A; Murguía, G

    2012-01-01

    Using irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices, we study the two- and four-component quantum mechanical supersymmetric (SUSY) theories for ultrarelativistic fermions in (2 + 1) dimensions (‘graphinos’) in a background uniform magnetic field perpendicular to their plane of motion. We then consider ordinary and parity-violating mass terms and identify the former as a soft SUSY breaking term and the latter as the hard SUSY breaking one. (paper)

  5. Design and construction of a uniform magnetic field generator for a 32 channel cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Guzman, K. N.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R. A.; Felix, J.; Arceo, L. J.; Araujo, C.

    2017-10-01

    The trajectory of a particle can be measured if some points of its track are known. This is applied to any kind of particle, including cosmic rays. We have designed and built a device for this purpose. We present the design, construction and characterization of a uniform magnetic field generator system in a finite volume. An array of Cerenkov detectors will be placed inside of it for determining the cosmic rays charge and to reconstruct their trajectories.

  6. Correspondence between classical and quantum chaos for hydrogen in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, A; Hasegawa, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1983-06-01

    It is shown, by numerical computations, that the classical and the quantal critical energy of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field, characterising the onset of irregular motions, approximately coincide. This result is obtained by applying a simple scaling property of the classical Hamiltonian, valid only for Lsub(z)=O (the angular momentum component along the field vanishes), to the numerically deduced relative areas of the irregular region of Poincare surfaces of section.

  7. Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)

  8. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  9. [Co/Pd]4–Co–Pd–NiFe spring magnets with highly tunable and uniform magnetization tilt angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh Nguyen, T.N.; Benatmane, N.; Fallahi, V.; Fang, Yeyu; Mohseni, S.M.; Dumas, R.K.; Åkerman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    By varying the Pd thickness (t Pd ) from 0 to 8 nm in [Co/Pd] 4 /Co/Pd(t Pd )/NiFe exchange springs, we demonstrate (i) continuous tailoring of the exchange coupling between a [Co/Pd] 4 /Co layer with perpendicular anisotropy, and a NiFe layer with an in-plane easy axis, (ii) tuning of the NiFe out-of-plane magnetization angle from 20 ○ to 80 ○ , and (iii) an up to two-fold increase in the NiFe damping. The partial decoupling also results in a highly uniform NiFe magnetization. These properties make [Co/Pd] 4 /Co/Pd(t Pd )/NiFe spring magnets ideal candidates for use as tilted polarizers, by combining stable and well-defined spin directions of its carriers with a high degree of angular freedom. - Highlights: ► Continuous tailoring of the exchange coupling between a [Co/Pd] 4 /Co layer and a NiFe layer. ►Tuning of the NiFe out-of-plane magnetization angle from 20° to 80°. ►A highly uniform NiFe magnetization. ►An up to two-fold increase in the NiFe damping.

  10. Stable magnetization of iron filled carbon nanotube MFM probes in external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Franziska; Weissker, Uhland; Muehl, Thomas; Lutz, Matthias U; Mueller, Christian; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Buechner, Bernd, E-mail: f.wolny@ifw-dresden.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the application of an iron filled carbon nanotube (Fe-CNT) as a probe for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in an external magnetic field. If an external field is applied parallel to the sample surface, conventional ferromagnetically coated MFM probes often have the disadvantage that the magnetization of the coating turns towards the direction of the applied field. Then it is difficult to distinguish the effect of the external field on the sample from those on the MFM probe. The Fe-CNT MFM probe has a large shape anisotropy due to the high aspect ratio of the enclosed iron nanowire. Thanks to this the direction of the magnetization stays mainly oriented along the long nanotube axis in in-plane fields up to our experimental limit of 250 mT. Thus, the quality of the MFM images remains unchanged. Apart from this, it is shown that Fe-CNT MFM probe yields a very good magnetic resolution of about 25 nm due to the small diameter of the iron filling.

  11. Ultrasonic propagation velocity in magnetic and magnetorheological fluids due to an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramantya, M A; Sawada, T; Motozawa, M

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF.

  12. Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Ikhdair, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states. (orig.)

  13. Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehraban, H. [Semnan University, Faculty of Physics, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ikhdair, S.M. [An-Najah National University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Near East University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states. (orig.)

  14. Uniform magnetization reversal in dual main-phase (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B sintered magnets with inhomogeneous microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le-le; Li, Zhu-bai; Zhang, Xue-feng; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Yan-li; Li, Yong-feng; Zhao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The element distribution and the magnetic properties were investigated in (Ce,Nd)–Fe–B sintered magnets prepared by mixing Nd 13.5 Fe 80 B 6.5 and Ce 9 Nd 4.5 Fe 80 B 6.5 powders with different mass ratios. Two main phases exist, but element diffusion is evident, and the chemical composition of the main phase is widely different from that of the master alloy. The Ce element tends to be expelled from the Ce-rich Re 2 Fe 14 B phase. Compared with the Ce-rich main phase, the Nd-rich Re 2 Fe 14 B phase is more stable in structure. Although the microstructure is inhomogeneous and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy is variable, the magnetization reversal is uniform in these dual main-phase magnets, which should ascribe to the existence of the exchange coupling, and magnetization reversal undergoes the nucleation of the reversed domain in irreversible magnetization. It is expected to further improve the coercivity by optimizing the distribution of the Nd-rich main phase in preparing the resource-saving (Ce,Nd) 2 Fe 14 B sintered magnets. (paper)

  15. Shape and fission instabilities of ferrofluids in non-uniform magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieu, Thibault; Walter, Clément

    2018-04-01

    We study static distributions of ferrofluid submitted to non-uniform magnetic fields. We show how the normal-field instability is modified in the presence of a weak magnetic field gradient. Then we consider a ferrofluid droplet and show how the gradient affects its shape. A rich phase transitions phenomenology is found. We also investigate the creation of droplets by successive splits when a magnet is vertically approached from below and derive theoretical expressions which are solved numerically to obtain the number of droplets and their aspect ratio as function of the field configuration. A quantitative comparison is performed with previous experimental results, as well as with our own experiments, and yields good agreement with the theoretical modeling.

  16. Fast dose planning Monte Carlo simulations in inhomogeneous phantoms submerged in uniform, static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, R.; Dempsey, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    We present studies in support of the development of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) device for the treatment of cancer patients. Fast and accurate computation of the absorbed ionizing radiation dose delivered in the presence of the MRI magnetic field are required for clinical implementation. The fast Monte Carlo simulation code DPM, optimized for radiotherapy treatment planning, is modified to simulate absorbed doses in uniform, static magnetic fields, and benchmarked against PENELOPE. Simulations of dose deposition in inhomogeneous phantoms in which a low density material is sandwiched in water shows that a lower MRI field strength (0.3 T) is to prefer in order to avoid dose build-up near material boundaries. (authors)

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Harrison, M. G.; Hesse, M.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.

  18. Uniform magnetic field in the bending magneto for the compact proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, S; Miyauchi, Y; Nakajima, S; Arakawa, M

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy using high-energy protons is a very effective method of cancer treatment. To attain the necessary beam energy for cancer therapy using a very compact synchrotron, the magnetic field of the normal-conductive bending magnet must be excited up to 3-5 T. However, increasing the field up to 4 T produces a sextupole component in the field. The sextupole component can be reduced by changing the geometry of the coil, but establishing the optimal geometry is very time-consuming. A new optimization method has been developed to establish the uniform field in the bending magnet. As a result, the optimal geometry is obtained with less calculation time. (author)

  19. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bo, E-mail: yebo@hubu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China); Sun, Zhen-jun [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo, Lin [School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Deng, Chao [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Ya-qi [Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhang, Hong-hai [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Sheng [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application. - Highlights: • A new magnetic control method for spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope is proposed. • Wireless capsule endoscope rotates synchronously with external permanent magnet. • The method controls the wireless capsule endoscope well in porcine small intestine. • Long control distance makes the method may be used in future medical application. • Experimental setup has great advantages: high cost performance and easy operation.

  20. Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D. [Semaphore Scientific, Inc., St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States); Vogt, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values.

  1. Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D.; Vogt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values

  2. Equilibrium state analysis of a nonneutral plasma under a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Molinari, V.G.; Sumini, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    By recourse to the Boltzmann H-theorem, the existence of a thermodynamic equilibrium state has been proved for a nonneutral plasma under an external magnetic field. The equation describing the density profile of ions or electrons has been found. The density equation has been numerically solved for a generic magnetic field and plasma frequency, giving a parametric limit for the confinement region. An appropriate change of variable allows to approximate the density equation whose analytical solution has been found. The approximated density closely fits the numerical solution of the original equation. (Author)

  3. SHIELDING OF A UNIFORM ALTERNATING MAGNETIC FIELD USING A CIRCULAR PASSIVE LOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Grinchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic and electromagnetic shields are used to reduce the magnetic field in local spaces. Usually these shields are implemented in the form of a box or a cylinder. At the same time the magnetic field reduction in local spaces by means of passive loops is not considered in detail yet. So, the present study considers shielding capabilities of a circular passive loop. The authors have performed an analytical and numerical modeling of a process of a uniform harmonic magnetic field shielding. The simulated results permit to find out the spatial distribution of the shielded magnetic field. Dependencies of shielding effectiveness on the passive loop radius and cross-section are determined. Moreover, the non-monotonic behavior of the loop radius dependence is shown. We have substantiated that the shielded volume of a circular passive loop is advisable to limit by the sphere with a half loop radius. Presented results give parameters of the circular passive loop that reduces the rms value of the magnetic flux density by 30 %.

  4. Magnetic fields and uniformity of radio frequency power deposition in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas with crossed internal oscillating currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakadze, E.L.; Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, Z.L.; Vladimirov, S.V.; Xu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radial and axial distributions of magnetic fields in a low-frequency (∼460 kHz) inductively coupled plasma source with two internal crossed planar rf current sheets are reported. The internal antenna configuration comprises two orthogonal sets of eight alternately reconnected parallel and equidistant copper litz wires in quartz enclosures and generates three magnetic (H z , H r , and H φ ) and two electric (E φ and E r ) field components at the fundamental frequency. The measurements have been performed in rarefied and dense plasmas generated in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) discharge modes using two miniature magnetic probes. It is shown that the radial uniformity and depth of the rf power deposition can be improved as compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled plasmas with external flat spiral ('pancake') antennas. Relatively deeper rf power deposition in the plasma source results in more uniform profiles of the optical emission intensity, which indicates on the improvement of the plasma uniformity over large chamber volumes. The results of the numerical modeling of the radial magnetic field profiles are found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...

  6. Electron Beam Dose Distribution in the Presence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Tahmasebi-Birgani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Magnetic fields are capable of altering the trajectory of electron beams andcan be used in radiation therapy.Theaim of this study was to produce regions with dose enhancement and reduction in the medium. Materials and Methods The NdFeB permanent magnets were arranged on the electron applicator in several configurations. Then, after the passage of the electron beams (9 and 15 MeV Varian 2100C/D through the non-uniform magnetic field, the Percentage Depth Dose(PDDs on central axis and dose profiles in three depths for each energy were measured in a 3D water phantom. Results For all magnet arrangements and for two different energies, the surface dose increment and shift in depth of maximum dose (dmax were observed. In addition, the pattern of dose distribution in buildup region was changed. Measurement of dose profile showed dose localization and spreading in some other regions. Conclusion The results of this study confirms that using magnetic field can alter the dose deposition patterns and as a result can produce dose enhancement as well as dose reduction in the medium using high-energy electron beams. These effects provide dose distribution with arbitrary shapes for use in radiation therapy.

  7. Hydrogen atom in a magnetic field: Ghost orbits, catastrophes, and uniform semiclassical approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main, J.; Wunner, G.

    1997-01-01

    Applying closed-orbit theory to the recurrence spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, one can interpret most, but not all, structures semiclassically in terms of closed classical orbits. In particular, conventional closed-orbit theory fails near bifurcations of orbits where semiclassical amplitudes exhibit unphysical divergences. Here we analyze the role of ghost orbits living in complex phase space. The ghosts can explain resonance structures in the spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field at positions where no real orbits exist. For three different types of catastrophes, viz. fold, cusp, and butterfly catastrophes, we construct uniform semiclassical approximations and demonstrate that these solutions are completely determined by classical parameters of the real orbits and complex ghosts. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Moving interfacial crack between two dissimilar soft ferromagnetic materials in uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, She Xu; Lee, Kang Yong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic magnetoelastic stress intensity factors of a Yoffe-type moving crack at the interface between two dissimilar soft ferromagnetic elastic half-planes. The solids are subjected to a uniform in-plane magnetic field and the crack is opened by internal normal and shear tractions. The problem is considered within the framework of linear magnetoelasticity. By application of the Fourier integral transform, the mixed boundary problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations of the second kind with Cauchy-type singularities. The singular integral equations are solved by means of a Jacobi polynomial expansion method. For a particular case, closed-form solutions are obtained. It is shown that the magnetoelastic stress intensity factors depend on the moving velocity of the crack, the magnetic field and the magnetoelastic properties of the materials

  9. Squeeze behavior of magnetorheological fluids under constant volume and uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaoyang; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Yan, Qifan; Ruan, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    In this work the experimental investigation of magnetorheological fluids in squeeze mode has been carried out under constant volume with a self-developed device. The magnetorheological fluids were forced to move in all directions in a horizontal plane as the two flat surfaces came together. A pair of Helmholtz coils was used to generate a uniform magnetic field in the compression gap. The normal forces within the gap were systematically studied for different magnetic field, squeeze velocity, particle concentration, viscosity of carrier fluid and initial gap distance. Two regions of behavior were obtained from the normal force versus gap distance curve: elastic deformation and plastic flow. A power law fitting was appropriate for the relation between the normal force and the gap in the plastic flow. The index of the power law was smaller than that predicted by the continuum theory, possibly due to the squeeze strengthening effect and the sealing effect. (paper)

  10. Magnetic characteristics of ultrafine Fe particles reduced from uniform iron oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, K.; Watts, J.; Tadros, M.; Xiao, Gang; Liou, S. H.; Chien, C. L.

    1987-04-01

    Uniform, cubic 0.05-μm iron oxide particles were formed by forced hydrolysis of ferric perchlorate. These particles were reduced to α-Fe by heating in hydrogen at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C. The effect of reduction temperature and various prereduction treatments on the microstructure of the iron particles will be discussed. Complete reduction to α-Fe was established by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on epoxy and polyurethane films containing these particles with various mass fractions gave coercivities as high as 1000 Oe. The relationship between the magnetic measurements and the microstructure will be discussed. Na2SiO3 is found to be the best coating material for the process of reducing iron oxide particles to iron.

  11. Two-stream instability for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Tazawa, H.

    1992-12-01

    For inertial confinement fusion, a focused light ion beam (LIB) is required to propagate stably through a chamber to a target. We have pointed out that the applied external magnetic field is important for LIB propagation. To investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the LIB propagation, we analysed the electrostatic dispersion relation of magnetized light ion beam-plasma system. The particle in-cell (PIC) simulation results are presented for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field. (author)

  12. On a Neutral Particle with a Magnetic Quadrupole Moment in a Uniform Effective Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum effects on a Landau-type system associated with a moving atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment subject to confining potentials are analysed. It is shown that the spectrum of energy of the Landau-type system can be modified, where the degeneracy of the energy levels can be broken. In three particular cases, it is shown that the analogue of the cyclotron frequency is modified, and the possible values of this angular frequency of the system are determined by the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum and by the parameters associated with confining potentials in order that bound states solutions can be achieved.

  13. Influence of External Magnetic Fields on Tunneling of Spin-1 Bose Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong; Sun Jinzuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the influence of the external magnetic fields on tunneling of the spin-1 Bose condensate. We find that the population transfer between spin-0 and spin-±1 exhibits the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field and a combination of static and cosinusoidal one, respectively. Compared with the longitudinal component of the external magnetic field, the smaller the transverse component of the magnetic field is, the larger the time scale of exhibiting the step structure does. The tunneling current may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior when the ratio of the transverse component of the magnetic field is smaller than that of the longitudinal component, otherwise it exhibits a damply oscillating behavior. This means that the dynamical spin localization can be adjusted by the external magnetic fields.

  14. Unsteady flow of two-phase fluid in circular pipes under applied external magnetic and electrical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedik, Engin; Recebli, Ziyaddin; Kurt, Hueseyin; Kecebas, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The unsteady viscous incompressible and electrically conducting of two-phase fluid flow in circular pipes with external magnetic and electrical field is considered in this present study. Effects of both uniform transverse external magnetic and electrical fields applied perpendicular to the fluid and each other on the two-phase (solid/liquid) unsteady flow is investigated numerically. While iron powders are being used as the first phase of two-phase fluid, pure water was used as the second phase. The system of the derived governing equations, which are based on the Navier-Stokes equations including Maxwell equations, are solved numerically by using Pdex4 function on the Matlab for both phases. The originality of this study is that, in addition to magnetic field, the effect of electrical field on two-phase unsteady fluids is being examined. The magnetic field which is applied on flow decreases the velocity of both phases, whereas the electrical field applied along with magnetic field acted to increase and decrease the velocity values depending on the direction of electrical field. Electrical field alone did not display any impact on two-phase flow. On the other hand, analytical and numerical results are compared and favorable agreements have been obtained. (authors)

  15. Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.

  16. Bremsstrahlung emission coefficient of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangborn, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The leading (electron-ion, dipole) contribution to the bremsstrahlung spectrum of a Maxwellian plasma in a constant, uniform magnetic field is calculated. The plasma is assumed infinite and fully ionized. A simpler, more direct derivation of Kirchoff's Law for anisotropic media is presented. The plasma dispersion relation is then found using previously obtained expressions for the conductivity tensor (accurate to first order in collisional effects). From the dispersion the collisional damping, assumed small, is obtained and by means of Kirchoff's Law an expression for the bremsstrahlung emission coefficient is written. No terms of order (kappa 2 lambda 2 0 ) or higher are included. For wave frequencies large compared with the plasma and electron cyclotron frequencies (ω 2 much greater than ω 2 rho, ω 2 much greater than Ω 3 ) an expansion of the exact result is given accurate to fourth order in Ω/ω and ω rho/ω. The result is found to disagree with previous high frequency expressions. Analysis of the exact expression reveals that for certain frequencies and directions of propagation the emission spectrum exhibits a resonance quality. The results are presented in such fashion that for various magnetic field strengths the frequency of the resonant emission at arbitrary angle relative to the field is easily obtained. These phenomena arise due to the influence of the magnetic fieldon the dielectric properties of the plasma and not because of its effect on the binary collision process. A physical explanation of the results is presented

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma opening switch with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yulan; Zeng Zhengzhong; Sun Fengju

    2003-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study the effects of an external magnetic field on coaxial plasma opening switch (POS). The simulation results show that POS opening performance can be significantly improved only when external longitudinal magnetic field coils are placed at the cathode side, and an additional azimuthal magnetic field is effective whether the central electrode is of positive or negative polarity. Voltage multiplication coefficient K rises with the additional magnetic field increasing till the electron current is completely magnetically insulated during the opening of POS

  18. Experimental results of superconducting magnet behaviour during discharging into the external load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Grega

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic part of every SMES (Superconducting magnetic energy storage system is a superconducting magnet. All eventsof electrical nature which happen during its charging,, bypassing and discharging are transient. The article deals with experimentalresults of the superconducting magnet behaviour, especially during the period of its discharging into the prepared external load.

  19. Nonintegrability of an extensible conducting rod in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Heijden, G H M [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics and its Applications, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Yagasaki, K, E-mail: g.heijden@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: yagasaki@ie.niigata-u.ac.jp [Mathematics Division, Department of Information Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    The equilibrium equations for an isotropic Kirchhoff rod are known to be completely integrable. It is also known that neither the effects of extensibility and shearability, nor the effects of a uniform magnetic field, individually break integrability. Here, we show, by means of a Melnikov-type analysis, that, when combined, these effects do break integrability giving rise to spatially chaotic configurations of the rod. A previous analysis of the problem suffered from the presence of an Euler-angle singularity. Our analysis provides an example of how in a system with such a singularity a Melnikov-type technique can be applied by introducing an artificial unfolding parameter. This technique is applicable to more general problems. (paper)

  20. Behaviour of laser-produced plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shigefumi; Sato, Kohnosuke; Sekiguchi, Tadashi.

    1979-11-01

    A column of a laser-produced plasma is successfully made in a uniform magnetic field. The radius of the column increases and then decreases (bouncing motion). On the surface of this plasma column, where the steep density gradient exists with the scale length shorter than the ion Larmor radius, an azimuthal modulation appears in the plasma luminosity. This is indicative of the flute-like instability with the azimuthal wave number; k sub(perpendicular) -- 4 x 10 3 B sup(0.8) (in the MKSA system of units). The dispersion equation based on the linearized Vlasov equation with the local approximation is derived and the occurrence of the lower-hybrid-drift instability is predicted. A fairly good agreement between the theory and experiments is seen. (author)

  1. Complementary analyses of hollow cylindrical unioriented permanent magnet (HCM) with high permeability external layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Carlos M. S.; Tosin, Giancarlo; Baader, Johann E.; Colnago, Luiz A.

    2017-10-01

    In this article, several studies based on analytical expressions and computational simulations on Hollow Cylindrical Magnets with an external soft ferromagnetic material (HCM magnets) are presented. Electromagnetic configurations, as well as permanent-magnet-based structures, are studied in terms of magnetic field strength and homogeneity. Permanent-magnet-based structures are further analyzed in terms of the anisotropy of the magnetic permeability. It was found that the HCM magnets produce a highly homogeneous magnetic field as long as the magnetic material is isotropic. The dependency of the magnetic field strength and homogeneity in terms of the anisotropy of the magnetic permeability is also explored here. These magnets can potentially be used in medium-resolution NMR spectrometers and high-field NMR spectrometers.

  2. Complementary analyses of hollow cylindrical unioriented permanent magnet (HCM) with high permeability external layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Carlos M S; Tosin, Giancarlo; Baader, Johann E; Colnago, Luiz A

    2017-10-01

    In this article, several studies based on analytical expressions and computational simulations on Hollow Cylindrical Magnets with an external soft ferromagnetic material (HCM magnets) are presented. Electromagnetic configurations, as well as permanent-magnet-based structures, are studied in terms of magnetic field strength and homogeneity. Permanent-magnet-based structures are further analyzed in terms of the anisotropy of the magnetic permeability. It was found that the HCM magnets produce a highly homogeneous magnetic field as long as the magnetic material is isotropic. The dependency of the magnetic field strength and homogeneity in terms of the anisotropy of the magnetic permeability is also explored here. These magnets can potentially be used in medium-resolution NMR spectrometers and high-field NMR spectrometers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuman Singh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3 multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  4. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bose, A.; Bhuktare, S.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3) multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  5. Change of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloys under influence of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Jozef; Holková, Dominika; Dekan, Julius; Novák, Patrik

    2016-10-01

    Nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni1)81Nb7B12 alloys were irradiated using different types of radiation and subsequently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. External magnetic field of 0.5 T, electron-beam irradiation up to 4 MGy, neutron irradiation up to 1017 neutrons/cm2 and irradiation with Cu ions were applied on the samples. All types of external factors had an influence on the magnetic microstructure manifested as a change in the direction of the net magnetic moment, intensity of the internal magnetic field and volumetric fraction of the constituent phases. The direction of the net magnetic moment was the most sensitive parameter. Changes of the microscopic magnetic parameters were compared after different external influence and results of nanocrystalline samples were compared with their amorphous precursors.

  6. Hubbard pair cluster in the external fields. Studies of the magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.

    2018-06-01

    The magnetic properties of the two-site Hubbard cluster (dimer or pair), embedded in the external electric and magnetic fields and treated as the open system, are studied by means of the exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The formalism of the grand canonical ensemble is adopted. The phase diagrams, on-site magnetizations, spin-spin correlations, mean occupation numbers and hopping energy are investigated and illustrated in figures. An influence of temperature, mean electron concentration, Coulomb U parameter and external fields on the quantities of interest is presented and discussed. In particular, the anomalous behaviour of the magnetization and correlation function vs. temperature near the critical magnetic field is found. Also, the effect of magnetization switching by the external fields is demonstrated.

  7. Topology optimized and 3D printed polymer-bonded permanent magnets for a predefined external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Pfaff, C.; Kriwet, J.; Groenefeld, M.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Suess, D.

    2017-08-01

    Topology optimization offers great opportunities to design permanent magnetic systems that have specific external field characteristics. Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets with an end-user 3D printer can be used to manufacture permanent magnets with structures that had been difficult or impossible to manufacture previously. This work combines these two powerful methods to design and manufacture permanent magnetic systems with specific properties. The topology optimization framework is simple, fast, and accurate. It can also be used for the reverse engineering of permanent magnets in order to find the topology from field measurements. Furthermore, a magnetic system that generates a linear external field above the magnet is presented. With a volume constraint, the amount of magnetic material can be minimized without losing performance. Simulations and measurements of the printed systems show very good agreement.

  8. Alteration of the ground state by external magnetic fields. [External field, coupling constant ratio, static tree level approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, B J; Shepard, H K [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-03-22

    By fully exploiting the mathematical and physical analogy to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, a complete discussion of the ground state behavior of the four-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the static tree level approximation is presented. It is shown that a sufficiently strong external magnetic field can alter the ground state of the theory by restoring a spontaneously broken symmetry, or by creating a qualitatively different 'vortex' state. The energetically favored ground state is explicitly determined as a function of the external field and the ratio between coupling constants of the theory.

  9. Constants of motion for the planar orbit of a charged particle in a static and uniform magnetic field: the magnetic Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Martínez, D; Kunold, A; Cardoso, J L; Ibarra-Sierra, V G; Sandoval-Santana, J C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the motion of a planar charged particle subject to a static uniform magnetic field. It is well known that an electric charge under a uniform magnetic field has a planar motion if its initial velocity is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Although some constants of motion (CsM), as the energy and the angular momentum, have been widely discussed for this system, others have been neglected. We find that the angular momentum, the generator of the magnetic translations and the magnetic Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector are CsM for this particular system. We show also that these three quantities form an orthogonal basis of vectors. The present work addresses many aspects of the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field that should be useful for students and tutors of the classical mechanics courses at the senior undergraduate level. (paper)

  10. Effect of an external magnetic field on particle acceleration by a rotating black hole surrounded with quintessential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaymatov, Sanjar; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    We investigate particle motion and collisions in the vicinity of rotating black holes immersed in combined cosmological quintessential scalar field and external magnetic field. The quintessential dark-energy field governing the spacetime structure is characterized by the quintessential state parameter ωq ∈ (‑1; ‑1/3) characterizing its equation of state, and the quintessential field-intensity parameter c determining the static radius where the black hole attraction is just balanced by the quintessential repulsion. The magnetic field is assumed to be test field that is uniform close to the static radius, where the spacetime is nearly flat, being characterized by strength B there. Deformations of the test magnetic field in vicinity of the black hole, caused by the Ricci non-flat spacetime structure are determined. General expression of the center-of-mass energy of the colliding charged or uncharged particles near the black hole is given and discussed in several special cases. In the case of nonrotating black holes, we discuss collisions of two particles freely falling from vicinity of the static radius, or one such a particle colliding with charged particle revolving at the innermost stable circular orbit. In the case of rotating black holes, we discuss briefly particles falling in the equatorial plane and colliding in close vicinity of the black hole horizon, concentrating attention to the interplay of the effects of the quintessential field and the external magnetic field. We demonstrate that the ultra-high center-of-mass energy can be obtained for black holes placed in an external magnetic field for an infinitesimally small quintessential field-intensity parameter c; the center-of-mass energy decreases if the quintessential field-intensity parameter c increases.

  11. Zeeman ratchets: pure spin current generation in mesoscopic conductors with non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, Matthias; Bercioux, Dario; Richter, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    We consider the possibility to employ a quantum wire realized in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) as a spin ratchet. We show that a net spin current without accompanying net charge transport can be induced in the nonlinear regime by an unbiased external driving via an ac voltage applied between the contacts at the ends of the quantum wire. To achieve this, we make use of the coupling of the electron spin to inhomogeneous magnetic fields created by ferromagnetic stripes patterned on the semiconductor heterostructure that harbors the 2DEG. Using recursive Green function techniques, we numerically study two different set-ups, consisting of one and two ferromagnetic stripes, respectively

  12. Non-uniform current distribution in a force-cooled superconductor under changing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo

    2000-02-01

    Strands in a large current force-cooled superconductor, referred to a CICC (cable-in-conduit conductor) hereafter, are coated with formvar (insulated layer) or chrome plating (high resistive layer) to reduce coupling current loss due to magnetic field variation. The author first carried out an experiment of the large superconducting coil consisting of such CICCs for demonstration of their applicability to a large superconducting coil. These CICCs exhibited instability, i.e. the normal zone propagation with thermal runaway (quench), at 1/20 and 1/5 of the expected conductor critical currents, respectively. The author constructed the database of this instability and studies its reason through experimental and theoretical investigations and then finds such instability is caused as a result of non-uniform current distribution in the conductor. Joule heating loss at electrical connections at the ends of the conductor should be small. Therefore, the strands in the CICC are electrically connected from each other with low resistance there. Circulation current is induced in the loop composed of the strands electrically connected at the ends of the conductor if its leakage magnetic flux is not completely vanished. The non-uniform current distribution is caused as a result of superimposition of the circulation and transport currents. The strand carrying large current becomes the normal state when it reaches or approaches to its critical current. Thus, the strands are twisted in order to vanish the leakage magnetic flux. The instability due to the current imbalance was not observed in the middle-scale coil (an element coil, such as a single double-pancake, of a large superconducting coil) consisting of the conductor in which the formvar-coated strands were twisted as above-mentioned. Consequently, it was believed that the leakage magnetic flux could be vanished by the normal twisting. However, the magnetic field increases in a large coil as a result of piling element coils

  13. Exact analytic expressions for the evolution of polarization for radiation propagating in a plasma with non uniformly sheared magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    The known analytic expressions for the evolution of the polarization of electromagnetic waves propagating in a plasma with uniformly sheared magnetic field are extended to the case where the shear is not constant. Exact analytic expressions are found for the case when the space variations of the medium are such that the magnetic field components and the plasma density satisfy a particular condition (eq. 13), possibly in a convenient reference frame of polarization space [it

  14. Perturbation theory for the bloch electrons on strongly coupled chains in both uniform electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.G.; Chen, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the energy spectrum and the wave functions for a tight-binding Bloch electron on coupled chains under the action of both uniform electric and magnetic fields are studied in detail. Exact results are obtained for the case when the coupling between chains is large by using the perturbation theory, from which it is found that the spectrum is that of two interspaced Stark ladders. The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum is also discussed

  15. Deflection analysis for an SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet with two external supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    SSC dipole magnets are presently supported at five mounting locations coincident with the internal cold mass supports. There is growing interest in reducing the number of external supports from five to two for reasons of simplified installation and alignment and as a cost reduction measure. This reports examines the placement of two external supports required to minimize the deflection of the cold mass assembly

  16. Distribution of local magnetic field of vortex lattice near anisotropic superconductor surface in inclined external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremova, S.A.; Tsarevskij, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic field distribution in a unit cell of the Abrikosov vortex lattice near the surface of monoaxial anisotropic type-ii superconductors in inclined external magnetic field has been found in the framework of London model for the cases when the symmetry axis is perpendicular and parallel to the superconductor surface interface. Distribution of local magnetic field as a function of the distance from the superconductor interface surface and external field inclination angle has been obtained. Using high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O by way of examples, it has been shown that the study of local magnetic field distribution function, depending on external magnetic field inclination angle towards the superconductor symmetry axis and towards the superconductor surface, can provide important data on anisotropic properties of the superconductor [ru

  17. The Interaction of Magnetizations with an External Electromagnetic Field and a Time-Dependent Magnetic Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of the magnetization distribution inside the sample affects its interaction with the external electromagnetic field. The strong selectivity to the time dependence of the external electromagnetic field arises for the particular magnetizations. This can be used for the storage and ciphering of information. We propose a time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm-like experiment in which the phase of the wave function is changed by the time-dependent vector magnetic potential. The arising time-dependent interference picture may be viewed as a new channel for the information transfer. 15 refs., 4 figs

  18. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation when the external power supply is connected to the main electricity supply and the output is (or “all outputs are” for a multiple-voltage external power supply) connected to a load (or “loads” for a... any mechanical, optical, or electronic switches that automatically disconnect mains power from the...

  19. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  20. Exploration of a possible cause of magnetic reconfiguration/reconnection due to generation, rather than annihilation, of magnetic field in a nun-uniform thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. C.; Lyu, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconfiguration/reconnection plays an important role on energy and plasma transport in the space plasma. It is known that magnetic field lines on two sides of a tangential discontinuity can connect to each other only at a neutral point, where the strength of the magnetic field is equal to zero. Thus, the standard reconnection picture with magnetic field lines intersecting at the neutral point is not applicable to the component reconnection events observed at the magnetopause and in the solar corona. In our early study (Yu, Lyu, & Wu, 2011), we have shown that annihilation of magnetic field near a thin current sheet can lead to the formation of normal magnetic field component (normal to the current sheet) to break the frozen-in condition and to accelerate the reconnected plasma flux, even without the presence of a neutral point. In this study, we examine whether or not a generation, rather than annihilation, of magnetic field in a nun-uniform thin current sheet can also lead to reconnection of plasma flux. Our results indicate that a non-uniform enhancement of electric current can yield formation of field-aligned currents. The normal-component magnetic field generated by the field-aligned currents can yield reconnection of plasma flux just outside the current-enhancement region. The particle motion that can lead to non-uniform enhancement of electric currents will be discussed.

  1. Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field Under the Symmetric Gauge: The Eigenfunctions and the Time Evolution of Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, P. E.; Nazareno, H. N.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use…

  2. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T.; de Posada, E.; Villagrán, M.; Ll, J. L. Sánchez; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Peña, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe 12O 19 target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of μ0H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  3. Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)

  4. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, C.P. 09790, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: tupacgarcia@yahoo.com; Posada, E. de [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Villagran, M. [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ll, J.L. Sanchez [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Bartolo-Perez, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of {mu}{sub 0}H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  5. Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degmová, J.; Sitek, J.

    2010-07-01

    Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Mössbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Mössbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A23 parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A23 parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A23 parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A23 parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.

  6. Fully developed liquid-metal flow in multiple rectangular ducts in a strong uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokov, S.

    1993-01-01

    Fully developed liquid-metal flow in a straight rectangular duct with thin conducting walls is investigated. The duct is divided into a number of rectangular channels by electrically conducting dividing walls. A strong uniform magnetic field is applied parallel to the outer side walls and dividing walls and perpendicular to the top and the bottom walls. The analysis of the flow is performed by means of matched asymptotics at large values of the Hartmann number M. The asymptotic solution obtained is valid for arbitrary wall conductance ratio of the side walls and dividing walls, provided the top and bottom walls are much better conductors than the Hartmann layers. The influence of the Hartmann number, wall conductance ratio, number of channels and duct geometry on pressure losses and flow distribution is investigated. If the Hartmann number is high, the volume flux is carried by the core, occupying the bulk of the fluid and by thin layers with thickness of order M -1/2 . In some of the layers, however, the flow is reversed. As the number of channels increases the flow in the channels close to the centre approaches a Hartmann-type flow with no jets at the side walls. Estimation of pressure-drop increase in radial ducts of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket with respect to flow in a single duct with walls of the same wall conductance ratio gives an upper limit of 30%. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. Foucault imaging and small-angle electron diffraction in controlled external magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kotani, Atsuhiro; Harada, Ken; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) and Nd 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 , in order to visualize magnetic domains and their magnetic responses to external magnetic fields. In rhombohedral-structured LSMO, pinning of magnetic domain walls at crystallographic twin boundaries was found to have a strong influence on the generation of new magnetic domains in external applied magnetic fields. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Influence of AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of HTS bulk over a NdFeB guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longcai; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; He Qingyong

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system requires that the surface magnetic field of the guideway is uniform along the forward direction. But in practice the surface magnetic field of the NdFeB permanent magnet guideway is not always immutable. So the HTS bulks in this case are exposed to AC external magnetic field, which may induce the energy loss in the bulk and influence the guidance force between the HTS bulks and the NdFeB guideway. In this paper, we experimentally studied the influence of the AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of a HTS bulk over the NdFeB guideway. The experimental results showed that the guidance force was influenced by the application of the AC external magnetic. The guidance fore hysteresis became more evident with the amplitude of the AC field and was independent of the frequency in the range 90-400 Hz. We attributed the reason to magnetic hysteresis loss in the superconductor

  9. Influence of AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of HTS bulk over a NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)]. E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system requires that the surface magnetic field of the guideway is uniform along the forward direction. But in practice the surface magnetic field of the NdFeB permanent magnet guideway is not always immutable. So the HTS bulks in this case are exposed to AC external magnetic field, which may induce the energy loss in the bulk and influence the guidance force between the HTS bulks and the NdFeB guideway. In this paper, we experimentally studied the influence of the AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of a HTS bulk over the NdFeB guideway. The experimental results showed that the guidance force was influenced by the application of the AC external magnetic. The guidance fore hysteresis became more evident with the amplitude of the AC field and was independent of the frequency in the range 90-400 Hz. We attributed the reason to magnetic hysteresis loss in the superconductor.

  10. Numerical analysis on the absorption, reflection and transmission of radar waves by a uniform magnetized plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Deli; Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    The absorption, reflection, and transmission of radar waves by a uniform and magnetized plasma slab are studied. The effect of various plasma parameters and different values of magnetic field intensity on the absorbed, reflected and transmitted power are discussed. The calculated results show that the effects of magnetic field on the absorbed power as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant. More than 90% of radar wave power can be absorbed and the resonant absorption band is about 2G Hz

  11. Liquid-metal flow through a thin-walled elbow in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents analytical solutions for the liquid-metal flow through two straight pipes connected by a smooth elbow with the same inside radius. The pipes and the elbow lie in a plane which is perpendicular to a uniform, applied magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is assumed to be sufficiently strong that inertial and viscous effects are negligible. This assumption is appropriate for the liquid-lithium flow in the blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor, such as a tokamak. The pipes and the elbow have thin metal walls

  12. The effect of external magnetic field changing on the correlated quantum dot dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The non-stationary response of local magnetic moment to abrupt switching "on" and "off" of external magnetic field was studied for a single-level quantum dot (QD) coupled to a reservoir. We found that transient processes look different for the shallow and deep localized energy level. It was demonstrated that for deep energy level the relaxation rates of the local magnetic moment strongly differ in the case of magnetic field switching "on" or "off". Obtained results can be applied in the area of dynamic memory devices stabilization in the presence of magnetic field.

  13. Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔帅帅; 彭光雄; 陆振烟; 彭程; 徐建峰

    2015-01-01

    The properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field are investigated in a quark model with density-dependent quark masses. Parameters are determined by stability arguments. It is found that the minimum energy per baryon of the color-flavor locked (MCFL) matter decreases with increasing magnetic-field strength in a certain range, which makes MCFL matter more stable than other phases within a proper magnitude of the external magnetic field. However, if the energy of the field itself is added, the total energy per baryon will increase.

  14. External magnetic field induced anomalies of spin nuclear dynamics in thin antiferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that if the thickness of homogeneously magnetized plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic within H external magnetic field becomes lower the critical one, then the effect of dynamic magnetoelastic interaction on Soul-Nakamura exchange of nuclear spins results in formation of qualitatively new types of spreading nuclear spin waves no else compared neither within the model of unrestricted magnetic nor at H = 0 in case of thin plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic. 10 refs

  15. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2016-01-01

    to a full solar cycle. Our analysis focuses on geomagnetically quiet days and middle to low latitudes. We use the climatological eigenanalysis technique called empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), which allows us to identify discrete spatiotemporal patterns with no a priori specification of their geometry...... mean external field distribution. Separate patterns of semiannual and solar-cycle-length periods appear to stem from the amplitude modulations of spatially fixed background fields....

  16. Spectrometer for external detection of magnetic and related double resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagalyn, P.L.; Alexander, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The patent relates to an improvement in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer apparatus. It consists of a spectrometer which utilizes separate materials containing, respectively, sample and detector spin systems as opposed to one in which the sample and detector spins are contained in the same single material

  17. Research on the effect of the external magnetic field in the joule balance at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang; Li, Zhengkun; Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; He, Qing

    2018-06-01

    The first determination of the Planck constant with the second generation of the joule balance, NIM-2, was completed in 2017 with an uncertainty of 2.4  ×  10‑7. Due to the movement of the magnet during the measurement process, the effect of the external field is a critical problem in NIM-2. At present, the electromagnet system is used in NIM-2. By taking the average of the results with positive and negative exciting currents, the uncertainty from the external field is reduced to 1.7  ×  10‑7, which is still the largest source in the uncertainty budget as all the other items are less than 1  ×  10‑7. In the near future, a permanent magnet system will be applied in NIM-2 and the main field cannot be reversed. Although the coupling of the external magnetic field in the permanent magnet system is about 40 times less than that in the electromagnet system, further reduction of this effect is still required in the permanent magnet system. In this paper, the effect of the external field is analyzed in both an electromagnet system and a permanent magnet system based on simulations and experiments. Then, the methods of magnetic shielding and compensation coils are proposed and simulated in the permanent magnet system. The results show that it may be possible to reduce the uncertainty of the external field to less than 2  ×  10‑8 in the permanent magnet system by employing the two methods.

  18. Mathematical model of voltage-current characteristics of Bi(2223)/Ag magnets under an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Pitel, J; Lehtonen, J; Kovács, P

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model, which enables us to predict the voltage-current V(I) characteristics of a solenoidal high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet subjected to an external magnetic field parallel to the magnet axis. The model takes into account the anisotropy in the critical current-magnetic field (I sub c (B)) characteristic and the n-value of Bi(2223)Ag multifilamentary tape at 20 K. From the power law between the electric field and the ratio of the operating and critical currents, the voltage on the magnet terminals is calculated by integrating the contributions of individual turns. The critical current of each turn, at given values of operating current and external magnetic field, is obtained by simple linear interpolation between the two suitable points of the I sub c (B) characteristic, which corresponds to the angle alpha between the vector of the resulting magnetic flux density and the broad tape face. In fact, the model is valid for any value and orientation of external magneti...

  19. Formation of a uniform ion beam using octupole magnets for BioLEIR facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, T.; Barlow, R.; Ghithan, S.; Roy, G.; Schuh, S.

    2018-04-01

    The possibility to transform the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator at CERN into a multidisciplinary, biomedical research facility (BioLEIR) was investigated based on a request from the biomedical community. BioLEIR aims to provide a unique facility with a range of fully stripped ion beams (e.g. He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O) and energies suitable for multidisciplinary biomedical, clinically-oriented research. Two horizontal and one vertical beam transport lines have been designed for transporting the extracted beam from LEIR to three experimental end-stations. The vertical beamline was designed for a maximum energy of 75 MeV/u, while the two horizontal beamlines shall deliver up to a maximum energy of 440 MeV/u. A pencil beam of 4.3 mm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) as well as a homogeneous broad beam of 40 × 40 mm2, with a beam homogeneity better than ±4%, are available at the first horizontal (H1) irradiation point, while only a pencil beam is available at the second horizontal (H2) and vertical (V) irradiation points. The H1 irradiation point shall be used to conduct systematic studies of the radiation effect from different ion species on cell-lines. The H1 beamline was designed to utilize two octupole magnets which transform the Gaussian beam distribution at the target location into an approximately uniformly distributed rectangular beam. In this paper, we report on the multi-particle tracking calculations performed using MAD-X software suite for the H1 beam optics to arrive at a homogeneous broad beam on target using nonlinear focusing techniques, and on those to create a Gaussian pencil beam on target by adjusting quadrupoles strengths and positions.

  20. Local sparsity enhanced compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging in uniform discrete curvelet domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bingxin; Yuan, Min; Ma, Yide; Zhang, Jiuwen; Zhan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Compressed sensing(CS) has been well applied to speed up imaging by exploring image sparsity over predefined basis functions or learnt dictionary. Firstly, the sparse representation is generally obtained in a single transform domain by using wavelet-like methods, which cannot produce optimal sparsity considering sparsity, data adaptivity and computational complexity. Secondly, most state-of-the-art reconstruction models seldom consider composite regularization upon the various structural features of images and transform coefficients sub-bands. Therefore, these two points lead to high sampling rates for reconstructing high-quality images. In this paper, an efficient composite sparsity structure is proposed. It learns adaptive dictionary from lowpass uniform discrete curvelet transform sub-band coefficients patches. Consistent with the sparsity structure, a novel composite regularization reconstruction model is developed to improve reconstruction results from highly undersampled k-space data. It is established via minimizing spatial image and lowpass sub-band coefficients total variation regularization, transform sub-bands coefficients l 1 sparse regularization and constraining k-space measurements fidelity. A new augmented Lagrangian method is then introduced to optimize the reconstruction model. It updates representation coefficients of lowpass sub-band coefficients over dictionary, transform sub-bands coefficients and k-space measurements upon the ideas of constrained split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm. Experimental results on in vivo data show that the proposed method obtains high-quality reconstructed images. The reconstructed images exhibit the least aliasing artifacts and reconstruction error among current CS MRI methods. The proposed sparsity structure can fit and provide hierarchical sparsity for magnetic resonance images simultaneously, bridging the gap between predefined sparse representation methods and explicit dictionary. The new augmented

  1. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)

  2. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  3. Hydrodynamic characteristics of steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2002-01-01

    We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data

  4. Using external magnet guidance and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastro-enteral anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christopher; Yellen, Benjamin; Evans, John; DeMaria, Eric; Pryor, Aurora

    2010-05-01

    To facilitate endolumenal and natural orifice procedures, this study evaluated a novel technique using external and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastroenteral anastomoses. Seven anesthetized adult swine underwent endoscopic placement of magnets into the small bowel and stomach. Using external magnets, the endoscopically placed internal magnets were brought into opposition under endoscopic view. After 1-2 weeks, the pigs were killed and analyzed. At laparotomy and under sterile conditions, peritoneal cultures were obtained. The anastomoses were evaluated endoscopically and tested using an air insufflation test. Finally, the anastomoses were resected and evaluated microscopically. The average operative time for endoscopic placement of the magnets was 34.3 +/- 14.8 min. Successful placement and creation of anastomoses occurred in six of the pigs. One pig did not form an anastomosis because the magnets were too large to pass through the pylorus at the time of attempted magnet placement. Six swine experienced uncomplicated postoperative courses. One pig's postoperative course involved constipation for several days, requiring additional fluids and fiber supplementation. The findings at endoscopy showed that the magnets were adhered to the anastomosis, which were easily freed, or within the stomach. The air insufflation test results were negative for all the pigs. At laparotomy, there was no evidence of infection, abscess, or leak, but two peritoneal culture results were positive with scant growth of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus, presumably contaminants. Microscopically, the anastomoses illustrated granulation and fibrous connective tissue without evidence of infection or leak. Endoscopically placed magnets with external magnet guidance is a feasible and novel approach to creating patent gastroenteral anastomoses without abdominal incisions or sutures.

  5. Gauge invariance of a particle in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.

    1978-12-01

    In the accepted theory of a nonrelativistic particle in an external field, as well as in the Dirac equation, the canonical momentum p plays a strangely elusive role: contrary to the position q, it has no physical interpretation, yet it is a member of the algebra of observables; nor does it have a well-defined meaning as a translation generator. This paper proposes an observation procedure for p which entails a definite choice for the vector potential A: the radiation gauge divergence of A=0. The canonical momentum, so defined operationally, is shown to be the image of the generator of space translations, in the sense of presymmetry, as the position q is the image of the generator of Galilei boosts in nonrelativistic theories

  6. The Effect of External Magnetic Field on Dielectric Permeability of Multiphase Ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, O. A.; Pavlova, A. A.; Dotsenko, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, ferrofluids are applied in various fields of science and technology, namely space, medicine, geology, biology, automobile production, etc. In order to investigate the feasibility of applying ferrofluids in magnetic field sensors, the paper presents research into the influence of the external magnetic field on dielectric permeability of ferrofluids comprising magnetite nanopowder, multiwall carbon nanotubes, propanetriol and deionized water. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permeability change respectively by 3.7 and 0.5% when applying the magnetic field parallel to the electric. The findings suggest that the considered ferrofluid can be used as a magnetic level gauge or in design of variable capacitors.

  7. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed

  8. κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Y.; Dhahbi, A.; Cherif, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. We demonstrate how the deformation parameter affects the energy eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our findings suggest that this system could be used to detect experimentally the effect of the deformation. We also show that the hidden supersymmetry of the non-deformed system reduces to a hidden pseudo-supersymmetry having the same algebraic structure as a result of the κ-deformation.

  9. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hua, M.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Chen Jyhping [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Wei, K.-C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jung, S.-M. [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-J. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jou, M.-J. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ma, Y.-H. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP.

  10. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tony; Hua, M.-Y.; Chen Jyhping; Wei, K.-C.; Jung, S.-M.; Chang, Y.-J.; Jou, M.-J.; Ma, Y.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe 3 O 4 NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP

  11. Effect of variable viscosity on laminar convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid in uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid on a continuous moving flat plate in presence of uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. The flat plate which is continuously moving in its own plane with a constant speed is considered to be isothermally heated. Assuming the fluid viscosity as an inverse linear function of temperature, the nature of fluid velocity and temperature in presence of uniform magnetic field are shown for changing viscosity parameter at different layers of the medium. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting method. The coefficient of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are calculated at different viscosity parameter and Prandt l number. .

  12. On the Pressure of a Neutron Gas Interacting with the Non-Uniform Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of simple arguments, practically not going beyond the scope of an undergraduate course in general physics, we estimate the additional pressure (at zero temperature) of degenerate neutron matter due to its interaction with the non-uniform magnetic field of a neutron star. This work has methodological and possibly scientific value as an intuitive application of the content of such a course to a solution of topical problems of astrophysics.

  13. COLLAPSE AND FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES WITH THE ENZO AMR MHD CODE. I. UNIFORM DENSITY SPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important contributors to the dynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and can have a major effect on whether collapse results in a single protostar or fragmentation into a binary or multiple protostar system. New models are presented of the collapse of magnetic cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.0. The code was used to calculate the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of initially spherical, uniform density, and rotation clouds with density perturbations, i.e., the Boss and Bodenheimer standard isothermal test case for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics codes. After first verifying that Enzo reproduces the binary fragmentation expected for the non-magnetic test case, a large set of models was computed with varied initial magnetic field strengths and directions with respect to the cloud core axis of rotation (parallel or perpendicular), density perturbation amplitudes, and equations of state. Three significantly different outcomes resulted: (1) contraction without sustained collapse, forming a denser cloud core; (2) collapse to form a single protostar with significant spiral arms; and (3) collapse and fragmentation into binary or multiple protostar systems, with multiple spiral arms. Comparisons are also made with previous MHD calculations of similar clouds with a barotropic equations of state. These results for the collapse of initially uniform density spheres illustrate the central importance of both magnetic field direction and field strength for determining the outcome of dynamic protostellar collapse.

  14. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  15. External influence on magnetic properties of Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Jozef [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: jozef.sitek@stuba.sk; Degmova, Jarmila [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Sedlackova, Katarina [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Butvin, Pavol [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline ribbons of NANOPERM, FINEMET and HITPERM were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) after the influence of external factors: different annealing atmospheres, tensile stress and several kinds of corrosion. MS is a suitable tool for such studies because the spectral parameters are very sensitive to changes in the vicinity of the probe -{sup 57}Fe nuclei. The most sensitive parameters were hyperfine magnetic field in crystalline component, average hyperfine field in amorphous component and direction of net magnetic moments. Influence of external factors modified also the structure of the alloys, i.e. new or modified phases were identified by MS phase analysis.

  16. External influence on magnetic properties of Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, Jozef; Degmova, Jarmila; Sedlackova, Katarina; Butvin, Pavol

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline ribbons of NANOPERM, FINEMET and HITPERM were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) after the influence of external factors: different annealing atmospheres, tensile stress and several kinds of corrosion. MS is a suitable tool for such studies because the spectral parameters are very sensitive to changes in the vicinity of the probe - 57 Fe nuclei. The most sensitive parameters were hyperfine magnetic field in crystalline component, average hyperfine field in amorphous component and direction of net magnetic moments. Influence of external factors modified also the structure of the alloys, i.e. new or modified phases were identified by MS phase analysis

  17. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2 exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field, respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-±1 and spin-±2. The tunneling current among spin-±1 and spin-±2 may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2, the tunneling currents exhibit irregular oscillation behavior

  18. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...

  19. Theoretical study and construction of a multichannel {beta} spectrometer with uniform magnetic field; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} multivoies a champ magnetique uniforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schussler, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    After a brief survey of the interest of a multichannel beta spectrometer for studying decay schemes of short lived nuclides (30 seconds minimum, the theoretically well known characteristics of uniform magnetic field analyser (image of a large source, transmission and resolution) are briefly remembered. In the second part, the apparatus built as a result of these calculations is described. This apparatus allows the determination of beta spectra by simultaneous determination of the beta spectra in coincidence with four gamma rays predetermined in the gamma spectrum of the studied nuclide. Finally, in the last part, the experimental characteristics of the spectrometer (calibration in energy and transmission) and the first measurement of beta spectra ({sup 155}Sm) and of coincidences ({sup 24}Na), are given. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement souligne l'interet pratique que presente un spectrometre multivoies pour l'etude des schemas de desintegration des corps radioactifs de courtes periodes (30 secondes au maximum), l'auteur effectue un rappel des caracteristiques theoriques bien connues d'un analyseur magnetique a champ uniforme (image d'une source etendue) calcul de la transmission et du pouvoir de resolution. Une deuxieme partie est consacree a la description de l'appareil realise d'apres ces calculs. Cet appareil permet le releve des spectres beta par detection, simultanee de dix groupes d'electrons d'energies differentes; il permet egalement le releve simultane des spectres beta en coincidence avec quatre rayonnements gammas preselectionnes a l'avance dans le spectre gamma du corps etudie. Dans une derniere partie enfin, sont donnees les caracteristiques experimentales du spectrometre (etalonnage en energie et en transmission) ainsi que les premiers resultats des etudes de spectre beta ({sup 155}Sm) et de coincidence ({sup 24}Na). (auteur)

  20. Critical current degradation in superconducting niobium-titanium alloys in external magnetic fields under loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.S.; Lazareva, M.B.; Starodubov, Ya.D.; Chernyj, O.V.; Gorbatenko, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic fields on the stress at which the critical current starts to degrade (the degradation threshold σ 0 e ) under mechanical loads in superconducting Nb-Ti alloys is studied and a possible mechanism of realization of the effect observed is proposed.It is assumed that additional stresses on the transformation dislocation from the external magnetic fields are beneficial for the growth of martensite inclusions whose superconducting parameters (critical current density j k and critical temperature T k ) are lower then those in the initial material.The degradation threshold is studied experimentally in external magnetic fields H up to 7 T.The linear dependence σ 0 e (H) is observed.It is shown that external magnetic fields play an important role in the critical current degradation at the starting stages of deformation.This fact supports the assumption that the degradation of superconducting parameters under loading are due to the phenomenon of superelasticity,i.e. a reversible load-induced change in the martensite inclusions sizes rather than the reversible mechanical twinning.The results obtained are thought to be important to estimating superconducting solenoid stability in a wide range of magnetic fields

  1. A shear-mode magnetoelectric heterostructure for harvesting external magnetic field energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Lu, Yueran; Yang, Aichao; Qu, Chiwen; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a magnetoelectric (ME) energy harvester is presented for scavenging external magnetic field energy. The proposed heterostructure consists of a Terfenol-D plate, a piezoelectric PZT5H plate, a NdFeB magnet, and two concentrators. The external magnetic field is concentrated to the Terfenol-D plate and the PZT5H plate working in shear-mode, which can potentially increase the magnetoelectric response. Experiments have been performed to verify the feasibility of the harvester. Under the magnetic field of 0.6 Oe, the device produces a RMS voltage of 0.53 V at the resonant frequency of 32.6 kHz. The corresponding output power reaches 44.96 μW across a 3.1 kΩ matching resistor.

  2. Phase structure of Gross-Neveu model with compactification in the presence of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhokhov, R.N.; Kolmakov, P. B.; Zhukovsky, V.Ch.; Klimenko, K.G.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper there have been studied Gross-Neveu model in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with one compactified dimension in presence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. Magnetic field is directed along the uncompactified dimension that is along the axis of the cylinder on which the system lives. Chiral symmetry breaking and corresponding phase structure of the model is investigated in the leading order of (1/N) expansion

  3. Fabrication of Co thin films using pulsed laser deposition method with or without employing external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: Ehsani@semnan.ac.ir [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabad, M. Jalali [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. Two specimens of Co films with different condition (with and without external magnetic field) were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition method. Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. During the deposition processes, the external applied magnetic field had been provided by a permanent magnet. The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field during deposition were performed. Comparison between experimental data and output data of the simulation show promising accommodation and approve the existence of a strong correlation between the structural and magnetic properties of the specimens, and deposition rate of Co thin films. - Graphical abstract: Simulation results of the cobalt particles tracing sputtered from the source to substrate with an external magnetic field. Convergence of the particles flux (left) and also the spiral motion of the cobalt particles (right) increase dramatically as they approach the substrate and NdFe35 magnet. - Highlights: • The external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. • Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. • The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. • To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field

  4. Roles of effective helical ripple rates in nonlinear stability of externally induced magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.

  5. Effects of Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics and External Magnetic Field on Holographic Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, A.; Abdollahzadeh, Z.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effects of an external magnetic field as well as exponential nonlinear electrodynamics on the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors. Our strategy for this study is the matching method, which is based on the match of the solutions near the horizon and on the boundary at some intermediate point. When the magnetic field is turned off, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator and show that the critical exponent is still 1/2, which is the universal value in the mean field theory. Then, we turn on the magnetic field and obtain the critical magnetic field, B c , in order to study its behavior in terms of the temperature. Interestingly enough, we find that in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics, the critical temperature decreases, while the critical magnetic field increases compared to the Maxwell case. We also observe that the critical magnetic field increases with increasing the nonlinear parameter b.

  6. Coupled electron/photon transport in static external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Vandevender, W.H.

    A model is presented which describes coupled electron/photon transport in the presence of static magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. The method combines state-of-the-art condensed-history electron collisional Monte Carlo and single-scattering photon Monte Carlo, including electron energy-loss straggling and the production and transport of all generations of secondaries, with numerical field integration via the best available variable-step-size Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg or variable-order/variable-step-size Adams PECE differential equation solvers. A three-dimensional cartesian system is employed in the description of particle trajectories. Although the present model is limited to multilayer material configurations, extension to more complex material geometries should not be difficult. Among the more important options are (1) a feature which permits the neglect of field effects in regions where transport is collision dominated and (2) a method for describing the transport in variable-density media where electron energies and material densities are sufficiently low that the density effect on electronic stopping powers may be neglected. (U.S.)

  7. Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1958-07-01

    The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.

  8. [Synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with porphyrin-dextran magnetic nanoparticles on the human bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dao-sheng; Mi, Qi-wu; Meng, Xiang-jun; Gao, Yong; Dai, Yu-ping; Deng, Chun-hua

    2012-08-18

    To study the synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with the photodynamic action of porphyrin-dextran iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (PDMN) on human bladder cancer cells in vitro. The PDMN were produced by using the chemical co-precipitation and redox process and the physicochemical properties were characterized. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of photodynamic therapy of PDMN combined with external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) on killing human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells respectively. The diameters of PDMN were 10-15 nm and the saturation magnetization was 0.20 emu/g. Effective diameter of PDMN was 94.8 nm. PDMN could remarkably inhibit the proliferation and induce the obvious apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis were (17.61±2.73)% and (24.53±5.74)% respectively. Moreover, external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) could also suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Furthermore, the photodynamic action of PDMN combined with external magnetic fields significantly inhibited the proliferation and promote apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis was (28.11±4.25)% and (24.53±5.74)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other groups (Peffectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Moreover, these effects on BIU-87 cells could be strengthened by the combination with external magnetic fields.

  9. Improving Keyhole Stability by External Magnetic Field in Full Penetration Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Yu; Rong, Youmin

    2018-05-01

    An external magnetic field was used to improve the keyhole stability in full penetration laser welding 316L steel. The increase of magnetic field strength gave rise to a shorter flying time of the spatter, a weaker size and brightness of the spatter, and a larger spreading area of vapor plume. This suggested that the dynamic behavior of the keyhole was stabilized by the external magnetic field. In addition, a stronger magnetic field could result in a more homogeneous distribution of laser energy, which increased the width of the weld zone, and the height of the bottom weld zone from 381 μm (0 mT) to 605 μm (50 mT). Dendrite and cellular crystal near the weld center disappeared, and grain size was refined. The external magnetic field was beneficial to the keyhole stability and improved the joint quality, because the weld pool was stirred by a Lorentz force resulting from the coupling effect of the magnetic field and inner thermocurrent.

  10. Improvement of the growth and yield of lettuce plants by elf sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzal, A. De; Gonzalez, L.M.; Sueirol, L.; Peralta, O.; Liceal, L.; Porras, E.; Gilart, F.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on plant growth and final yield of lettuce (cv. Black Seeded Simpson) were studied under organoponic conditions. Lettuce seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 120 mT(rms) for 3 min, 160 mT(rms) for 1 min and to 160 mT (rms) for 5 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental stonemasons (25.2 m2) of an organoponic and cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During nursery and vegetative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for seedling growth assessment and growth rate analyses. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each stonemason and the final yield and yield parameters were determined. In the nursery stage, the magnetic treatments induced a significant increase of root length and shoot height in plants derived from magnetically-treated seeds. In the vegetative stage, the relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically-exposed seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. At maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (p<0.05) the plant height, the leaf area per plant, the final yield per area and the fresh mass per plant in comparison with the controls. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and final yield of lettuce crop

  11. External anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging adversely affects continence after sphincteroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, J. W.; Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.; Laméris, J. S.; Hop, W. C.; Schouten, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    There is still considerable debate about the value of preoperative anorectal physiological parameters in predicting the clinical outcome after sphincteroplasty. Recently it has been reported that atrophy of the external anal sphincter can be clearly shown with endoanal magnetic resonance imaging

  12. Vacuum energy induced by an external magnetic field in a curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, Yu.A.; Rakityansky, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The asymptotic expansion of the product of an operator raised to an arbitrary power and an exponential function of this operator is obtained. With the aid of this expansion, the density of vacuum energy induced by a static external magnetic field of an Abelian or a non-Abelian nature is expressed in terms of the DeWitt-Seeley-Gilkey coefficients

  13. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...

  14. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimachkov, D.A., E-mail: klimachkovdmitry@gmail.com [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Petrosyan, A.S. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskyi per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  15. The dust characteristics in the collisional plasma sheath at the presence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourkaei, Hossein Akbarian [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Plasma Physics Research Group

    2015-05-15

    The characteristics of dust in a plasma sheath are investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field and taking into account neutral collision forces. By using the fluid model, the continuity and momentum equations of ions and dusts are solved numerically with various magnitudes of collision force. In various magnitude and directions of the magnetic field, the electron and ion density distribution, ion flow velocity, electron potential have been calculated. It is shown that magnetic field has obvious effect on the plasma sheath and the collision force reduces the dust kinetic energy.

  16. Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an arbitrarily oriented external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rubio, F., E-mail: fernando.garcia.rubio@upm.es; Sanz, J. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ruocco, A. [Universitá degli studi di Napoli Federico II, 80138 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an external magnetic field is studied under the ideal magnetohydrodynamic hypothesis. The inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the expansion direction is arbitrary, and both the perpendicular and the oblique cases are separately analyzed. A self-similar solution satisfying the boundary conditions is obtained. The interface with the vacuum is treated as a fluid surface, and jump conditions concerning the momentum conservation are imposed. The effect of the intensity of the magnetic field and its inclination is thoroughly studied, and the consistency of the solution for small and large inclinations is investigated.

  17. Nu shifts in betatron oscillations from uniform perturbations in the presence of non-linear magnetic guide fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crebbin, K.C.

    1985-05-01

    Uniform magnetic field perturbations cause a closed orbit distortion in a circular accelerator. If the magnetic guide field is non-linear these perturbations can also cause a Nu shift in the betatron oscillations. Such a shift in radial Nu values has been observed in the Bevalac while studying the low energy resonant extraction system. In the Bevalac, the radial perturbation comes from the quadrants being magnetically about 0.8% longer than 90 0 . The normal effect of this type of perturbation is a radial closed orbit shift and orbit distortion. The Nu shift, associated with this type of perturbation in the presence of a non-linear guide field, is discussed in this paper. A method of handling the non-linear n values is discussed as well as the mechanism for the associated Nu shift. Computer calculations are compared to measurements. 2 refs., 4 figs

  18. The multi-layered ring under parabolic distribution of radial stresses combined with uniform internal and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos F. Markides

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recently introduced solution for the stress- and displacement-fields, developed in a multi-layered circular ring, composed of a finite number of linearly elastic concentric layers, subjected to a parabolic distribution of ra-dial stresses, is here extended to encompass a more general loading scheme, closer to actual conditions. The loading scheme includes, besides the para¬-bolic radial stresses, a combination of uniform pressures acting along the outer- and inner- most boundaries of the layered ring. The analytic solution of the problem is achieved by adopting Savin’s pioneering approach for an infinite plate with a hole strengthened by rings. Taking advantage of the results provided by the ana¬lytic solution, a numerical model, simulating the configuration of a three-layered ring (quite commonly encountered in practic¬al applications is validated. The numerical model is then used for a parametric analysis enlightening some crucial aspects of the overall response of the ring.

  19. The effect of axial external magnetic field on tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The influences of axial external magnetic field on the microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy joints were studied. The microstructure of Mg alloy joint consisted of the weld seam, heat affected zone and base metal zone. The average grain size of weld seam welded with magnetic field is 39 μm, which is 38% smaller than that of the joint welded with absence of magnetic field. And the microhardness of weld seam increases with the help of magnetic field treatment, owing to the coarse grain refinement. With coil current of 2.0A, the maximum mechanical property of joint increases 6.7% to 255 MPa over the specimen without magnetic field treatment. Furthermore, fracture location is near heat affected area and the fracture surface is characterized with ductile fracture.

  20. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  1. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  2. Notes on analytical study of holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zixu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang

    2014-01-01

    We employ the matching method to analytically investigate the holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in an external magnetic field. We discuss systematically the restricted conditions for the matching method and find that this analytic method is not always powerful to explore the effect of external magnetic field on the holographic superconductors unless the matching point is chosen in an appropriate range and the dynamical exponent z satisfies the relation z=d−1 or z=d−2. From the analytic treatment, we observe that Lifshitz scaling can hinder the condensation to be formed, which can be used to back up the numerical results. Moreover, we study the effect of Lifshitz scaling on the upper critical magnetic field and reproduce the well-known relation obtained from Ginzburg–Landau theory

  3. Magnetic isotope and external magnetic field effects upon the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, R.; Hiramatsu, M.; Watanabe, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Nagakura, S.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate has been studied by means of steady-state photolysis and laser flash photolysis. A radical pair consisting of the 1-naphthoxyl and acetyl radicals is concluded to be a reaction intermediate. The yield of an in-cage product (2-acetyl-1-naphthol) exhibits a positive external magnetic field effect for the ester labeled by magnetically active 13 C, but no effect for the normal 12 C ester. The magnetic field effect observed for the labeled ester is quantitatively or semiquantitatively explained in terms of the radical-pair mechanism by considering hyperfine coupling between magnetically active nuclei ( 1 H and 13 C) and an unpaired electron in the acetyl radical. The in-cage product is formed through the singlet radical pair. 26 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  4. Physical correction model for automatic correction of intensity non-uniformity in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leger

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The proposed PCM algorithm led to a significantly improved image quality compared to the originally acquired images, suggesting that it is applicable to the correction of MRI data. Thus it may help to reduce intensity non-uniformity which is an important step for advanced image analysis.

  5. Entanglement in a two-spin (1/2, 3/2) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ chain with an inhomogeneous external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ketao; Liang Mingchao; Xu Hongyu; Zhu Chengbo

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of negativity, we investigate the thermal entanglement of a two-spin (1/2, 3/2) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ chain with an inhomogeneous external magnetic field. We obtain the analytical results of entanglement of this model. For the case of uniform magnetic field, we find that the critical temperature increases with the increase of the anisotropy parameter k, and for the same couplings, the critical temperature is higher than the results of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain and (1/2, 1) mixed-spin XXZ chain. Evidence of the quantum phase transition is found, and by adjusting the inhomogeneous magnetic parameter b, one is able to obtain more entanglement at higher temperature.

  6. Calibration of an inertial-magnetic measurement unit without external equipment, in the presence of dynamic magnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metge, J; Giremus, A; Mégret, R; Berthoumieu, Y; Décamps, T

    2014-01-01

    Inertial-magnetic measurement units are inexpensive sensors, widely used in electronic systems (smartphones, GPS, micro-UAV, etc). However the precision of these sensors is highly dependent on their calibration. This article proposes a complete solution to calibrate the sensors (accelerometers, gyrometers and magnetometers), the inter-sensor rotations and the dynamic disturbances of the magnetic field due to the immediate environment. Contrary to most of the existing techniques, the proposed method does not necessitate any external equipment, apart from the sensors already included in the system. The calibration can be performed by hand manipulation by the final user. Simulations and experiments show the advantages of the proposed approach. (paper)

  7. Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dileep, E-mail: dkumar@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Sadhana [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Vishawakarma, Pramod [School of Nanotechnology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India); Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress. - Highlights: • Tensile and compressive stresses were induced in Co films by removing the bending force from the substrates after film deposition. • Controlled external mechanical stress is found to be responsible for magnetic anisotropies in amorphous and polycrystalline thin films, where crystalline anisotropy is absent. • Tensile stress leads to surface smoothening of the polycrystalline Co films.

  8. Positioning and aligning CNTs by external magnetic field to assist localised epoxy cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariu G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the generation of conductive networks through the localised alignment of nano fillers, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The feasibility of alignment and positioning of functionalised MWCNTs by external DC magnetic fields was investigated. The aim of this manipulation is to enhance resin curing through AC induction heating due to hysteresis losses from the nanotubes. Experimental analyses focused on in-depth assessment of the nanotube functionalisation, processing and characterisation of magnetic, rheological and cure kinetics properties of the MWCNT solution. The study has shown that an external magnetic field has great potential for positioning and alignment of CNTs. The study demonstrated potential for creating well-ordered architectures with an unprecedented level of control of network geometry. Magnetic characterisation indicated cobalt-plated nanotubes to be the most suitable candidate for magnetic alignment due to their high magnetic sensitivity. Epoxy/metal-plated CNT nanocomposite systems were validated by thermal analysis as induction heating mediums. The curing process could therefore be optimised by the use of dielectric resins. This study offers a first step towards the proof of concept of this technique as a novel repair technology.

  9. Positioning and aligning CNTs by external magnetic field to assist localised epoxy cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariu, G.; Hamerton, I.; Ivanov, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the generation of conductive networks through the localised alignment of nano fillers, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The feasibility of alignment and positioning of functionalised MWCNTs by external DC magnetic fields was investigated. The aim of this manipulation is to enhance resin curing through AC induction heating due to hysteresis losses from the nanotubes. Experimental analyses focused on in-depth assessment of the nanotube functionalisation, processing and characterisation of magnetic, rheological and cure kinetics properties of the MWCNT solution. The study has shown that an external magnetic field has great potential for positioning and alignment of CNTs. The study demonstrated potential for creating well-ordered architectures with an unprecedented level of control of network geometry. Magnetic characterisation indicated cobalt-plated nanotubes to be the most suitable candidate for magnetic alignment due to their high magnetic sensitivity. Epoxy/metal-plated CNT nanocomposite systems were validated by thermal analysis as induction heating mediums. The curing process could therefore be optimised by the use of dielectric resins. This study offers a first step towards the proof of concept of this technique as a novel repair technology.

  10. Simulation of therapeutic electron beam tracking through a non-uniform magnetic field using finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebibirgani, Mohammad Javad; Maskani, Reza; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Shahbazian, Hojatollah; Fatahiasl, Jafar; Chegeni, Nahid

    2017-04-01

    In radiotherapy, megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons are employed for treatment of superficial cancers. Magnetic fields can be used for deflection and deformation of the electron flow. A magnetic field is composed of non-uniform permanent magnets. The primary electrons are not mono-energetic and completely parallel. Calculation of electron beam deflection requires using complex mathematical methods. In this study, a device was made to apply a magnetic field to an electron beam and the path of electrons was simulated in the magnetic field using finite element method. A mini-applicator equipped with two neodymium permanent magnets was designed that enables tuning the distance between magnets. This device was placed in a standard applicator of Varian 2100 CD linear accelerator. The mini-applicator was simulated in CST Studio finite element software. Deflection angle and displacement of the electron beam was calculated after passing through the magnetic field. By determining a 2 to 5cm distance between two poles, various intensities of transverse magnetic field was created. The accelerator head was turned so that the deflected electrons became vertical to the water surface. To measure the displacement of the electron beam, EBT2 GafChromic films were employed. After being exposed, the films were scanned using HP G3010 reflection scanner and their optical density was extracted using programming in MATLAB environment. Displacement of the electron beam was compared with results of simulation after applying the magnetic field. Simulation results of the magnetic field showed good agreement with measured values. Maximum deflection angle for a 12 MeV beam was 32.9° and minimum deflection for 15 MeV was 12.1°. Measurement with the film showed precision of simulation in predicting the amount of displacement in the electron beam. A magnetic mini-applicator was made and simulated using finite element method. Deflection angle and displacement of electron beam were calculated. With

  11. On the computation of the demagnetization tensor for uniformly magnetized particles of arbitrary shape. Part I: Analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, S.; Beleggia, M.; Zhu, Y.; De Graef, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Fourier space formalism based on the shape amplitude of a particle is used to compute the demagnetization tensor field for uniformly magnetized particles of arbitrary shape. We provide a list of explicit shape amplitudes for important particle shapes, among others: the sphere, the cylindrical tube, an arbitrary polyhedral shape, a truncated paraboloid, and a cone truncated by a spherical cap. In Part I of this two-part paper, an analytical representation of the demagnetization tensor field for particles with cylindrical symmetry is provided, as well as expressions for the magnetostatic energy and the volumetric demagnetization factors

  12. D2+ Molecular complex in non-uniform height quantum ribbon under crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza, Y. A.; Laroze, D.; Fulla, M. R.; Marín, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    The D2+ molecular complex fundamental properties in a uniform and multi-hilled semiconductor quantum ribbon under orthogonal electric and magnetic fields are theoretically studied. The energy structure is calculated by using adiabatic approximation combined with diagonalization procedure. The D2+ energy structure is more strongly controlled by the geometrical structural hills than the Coulomb interaction. The formation of vibrational and rotational states is discussed. Aharanov-Bohm oscillation patterns linked to rotational states as well as the D2+ molecular complex stability are highly sensitive to the number of hills while electric field breaks the electron rotational symmetry and removes the energy degeneration between low-lying states.

  13. Inducing and manipulating magnetization in 2D zinc–oxide by strain and external voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivansaikhan, P.; Tsevelmaa, T.; Rhim, S. H.; Hong, S. C.; Odkhuu, D.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) structures that exhibit intriguing magnetic phenomena such as perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and its switchable feature are of great interests in spintronics research. Herein, the density functional theory studies reveal the critical impacts of strain and external gating on vacancy-induced magnetism and its spin direction in a graphene-like single layer of zinc oxide (ZnO). In contrast to the pristine and defective ZnO with an O-vacancy, the presence of a Zn-vacancy induces significant magnetic moments to its first neighboring O and Zn atoms due to the charge deficit. We further predict that the direction of magnetization easy axis reverses from an in-plane to perpendicular orientation under a practically achievable biaxial compressive strain of only ~1–2% or applying an electric field by means of the charge density modulation. This magnetization reversal is mainly driven by the strain- and electric-field-induced changes in the spin–orbit coupled d states of the first-neighbor Zn atom to a Zn-vacancy. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain and electric field engineering to manipulate magnetism and magnetization orientation of 2D materials.

  14. Facile microwave synthesis of uniform magnetic nanoparticles with minimal sample processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Thomas, E-mail: tom.schneider@ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 Canada (Canada); Löwa, Anna; Karagiozov, Stoyan [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 Canada (Canada); Sprenger, Lisa [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 Canada (Canada); TU Dresden, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Dresden, 01062 Germany (Germany); Gutiérrez, Lucía [Instituto Universitario de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, 50018 Spain (Spain); Esposito, Tullio; Marten, Gernot; Saatchi, Katayoun [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 Canada (Canada); Häfeli, Urs O., E-mail: urs.hafeli@ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 Canada (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    We present a simple and rapid method for the synthesis of small magnetic nanoparticles (diameters in the order of 5–20 nm) and narrow size distributions (CV's of 20–40%). The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized in green solvents within minutes and the saturation magnetization of the particles was tunable by changes in the reaction conditions. We show that this particle synthesis method requires minimal processing steps and we present the successful coating of the particles with reactive bisphosphonates after synthesis without washing or centrifugation. We found minimal batch-to-batch variability and show the scalability of the particle synthesis method. We present a full characterization of the particle properties and believe that this synthesis method holds great promise for facile and rapid generation of magnetic nanoparticles with defined surface coatings for magnetic targeting applications. - Highlights: ●Rapid and facile synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. ●Microwave synthesis in green solvent. ●Magnetite MNPs with small sizes and high saturation magnetization. ●Tunable particle properties depending on heating duration. ●Scalable MNP synthesis.

  15. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  16. Electron drag by solitons in superlattices in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyazovskii, M.V.; Syrodoev, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The soliton-electric effect accompanying the propagation of an electromagnetic soliton along an axis of a superlattice in an external magnetic field directed along the magnetic field of the soliton is studied. It is assumed that the duration γ-1 of the soliton pulse is much shorter than the free flight time of an electron. It is shown that in the absence of a constant magnetic field the drag current varies as sin(αsech2γt) (α is a constant determined by the parameters of the superlattice). In the presence of a constant magnetic field of intensity H0>>Hs, where Hs is the amplitude of the soliton field, the drag current oscillates

  17. First principles study of the electronic and optical properties of GaAs nanoparticles under the influence of external uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezi Javan, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    We present electronic and optical properties of the hydrogen terminated gallium arsenide nanoparticles using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The electronic and optical properties of the GaAs nanoparticles were calculated at presence of the uniform external electric field in the range from 0 to 0.51 V/Å. The induced electric filed can decrease the HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles and the mount of these reductions increases with gain of the electric field strength. -- Highlights: ► HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles is significantly more than GaAs bulk band gap. ► HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles decreases with increase of the nanoparticles size. ► External electric filed decrease the HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles. ► Dipole moment of nanoparticles increases with gain of the electric field strength. ► Absorption peaks of GaAs nanoparticles shows red shift with applying electric field.

  18. Electron Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum wire in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, Ri; Nieto Jalil, J M; Riera, R; Betancourt-Riera, Re; Rosas, R

    2008-01-01

    The differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum wire in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of confinement is calculated. We assume a single parabolic conduction band. The emission spectra for different scattering configurations and the selection rules for the processes are studied. Singularities in the spectra are found and interpreted. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band and subband structure of these confinement systems. The magnetic field distribution is considered constant with value B 0 inside the wire and zero outside

  19. Relation between parameters of self-sustaining magnetically confined electron cloud and external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the fluid theory of the axisymmetrical self-sustaining magnetically confined electron clouds an approximate analytical method is developed. By means of this method the relations between the parameters of this type of electron cloud and external conditions are studied. The parameters include electron density, electron temperature, drift angular frequency of electrons, radius of the electron cloud and electric potential at the centre of the electron cloud. They depend on the voltage, magnetic induction, pressure, electromagnetic field distribution in the confinement device and parameters of electron-atom collisions

  20. Structurization of ferrofluids in the absence of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A. Yu.; Iskakova, L. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Structural transformations in a model ferrofluid in the absence of an external magnetic field have been theoretically studied. The results agree with well-known laboratory experiments and computer simulations in showing that, if the concentration of particles and their magnetic interaction energy are below certain critical values, most particles form separate linear chains. If these parameters exceed the critical values, most particles concentrate so as to form branched network structures. The passage from chains to network has a continuous character rather than represents a discontinuous first-order phase transition.

  1. Elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junctions in an external magnetic field: the statics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the static properties of one-dimensional planar Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) in the most general case of elliptic annuli. We have analyzed the dependence of the critical current in the presence of an external magnetic field applied either in the junction plane...... symmetric electrodes a transverse magnetic field is equivalent to an in-plane field applied in the direction of the current flow. Varying the ellipse eccentricity we reproduce all known results for linear and ring-shaped JTJs. Experimental data on high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb elliptic annular junctions...

  2. Effect of forming process by using external magnetic field of bonded magnet made from NdFeB flakes to microstructure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapedi; Sardjono, P.; Muljadi; Djauhari, N. R.; Ramlan

    2018-03-01

    Research of fabricated bonded magnets NdFeB made from NdFeB flakes with variation of external magnetic field has been done. The materials preparation process begins with milling NdFeB flakes using High Energy Milling (HEM) for 60 minutes and mixing it with 5 wt % celuna binder and performing compaction to form pellet with a pressure of 40 Kgf/cm2 and then applying external magnetic field (0, 2000, 5000, 8000 and 11000 Gauss). The pellet samples were then dried using vacuum dryer with temperature of 100 °C for 1 hour. Characterization includes bulk density, measurement of magnetic properties with gauss meter, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). From the characterization results the best value was obtained on the external magnetic field orientation of 8000 to 11000 Gauss with a density value of 5.38 g/cm3, flux magnetic value of 465.9 – 467.1 Gauss, remanence value of 2.63–2.776 kGauss, and coercivity value of 1.905–1.925 kOe.

  3. A sphericon-shaped magnetic millirobot rolling on a surface actuated by an external wobbling magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmun Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel sphericon-shaped magnetic millirobot (SSMM that can roll on a variety of surfaces. The SSMM comprises four identical half cones with a cylindrical magnet inserted into the geometric center. It can roll forward or backward on a surface with repeated rolling cone motions (wobbling motions. Since a rolling SSMM develops its entire surface by means of line contact, a relatively large maximum static friction force can make the SSMM move on a surface steadily and effectively. In this work, a new type of external wobbling magnetic field (EWMF was also derived to manipulate the SSMM’s rolling motions precisely. Then, the controlled rolling motions of prototype SSMMs under various surface conditions were demonstrated to examine the rolling ability of the proposed SSMM.

  4. Effects of applying an external magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the corrosion resistance and wear behavior of 1.2080 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Amini, Kamran; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deep cryogenic increases the carbide percentage and make a more homogenous distribution. ► Deep cryogenic improve the wear resistance and corrosion behavior of 1.2080 tool steel. ► Applying the magnetic field weaker the carbide distribution and decreases the carbides percentage. ► Magnetized samples showed weaker corrosion and wear behavior. -- Abstract: This work concerns with the effect of applying an external magnetic field on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and microstructure of 1.2080 (D2) tool steel during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. These analyses were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ay diffraction (XRD) to study the microstructure, a pin-on-disk wear testing machine to study the wear behavior, and linear sweep voltammetry to study the corrosion behavior of the samples. It was shown that the deep cryogenic heat treatment eliminates retained austenite and makes a more uniform carbide distribution with higher percentage. It was also observed that the deep cryogenic heat treatment improves the wear behavior and corrosion resistance of 1.2080 tool steel. In comparison between the magnetized and non-magnetized samples, the carbide percentage decreases and the carbide distribution weakened in the magnetized samples; subsequently, the wear behavior and corrosion resistance attenuated compared in the magnetized samples.

  5. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  6. The influence of an external magnetic axial field on the autocompression of a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoler, D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of theoretical research on the autocompression of a plasma column under the influence of its own azimuthal field, in the presence of an external magnetic axial field are presented in this paper. Focussed plasma installations are important both for the fundamental researches which can be undertaken on great density and high temperature plasma and for their possible applications since they can be used as sources of neutrons, Roentgen radiations and to obtain heavy ions. The important parameters of plasma have been studied comparatively in the presence or absence of the external magnetic axial field by means of a method of numerical simulation of phenomena from focussed plasma in a complex MHD system taking into account the dissipative and transport phenomena. The numerical data used in chapter 5 are in agreement with the parameters of the experimental installation produced at IFTAR-Bucharest, which have been indicated to us by the members of the focussed plasma staff. (author)

  7. Spiral magnetic order, non-uniform states and electron correlations in the conducting transition metal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshev, P. A.; Timirgazin, M. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Antipin, T. V.; Irkhin, V. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram is calculated within the Hubbard and s-d exchange (Kondo) models for square and simple cubic lattices vs. band filling and interaction parameter. The difference of the results owing to the presence of localized moments in the latter model is discussed. We employ a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) to treat commensurate ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic (AFM), and incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases. The electron correlations are taken into account within the Hubbard model by using the Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave boson approximation (SBA). The main advantage of this approach is a correct qualitative description of the paramagnetic phase: its energy becomes considerably lower as compared with HFA, and the gain in the energy of magnetic phases is substantially reduced.

  8. A design approach to achieving the field uniformity requirements for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.; Krefta, M.P.; Johnson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes a design approach for the calculation of the magnetic field quality in the SSC dipole magnets. A description of different analytical techniques including two and three dimensional finite element, finite difference and closed form methods is presented. Their application to the field quality problem is discussed showing how each can be relevant to a portion of the problem. Sources of field quality error and their impact on magnet operation are presented. Included are geometric variations of the conductors, yoke and collar, variabilities in material properties, persistent currents, saturation effects and the influence of boundary conditions. An approach to integrating the analytical methods and codes into a comprehensive design plan and set of manufacturing specifications is described

  9. Laser generated hot electron transport in an externally applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.H.; Enright, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the effect of an externally applied DC magnetic field on the generation and transport of hot electrons in CO/sub 2/ laser irradiation of cylindrical targets. The targets used in these studies were 6.3 mm diameter metal rods through which a pulsed current was driven from an external capacitor. Magnetic fields up to 150 kgauss were produced at the target surface. The CO/sub 2/ laser was focused with an f/5 lens resulting in a laser intensity of ≅3 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ in a 100 μm diameter focal spot. The effect of the external magnetic field on the generation and inward transport of superhot (≥ 100 keV) electrons was studied. Principal diagnostics included a six channel hard x-ray spectrometer, a high energy x-ray pinhole camera, a LiF Laue x-ray spectrograph and a Ross-filtered (W-Ta) pair of x-ray detectors. The latter two diagnostics were designed to detect Au Kα /sub emission at 68.2 keV

  10. Evidence from optical polarisation for a galactic-scale uniform magnetic field in M104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarrott, S.M.; White, C.; Pallister, W.S.; Solinger, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A map is presented of the linear optical polarisation of the Sombrero Galaxy (M104) that gives clear evidence for the existence of a magnetic field that maintains the same projected direction over an estimated volume of some 10 3 kpc 3 . Detailed knowledge of the polarisation pattern in a nebula is stated to be a powerful tool for further understanding of a nebula. The observations described were made with the 1 m telescope of the Wise Observatory, Israel, during May 1976 using the B waveband of the UBV system, together with a polarimeter and a 4 cm electronographic camera. Measurements were made at 1000 points within the galaxy. The map is superimposed on a photograph of M104, and its main features are described. It is stated that there is little doubt that the observed polarisation pattern was due to the scattering and extinction of light by statistically aligned dust grains. The alignment of the grains is most probably due to magnetic effects, and unless some unexpected mechanism is occurring the grains must be magnetically aligned. The findings are discussed. It is stated that the fact that scattering from aligned grains is occurring makes M104 a likely candidate for the observation of circular polarisation, and such an observation would tend to confirm the interpretation of the linear polarisation. It seems that the observations are concerned with the most extensive homogeneous magnetic field so far observed and it is tempting to speculate that it may be primordial in origin. (U.K.)

  11. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiasu; Zheng Jun [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  12. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.

  13. Fabrication and magnetic investigations of highly uniform CoNiGa alloy nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Jing; Khan, U.; Irfan, Muhammad [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Javed, K. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Lahore 5400 (Pakistan); Liu, P. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Ban, S.L. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Highly ordered CoNiGa alloy nanowires with different compositions were fabricated by DC electrodeposition. • The magnetic properties of CoNiGa nanowires can be easily tailored by varying its components. • Magnetostatic interactions plays an important role in the magnetization reversal process. • A linear dependence of coercivity on temperature was found for Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} samples. - Abstract: CoNiGa ternary alloy nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by simple DC electrodeposition into the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. A systematic study of the potential and components of the electrolyte were conducted to obtain different components of CoNiGa nanowires. The largest Ga content in the prepared alloy nanowires was about 17%, while for Co and Ni contents which can be controlled in a wide range by adjusting the composition and pH value of the electrolyte appropriately. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the as-grown CoNiGa nanowire arrays were polycrystal with fcc phase of Co where Co atoms partially substituted by Ni and Ga. Magnetization curves of samples with different composition were measured at room temperature as well as low temperature. The results showed that the components of the alloy nanowires have a great impact on its magnetic properties. For Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} nanowires, the magnetization reversal mode changes from curling mode to coherent rotation as the angle increases, and the temperature dependence of coercivity can be well described by the thermal activation effect.

  14. Phase controlled synthesis of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles with high uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Li, Q.; Zu, X.T.; Xiang, X.; Liu, W.; Li, S.

    2016-01-01

    (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through modifying the atomic ratio of polysaccharide and chelating agent at an optimal sintering temperature. In the process, the polysaccharide plays an important role in drastically shrinking the precursor during the gel drying process. In the metal-complex structure, M"2"+ ion active sites were coordinated by −OH of the water molecules except for EDTA anions. The MFe_2O_4 magnetic nanoparticles exhibited enhanced magnetic properties when compared with nano-MFe_2O_4 of similar particle size synthesized by other synthesis route reported in the literature. In particular, the sintering temperature improves the crystallinity and increases the hysteresis loop squareness ratio of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles significantly. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the proposed model for MFe_2O_4 nanoparticle synthesis, starting from EDTA-chelated M"2"+ (M=Mg, Ca, or Ba) cations (left). High dispersion (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a modified polyacrylamide gel route. Optimized utilization of polysaccharide, chelating agent, and sintering temperature allowed the formation of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow diameter distribution. - Highlights: • We report a modified polyacrylamide gel route to synthesize (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. • Chelate mechanism of metal ions (Mg, Ca, Ba) and EDTA has been discussed. • Phase transformation process of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrites has been discussed. • The preparation method increases the hysteresis loop squareness ratio of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles.

  15. Phase controlled synthesis of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles with high uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.F., E-mail: wangshifa2006@yeah.net [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China); Science and technology on vacuum technology and physics laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Li, Q. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China); Zu, X.T., E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China); Xiang, X.; Liu, W. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China); Li, S., E-mail: sean.li@unsw.edu.au [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through modifying the atomic ratio of polysaccharide and chelating agent at an optimal sintering temperature. In the process, the polysaccharide plays an important role in drastically shrinking the precursor during the gel drying process. In the metal-complex structure, M{sup 2+} ion active sites were coordinated by −OH of the water molecules except for EDTA anions. The MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles exhibited enhanced magnetic properties when compared with nano-MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} of similar particle size synthesized by other synthesis route reported in the literature. In particular, the sintering temperature improves the crystallinity and increases the hysteresis loop squareness ratio of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles significantly. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the proposed model for MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle synthesis, starting from EDTA-chelated M{sup 2+} (M=Mg, Ca, or Ba) cations (left). High dispersion (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a modified polyacrylamide gel route. Optimized utilization of polysaccharide, chelating agent, and sintering temperature allowed the formation of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow diameter distribution. - Highlights: • We report a modified polyacrylamide gel route to synthesize (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. • Chelate mechanism of metal ions (Mg, Ca, Ba) and EDTA has been discussed. • Phase transformation process of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrites has been discussed. • The preparation method increases the hysteresis loop squareness ratio of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles.

  16. Relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic characteristics in patients with fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Deutekom, Marije; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Engel, Alexander F.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; de Priester, Jacobus A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: External anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging has been associated with poor outcome of anal sphincter repair. We studied the relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic

  17. The low-field peak in magnetization loops of uniform and granular superconductors in perpendicular magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johansen, T. H.; Shantsev, D. V.; Koblischka, M. R.; Galperin, Y. M.; Nálevka, Petr; Jirsa, Miloš

    341-348, - (2000), s. 1443-1444 ISSN 0921-4534. [International Conference on Materials and Mechanism of Superconductivity High Temperature Superconductors /4./. Houston , 20.02.2000-25.02.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2000

  18. Topological spin excitations induced by an external magnetic field coupled to a surface with rotational symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L.; Dandoloff, Rossen

    2013-01-01

    We study the Heisenberg model in an external magnetic field on curved surfaces with rotational symmetry. The Euler-Lagrange static equations, derived from the Hamiltonian, lead to the inhomogeneous double sine-Gordon equation. Nonetheless, if the magnetic field is coupled to the metric elements of the surface, and consequently to its curvature, the homogeneous double sine-Gordon equation emerges and a 2π-soliton solution is obtained. In order to satisfy the self-dual equations, surface deformations are predicted to appear at the sector where the spin direction is opposite to the magnetic field. On the basis of the model, we find the characteristic length of the 2π-soliton for three specific rotationally symmetric surfaces: the cylinder, the catenoid, and the hyperboloid. On finite surfaces, such as the sphere, torus, and barrels, fractional 2π-solitons are predicted to appear. (author)

  19. Ion acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, Nam C.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave in a magnetized dusty plasma, obliquely propagating to the embedding external magnetic field, is revisited. It is found that when the charge density of dust particles is high, the Sagdeev potential needs to be expanded up to δn 4 near n=1. In this case, it is shown that there could exist rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves as well as the kink-type double layer solutions, in addition to the conventional hump-type ones found in the δn 3 expansion. The amplitude variations of ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma are also examined with respect to the change of the dust charge density and the wave directional angle

  20. Flux quantization and quantum mechanics on Riemann surfaces in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, J.; Steiner, F.

    1990-10-01

    We investigate the possibility to apply an external constant magnetic field to a quantum mechanical system consisting of a particle moving on a compact or non-compact two-dimensional manifold of constant negative Gaussian curvature and of finite volume. For the motion on compact Riemann surfaces we find that a consistent formulation is only possible if the magnetic flux is quantized, as it is proportional to the (integrated) first Chern class of a certain complex line bundle over the manifold. In the case of non-compact surfaces of finite volume we obtain the striking result that the magnetic flux has to vanish identically due to the theorem that any holomorphic line bundle over a non-compact Riemann surface is holomorphically trivial. (orig.)

  1. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  2. Prevalence of information stored in arrays of magnetic nanowires against external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, D.; Cisternas, E.; Vogel, E. E.; Allende, S.

    2018-04-01

    Arrays of magnetic nanowires in porous alumina can be used to store information inscribed on the system by orienting the magnetization of selected wires pointing in a desired direction, so symbols can be read as ferromagnetic sectors. However, this information is subject to aging and the stored information could be gradually lost. We investigate here two mechanisms proposed to improve the prevalence of the stored information: opposite ferromagnetic band at the center of the symbol and bi-segmented nanowires acting as two layers of nanowires storing the same information. Both mechanisms prove to increase resistance to the action of external magnetic fields for the case of Ni wires in a geometry compatible with actually grown nanowires. Advantages and disadvantages of these mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Comparative study of reference points by dosimetric analyses for late complications after uniform external radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Yeh, L.-S.; Yang, S.-N.; Shiau, A.-C.; Lin, F.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to correlate and compare the predictive values of rectal and bladder reference doses of uniform external beam radiotherapy without shielding and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) with late sequelae in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and materials: Between September 1992 and December 1998, 154 patients who survived more than 12 months after treatment were studied. Initially, they were treated with 10-MV X-rays (44 to 45 Gy/22 to 25 fractions over 4 to 5 weeks) to the whole pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using 192 Ir remote afterloading at 1-week intervals for 4 weeks. The standard prescribed dose for each HDRICB was 6.0 Gy to point A. Patient- and treatment-related-factors were evaluated for late rectal complications using logistic regression modeling. Results: The probability of rectal complications showed better correlation of dose-response with increasing total ICRU (International Committee on Radiotherapy Units and Measurements) rectal dose. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a high risk of late rectal sequelae in patients who developed rectal complications (p 0.0001;relative risk, 15.06;95% CI, 2.89∼43.7) and total ICRU rectal dose greater than 16 Gy (p = 0.02;relative risk, 2.07;95% CI, 1.13∼4.55). The high risk factors for bladder complications were seen in patients who developed rectal complications (p = 0.0001;relative risk, 15.2;95% CI, 2.81∼44.9) and total ICRU bladder dose greater than 24 Gy (p = 0.02;relative risk, 8.93;95% CI, 1.79∼33.1). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the predictive value of ICRU rectal and bladder reference dosing in HDRICB for patients receiving uniform external beam radiation therapy without central shielding. Patients who had a total ICRU rectal dose greater than 16 Gy, or a total ICRU bladder dose over 24 Gy, were at risk of late sequelae

  4. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  5. Generation and manipulation of monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions: the effect of a uniform magnetic field in flow-focusing and T-junction configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2011-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of magnetically controlled microfluidic devices to produce monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions. By applying a uniform magnetic field on flow-focusing and T-junction configurations, the size of the ferrofluid emulsions can be actively controlled. The influences of the flow rates, the orientation, and the polarity of the magnetic field on the size of ferrofluid emulsions produced in both flow-focusing and T-junction configurations are compared and discussed.

  6. In situ observation of magnetic vortex manipulation by external fields in amorphous CeFeB ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Shulan; Zhang, Ming; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Licong; Xiong, Jiefu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tongyun; Hu, Fengxia; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we show the real-space observation of the magnetic domain configuration in amorphous Ce 14 Fe 80 B 6 ribbon using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Cross-tie domain walls composed of magnetic vortices (Vs) and antivortices (AVs) are observed. The evolution of Vs/AVs manipulated by temperature, in-plane magnetic field, and electrical current is clearly demonstrated. Magnetic V nucleation and annihilation in pair are observed because of the stimulus of external fields.

  7. Precise position control of a helical magnetic robot in pulsatile flow using the rotating frequency of the external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongyul Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a position control method for a helical magnetic robot (HMR that uses the rotating frequency of the external rotating magnetic field (ERMF to minimize the position fluctuation of the HMR caused by pulsatile flow in human blood vessels. We prototyped the HMR and conducted several experiments in pseudo blood vessel environments with a peristaltic pump. We experimentally obtained the relation between the flow rate and the rotating frequency of the ERMF required to make the HMR stationary in a given pulsatile flow. Then we approximated the pulsatile flow by Fourier series and applied the required ERMF rotating frequency to the HMR in real time. Our proposed position control method drastically reduced the position fluctuation of the HMR under pulsatile flow.

  8. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF L1544. I. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY AND THE NON-UNIFORM ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Dan P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion (Greece); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail: clemens@bu.edu, E-mail: tassis@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: paul.f.goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, M/S 169-504, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The magnetic field ( B -field) of the starless dark cloud L1544 has been studied using near-infrared (NIR) background starlight polarimetry (BSP) and archival data in order to characterize the properties of the plane-of-sky B -field. NIR linear polarization measurements of over 1700 stars were obtained in the H band and 201 of these were also measured in the K band. The NIR BSP properties are correlated with reddening, as traced using the Rayleigh–Jeans color excess ( H – M ) method, and with thermal dust emission from the L1544 cloud and envelope seen in Herschel maps. The NIR polarization position angles change at the location of the cloud and exhibit their lowest dispersion there, offering strong evidence that NIR polarization traces the plane-of-sky B -field of L1544. In this paper, the uniformity of the plane-of-sky B -field in the envelope region of L1544 is quantitatively assessed. This allows evaluation of the approach of assuming uniform field geometry when measuring relative mass-to-flux ratios in the cloud envelope and core based on averaging of the radio Zeeman observations in the envelope, as done by Crutcher et al. In L1544, the NIR BSP shows the envelope B -field to be significantly non-uniform and likely not suitable for averaging Zeeman properties without treating intrinsic variations. Deeper analyses of the NIR BSP and related data sets, including estimates of the B -field strength and testing how it varies with position and gas density, are the subjects of later papers in this series.

  9. Influence of external magnetic field on parameters of surface two-focus spin-wave ferromagnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, S.A.; Berezhinskij, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of external magnetic field on refraction of surface spin wave propagating through inhomogeneity created in the form of a lens, that is a biaxial ferromagnet placed into uniaxial ferromagnetic medium, is studied.

  10. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-01-01

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ∼10% without a reduction of the negative ion production

  11. Numerical study of two dimensional disordered systems in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Debnarayan

    2000-01-01

    We study here 2d tight-binding disordered model in an external magnetic field. By numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, we characterize the eigenstates by Generalized Inverse Participation Ratio (GIPR). The properties of the eigenstates have been studied in case of random flux model as well as with the strength of disorder. Simple theoretical arguments are given in support of the numerical observation. Finally, we have also studied the multifractality of the eigenstates. All these study may shed light on the eigenstates in the center of the band in case of Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE). (author)

  12. Scanning gate microscopy of quantum rings: effects of an external magnetic field and of charged defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, M G; Baltazar, S; Martins, F; Hackens, B; Sellier, H; Ouisse, T; Bayot, V; Huant, S

    2009-07-01

    We study scanning gate microscopy (SGM) in open quantum rings obtained from buried semiconductor InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures. By performing a theoretical analysis based on the Keldysh-Green function approach we interpret the radial fringes observed in experiments as the effect of randomly distributed charged defects. We associate SGM conductance images with the local density of states (LDOS) of the system. We show that such an association cannot be made with the current density distribution. By varying an external magnetic field we are able to reproduce recursive quasi-classical orbits in LDOS and conductance images, which bear the same periodicity as the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  13. Particle in a uniform magnetic field under the symmetric gauge: the eigenfunctions and the time evolution of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, P E de; Nazareno, H N

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use computer algebra systems in solving problems of quantum mechanics. We obtained the degeneracy of the spectrum of eigenvalues in a very clear way. Through the use of a computer algebra system we show graphs of the probability density associated with different eigenvalues as well as compare such functions for some degenerate states, which helps us to visualize the physics of the problem. We also present a semiclassical model which gives a physical insight regarding the paradoxical fact that eigenfunctions associated with opposite angular momenta and different energy eigenvalues have the same probability density. Finally, by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation we obtain the time evolution of a wave packet that at time zero was considered to be localized in a definite region of the lattice. The centroid of such a packet performs an orbit similar to that obtained in the classical treatment of a particle in a magnetic field

  14. Electron Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum wire in external magnetic field: Froehlich interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, Ri.; Nieto Jalil, J.M.; Betancourt-Riera, Re.; Riera, R.

    2009-01-01

    The differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum wire in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of confinement regarding phonon-assisted transitions, is calculated. We assume single parabolic conduction band and present a description of the phonon modes of cylindrical structures embedded in another material using the Froehlich phonon interaction. To illustrate the theory we use a GaAs/Al 0.35 Ga 0.75 As system. The emission spectra are discussed for different scattering configurations and the selection rules for the processes are also studied. The magnetic field distribution is considered constant with value B 0 inside of the wire, and zero outside.

  15. Shielding of External Magnetic Perturbations By Torque In Rotating Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Boozer, Allen H.; Menard, Jonathan E.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Sabbagh, Steve A.

    2009-01-01

    The imposition of a nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation on a rotating tokamak plasma requires energy and toroidal torque. Fundamental electrodynamics implies that the torque is essentially limited and must be consistent with the external response of a plasma equilibrium (rvec f) = (rvec j) x (rvec B). Here magnetic measurements on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) device are used to derive the energy and the torque, and these empirical evaluations are compared with theoretical calculations based on perturbed scalar pressure equilibria (rvec f) = (rvec (del))p coupled with the theory of nonambipolar transport. The measurement and the theory are consistent within acceptable uncertainties, but can be largely inconsistent when the torque is comparable to the energy. This is expected since the currents associated with the torque are ignored in scalar pressure equilibria, but these currents tend to shield the perturbation.

  16. Heat kernel expansion for fermionic billiards in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, M.; Comtet, A.; Knecht, M.

    1989-05-01

    Using Seeley's heat kernel expansion, we compute the asymptotic density of states of the Dirac operator coupled to a magnetic field on a two dimensional manifold with boundary (fermionic billiard). Local boundary conditions compatible with vector current conservation depend on a free parameter α. It is shown that the perimeter correction identically vanishes for α = 0. In that case, the next order constant term is found to be proportional to the Euler characteristic of the manifold. These results are independent of the external magnetic field and of the shape of the billiard, provided the boundary is sufficiently smooth. For the flat circular billiard, the constant term is found to be - 1/12, in agreement with a numerical result by M.V. BERRY and R.J. MONDRAGON (1987)

  17. Influence of external magnetic field on laser-induced gold nanoparticles fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkov, A. A.; Rakov, I. I.; Simakin, A. V.; Kuzmin, P. G.; Shafeev, G. A.; Mikhailova, G. N.; Antonova, L. Kh.; Troitskii, A. V.; Kuzmin, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-assisted fragmentation is an efficient method of the nanoparticles size and morphology control. However, its exact mechanisms are still under consideration. One of the remaining problems is the plasma formation, inevitably occurring upon the high intensity laser irradiation. In this Letter, the role of the laser-induced plasma is studied via introduction of high-intensity external magnetic field (up to 7.5 T). Its presence is found to cause the plasma emission to start earlier regarding to a laser pulse, also increasing the plume luminosity. Under these conditions, the acceleration of nanoparticles fragmentation down to a few nanometers is observed. Laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field and consequent energy transfer from plasma to nanoparticles are discussed.

  18. A model of the response of GMR of metallic multilayers to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba J.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has not been possible to transform resistivity models in terms of magnetic field in order to account for variation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR with external magnetic field, which would have led to determination of material properties. This problem is approached mathematically via variation calculus to arrive at an exponential function that fits observed GMR values. Using this model in free electron approximation, the mean Fermi vector, susceptibility and total density of states of a number of metallic multilayers are determined from their reported GMR values. Susceptibility is found to depend on interface roughness and antiferromagnetic (AF coupling; thus, it gives qualitative measure of interface quality and AF coupling. Comparison of susceptibilities and GMRs of electrodeposited and ion beam sputtered Co/Cu structures shows that a rough interface suppresses GMR in the former but enhances it in the latter.

  19. Effect of a uniform magnetic induction field upon the flow of an electrically conducting fluid placed in a straight rectangular cross section, one of the walls of which, characterized by an infinite conductivity, presents uniform translation movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This is a theoretical study of an electrically viscous fluid flowing in a straight rectangular cross section channel, a wall of which, infinitely conducting, is placed perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic induction field. The three other walls of the channel being electrically insulating, remain motionless. Formulas giving velocity distribution law in the straight section of the flow in relation to the Hartmann's number, curves illustrating the accelerating effect produced across the whole section, by the application of the magnetic induction field, and example for the distribution of the electric current lines in case of a square section are given [fr

  20. Gyrokinetic simulations with external resonant magnetic perturbations: Island torque and nonambipolar transport with plasma rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Static external resonant magnetic field perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr, and the corresponding j→×B→ plasma torque (density) R[jrBp/c], induced by magnetic islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends the previous GYRO formulation for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [R. E. Waltz, G. M. Staebler, J. Candy, and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)]. The focus is on electrostatic full torus radial slice simulations of externally induced q =m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius or about 20 ion gyroradii. Up to moderately strong E ×B rotation, the island torque scales with the radial electric field at the resonant surface Er, the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as Erw√I . The radial current inside the island is carried (entirely in the n =3 component) and almost entirely by the ion E ×B flux, since the electron E ×B and magnetic flutter particle fluxes are cancelled. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that while the expected magnetic braking of the toroidal plasma rotation occurs at strong co- and counter-current rotation, at null toroidal rotation, there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration up to the small diamagnetic (ion pressure gradient driven) co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er and null torque. This could be called the residual stress from an externally induced island. At zero Er, the only effect is the expected partial flattening of the electron temperature gradient within the island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations demonstrate almost complete RMP field screening and n =3 mode unlocking at strong Er.

  1. Cervical external immobilization devices: evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging issues at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francis L; Tweardy, Lisa; Shellock, Frank G

    2010-02-15

    Laboratory investigation, ex vivo. Currently, no studies have addressed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Under certain conditions significant heating may occur, resulting in patient burns. Furthermore, artifacts can be substantial and prevent the diagnostic use of MRI. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate MRI issues for 4 different cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Excessive heating and substantial artifacts are 2 potential complications associated with performing MRI at 3-Tesla in patients with cervical external immobilization devices. Using ex vivo testing techniques, MRI-related heating and artifacts were evaluated for 4 different cervical devices during MRI at 3-Tesla. Four cervical external immobilization devices (Generation 80, Resolve Ring and Superstructure, Resolve Ring and Jerome Vest/Jerome Superstructure, and the V1 Halo System; Ossur Americas, Aliso Viejo, CA) underwent MRI testing at 3-Tesla. All devices were made from nonmetallic or nonmagnetic materials. Heating was determined using a gelled-saline-filled skull phantom with fluoroptic thermometry probes attached to the skull pins. MRI was performed at 3-Tesla, using a high level of RF energy. Artifacts were assessed at 3-Tesla, using standard cervical imaging techniques. The Generation 80 and V1 Halo devices exhibited substantial temperature rises (11.6 degrees C and 8.5 degrees C, respectively), with "sparking" evident for the Generation 80 during the MRI procedure. Artifacts were problematic for these devices, as well. By comparison, the 2 Resolve Ring-based cervical external immobilization devices showed little or no heating (Tesla.

  2. Combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields on electromagnetically induced transparency of a two-dimensional quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Gh.; Shojaeian Kish, S.; Avazpour, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the electromagnetically induced transparency of a hydrogenic impurity confined in a two-dimensional quantum dot are investigated. To do this the probe absorption, group velocity and refractive index of the medium in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields are discussed. It is found that, electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system and its frequency, transparency window and group velocity of the probe field strongly depend on the external fields. In comparison with atomic system, one may control the electromagnetically induced transparency and the group velocity of light in nano structures with the dot size and confinement potential.

  3. The enhancement of the magnetic properties of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst using an external magnetic field for the production of green ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqasem, Bilal, E-mail: bilalalqasem@yahoo.com; Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Qureshi, Saima, E-mail: saima_qureshi_25@yahoo.com; Irfan, Muhammad, E-mail: irfan-mohammad@hotmail.com; Ur Rehman, Zia, E-mail: zia545@hotmail.com; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • External magnetic field was applied during syntheses of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst with enhanced magnetic properties was synthesized. • Effect of magnetic properties and morphology of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on ammonia yield was tested. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires with improved saturation magnetization created high ammonia yield. • A maximum green ammonia yield of 24.174 × 10{sup −3} mol h{sup −1} g cat{sup −1} was produced. - Abstract: Hematite nanocatalysts with improved magnetic properties were synthesized using electrical resistive heating under the presence of a magnetic field and a gaseous environment containing oxygen and nitrogen. The synthesis temperature was varied from 500–850 °C in the absence and presence of a static magnetic field of 0.25 T. VSM hysteresis results showed that there is a clear improve in the magnetic properties of the nanocatalysts when an external magnetic field was used during the synthesis. It also showed that the nanowires amongst other shapes hold the highest saturation magnetization value. The produced α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalysts were used for ammonia synthesis under an external magnetic field strength ranging between 0.4–2 T. Correspondingly, (24.174 mmol h{sup −1} g cat{sup −1}) ammonia was yielded by applying an external magnetic field of 1.2 T and using the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires synthesized at 700 °C with the highest saturation magnetization value of 189.43 emu/g.

  4. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  5. Gyrokinetic Simulations with External Resonant Magnetic Perturbations: Island Torque and Nonambipolar Transport with Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Static external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the δf gyrokinetic code GYRO. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr and the corresponding plasma torque (density) R[jrBθ/c], induced by islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends previous GYRO simulations for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [1,2]. The focus is on full torus radial slice electrostatic simulations of induced q=m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius. The island torque scales with the radial electric field Er the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as wErI^1/2. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration to the small diamagnetic co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er which can be called the residual stress [2] from an externally induced island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations of a core radial slice demonstrate island unlocking and the RMP screening. 6pt[1] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007). [2] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042504 (2011).

  6. Quasi-TEM electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, I. N.; Kuzelev, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field are investigated. The existence of quasi-TEM modes in a finite-strength magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that, in the limits of infinitely strong and zero magnetic fields, this mode transforms into a true TEM mode. The possibility of excitation of such modes by an electron beam in the regime of the anomalous Doppler effect is analyzed

  7. Effect of a static external magnetic perturbation on resistive mode stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of a general static external magnetic perturbation on the stability of resistive modes in a tokamak plasma is examined. There are three main parts to this investigation. Firstly, the vacuum perturbation is expanded as a set of well-behaved toroidal ring functions and is, thereafter, specified by the coefficients of this expansion. Secondly, a dispersion relation is derived for resistive plasma instabilities in the presence of a general external perturbation and finally, this dispersion relation is solved for the amplitudes of the tearing and twisting modes driven in the plasma by a specific perturbation. It is found that the amplitudes of driven tearing and twisting modes are negligible until a certain critical perturbation strength is exceeded. Only tearing modes are driven in low-β plasmas with εβ p p ∼>1. For error-field perturbations made up of a large number of different poloidal and toroidal harmonics the critical strength to drive locked modes has a open-quote staircase close-quote variation with edge-q, characterized by strong discontinuities as coupled rational surfaces enter or leave the plasma. For single harmonic perturbations the variation with edge-q is far smoother. Both types of behaviour have been observed experimentally. The critical perturbation strength is found to decrease strongly close to an ideal external kink stability boundary. This is also in agreement with experimental observations

  8. Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω {sub c}. The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B{sub e} / B{sub i}  ≈ 0–0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω{sub c}  ≈ 0.003–0.010 s{sup −1} (periods 600 < P{sub c} < 2000 s). The estimate of the cut-off frequency in the transition region is provided as well. In the propagating wave regime, the effective wave energy flux in the non-isothermal diverging flux tubes is the same as in the straight and homogeneous cylindrical waveguides. The obtained wave equation in the limit β  = 0 is used to study the kink oscillations of non-isothermal coronal loops. It is found that the gradient of temperature along the coronal loops reduces the frequency ratio of the first overtone to the fundamental mode, i.e., ω{sub 2}/ ω{sub 1} < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.

  9. Some studies of the relativistic theories for spin-3/2 particles and its interactions with an uniforme magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A.B. de.

    1984-01-01

    We present our investigations on the problems of non-causality of propagation, at the c-number level, of four spin 3/2 theories in the Schroedinger form employing the minimum number of eight components, in interaction with a constant magnetic field. Analyzing first the basic formulations of free particle spin 3/2 relativistic wave equations, we deduze, extending to spin 3/2 Dirac's ''spin 1/2 factorization'' of the mas condition, a new eight-component relativistic wave equation in the Schroedinger form for this spin and prove its relativistic invariance. We demostrate explicitly that the entire content of the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) theory for spin 3/2 can be written in the form of two Dirac-Like wave equations. We demonstrate that our wave equation for spin 3/2 cab indeed be deduzed from a modified RS theory wherein both Hamiltonians above referred to are taken hermitian. We also establish, in a transparent maner, the equivalences existing between the formalisms of RS, Belinfante and Hurley-Sudarshan for spin 3/2. We investigate the c-number problem of the stationary state eigevalues of the spin 3/2 Hamiltonians in a constant external magnetic field, in the four theories in the Schoedinger form with eight components, those of Moldauer and Case (deduzed from TS theory), of Weaver, Hammer and Good. (autor) [pt

  10. Edge-Localized mode control and transport generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the subject of edge localized mode (ELM) control using externally applied magnetic perturbations and proposes theoretical mechanisms that may be responsible for the induced transport changes. The first question that must be addressed is: what is the structure of magnetic field within the plasma? Although initial hypotheses focused on the possibility of the creation of a region of stochastic field lines at the tokamak edge, drift magnetohydrodynamics theory predicts that magnetic reconnection is strongly suppressed over the region of the pedestal with steep gradients and fast perpendicular rotation. Reconnection can only occur near the location where the perpendicular electron velocity vanishes, and hence the electron impedance nearly vanishes, or near the foot of the pedestal, where the plasma is sufficiently cold and resistive. The next question that must be addressed is: which processes are responsible for the observed transport changes, nonlinearity, turbulence, or stochasticity? Over the pedestal region where ions and electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, the quasilinear Lorentz force decelerates the electron fluid and accelerates the ion fluid. The quasilinear magnetic flutter flux is proportional to the force and produces an outward convective transport that can be significant. Over the pedestal region where the E x B flow and the electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, magnetic islands with a width on the order of the ion gyroradius can directly radiate drift waves. In addition, the combination of quasilinear electron transport and ion viscous transport can lead to a large net particle flux. Since there are many transport mechanisms that may be active simultaneously, it is important to determine which physical mechanisms are responsible for ELM control and to predict the scaling to future devices (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Low energy constituent quark and pion effective couplings in a weak external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2018-03-01

    An effective model with pions and constituent quarks in the presence of a weak external background electromagnetic field is derived by starting from a dressed one gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. By applying the auxiliary field and background field methods, the structureless pion limit is considered to extract effective pion and constituent quark couplings in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The leading terms of a large quark and gluon masses expansion are obtained by resolving effective coupling constants which turn out to depend on a weak magnetic field. Two pion field definitions are considered for that. Several relations between the effective coupling constants and parameters can be derived exactly or in the limit of very large quark mass at zero and weak constant magnetic field. Among these ratios, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner and the quark level Goldberger-Treiman relations are obtained. In addition to that, in the pion sector, the leading terms of Chiral Perturbation Theory coupled to the electromagnetic field are recovered. Some numerical estimates are provided for the effective coupling constants and parameters.

  12. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  13. Laminar Natural Convection in Square Enclosure Under an Externally Evanescent Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jery, Atef; Ben Brahim, Ammar; Magherbi, Mourad

    2009-01-01

    This paper numerically investigates the effect of an externally evanescent magnetic field on flow patterns and heat transfer of fluid in a square cavity. The horizontal walls of the enclosure are assumed to be insulated while the vertical walls are kept isothermal. A control volume finite element method is used to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0.71. The effect of constant Hartman number on Nusselt number was studied. Validation tests with existing data demonstrate the aptitude of the present method to produce accurate results. The effects of magnetic field inclination angle from 0 degree to 90 degree on streamlines distributions are shown for different values of Hartman number. For Grashof number equal to 10 5 , the values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are chosen, so that the Lorentz force acts only in the transient state of Nusselt number in natural convection. The Nusselt number was calculated for different values of the inverse relaxation time varying from 0 to + ∞. The magnitude and the number of oscillations of the Nusselt number were observed. It has been found that no oscillation was seen at relaxation time equal to 20

  14. Natural convection in square cavity filled with ferrofluid saturated porous medium in the presence of uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Tariq [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Z., E-mail: rajaziafat@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Z. [Department of Mathematics, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-02-01

    This article contains numerical results for free convection through square enclosure enclosing ferrofluid saturated porous medium when uniform magnetic field is applied upon the flow along x-axis. Heat is provided through bottom wall and a square blockage placed near left or right bottom corner of enclosure as a heat source. Left and right vertical boundaries of the cavity are considered insulated while upper wall is taken cold. The problem is modelled in terms of system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Finite element method has been adopted to compute numerical simulations of mathematical problem for wide range of pertinent flow parameters including Rayleigh number, Hartman number, Darcy number and Prandtl number. Analysis of results reveals that the strength of streamline circulation is an increasing function of Darcy and Prandtl number where convection heat transfer is dominant for large values of these parameters whereas increase in Hartman number has opposite effects on isotherms and streamline circulations. Thermal conductivity and hence local heat transfer rate of fluid gets increased when ferroparticles are introduced in the fluid. Average Nusselt number increases with increase in Darcy and Rayleigh numbers while it is decreases when Hartman number is increased.

  15. Natural convection in square cavity filled with ferrofluid saturated porous medium in the presence of uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Tariq; Mehmood, Z.; Abbas, Z.

    2017-01-01

    This article contains numerical results for free convection through square enclosure enclosing ferrofluid saturated porous medium when uniform magnetic field is applied upon the flow along x-axis. Heat is provided through bottom wall and a square blockage placed near left or right bottom corner of enclosure as a heat source. Left and right vertical boundaries of the cavity are considered insulated while upper wall is taken cold. The problem is modelled in terms of system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Finite element method has been adopted to compute numerical simulations of mathematical problem for wide range of pertinent flow parameters including Rayleigh number, Hartman number, Darcy number and Prandtl number. Analysis of results reveals that the strength of streamline circulation is an increasing function of Darcy and Prandtl number where convection heat transfer is dominant for large values of these parameters whereas increase in Hartman number has opposite effects on isotherms and streamline circulations. Thermal conductivity and hence local heat transfer rate of fluid gets increased when ferroparticles are introduced in the fluid. Average Nusselt number increases with increase in Darcy and Rayleigh numbers while it is decreases when Hartman number is increased.

  16. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow, namely a rivulet draining under gravity down a vertical substrate, a rivulet driven by a longitudinal shear stress at its free surface, and a ridge on a horizontal substrate, and find qualitatively similar behaviour for all three problems. We show that, in agreement with previous numerical studies, the free surface profile of an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with pinned contact lines is skewed as the shear stress is increased from zero, and that there is a maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with prescribed semi-width is possible. In practice, one or both of the contact lines will de-pin before this maximum value of the shear stress is reached, and so we consider situations in which the rivulet/ridge de-pins at one or both contact lines. In the case of de-pinning only at the advancing contact line, the rivulet/ridge is flattened and widened as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a second maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with a prescribed advancing contact angle is possible. In contrast, in the case of de-pinning only at the receding contact line, the rivulet/ridge is thickened and narrowed as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a solution with a prescribed receding contact angle for all values of the shear stress. In general, in the case of de-pinning at both contact lines there is a critical "yield" value of the shear stress beyond which no equilibrium solution is possible and the rivulet/ridge will evolve unsteadily. In the Appendix, we show that an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with prescribed flux/area is quasi-statically stable to two-dimensional perturbations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Time-dependent scattering of incident light of various wavelengths in ferrofluids under external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingyu; Song, Dongxing; Geng, Jiafeng; Jing, Dengwei

    2018-02-01

    Ferrofluids can exhibit the anisotropic thermodynamic properties under magnetic fields. The dynamic optical properties of ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields are of particular interest due to their potential application as various optical devices. Although time-dependent light scattering by ferrofluids have been extensively studied, the effect of wavelength of incident light have been rarely considered. Here, for the first time, we investigated both the time- and wavelength-dependent light scattering in water based ferrofluids containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The field-induced response behavior of the prepared ferrofluid samples was determined and verified first by thermal conductivity measurement and numerical simulation. Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to record the temporal evolution of transmitted intensity of incident light of various wavelengths passing through the ferrofluid sample and propagating parallel to the applied field. As expected, the light intensity decreases to a certain value right after the field is turned on due to the thermal fluctuation induced disorder inside the flexible particle chains. Then the light intensity further decreases with time until the appearance of a minimum at time τ0 followed by an inversed increase before finally reaches equilibrium at a particular time. More importantly, the characteristic inversion time τ0 was found to follow a power law increase with the wavelength of incident light (τ0 ∼ λα, where α = 2.07). A quantitative explanation for the wavelength dependence of characteristic time was proposed based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. The time-dependent light scattering in ferrofluids under different incident wavelengths was rationalized by considering both the coarsening process of the particle chains and the occurrence of resonance within the

  18. Some astrophysical processes around magnetized black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološ, M.; Tursunov, A.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform external magnetic field. A real magnetic field around a black hole will be far away from to be completely regular and uniform, a uniform magnetic field is used as linear approximation. Ionized particle acceleration, charged particle oscillations and synchrotron radiation of moving charged particle have been studied.

  19. Entangled plasmon generation in nonlinear spaser system under the action of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubin, M. Yu.; Shesterikov, A. V.; Karpov, S. N.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper theoretically investigates features of quantum dynamics for localized plasmons in three-particle or four-particle spaser systems consisting of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. In the framework of the mean field approximation, the conditions for the observation of stable stationary regimes for single-particle plasmons in spaser systems are revealed, and realization of these regimes is discussed. The strong dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent nanoparticles for the four-particle spaser system is investigated. We show that this interaction can lead to the decreasing of the autocorrelation function values for plasmons. The generation of entangled plasmons in a three-particle spaser system with nonlinear plasmon-exciton interaction is predicted. The use of an external magnetic field is proposed for control of the cross correlations between plasmons in the three-particle spaser system.

  20. Studies on entanglement entropy for Hubbard model with hole-doping and external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.L.; Li, Y.C.; Sun, X.Z.; Liu, Q.M.; Qin, Y.; Fu, H.H.; Gao, G.Y.

    2005-01-01

    By using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, we have studied the von Neumann entropy of a quantum system, which describes the entanglement of the system block and the rest of the chain. It is found that there is a close relation between the entanglement entropy and properties of the system. The hole-doping can alter the charge-charge and spin-spin interactions, resulting in charge polarization along the chain. By comparing the results before and after the doping, we find that doping favors increase of the von Neumann entropy and thus also favors the exchange of information along the chain. Furthermore, we calculated the spin and entropy distribution in external magnetic filed. It is confirmed that both the charge-charge and the spin-spin interactions affect the exchange of information along the chain, making the entanglement entropy redistribute

  1. Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Excitonic magnet in external field: Complex order parameter and spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, D.; Hariki, A.; Kuneš, J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate spin-triplet exciton condensation in the two-orbital Hubbard model close to half-filling by means of dynamical mean-field theory. Employing an impurity solver that handles complex off-diagonal hybridization functions, we study the behavior of excitonic condensate in stoichiometric and doped systems subject to external magnetic field. We find a general tendency of the triplet order parameter to lie perpendicular with the applied field and identify exceptions from this rule. For solutions exhibiting k -odd spin textures, we discuss the Bloch theorem, which, in the absence of spin-orbit coupling, forbids the appearance of spontaneous net spin current. We demonstrate that the Bloch theorem is not obeyed by the dynamical mean-field theory.

  3. Behaviour of the order parameter of the simple magnet in an external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a homogeneous external field on the three-dimensional uniaxial magnet behaviour near the critical point is investigated within the framework of the nonperturbative collective variables method using the ρ4 model. The research is carried out for the low-temperature region. The analytic explicit expressions for the free energy, average spin moment and susceptibility are obtained for weak and strong fields in comparison with the field value belonging to the pseudocritical line. The calculations are performed on the microscopic level without any adjusting parameters. It is established that the long-wave fluctuations of the order parameter play a crucial role in forming a crossover between the temperature-dependence and field-dependence critical behaviour of the system.

  4. Decoupling of the hyperfine interactions in /sup 12/B ions by the external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K; Tanihata, I; Kogo, S; Tanaka, M [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1976-11-01

    It is known that product nuclei /sup 12/B (Isup(..pi..) = 1/sup +/, Tsub(1/2) = 20 ms) by the /sup 11/B(d,p)/sup 12/B reaction are sizably oriented if one selects recoil nuclei at the incident deuteron energy and the recoil angle thetasub(R). The hyperfine interactions in recoil ions in flight in free space affect the nuclear orientation. In this experiment, the nuclear orientation in the recoil ions implanted into a stopper were measured as a function of strength of a static magnetic field applied in normal to the reaction plane. A thin single crystal of magnesium was used as the recoil stopper, of which the hexagonal c-axis was set in parallel to the external field.

  5. Population and phase dynamics of F=1 spinor condensates in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, D.R.; Passos, E.J.V. de

    2004-01-01

    We show that the classical dynamics underlying the mean-field description of homogeneous mixtures of spinor F=1 Bose-Einstein condensates in an external magnetic field is integrable as a consequence of number conservation and axial symmetry in spin space. The population dynamics depends only on the quadratic term of the Zeeman energy and on the strength of the spin-dependent term of the atom-atom interaction. We determine the equilibrium populations as function of the ratio of these two quantities and the miscibility of the hyperfine components in the ground state spinors are thoroughly discussed. Outside the equilibrium, the populations are always a periodic function of time where the periodic motion can be a libration or a rotation. Our studies also indicate the absence of metastability

  6. Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  8. An interacting instanton and anti-instanton system under external color magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakano, M.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium configurations for the instanton and anti-instanton system of the SU(2) gauge field under constant external color magnetic fields are studied by applying the statistical mechanics method. The vacuum has a stabel equilibrium state in the case where the interaction between pseudoparticles is partly considered through the local gauge field in determining the mean dipole moment of instantons. It is shown, however, that there exists no equilibrium state, either stable or unstable, when the dipolar interaction with a particular instanton-size-dependent cutoff is taken into account directly by the second virial coefficient. To analyze this discrepancy a more general cutoff is introduced and the density of instantons is determined for equilibrium states with vanishing external fields, when the cutoff parameter is varied. Above a certain cutoff length there exist two branches of equilibrium configurations with high or low instanton densities, while below it no equilibrium state is obtained. It is shown that we have a critical cutoff length near but slightly larger than the above value and that the equilibrium states on the lower density branch corresponding to cutoff lengths larger than this critical value are stable, while all remaining equilibrium states are unstable. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of Diaphragm and External Intercostals Fatigue from Surface EMG using Cervical Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed: (1 to test the reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG recording of the diaphragm and external intercostals contractions response to cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS, (2 to examine the amount and the types of inspiratory muscle fatigue that developed after maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV maneuvers.Ten male college students without physical disability (22.1±2.0 years old participated in the study and each completed a control (quiet breathing trial and a fatigue (MVV maneuvers trial sequentially. In the quiet breathing trial, the subjects maintained quiet breathing for five minutes. The subjects performed five maximal static inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before and after the quiet breathing. In the MVV trial, subjects performed five maximal inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before, immediately after, and ten minutes after two sets of MVV maneuvers performed five minutes apart. Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, sEMG of diaphragm and external intercostals during maximal static inspiratory efforts and during CMS were recorded. In the quiet breathing trial, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.95-0.99 were observed in all the variables. In the MVV trial, the PImax, the EMG amplitude and the median power frequency during maximal static inspiratory efforts significantly decreased in both the diaphragm and the external intercostals immediately after the MVV maneuvers Sensors 2008, 8 2175 (P 0.05. It is concluded that the sEMG recordings of the diaphragm during maximal static inspiratory efforts and in response to CMS allow reproducible sequential assessment of diaphragm contractility. MVV maneuvers resulted in inspiratory muscles fatigue, possibly central fatigue.

  10. Moessbauer study of LaFeAsO and F-doped superconductors in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, S; Kobayashi, Y; Higashitaniguchi, S; Kurokuzu, M; Saito, M; Seto, M; Mitsui, T; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H

    2010-01-01

    The iron-based F-doped superconductors LaFeAsO 1-x F x with a transition temperature of 24 K (for x = 0.07) and 26 K (x = 0.11) and its parent material LaFeAsO were studied using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Further investigation was carried out by applying external magnetic fields. F-doped superconductors showed a singlet pattern with no magnetic splitting throughout the temperature range from 4.2 to 298 K. On the other hand, magnetically-split spectra were observed in the parent LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature of about 140 K. The internal magnetic field reached 5.3 T at 4.2 K. The external magnetic fields up to 14 T were applied to the singlet phases, F-doped superconductors and the parent LaFeAsO above the Neel temperature. The induced magnetically-split spectra showed the internal magnetic fields with the comparable value to the applied fields. This fact confirmed that these singlet phases have the paramagnetic feature. The magnetic fields were also applied to the magnetically-ordered phase of LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature. The evolution of the spectra depending on the external magnetic fields was clearly explained by a model with two sublattice spins of the powdered antiferromagnet. This fact confirmed the magnetically-ordered phase is an antiferromagnet. The spin-flop field was also estimated by the model as about 26 T.

  11. Phase-Field simulation of phase decomposition in Fe-Cr-Co alloy under an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Hidehiro

    2004-07-01

    Phase decomposition during isothermal aging of a Fe-Cr-Co ternary alloy under an external magnetic field is simulated based on the phase-field method. In this simulation, since the Gibbs energy available from the thermodynamic CALPHAD database of the equilibrium phase diagram is employed as a chemical free energy, the present calculation provides the quantitative microstructure changes directly linked to the phase diagram. The simulated microstructure evolution demonstrates that the lamella like microstructure elongated along the external magnetic field is evolved with the progress of aging. The morphological and temporal developments of the simulated microstructures are in good agreement with experimental results that have been obtained for this alloy system.

  12. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.; Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due

  13. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhe; Zhang Jin; Han Rushan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov–Bohm effect (A–B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A–B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed

  14. The IBM-5C stationary in source without an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulygin, V.M.; Malakhov, N.P.; Panasenkov, A.A.; Pleshivtsev, N.V.; Romanov, V.I.; Semashko, N.N.; Seregin, V.S.; Chukhin, I.A.; Shmeleva, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose of constructing efficient injectors of hydrogen fast atoms for plasma heating in magnetic traps problems arising in the course of creation of stationary high-current ion sources and specific methods of solution of these problems are considered. The design and characteristics of the YVM-50 stationary ion source without an external magnetic field intended for obtaining hydrogen ion beams with energy up to 40 keV, current 30 A and pulse duration over 2 sec. are described. Thermal regime of ion source direct heating cathode is considered. It is shown that the lanthanum hexaboride cathode at the temperature 1700 deg C ensures 30 A/cm 2 emission density radiating about 60 W/cm 2 . YBM-5c consists of a gas-discharge chamber (GDC) and ion-optical system (IOS). GDS is composed of a cathode unit, anode flange, casing, gas supply system, IOS consists of emission accelerating and earthed electrodes. At the discharge pulse duration less than 1 sec. current emission density attains 0,5 A/cm 2 which permits to extract from the ion source 30 A current beam. The ion source operation in complex with a high-voltage supply system has shown that one of the most important problems is reliability of high-voltage protection from break-downs and stability of modulators operation

  15. A novel coaxial Ku-band transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu, E-mail: lingjunpu@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Jiang, Tao [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel coaxial transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field is designed to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. By using a coaxial structure, the space-charge potential energy is suppressed significantly, that is good for enhancing efficient beam-wave interaction. In order to improve the transmission stability of the unmagnetized intense relativistic electron beam, a Pierce-like cathode is employed in the novel device. By contrast with conventional relativistic microwave generators, this kind of device has the advantages of high stability, non-guiding magnetic field, and high efficiency. Moreover, with the coaxial design, it is possible to improve the power-handing capacity by increasing the radial dimension of the Ku-band device. With a 550 keV and 7.5 kA electron beam, a 1.25 GW microwave pulse at 12.08 GHz has been obtained in the simulation. The power conversion efficiency is about 30%.

  16. Effect of external magnetic field on critical current for the onset of virtual cathode oscillations in relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hramov, Alexander; Koronovskii, Alexey; Morozov, Mikhail; Mushtakov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we research the space charge limiting current value at which the oscillating virtual cathode is formed in the relativistic electron beam as a function of the external magnetic field guiding the beam electrons. It is shown that the space charge limiting (critical) current decreases with growth of the external magnetic field, and that there is an optimal induction value of the magnetic field at which the critical current for the onset of virtual cathode oscillations in the electron beam is minimum. For the strong external magnetic field the space charge limiting current corresponds to the analytical relation derived under the assumption that the motion of the electron beam is one-dimensional [D.J. Sullivan, J.E. Walsh, E. Coutsias, in: V.L. Granatstein, I. Alexeff (Eds.), Virtual Cathode Oscillator (Vircator) Theory, in: High Power Microwave Sources, vol. 13, Artech House Microwave Library, 1987, Chapter 13]. Such behavior is explained by the characteristic features of the dynamics of electron space charge in the longitudinal and radial directions in the drift space at the different external magnetic fields

  17. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J; Watkins, Ronald D; Zviman, Menekhem M; Guttman, Michael A; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by the addition of novel radiofrequency filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface pads. The radiofrequency filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner and prevented cable/surface pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high specific absorption rate sequences to validate MRI image quality and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (n=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI image quality was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6 mm below the skin surface. Radiofrequency heating was within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading the image quality or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2014-07-07

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  19. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Baofu; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  20. Multicritical behavior of the antiferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with the repulsive biquadratic coupling in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinc, Ahmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the antiferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with the repulsive biquadratic coupling in an external magnetic field using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. First, we have investigated the thermal variations of the sublattice magnetizations and obtained four different main topological types. Then, we have calculated the phase diagrams and five main different phase diagram topologies are found. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are made

  1. Multicritical behavior of the antiferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with the repulsive biquadratic coupling in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdinc, Ahmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2006-06-15

    We have studied the antiferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with the repulsive biquadratic coupling in an external magnetic field using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. First, we have investigated the thermal variations of the sublattice magnetizations and obtained four different main topological types. Then, we have calculated the phase diagrams and five main different phase diagram topologies are found. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are made.

  2. Synthesis, magnetic properties and electronic structure of the S  =  ½ uniform spin chain system InCuPO5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswararao, B.; Hazra, Binoy K.; Rout, Dibyata; Srinivasarao, P. V.; Srinath, S.; Panda, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties and electronic structure of the compound InCuPO5 synthesized by a solid state reaction method. The structure of InCuPO5 comprises S  =  ½ uniform spin chains formed by corner-shared CuO4 units. Magnetic susceptibility (χ(T)) data show a broad maximum at about 65 K, a characteristic feature of one-dimensional (1D) magnetism. The χ(T) data are fitted to the coupled S  =  ½ Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAFM) uniform chain model that gives the intra-chain coupling (J/k B) between nearest-neighbor Cu2+ ions as  -100 K and the ratio of inter-chain to intra-chain coupling (J‧/J) as about 0.07. The exchange couplings estimated from the magnetic data analysis are in good agreement with the values computed from the electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory  +  Hubbard U (DFT  +  U) approach. The combination of theoretical and experimental analysis confirms that InCuPO5 is a candidate material for weakly coupled S  = ½ uniform chains. A detailed theoretical analysis of the electronic structure further reveals that the system is insulating with a gap of 2.4 eV and a local moment of 0.70 µ B/Cu.

  3. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  4. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  5. Introduction and pinning of domain walls in 50 nm NiFe constrictions using local and external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnd, G.; Pham, V.T.; Marty, A.; Jamet, M.; Beigné, C.; Notin, L.; Vergnaud, C.; Rortais, F.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    We study domain wall injection in 100 nm wide NiFe nanowires, followed by domain wall propagation and pinning on 50 nm wide constrictions. The injection is performed using local and external magnetic fields. Using several nucleation pad geometries, we show that at these small dimensions the use of an external field only does not allow obtaining a reproducible injection/pinning process. However, the use of an additional local field, created by an Oersted line, allows to nucleate a reversed domain at zero external applied field. Then, an external field of 5 mT enables the domain wall to propagate far from the Oersted line, and the pinning occurs reproducibly. We also show that notwithstanding the reproducibility of the pinning process, the depinning field is found to be stochastic, following a bimodal distribution. Using micromagnetic simulation we link two different DW configurations, vortex and transverse, to the two typical depinning fields. - Highlights: • Magnetic domain wall introduction and pinning in Permalloy nanowires with 50 nm wide constrictions. • Magnetic domain nucleation at zero external applied field. • Bimodal distribution of the domain wall configuration in the constriction.

  6. Formation of CdS thin films in a chemical bath environment under the action of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaskes-Luna, Kh.G.; Zekhe, A.; Nhukhil'o-Garsiya, M.P.; Starostenko, O.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic field on obtaining thin CdS films on glass sub layers through the method of chemical deposition from the cadmium chloride aqueous solution is studied. The intensity and direction of the magnetic field during deposition obviously affect the number of physical properties of polycrystalline films: thickness, grain size and optical quality. The films characteristics are studied through an atomic-power microscope, light absorption spectroscopy and conductometry in darkness. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of notions on the cadmium and sulfur specific interaction in the chemical bath with a magnetic field [ru

  7. On the theory of Heiser and Shercliff experiment. Part 1: MHD flow in an open channel in strong uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molokov, S. Y.; Allen, J. E.

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of viscous incompressible fluid in strong magnetic fields parallel to a free surface of fluid are investigated. The problem of flow in an open channel due to a moving side wall in uniform magnetic field is considered, and treated by means of matched asymptotic expansions method. The flow region is divided into various subregions and leading terms of asymptotic expansions as M tends towards infinity (M is the Hartmann number) of solutions of correspondent problems in each subregion are obtained. An exact analytic solution of equations governing the free-surface layer of thickness of order M to the minus 1/2 power is obtained.

  8. Analysis Of Convective Plane Stagnation Point Chemically Reactive Mhd Flow Past A Vertical Porous Plate With A Convective Boundary Condition In The Presence Of A Uniform Magnetic Field.

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniyan, A.,

    2013-01-01

    The numerical investigation of a stagnation point boundary layer flow , mass and heat transfer of a steady two dimensional , incompressible , viscous electrically conducting, chemically reacting laminar fluid over a vertical convectively heated , electrically neutral flat plate exposed to a transverse uniform magnetic field has been carried out to examine the influence of the simultaneous presence of the effects of a convective boundary condition, chemical reaction, heat transfer and suctio...

  9. Numerical investigation of the heat transfer of a ferrofluid inside a tube in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Saman; Mokhtari, Mojtaba; Gerdroodbary, M. Barzegar; Fallah, Keivan

    2017-02-01

    In this article, a three-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the effect of a magnetic field on a ferrofluid inside a tube. This study comprehensively analyzes the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field in the heat transfer of a tube while a ferrofluid (water with 0.86 vol% nanoparticles (Fe3O4) is let flow. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used for obtaining the flow and heat transfer inside the tube. The influence of various parameters, such as concentration of nanoparticles, intensity of the magnetic field, wire distance and Reynolds number, on the heat transfer is investigated. According to the obtained results, the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field significantly increases the Nusselt number (more than 300%) inside the tube. Also, the magnetic field induced by the parallel wire affects the average velocity of the ferrofluid and forms two strong eddies in the tube. Our findings show that the diffusion also raises as the concentration of the nanoparticle is increased.

  10. A Comparison of Methods to Measure the Magnetic Moment of Magnetotactic Bacteria through Analysis of Their Trajectories in External Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria possess organelles called magnetosomes that confer a magnetic moment on the cells, resulting in their partial alignment with external magnetic fields. Here we show that analysis of the trajectories of cells exposed to an external magnetic field can be used to measure the average magnetic dipole moment of a cell population in at least five different ways. We apply this analysis to movies of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, and compare the values of the magnetic moment obtained in this way to that obtained by direct measurements of magnetosome dimension from electron micrographs. We find that methods relying on the viscous relaxation of the cell orientation give results comparable to that obtained by magnetosome measurements, whereas methods relying on statistical mechanics assumptions give systematically lower values of the magnetic moment. Since the observed distribution of magnetic moments in the population is not sufficient to explain this discrepancy, our results suggest that non-thermal random noise is present in the system, implying that a magnetotactic bacterial population should not be considered as similar to a paramagnetic material. PMID:24349185

  11. Measurement of dipole-moment in atomic transitions under strong external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira; Ikehara, Tadashi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Watanabe, Takasi; Yoguchi, Itaru; Suzuki, Kazuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining an accurate value of the electric dipole moment μ is essential in the fields of laser application technologies. A direct way of measuring the electric dipole moment μ is to observe the Rabi-oscillation which manifests itself in the coherent photo-excitation behavior of atoms. In the case of the elements which have large angular momenta, identifying the Rabi-oscillation in their excitation behavior becomes rather difficult. We proposed an accurate and straightforward method of determining the electric-dipole moment μ between multi-fold degenerate levels. The point is to remove the degeneracy by applying an external magnetic field with the aid of the Zeeman effect and, then, to realize a degeneration free coherent excitation. As a result, we can observe the Rabi-oscillations explicitly in the excitation υs. laser-fluence curves. The present method provides a reliable basis of experimental determination of μ. As an example, we applied the present method to a transition to 0-17,362 cm -1 level in uranium and obtained the value μ=0.86±0.06 (Debye). (author)

  12. The magnetic interaction of Janus magnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seong, Y.; Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic interaction between circular Janus magnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid under the influence of an externally applied uniform magnetic field. The particles are equally compartmentalized into paramagnetic and non-magnetic sides. A direct numerical scheme is

  13. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of structures of a suspension comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoling; Min Yong; Ma Tianyu; Luo Wei; Yan Mi

    2009-01-01

    The structures of suspensions comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in magnetic fields are studied using two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetic interaction among magnetic particles, magnetic field strength, and concentrations of both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles are considered as key influencing factors in the present work. The results show that chain-like clusters of magnetic particles are formed along the field direction. The size of the clusters increases with increasing magnetic interaction between magnetic particles, while it keeps nearly unchanged as the field strength increases. As the concentration of magnetic particles increases, both the number and size of the clusters increase. Moreover, nonmagnetic particles are found to hinder the migration of magnetic ones. As the concentration of nonmagnetic particles increases, the hindrance on migration of magnetic particles is enhanced

  14. Pulsed-coil magnet systems for applying uniform 10-30 T fields to centimeter-scale targets on Sandia's Z facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovang, D C; Lamppa, D C; Cuneo, M E; Owen, A C; McKenney, J; Johnson, D W; Radovich, S; Kaye, R J; McBride, R D; Alexander, C S; Awe, T J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Haill, T A; Jones, P A; Argo, J W; Dalton, D G; Robertson, G K; Waisman, E M; Sinars, D B; Meissner, J; Milhous, M; Nguyen, D N; Mielke, C H

    2014-12-01

    Sandia has successfully integrated the capability to apply uniform, high magnetic fields (10-30 T) to high energy density experiments on the Z facility. This system uses an 8-mF, 15-kV capacitor bank to drive large-bore (5 cm diameter), high-inductance (1-3 mH) multi-turn, multi-layer electromagnets that slowly magnetize the conductive targets used on Z over several milliseconds (time to peak field of 2-7 ms). This system was commissioned in February 2013 and has been used successfully to magnetize more than 30 experiments up to 10 T that have produced exciting and surprising physics results. These experiments used split-magnet topologies to maintain diagnostic lines of sight to the target. We describe the design, integration, and operation of the pulsed coil system into the challenging and harsh environment of the Z Machine. We also describe our plans and designs for achieving fields up to 20 T with a reduced-gap split-magnet configuration, and up to 30 T with a solid magnet configuration in pursuit of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept.

  15. Magnetic evaluation of the external surface in cast heat-resistant steel tubes with different aging states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Mónica P.; Silveira, Rosa M.; Pacheco, Clara J.; Bruno, Antonio C.; Araujo, Jefferson F. D. F.; Eckstein, Carlos B.; Nogueira, Laudemiro; de Almeida, Luiz H.; Rebello, João M. A.; Pereira, Gabriela R.

    2018-06-01

    Heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels have become the principal alloys for use in steam reformer tubes in the petrochemical industry due to its mechanical properties. These tubes are typically exposed to severe operational conditions leading to microstructural transformations such as the aging phenomenon. The combination of high temperatures and moderate stresses causes creep damages, being necessary to monitor its structural condition by non-destructive techniques. The tube external wall is also subjected to oxidizing atmospheres, favoring the formation of an external surface, composed by an oxide scale and a chromium depleted zone. This external surface is usually not taken into account in the tube evaluation, which can lead to erroneous estimations of the service life of these components. In order to observe the magnetic influence of this layer, two samples, exposed to different operational temperatures, were characterized by non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT), scanning DC-susceptometer and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). It was found that the external surface thickness influences directly in the magnetic response of the samples.

  16. Displacements and intensities of the components of hydrogenic lines of the helium atom in the presence of exterior uniform electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Herman, L.; Nguyen, H.; Drawin, H.W.

    1967-01-01

    The Waller-Foster method for hydrogenic lines of neutral helium is extended in order to take into account an external magnetic field (vector K) having an arbitrary angle with an external constant electric field (vector F). The diagonal correction has been evaluated numerically taking into account recent experimental data. A Fortran IV program written for the CDC 3600 computer allows to calculate the displacements and the intensities for any hydrogenic transition. Special attention is given to the {2-4} transitions in neutral helium. (authors) [fr

  17. Influence of an external magnetic field on damage by self-ion irradiation in Fe90Cr10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an external magnetic field (B=0.5 T on Fe90Cr10 specimens during Fe ion irradiation, has been investigated by means of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS. The analysis has revealed significant differences in the average hyperfine magnetic field (=0.3 T between non-irradiated and irradiated samples as well as between irradiations made with B (w/ B and without B (w/o B. It is considered that these variations can be due to changes in the local environment around the probe nuclei (57Fe; where vacancies and Cr distribution play a role. The results indicate that the Cr distribution in the neighbourhood of the iron atoms could be changed by the application of an external field. This would imply that an external magnetic field may be an important parameter to take into account in predictive models for Cr behaviour in Fe–Cr alloys, and especially in fusion conditions where intense magnetic fields are required for plasma confinement.

  18. A thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field: The next step to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Caracciolo, Ryan A.; Peck, Mason; Leve, Frederick A.

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the interaction between a moving conductor and a static magnetic field is critical to understanding the operation of induction motors, eddy current braking, and the dynamics of satellites moving through Earth's magnetic field. Here, we develop the case of a thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field, which is the simplest, non-trivial, magneto-statics problem that leads to complete closed-form expressions for the resulting potentials, fields, and currents. This solution requires knowledge of all of Maxwell's time independent equations, scalar and vector potential equations, and the Lorentz force law. The paper presents four cases and their associated experimental results, making this topic appropriate for an advanced student lab project.

  19. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping [Hubei University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro and Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices. (orig.)

  20. The mechanical properties of high speed GTAW weld and factors of nonlinear multiple regression model under external transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Chang, Yunlong; Li, Yingmin; He, Youyou

    2013-05-01

    A transverse magnetic field was introduced to the arc plasma in the process of welding stainless steel tubes by high-speed Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG for short) without filler wire. The influence of external magnetic field on welding quality was investigated. 9 sets of parameters were designed by the means of orthogonal experiment. The welding joint tensile strength and form factor of weld were regarded as the main standards of welding quality. A binary quadratic nonlinear regression equation was established with the conditions of magnetic induction and flow rate of Ar gas. The residual standard deviation was calculated to adjust the accuracy of regression model. The results showed that, the regression model was correct and effective in calculating the tensile strength and aspect ratio of weld. Two 3D regression models were designed respectively, and then the impact law of magnetic induction on welding quality was researched.

  1. Formaldehyde sensor based on Ni-doped tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanopowder induced by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zikui; Xie, Changsheng; Hu, Mulin; Zhang, Shunping

    2008-12-01

    The sensors based on Ni-doped ZnO nanopowder with tetrapod-shape (T-ZnO) were fabricated by screen-printing technique with external magnetic field in different direction. The morphologies and crystal structures of the thick film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. Gas-sensing property of sensors responded to 100 ppm formaldehyde was also detected. The results show that the direction of magnetic field has crucial effect on the sensor sensitivity. The sensors based on 5 wt% Ni-doped T-ZnO induced by magnetic field in parallel direction to the thick film surface, has the optimization sensitivity, the shortest response and recovery time, which are 10.6, 16 and 15 s, respectively. The magnetic-field induction model and the gas-sensing mechanism of the Ni-doped T-ZnO are proposed.

  2. Electronic Properties of SiNTs Under External Electric and Magnetic Fields Using the Tight-Binding Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the electronic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) under external transverse electric fields and axial magnetic fields using the tight-binding approximation. It was found that, after switching on the electric and magnetic fields, band modifications such as distortion of degeneracy, change in energy dispersion and subband spacing, and bandgap size reduction occur. The bandgap of silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs) decreases linearly with increasing electric field strength, but the bandgap for silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs) first increases and then decreases (metallic) or first remains constant and then decreases (semiconducting). Our results show that the bandgap of Si h-NTs is very sensitive to both electric and magnetic fields, unlike Si g-NTs, which are more sensitive to electric than magnetic fields.

  3. Probabilistic uniformities of uniform spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Lopez, J.; Romaguera, S.; Sanchis, M.

    2017-07-01

    The theory of metric spaces in the fuzzy context has shown to be an interesting area of study not only from a theoretical point of view but also for its applications. Nevertheless, it is usual to consider these spaces as classical topological or uniform spaces and there are not too many results about constructing fuzzy topological structures starting from a fuzzy metric. Maybe, H/{sup o}hle was the first to show how to construct a probabilistic uniformity and a Lowen uniformity from a probabilistic pseudometric /cite{Hohle78,Hohle82a}. His method can be directly translated to the context of fuzzy metrics and allows to characterize the categories of probabilistic uniform spaces or Lowen uniform spaces by means of certain families of fuzzy pseudometrics /cite{RL}. On the other hand, other different fuzzy uniformities can be constructed in a fuzzy metric space: a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity /cite{GGPV06}; a fuzzifiying uniformity /cite{YueShi10}, etc. The paper /cite{GGRLRo} gives a study of several methods of endowing a fuzzy pseudometric space with a probabilistic uniformity and a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity. In 2010, J. Guti/'errez Garc/'{/i}a, S. Romaguera and M. Sanchis /cite{GGRoSanchis10} proved that the category of uniform spaces is isomorphic to a category formed by sets endowed with a fuzzy uniform structure, i. e. a family of fuzzy pseudometrics satisfying certain conditions. We will show here that, by means of this isomorphism, we can obtain several methods to endow a uniform space with a probabilistic uniformity. Furthermore, these constructions allow to obtain a factorization of some functors introduced in /cite{GGRoSanchis10}. (Author)

  4. Simple and efficient synthesis of copper(II)-modified uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu2+-modified magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol-gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost.

  5. Simple and efficient synthesis of copper(II)-modified uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu 2+ -modified magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol–gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu 2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu 2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu 2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost

  6. Zn induced in-gap electronic states in La214 probed by uniform magnetic susceptibility: relevance to the suppression of superconducting T c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. S.; Naqib, S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Substitution of isovalent non-magnetic defects, such as Zn, in the CuO2 plane strongly modifies the magnetic properties of strongly electron correlated hole doped cuprate superconductors. The reason for enhanced uniform magnetic susceptibility, χ, in Zn substituted cuprates is debatable. Generally the defect induced magnetic behavior has been analyzed mainly in terms of two somewhat contrasting scenarios. The first one is due to independent localized moments appearing in the vicinity of Zn arising because of the strong electronic/magnetic correlations present in the host compound and the second one is due to transfer of quasiparticle (QP) spectral weight and creation of weakly localized low-energy electronic states associated with each Zn atom in place of an in-plane Cu. If the second scenario is correct, one should expect a direct correspondence between Zn induced suppression of the superconducting transition temperature, T c, and the extent of the enhanced magnetic susceptibility at low temperature. In this case, the low-T enhancement of χ would be due to weakly localized QP states at low energy and these electronic states will be precluded from taking part in Cooper pairing. We explore this second possibility by analyzing the χ(T) data for La2-x Sr x Cu1-y Zn y O4 with different hole contents, p (=x), and Zn concentrations (y) in this paper. The results of our analysis support this scenario.

  7. Magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back during humeral abduction and external rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrero, Camilo G.; Casagranda, Bethany U.; Towers, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bradley, James P. [Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back and determine the reliability of MR in the abducted and externally rotated (ABER) position for the prospective diagnosis of arthroscopically proven cases of posterosuperior labral peel back. After approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, databases of patients who underwent arthroscopy over a 2-year period for one of three clinical diagnoses [suspected type 2 superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, posterior instability, or multidirectional instability] were reviewed after anonymization by an honest broker. Sixty-three cases were selected by the following inclusion criteria: operative report documenting labral peel back in the ABER position, age <40 years, and preceding MR arthrogram evaluations with images in the ABER position (n = 34). Inclusion criteria for the control group differed from those for the case group insofar as the operative note documented the absence of posterosuperior labral peel back (n = 29). Cases and controls were randomized in one list and evaluated independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists unaware of the surgical results and using a three-point grading system (0 = posterosuperior labrum normally positioned lateral/craniad to glenoid articular plane in ABER; 1 = posterosuperior labral tissue flush with the glenoid articular plane in ABER; 2 = posterosuperior labral tissue identified medial/caudal to glenoid articular plane in ABER). Only one image in ABER showing abnormal posterosuperior labral position was required for a grade of 1 or 2 to be assigned. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated as well as the level of agreement between readers (kappa). Both readers assigned a grade of 2 to 25 of 34 patients with surgically proven labral peel back. Of the patients with surgically proven SLAP tears with peel back in ABER

  8. Magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back during humeral abduction and external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Camilo G; Casagranda, Bethany U; Towers, Jeffrey D; Bradley, James P

    2010-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back and determine the reliability of MR in the abducted and externally rotated (ABER) position for the prospective diagnosis of arthroscopically proven cases of posterosuperior labral peel back. After approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, databases of patients who underwent arthroscopy over a 2-year period for one of three clinical diagnoses [suspected type 2 superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, posterior instability, or multidirectional instability] were reviewed after anonymization by an honest broker. Sixty-three cases were selected by the following inclusion criteria: operative report documenting labral peel back in the ABER position, age position (n=34). Inclusion criteria for the control group differed from those for the case group insofar as the operative note documented the absence of posterosuperior labral peel back (n=29). Cases and controls were randomized in one list and evaluated independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists unaware of the surgical results and using a three-point grading system (0 = posterosuperior labrum normally positioned lateral/craniad to glenoid articular plane in ABER; 1 = posterosuperior labral tissue flush with the glenoid articular plane in ABER; 2 = posterosuperior labral tissue identified medial/caudal to glenoid articular plane in ABER). Only one image in ABER showing abnormal posterosuperior labral position was required for a grade of 1 or 2 to be assigned. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated as well as the level of agreement between readers (kappa). Both readers assigned a grade of 2 to 25 of 34 patients with surgically proven labral peel back. Of the patients with surgically proven SLAP tears with peel back in ABER, reader A assigned a grade of 1 to seven patients and a grade of 0 to two

  9. Magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back during humeral abduction and external rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrero, Camilo G.; Casagranda, Bethany U.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Bradley, James P.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back and determine the reliability of MR in the abducted and externally rotated (ABER) position for the prospective diagnosis of arthroscopically proven cases of posterosuperior labral peel back. After approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, databases of patients who underwent arthroscopy over a 2-year period for one of three clinical diagnoses [suspected type 2 superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, posterior instability, or multidirectional instability] were reviewed after anonymization by an honest broker. Sixty-three cases were selected by the following inclusion criteria: operative report documenting labral peel back in the ABER position, age <40 years, and preceding MR arthrogram evaluations with images in the ABER position (n = 34). Inclusion criteria for the control group differed from those for the case group insofar as the operative note documented the absence of posterosuperior labral peel back (n = 29). Cases and controls were randomized in one list and evaluated independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists unaware of the surgical results and using a three-point grading system (0 = posterosuperior labrum normally positioned lateral/craniad to glenoid articular plane in ABER; 1 = posterosuperior labral tissue flush with the glenoid articular plane in ABER; 2 = posterosuperior labral tissue identified medial/caudal to glenoid articular plane in ABER). Only one image in ABER showing abnormal posterosuperior labral position was required for a grade of 1 or 2 to be assigned. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated as well as the level of agreement between readers (kappa). Both readers assigned a grade of 2 to 25 of 34 patients with surgically proven labral peel back. Of the patients with surgically proven SLAP tears with peel back in ABER

  10. dc properties of series-parallel arrays of Josephson junctions in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dc theory of superconducting multijunction interferometers has previously been developed by several authors for the case of parallel junction arrays. The theory is now extended to cover the case of a loop containing several junctions connected in series. The problem is closely associated with high-T c superconductors and their clusters of intrinsic Josephson junctions. These materials exhibit spontaneous interferometric effects, and there is no reason to assume that the intrinsic junctions form only parallel arrays. A simple formalism of phase states is developed in order to express the superconducting phase differences across the junctions forming a series array as functions of the phase difference across the weakest junction of the system, and to relate the differences in critical currents of the junctions to gaps in the allowed ranges of their phase functions. This formalism is used to investigate the energy states of the array, which in the case of different junctions are split and separated by energy barriers of height depending on the phase gaps. Modifications of the washboard model of a single junction are shown. Next a superconducting inductive loop containing a series array of two junctions is considered, and this model is used to demonstrate the transitions between phase states and the associated instabilities. Finally, the critical current of a parallel connection of two series arrays is analyzed and shown to be a multivalued function of the externally applied magnetic flux. The instabilities caused by the presence of intrinsic serial junctions in granular high-T c materials are pointed out as a potential source of additional noise

  11. Neutron diffraction and magnetization studies of Tb0.5Er0.5 single crystal in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, T.; Yamamoto, N.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The rare earth Tb 0.5 Er 0.5 alloy exhibits a tilted helix at low temperatures [1]. However, the magnetic structures of Tb 0.5 Er 0.5 and the magnetization processes of the tilted helix are not clear. Neutron diffraction experiments in external magnetic fields and magnetization measurements of Tb 0.5 Er 0.5 single crystal have been performed. At zero magnetic field, the Tb 0.5 Er 0.5 alloy exhibited a normal helix below 170 K, a bunching normal helix below about 28 K, and finally a bunching tilted helix below about 25 K. Below about 60 K, the helical pitch 30 deg showed a lock-in feature. The magnetization measurements at low temperatures showed a four-step magnetic transition. The results are presented as a magnetic field-temperature (H-T) phase diagram. (author) [1] H. Fujii et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50 (1981) 2939

  12. Mixed hyperfine interaction in amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films in external magnetic field - a 57Fe Moessbauer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, S.M.; Crummenauer, J.; Wagner, H.-G.; Gonser, U.; Chien, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy provides only information about the magnitude of the splitting QS in the case of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction, but not on the sign of the main component of the electric field gradient (EFG) or the asymmetry parameter which are sensitive to the local environment of the 57 Fe nuclei. This kind of information is obtained by measurements in external magnetic fields. In the case of amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films mixed hyperfine interaction leads to a clear change in the behaviour of the Zr-rich and the Fe-rich alloys, indicating the existence of magnetic clusters in the Fe-rich samples. (Auth.)

  13. General performance characteristics and parametric optimum criteria of a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator with an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guoxing; Xie Jian

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we describe a single-level quantum dot with an external magnetic field that works as a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator. Based on the model, the expressions for the cooling rate (R), the power input (P) and the coefficient of performance (ε) are derived. The effects of the magnetic field strength and the level energy on the performance of the refrigerator are revealed. The optimal performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed by numerical calculation. Furthermore, the practical operating regions of the cycle are determined.

  14. Nonreciprocal propagation of light without external magnetic fields in a semiconductor waveguide isolator with a MnAs layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan) and Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan)]. E-mail: ametomo@hotaka.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu, H. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Hai, P.N. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Nakano, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    A 1.5-{mu}m, TM-mode waveguide optical isolator was developed for use in photonic integrated circuits. It consists of an InGaAlAs-based optical waveguide with a ferromagnetic MnAs layer and makes use of nonreciprocal propagation loss of light induced by the magnetized MnAs layer. With a large-remanence MnAs layer grown with the Mn-template epitaxy method, the isolator successfully showed an 8.7 dB/mm isolation ratio without external magnetic fields.

  15. Unsteady three dimensional flow of Casson liquid film over a porous stretching sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and suction/injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.

  16. Separation of variables in anisotropic models: anisotropic Rabi and elliptic Gaudin model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2017-08-01

    We study the problem of separation of variables for classical integrable Hamiltonian systems governed by non-skew-symmetric non-dynamical so(3)\\otimes so(3) -valued elliptic r-matrices with spectral parameters. We consider several examples of such models, and perform separation of variables for classical anisotropic one- and two-spin Gaudin-type models in an external magnetic field, and for Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type models without the rotating wave approximation.

  17. Jumps of the local magnetic field near CICC during external magnetic field ramp and their connection with the ramp rate limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V.S.; Takayasu, M.; Minervini, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    A new method has been developed to study Ramp Rate Limitation (RRL) phenomena. Samples of ITER-type cable-in-conduit (CICC) subcable were instrumented with local field sensors such as Hall probes and pick-up coils and then subjected to rapidly changing external magnetic field. The authors found that during fast field sweeps some discontinuous changes, or jumps occur in the local field. They believe that these jumps indicate a fast current redistribution processes inside CICC. Detailed information about local magnetic field jumps during changing field is presented. Possible origin of the jumps and their connection with RRL are discussed

  18. Stability properties of a toroidal z-pinch in an external magnetic multipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    MHD stability of m=1, axisymmetric, external modes of a toroidal z-pinch immersed in an external multipole field (Extrap configuration) is studied. The description includes the effects of a weak toroidicity, a non-circular plasma cross-section and the influence of induced currents in the external conductors. It is found that the non-circularity of the plasma cross-section always has a destabilizing effect but that the m=1 mode can be stabilized by the external feedback if the non-circularity is small. (author)

  19. Magnetic neutron scattering resonance of high-¤Tc¤ superconductors in external magnetic fields: An SO(5) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Bruus, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field on the neu......The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field...

  20. [Study of the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electron beam using Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shihu; Xu, Yun; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing; Guo, Chengjun

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the characteristics of the dose distribution of high energy electron beam in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The simulations carried out the transport processes of the 30 MeV electron beam in the homogeneous water phantom with different magnetic field. It was found that the dose distribution of the 30 MeV electron beam had changed significantly because of the magnetic field. The result showed that the range of the electron beam was decreased obviously and it formed a very high dose peak at the end of the range, and the ratio of maximum dose to the dose of the surface was greatly increased. The results of this study demonstrated that we could change the depth dose distribution of electron beam which is analogous to the heavy ion by modulating the energy of the electron and magnetic field. It means that using magnetic fields in conjunction with electron radiation therapy has great application prospect, but it also has brought new challenges for the research of dose algorithm.

  1. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) and image uniformity: an estimate of performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, P.; Suri, S.; Choudhary, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    In most general definition, noise in an image, is any variation that represents a deviation from truth. Noise sources in MRI can be systematic or random and statistical in nature. Data processing algorithms that smooth and enhance the edges by non-linear intensity assignments among other factors can affect the distribution of statistical noise. The SNR and image uniformity depends on the various parameters of NMR imaging system (viz. General system calibration, Gain coil tuning, AF shielding, coil loading, image processing and scan parameters like TE, TR, interslice distance, slice thickness, pixel size and matrix size). A study on SNR and image uniformity have been performed using standard head AF coil with different TR and the estimates of their variation are presented. A comparison between different techniques has also been evaluated using standard protocol of the Siemens Magnetom Vision Plus MRI system

  2. Effect of external magnetic field and variable dust electrical charge on the shape and propagation of solitons in the two nonthermal ions dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalambor Dezfuly, S.; Dorranian, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, the effect of dust electrical charge, nonthermal ions, and external magnetic field on the shape and propagation of solitons in dusty plasma with two nonthermal ions is studied theoretically. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for propagation of dust acoustic waves is extracted. Results show that external magnetic field does not affect the amplitude of solitary wave but width of solitons are effectively depend on the magnitude of external magnetic field. With increasing the charge of dust particles the amplitude of solution will increase while their width will decrease. Increasing the nonthermal ions lead to opposite effect.

  3. Technique for recovering rare-earth metals from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sasai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To selectively recover rare-earth metals with higher purity from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating, we investigated the mechano-chemical treatment of spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder with a reaction solution of HCl and (COOH2 at room temperature. The results of various experiments showed that the mechano-chemical treatment with HCl and (COOH2 is very effective for recovering the rare-earth metals contained in spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder; the recovery rate and purity of the rare-earth metals were 95.3 and 95.0 mass%, respectively, under optimal conditions ([HCl] = 0.2 mol/dm3 and [(COOH2] = 0.25 mol/dm3.

  4. Evaluation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) combined with external radiation in an orthotopic rat model of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, M.; Thiesen, B.; Taymoorian, K.; Gneveckow, U.; Waldoefner, N.; Koch, M.; Scholz, R.; Lein, M.; Jung, K.; Loening, S.A.; Jordan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a new concept of cancer treatment based on AC magnetic field-induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Preliminary studies of MFH using nanoscaled aminosilan-coated magnetites have demonstrated the feasibility of minimally invasive MFH in the Dunning tumor model. Here we evaluated the effect of two sequential MFH treatments, combined with external radiation, in an orthotopic Dunning R3327-MatLyLu prostate cancer model. MFH led to a significant growth inhibition in this orthotopic model of the aggressive MatLyLu tumor variant. Furthermore, combined MFH and radiation with 20 Gy equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth as radiation with 60 Gy, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Intratumoral deposition of magnetic fluids was found to be stable, allowing for serial MFH treatments without repeated injection. The optimal treatment schedules of this combination regarding temperatures, sequencing and fractionation need to be defined in further experimental studies. (author)

  5. Effect of interdiffusion and external magnetic field on electronic states and light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Aghchegala, V. L.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of interdiffusion and magnetic field on confined states of electron and heavy hole as well as on interband absorption spectrum in a Ga1-xAlxAs/GaAs Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring are investigated. It is shown that both interdiffusion and magnetic field lead to the change of the charge carriers' quantum states arrangement by their energies. The oscillating behavior of the electron ground state energy as a function of magnetic field induction gradually disappears with the increase of diffusion parameter due to the enhanced tunneling of electron to the central region of the ring. For the heavy hole the ground state energy oscillations are not observable in the region of the values of magnetic field induction B = 0 - 10 T . For considered transitions both the magnetic field and the interdiffusion lead to a blue-shift of the absorption spectrum and to decreasing of the absorption intensity. The obtained results indicate on the opportunity of purposeful manipulation of energy states and absorption spectrum of a Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring by means of the post growth annealing and the external magnetic field.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies of pressure drop in PbLi flows in a circular duct under non-uniform transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.-C., E-mail: lifch@hit.edu.cn; Sutevski, D.; Smolentsev, S.; Abdou, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • An indirect DP measurement approach for high-temperature LM MHD flow is developed. • Experiments and numerical simulations of PbLi MHD flow are performed. • Characteristics of DP in LM MHD flow under fringing magnetic field are studied. • Pressure distributions in LM MHD flow at entry and exit of magnet are different. -- Abstract: Experiments and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations are performed to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) characteristics of liquid metal (LM) flows of molten lead-lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy in an electrically conducting circular duct subjected to a transverse non-uniform (fringing) magnetic field. An indirect measurement approach for differential pressure in high temperature LM PbLi is first developed, and then detailed data on pressure drop in this PbLi MHD flow are measured. The obtained experimental results for the pressure distribution are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Using the numerical simulation results, the 3D effects caused by fringing magnetic field on the LM flow are illustrated via distributions for the axial pressure gradients and transverse pressure differences. It has been verified that a simple approach for estimation of pressure drop in LM MHD flow in a fringing magnetic field proposed by Miyazaki et al. [22] i.e., a simple integral of pressure gradient along the fringing field zone using a quasi-fully-developed flow assumption, is also applicable to the conditions of the present experiment providing the magnetic interaction parameter is large enough. Furthermore, for two different sections of the LM flow at the entry to and at the exit from the magnet, it is found that the pressure distributions in the duct cross sections in these two regions are different.

  7. Quantification of the 3D relative movement of external marker sets vs. bones based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, M; Marin, F; Charleux, F; Dürselen, L; Ho Ba Tho, M C

    2006-11-01

    Most in vivo knee kinematic analyses are based on external markers attached to the shank and the thigh. Literature data show that markers positioning and soft tissues artifacts affect the kinematic parameters of the bones true movement. Most of the techniques of quantification used were invasive. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply a non-invasive methodology to compute the relative movement between the bones and the markers. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions were performed on the right knee of eleven volunteers without knee injury. The subjects were equipped with external magnetic resonance imaging-compatible marker sets. A foot drive device allowed the subjects to perform an actively loaded knee extension. The whole volume of the subject's knee was processed for four sequentially held knee flexion positions during the knee movement. The bones and external marker sets geometry were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging images. Then a registration algorithm was applied to the bones and the relative movement of the thigh and shank marker sets with respect to their underlying bones was computed. The protocol resulted in a good geometrical accuracy and reproducibility. Marker sets movement differ from that of the bones with a maximum of 22 mm in translation and 15 degrees in rotation and it affects the knee kinematics. Marker sets relative movement modify the knee movement finite helical axes direction (range 10-35 degrees ) and localization (range 0-40 mm). The methodology developed can evaluate external marker set system to be used for kinematic analysis in a clinical environment.

  8. Dependence of Fe/Cr superlattice magnetoresistance on orientation of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, V.V.; Romashev, L.N.; Minin, V.I.; Semerikov, A.V.; Del', A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into giant magnetoresistance of [Fe/Cr] 30 /MgO superlattices obtained using molecular-beam epitaxy under various orientations of magnetic field relatively to the layers of superlattice and to the direction of current flow. Theory of orientation dependence of superlattice magnetoresistance enabling to describe satisfactorily behaviour of magnetoresistance at arbitrary direction of magnetic field on the ground of results of magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of layers, is elaborated. It is pointed out that it is possible to obtain field dependence of superlattice magnetization on the ground of measurement results. 9 refs., 6 figs

  9. Production of large volume, strongly magnetized laser-produced plasmas by use of pulsed external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Beard, J.; Billette, J.; Portugall, O. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS-UFJ-UPS-INSA, 31400 Toulouse (France); Ciardi, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France); Vinci, T.; Albrecht, J.; Chen, S. N.; Da Silva, D.; Hirardin, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Simond, S.; Veuillot, E.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Burris-Mog, T.; Dittrich, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kroll, F.; Nitsche, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2013-04-15

    The production of strongly magnetized laser plasmas, of interest for laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion studies, is presented. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system, which generates a magnetic field by means of a split coil, with the ELFIE laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In order to influence the plasma dynamics in a significant manner, the system can generate, repetitively and without debris, high amplitude magnetic fields (40 T) in a manner compatible with a high-energy laser environment. A description of the system and preliminary results demonstrating the possibility to magnetically collimate plasma jets are given.

  10. Numerical simulation on the energy spectrum of the electron beam generated by low-impedance diode and the influence of external magnetic field on diode impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhi

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the electron beam generated by low-impedance diode and the influence of external magnetic field on the impedance of diode are studied numerically in this paper. The results show that the beam generated by the diode has an energy spread, even with constant applied voltage. Additionally, external magnetic field has great but reverse influence on the impedance of low-impedance diode, which is, according to the author's analysis, the result of the change of the electron's track due to external magnetic field. If the beam current is less than the critical one for self-pinch, the impedance will be constant with the variation of external magnetic field

  11. Broad band simulation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) prompt emission in presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeepour, Houri; Gardner, Brian

    2011-12-01

    The origin of prompt emission in GRBs is not yet well understood. The simplest and most popular model is Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) emission produced by internal shocks inside an ultra-relativistic jet. However, recent observations of a delayed high energy component by the Fermi-LAT instrument have encouraged alternative models. Here we use a recently developed formulation of relativistic shocks for GRBs to simulate light curves and spectra of synchrotron and self-Compton emissions in the framework of internal shock model. This model takes into account the evolution of quantities such as densities of colliding shells, and fraction of kinetic energy transferred to electrons and to induced magnetic field. We also extend this formulation by considering the presence of a precessing external magnetic field. These simulations are very realistic and present significant improvement with respect to previous phenomenological GRB simulations. They reproduce light curves of separate peaks of real GRBs and variety of spectral slopes at E > Epeak observed by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The high energy emission can be explained by synchrotron emission and a subdominant contribution from inverse Compton. We also suggest an explanation for extended tail emission and relate it to the screening of the magnetic field and/or trapping of accelerated electrons in the electromagnetic energy structure of the plasma in the shock front. Spectral slopes of simulated bursts at E external magnetic field, we show that due to the fast variation of other quantities, its signature in the Power Distribution Spectrum (PDS) is significantly suppressed and only when the duration of the burst is few times longer than the oscillation period it can be detected, otherwise either it is confused with the Poisson noise or with intrinsic variations of the emission. Therefore, low significant oscillations observed in the PDS of GRB 090709a are most probably due to a precessing magnetic field.

  12. Generating Long Scale-Length Plasma Jets Embedded in a Uniform, Multi-Tesla Magnetic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Rasmus, Alex; Klein, Sallee; Fein, Jeff; Belancourt, Patrick; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, Brad; Hazi, Andrew; Park, Jaebum; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Collimated plasma jets emerge in many classes of astrophysical objects and are of great interest to explore in the laboratory. In many cases, these astrophysical jets exist within a background magnetic field where the magnetic pressure approaches the plasma pressure. Recent experiments performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility utilized a custom-designed solenoid to generate the multi-tesla fields necessary to achieve proper magnetization of the plasma. Time-gated interferometry, Schlieren imaging, and proton radiography were used to characterize jet evolution and collimation under varying degrees of magnetization. Experimental results will be presented and discussed. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850, by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC, grant number DEFC52-08NA28616, and by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  13. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B

    2011-01-01

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  14. Large-scale, near-Earth, magnetic fields from external sources and the corresponding induced internal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Data from MAGSAT analyzed as a function of the Dst index to determine the first degree/order spherical harmonic description of the near-Earth external field and its corresponding induced field. The analysis was done separately for data from dawn and dusk. The MAGSAT data was compared with POGO data. A local time variation of the external field persists even during very quiet magnetic conditions; both a diurnal and 8-hour period are present. A crude estimate of Sq current in the 45 deg geomagnetic latitude range is obtained for 1966 to 1970. The current strength, located in the ionosphere and induced in the Earth, is typical of earlier determinations from surface data, although its maximum is displaced in local time from previous results.

  15. A β-Ta system for current induced magnetic switching in the absence of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhe; Qian, Lijuan; Xiao, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic switching via Giant Spin Hall Effect (GSHE) has received great interest for its role in developing future spintronics logic or memory devices. In this work, a new material system (i.e. a transition metal sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers) with interlayer exchange coupling is introduced to realize the deterministic field-free perpendicular magnetic switching. This system uses β-Ta, as the GSHE agent to generate a spin current and as the interlayer exchange coupling medium to generate an internal field. The critical switching current density at zero field is on the order of 106 A/cm2 due to the large spin Hall angle of β-Ta. The internal field, along with switching efficiency, depends strongly on the orthogonal magnetization states of two ferromagnetic coupling layers in this system.

  16. Numerical Study of Thermo-Fluid Features of Electrically Conducting Fluids in Tube Bank Heat Exchangers Exposed to Uniform Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Ho; Kang, Namcheol [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    When an electrically conducting fluid flows through a staggered tube bank, the heat transfer and fluid flow features are changed by the externally introduced magnetic field. This study provides a numerical investigation of this phenomenon. Heat and fluid flows are investigated for unsteady laminar flows at Reynolds numbers of 50 and 100 with the Hartmann number gradually increasing from zero to 100. As the Hartmann number increases, and owing to the effects of the introduced magnetic field, the velocity boundary layer near the tube wall is thinned, the flow separation is delayed downstream, and the shrinkage of a recirculation zone formed near the rear side is observed. Based on these thermo-fluid deformations, the resulting changes in the local and average Nusselt number are investigated.

  17. Optical bistability and multistability driven by external magnetic field in a dielectric slab doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, R.; Norouzi, F.

    2016-08-01

    The theoretical investigation of controlling the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres under optical excitation are reported. The shape of the OB curve from dielectric slab can be tuned by changing the external magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of the intensity of the control laser field and the frequency detuning of probe laser field on the OB and OM behaviour are also discussed in this paper. The results obtained can be used for realizing an all-optical bistable switching or development of nanoelectronic devices.

  18. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy as the boost in combination with external beam irradiation in base of tongue cancer. Long-term results from a uniform clinical series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Johansson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long time outcome with regard to local tumour control, side effects and quality of life of combined pulsed dose rate (PDR boost and hyperfractionated accelerated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT for primary base of tongue (BOT cancers. Material and methods: Between 1994 and 2007, the number of 83 patients were treated with primary T1-T4 BOT cancers. Seven patients (8% were T1-2N0 (AJCC stage I-II and 76 (92% patients were T1-2N+ or T3-4N0-2 (AJCC stage III-IV. The mean estimated primary tumour volume was 15.4 (1-75 cm3. EBRT was given with 1.7 Gy bid to 40.8 Gy to primary tumour and bilateral neck lymph nodes in 2.5 weeks. PDR boost of 35 Gy and a neck dissection in clinical node positive case was performed 2-3 weeks later. The patients were followed for a median of 54 (2-168 months. Results: The 2-, 5- and 10-years rates of actuarial local control were 91%, 89% and 85%, overall survival 85%, 65% and 44%, disease free survival 86%, 80% and 76%, respectively. The regional control rate was 95%. Six patients (7% developed distant metastases. A dosimetric analysis showed a mean of 100% isodose volume of 58.2 (16.7-134 cm3. In a review of late complications 11 cases of minor (13% and 5 of major soft tissue necroses (6%, as well as 6 cases of osteoradionecroses (7% were found. The patients median subjective SOMA/LENT scoring at last follow up was as follow: grade 0 for pain and trismus, grade 1 for dysphagia and taste alteration, and grade 2 for xerostomia. Global visual- analogue-scale (VAS scoring of quality of life was 8. Conclusion: Local and regional tumour control rate was excellent in this treatment protocol. The data shows the PDR boost as at least as effective as published continuous low dose rate (CLDR results.

  19. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  20. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Eshghi; H Mehraban; S M Ikhdair

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schr(o)dinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields.The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions.We also study the thermal quantifies of such a system.Further,the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism.We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters.The behavior of the internal energy,specific heat,and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown.

  1. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M; Mehraban, H; Ikhdair, S M

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schrödinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields. The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions. We also study the thermal quantities of such a system. Further, the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism. We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters. The behavior of the internal energy, specific heat, and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown. (paper)

  2. Effect of external magnetic field on superconducting and spin density wave gaps of high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, B., E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.i [Govt. Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India); Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group P.G. Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)

    2009-07-01

    A theoretical model is addressed here to study the interplay of the superconductivity (SC) and the spin density wave (SDW) long range orders in underdoped region in the vicinity of on-set of superconductivity in presence of an external magnetic field. The order parameters are calculated by using Zubarev's technique of Green's functions and determined numerically self-consistently. The gap parameters are found to be strongly coupled to each other through their coupling constants. The interplay displays BCS type two gaps in the quasi-particle density of states (DOS) which resemble the tunneling conductance of STM experiments. The gap edges in the DOS appear at +-(z+z{sub 1}) and +-(z-z{sub 1}). The applied magnetic field further induces Zeeman splitting which is explained on the basis of spin-filter effect of tunneling experiment.

  3. Effect of external magnetic field on superconducting and spin density wave gaps of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model is addressed here to study the interplay of the superconductivity (SC) and the spin density wave (SDW) long range orders in underdoped region in the vicinity of on-set of superconductivity in presence of an external magnetic field. The order parameters are calculated by using Zubarev's technique of Green's functions and determined numerically self-consistently. The gap parameters are found to be strongly coupled to each other through their coupling constants. The interplay displays BCS type two gaps in the quasi-particle density of states (DOS) which resemble the tunneling conductance of STM experiments. The gap edges in the DOS appear at ±(z+z 1 ) and ±(z-z 1 ). The applied magnetic field further induces Zeeman splitting which is explained on the basis of spin-filter effect of tunneling experiment.

  4. DTADH and quantum critical phenomena caused by anisotropy and external magnetic field for spin-1/2 Heisenberg diamond chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanchao

    2010-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix renormalization group (TMRG) method, we study the connection between the first derivative of the thermal average of driving-term Hamiltonian (DTADH) and the trace of quantum critical behaviors at finite temperatures. Connecting with the exact diagonalization method, we give the phase diagrams and analyze the properties of each phase for both the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic frustrated J 3 anisotropy diamond chain models. The finite-temperature scaling behaviors near the critical regions are also investigated. Further, we show the critical behaviors driven by external magnetic field, analyze the formation of the 1/3 magnetic plateau and the influence of different interactions on those critical points for both the ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic distorted diamond chains.

  5. Effect of an external magnetic field on polytypism of CdI2 crystals grown from solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palosz, B.; Przedmojski, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of growth conditions on the polytypic structure of crystals of CdI 2 was analyzed for crystallization from solutions. Three solvents were used: H 2 O, 3 H 2 O + 1 C 2 H 5 OH and 1 H 2 O + 1 C 2 H 5 OH. Crystals were grown at two temperatures: 5 and 25 0 C with low and high growth rates; an external magnetic field of about 0.25 tesla was used. The effect of the above three parameters on the formation of the basic polytypes 2H and 4H and on the ordering of faults in disordered structures and in polytype cells was studied by X-ray analysis of crystal surfaces. Some distinct relations between the polytypic structure of crystals of CdI 2 and the magnetic field were found. (author)

  6. Current-current correlation function in presence of chemical potential and external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apresyan, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional electron system was observed, where relation between the Green functions and conductivity was used. The current-current correlation function Π_μ_ν(B) for the fermion system was calculated in presence of non-quantizing magnetic field B, chemical potential η and gap m. From this function it is possible to obtain the equation for polarization operator calculated without the magnetic field. The result is also applicable for graphene

  7. Theoretical analysis of ferromagnetic microparticles in streaming liquid under the influence of external magnetic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, Martin; Mayer, Michael; Hartmann, Jens; Posnicek, Thomas; Fabian, Christian; Falkenhagen, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The microsphere based detoxification system (MDS) is designed for high specific toxin removal in extracorporeal blood purification using functionalized microparticles. A thin wall hollow fiber membrane filter separates the microparticle-plasma suspension from the bloodstream. For patient safety, it is necessary to have a safety system to detect membrane ruptures that could lead to the release of microparticles into the bloodstream. A non-invasive optical detection system including a magnetic trap is developed to monitor the extracorporeal venous bloodstream for the presence of released microparticles. For detection, fluorescence-labeled ferromagnetic beads are suspended together with adsorbent particles in the MDS circuit. In case of a membrane rupture, the labeled particles would be released into the venous bloodstream and partly captured by the magnetic trap of the detector. A physical model based on fluidic, gravitational and magnetic forces was developed to simulate the motion and sedimentation of ferromagnetic particles in a magnetic trap. In detailed simulation runs, the concentrations of accumulated particles under different applied magnetic fields within the magnetic trap are shown. The simulation results are qualitatively compared with laboratory experiments and show excellent accordance. Additionally, the sensitivity of the particle detection system is proofed in a MDS laboratory experiment by simulation of a membrane rupture.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation from positive-energy bound electrons in the Coulomb field of a nucleus at rest in a strong uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenyev, S. A.; Koryagin, S. A., E-mail: koryagin@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    A classical analysis is presented of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by positive-energy electrons performing bound motion in the Coulomb field of a nucleus at rest in a strong uniform magnetic field. Bounded trajectories exist and span a wide range of velocity directions near the nucleus (compared to free trajectories with similar energies) when the electron Larmor radius is smaller than the distance at which the electron-nucleus Coulomb interaction energy is equal to the mechanical energy of an electron. The required conditions occur in magnetic white dwarf photospheres and have been achieved in experiments on production of antihydrogen. Under these conditions, the radiant power per unit volume emitted by positive-energy bound electrons is much higher than the analogous characteristic of bremsstrahlung (in particular, in thermal equilibrium) at frequencies that are below the electron cyclotron frequency but higher than the inverse transit time through the interaction region in a close collision in the absence of a magnetic field. The quantum energy discreteness of positive-energy bound states restricts the radiation from an ensemble of bound electrons (e.g., in thermal equilibrium) to nonoverlapping spectral lines, while continuum radiative transfer is dominated by linearly polarized bremsstrahlung.

  9. Restoration of symmetry by temperature effect under influence of external electro magnetic field in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, V.M. de.

    1987-01-01

    We have analysed, within a semi classical approach, the influence of external electromagnetic field on phase transitions in gauge theories. The critical temperature was calculated for an Abelian case, scalar electrodynamics, and for an non Abelian case, the Weinberg Salam model. (author)

  10. Development of an intense negative hydrogen ion source with a wide-range of external magnetic filter field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1994-09-01

    An intense negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, which has a strong external magnetic filter field in the wide area of 35 cm x 62 cm produced by a pair of permanent magnet rows located with 35.4 cm separation. The filter strength is 70 G in the center and the line-integrated filter strength is 850 G cm, which keeps the low electron temperature in the extraction region. Strong cusp magnetic field, 1.8 kG on the chamber surface, is generated for improvement of the plasma confinement. These resulted in the high arc efficiency at the low operational gas pressure. A 16.2 A of the H - ion current with the energy of 47 keV was obtained at the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW at the gas pressure of 3.8 mTorr in the cesium-mode operation. The magnetic field in the extraction gap is also strong, 450 G, for the electron suppression. The ratio of the extraction to the negative ion currents was less than 2.2 at the gas pressure of 3 mTorr. The two-stage acceleration was tried, and a 13.6 A of the H - ion beam was accelerated to 125 keV. (author)

  11. Algorithms for Computing the Magnetic Field, Vector Potential, and Field Derivatives for a Thin Solenoid with Uniform Current Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    A numerical algorithm for computing the field components Br and Bz and their r and z derivatives with open boundaries in cylindrical coordinates for radially thin solenoids with uniform current density is described in this note. An algorithm for computing the vector potential Aθ is also described. For the convenience of the reader, derivations of the final expressions from their defining integrals are given in detail, since their derivations are not all easily found in textbooks. Numerical calculations are based on evaluation of complete elliptic integrals using the Bulirsch algorithm cel. The (apparently) new feature of the algorithms described in this note applies to cases where the field point is outside of the bore of the solenoid and the field-point radius approaches the solenoid radius. Since the elliptic integrals of the third kind normally used in computing Bz and Aθ become infinite in this region of parameter space, fields for points with the axial coordinate z outside of the ends of the solenoid and near the solenoid radius are treated by use of elliptic integrals of the third kind of modified argument, derived by use of an addition theorem. Also, the algorithms also avoid the numerical difficulties the textbook solutions have for points near the axis arising from explicit factors of 1/r or 1/r2 in the some of the expressions.

  12. Direct observation of electronic and nuclear ground state splitting in external magnetic field by inelastic neutron scattering on oxidized ferrocene and ferrocene containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Frick, Bernhard; Elbert, Johannes; Gallei, Markus; Stühn, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene). They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.

  13. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T c superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the measured results of the two-dimensional flux density distribution of a YBCO bulk under applied AC magnetic fields with various frequency. Melt-processed oxide superconductors have been developed in order to obtain strong pinning forces. Various electric mechanical systems or magnetic levitation systems use those superconductors. The major problem is that cracks occur because the bulk superconductors are brittle. The bulk may break in magnetizing process after cracks make superconducting state instable. The trapped flux density and the permanent current characteristics of bulk superconductors have been analyzed, so as to examine the magnetizing processes or superconducting states of the bulk. In those studies, the two-dimensional surface flux density distributions of the bulk in static fields are discussed. On the other hand, the distributions in dynamic fields are little discussed. We attempted to examine the states of the bulk in the dynamic fields, and made a unique experimental device which has movable sensors synchronized with AC applied fields. As a result, the two-dimensional distributions in the dynamic fields are acquired by recombining the one-dimensional distributions. The dynamic states of the flux of the bulk and the influences of directions of cracks are observed from the distributions. In addition, a new method for measuring two-dimensional flux density distribution under dynamic magnetic fields is suggested

  14. Gyrokinetic theory of fast-wave transmission with arbitrary parallel wave number in a non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The gyrokinetic theory of ion cyclotron resonance is extended to include propagation at arbitrary angles to a straight equilibrium magnetic field with a linear perpendicular gradient in strength. The case of the compressional Alfven wave propagating in a D( 3 He) plasma is analyzed in detail, for arbitrary concentrations of the two species. A self-consistent local dispersion relation is obtained using a single mode description; this approach enables three-dimensional effects to be included and permits efficient calculation of the transmission coefficient. The dependence of this quantity on the species density ratio, minority temperature, plasma density, magnetic field and equilibrium scale length is obtained. A self-consistent treatment of the variation of the field polarization across the resonant region is included. Families of transmission curves are given as a function of the normalized parallel wave number for parameters relevant to Joint European Torus. Perpendicular absorption by the minority ions is also discussed, and shown to depend on a single parameter, the ratio of the ion thermal velocity to the Alfven speed. (author)

  15. The influence of concentration of Nd-Fe-B powder in composite coating of optical fiber to the sensibility to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojević Vesna J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating was investigated as an optical fiber sensor element (OFMSE for magnetic field sensing The composite coating was formed with dispersions of permanent magnet powder of Nd-Fe-B in poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-EVA solutions in toluene. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagate trough developed optical fibers sensor element was investigated. In this paper the influence of the content of magnetic powder in the composite coating on the optical propagation characteristics of optical fiber were particularly investigated.

  16. RF power absorption by plasma of low pressure low power inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralkina, E. A.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Nekliudova, P. A.; Pavlov, V. B.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    Present paper is aimed to reveal experimentally and theoretically the influence of magnetic field strength, antenna shape, pressure, operating frequency and geometrical size of plasma sources on the ability of plasma to absorb the RF power characterized by the equivalent plasma resistance for the case of low pressure RF inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field. The distinguishing feature of the present paper is the consideration of the antennas that generate not only current but charge on the external surface of plasma sources. It is shown that in the limited plasma source two linked waves can be excited. In case of antennas generating only azimuthal current the waves can be attributed as helicon and TG waves. In the case of an antenna with the longitudinal current there is a surface charge on the side surface of the plasma source, which gives rise to a significant increase of the longitudinal and radial components of the RF electric field as compared with the case of the azimuthal antenna current.

  17. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents

  18. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high- Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.

  19. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-03-13

    Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (theta) of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function of theta are obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electron g-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  20. T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John; Cunha, Rui M.G.; Hsu, I-Chow; Kornak, John; Zhao, Shoujun; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy and to investigate the relationship between imaging accuracy and time since therapy. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the study was HIPPA compliant. We identified 59 patients who underwent 1.5 Tesla endorectal MR imaging of the prostate between 1999 and 2006 after definitive external beam radiation therapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Two readers recorded the presence or absence of tumor on T2-weighted images. Logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 tables were used to determine the accuracy of imaging and investigate if accuracy differed between those imaged within 3 years of therapy (n = 25) and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (n = 34). Transrectal biopsy was used as the standard of reference for the presence or absence of recurrent cancer. Results: Thirty-four of 59 patients (58%) had recurrent prostate cancer detected on biopsy. The overall accuracy of T2-weighted MR imaging in the detection cancer after external beam radiation therapy was 63% (37/59) for reader 1 and 71% for reader 2 (42/59). For both readers, logistic regression showed no difference in accuracy between those imaged within 3 years of therapy and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (p = 0.86 for reader 1 and 0.44 for reader 2). Conclusion: T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging has low accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy, irrespective of the time since therapy. (author)

  1. In-situ electric field and current density in Japanese male and female models for uniform magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, A.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.; Taki, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study quantified the in situ electric field and induced current density in anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. A quasi-static FDTD method was applied to analyse this problem. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the 99. percentile value of the in situ electric field in the nerve tissue and the current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 of the nerve tissue (excluding non-nerve tissues in the averaging region) in the female models were less than 35 and 25%, respectively. These induced quantities in the Japanese models were smaller than those for European models reported in a previous study, which is mainly due to the difference in cross-sectional area of the body. (authors)

  2. Novel Application of Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis of External Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Shunsuke; Murayama, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Kazuhide; Kumai, Tadashi; Abe, Masato; Hirose, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    Although a subdural fluid collection frequently is observed, diagnostic methods that differentiate between the subdural collection caused by external hydrocephalus and that caused by subdural hygroma have not been established. Here, we report a case of external hydrocephalus caused by Gliadel-induced eosinophilic meningitis that has been previously reported in only 1 case and can be diagnosed by time-spatial labeling inversion pulse magnetic resonance imaging (time-SLIP MRI). A tumor located in the left temporal was detected incidentally in an 81-year-old man by examination of a head injury. The tumor was surgically resected and diagnosed as a high-grade glioma during the surgery; Gliadel wafers subsequently were implanted. Three weeks after the resection, the patient showed disturbed consciousness, and computed tomography revealed a subdural fluid collection. The out-flow of cerebrospinal through the resection cavity was detected by time-SLIP MRI. Cerebrospinal tests indicated high white blood cell counts and high protein levels, with more than 90% of the white blood cell count comprising eosinophils. Therefore, we suspected that the subdural fluid collection was caused by external hydrocephalus because of Gliadel-induced eosinophilic meningitis. We surgically removed the Gliadel wafers and subsequently performed a surgery to insert a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Histologic examination indicated eosinophilic accumulation around the Gliadel wafers. The patient's symptoms improved after the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. In the present case, time-SLIP MRI was a useful and noninvasive method for diagnosing external hydrocephalus which was caused by eosinophilic meningitis because of Gliadel-induced eosinophilic meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model predictions at high temperatures and strong external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Karina P.; Farias, R.L.S.; Pinto, M.B.; Krein, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Recently much attention is dedicated to understand the effects of an external magnetic field on the QCD phase diagram. Actually there is a contradiction in the literature: while effective models of QCD like the Nambu-Jona- Lasinio model (NJL) and linear sigma model predict an increase of the critical temperature of chiral symmetry restoration a function of the magnetic field, recent lattice results shows the opposite behavior. The NJL model is nonrenormalizable; then the high momentum part of the model has to be regularized in a phenomenological way. The common practice is to regularize the divergent loop amplitudes with a three-dimensional momentum cutoff, which also sets the energy-momentum scale for the validity of the model. That is, the model cannot be used for studying phenomena involving momenta running in loops larger than the cutoff. In particular, the model cannot be used to study quark matter at high densities. One of the symptoms of this problem is the prediction of vanishing superconducting gaps at high baryon densities, a feature of the model that is solely caused by the use of a regularizing momentum cutoff of the divergent vacuum and also in finite loop integrals. In a renormalizable theory all the dependence on the cutoff can be removed in favor of running physical parameters, like the coupling constants of QED and QCD. The running is given by the renormalization group equations of the theory and is controlled by an energy scale that is adjusted to the scale of the experimental conditions under consideration. In a recent publication, Casalbuoni et al. have introduced the concept of a running coupling constant for the NJL model to extend the applicability of the model to high density. Their arguments are based on making the cutoff density dependent, using an analogy with the natural cutoff of the Debye frequency of phonon oscillations in an ordinary solid. In the present work we follow such an approach introducing a magnetic field

  4. Flight-time spread of uniform field sector magnet system for use in nuclear life-time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Mamei, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear life-time measurement apparatus incorporating a deflecting β-ray spectrometer with electron pre-accelerator has been constructed. A new arrangement consisting of two double angular focusing sector magnets based on the principle of symmetry has been devised so as to reduce the time spread in the spectrometer, which up till now has been the weak point of such systems. The time spread in the spectrometer was estimated to be asymptotically equals 0.1 ns by a simulation method, and good agreement was obtained between this estimated value and the experimental value. A prompt time resolution of 1.25 ns (FWHM) was obtained. The half-lives of the 199 and 401 keV levels in 75 As were measured with an acceleration voltage up to 30 kV to check the reliability of the apparatus. The values were found to be 0.87+-0.04 ns and 1.74+-0.05 ns, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements. (author)

  5. Commencement of the Couette flow in the Oldroyd liquid with heat sources and in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, S.; Pattnaik, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    Commencement of the Couette flow in Oldroyd liquid has been studied in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field with heat sources/sinks. Constitutive equations of motion and energy have been formulated and solved with the aid of Galerkin technique. Expressions for velocity, temperature, skin frictions and rates of heat transfer are obtained. With Fortran language, the values of velocity, temperature, shear-stresses at the lower and upper plates and the rates of heat transfer at the plates have been evaluated after necessary computations. The results have been shown by graphs and tables for different values of various parameters like R, R c , P m , t, n, P r , E and S. Velocity and temperature distribution are shown by graphs while the values of shear-stresses and Nusselts numbers at the plates are entered in tables. It is observed that the flow is sensitive to the interactions of heat source/sink, elasticity of the fluid and the imposed magnetic field strength. The amount of heat energy propagated during this process of non-Newtonian flow varies appreciably with R, S and P r . The heat absorbing sink or the heat generating source influences the temperature field to a great extent. (author)

  6. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (θ of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function ofθare obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electrong-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  7. Goldanskii-Karyagin effect and external magnetic field method as tools to measure anisotropy of the recoilless fraction in amorphous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebenbauer, K.; Sepiol, B.

    1985-01-01

    Diffraction of X-rays or neutrons can not be used to obtain details about the atomic vibrational anisotropy in the case of amorphous materials due to the lack of well-defined Bragg reflections. Moessbauer spectroscopy can yield some information in such cases, either via the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect or by applying a magnetic field, preferably along the beam axis. The latter method can be applied to the (preferably diamagnetic) samples exhibiting an electric quadrupole interaction (preferably non-axial) and the magnetic field should be chosen in such a way as to produce significant off-diagonal elements in the hyperfine hamiltonian. The external magnetic field method is capable of yielding much more information than the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect in most cases, provided sufficiently strong magnetic fields are available. Some examples of the 129 I Moessbauer spectra have been calculated to show the usefulness and sensitivity of the external magnetic field method. (orig.)

  8. Kinetic Ising model in a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field: effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Shi et al. [2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 5922] have studied the dynamical response of the kinetic Ising model in the presence of a sinusoidal oscillating field and presented the dynamic phase diagrams by using an effective-field theory (EFT) and a mean-field theory (MFT). The MFT results are in conflict with those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira, [1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 4251]. We calculate the dynamic phase diagrams and find that our results are similar to those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira; hence the dynamic phase diagrams calculated by Shi et al. are incomplete within both theories, except the low values of frequencies for the MFT calculation. We also investigate the influence of external field frequency (ω) and static external field amplitude (h 0 ) for both MFT and EFT calculations. We find that the behaviour of the system strongly depends on the values of ω and h 0 . (general)

  9. Plasma filamentation and shock wave enhancement in microwave rockets by combining low-frequency microwaves with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2016-01-01

    A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.

  10. Plasma filamentation and shock wave enhancement in microwave rockets by combining low-frequency microwaves with external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masayuki, E-mail: m.takahashi@al.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku 113-8656 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.

  11. Magnetic field induced incommensurate resonance in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingge; Cheng Li; Guo Huaiming; Feng Shiping

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a uniform external magnetic field on the dynamical spin response of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting state is studied based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the magnetic scattering around low and intermediate energies is dramatically changed with a modest external magnetic field. With increasing the external magnetic field, although the incommensurate magnetic scattering from both low and high energies is rather robust, the commensurate magnetic resonance scattering peak is broadened. The part of the spin excitation dispersion seems to be an hourglass-like dispersion, which breaks down at the heavily low energy regime. The theory also predicts that the commensurate resonance scattering at zero external magnetic field is induced into the incommensurate resonance scattering by applying an external magnetic field large enough

  12. Magnetic reconnection in the presence of externally driven and self-generated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process that violates flux freezing and induces change of magnetic field topology in conducting fluids and, as a consequence, converts magnetic field energy into particle energy. It is thought to be operative in laboratory, heliophysical, and astrophysical plasmas. These environments exhibit wide variations in collisionality, ranging from collisionless in the Earth's magnetosphere to highly collisional in molecular clouds. A common feature among these plasmas is, however, the presence of turbulence. We review the present understanding of the effects of turbulence on the reconnection rate, discussing both how strong pre-existing turbulence modifies Sweet-Parker reconnection and how turbulence may develop as a result of reconnection itself. In steady state, reconnection rate is proportional to the aspect ratio of the diffusion region. Thus, two general MHD classes of models for fast reconnection have been proposed, differing on whether they keep the aspect ratio finite by increasing the width due to turbulent broadening or shortening the length of the diffusion layer due to plasmoid instability. One of the consequences of the plasmoid instability model is the possibility that the current sheet thins down to collisionless scales where kinetic effects become dominant. As a result, kinetic effects may be of importance for many astrophysical applications which were considered to be in the realm of MHD. Whether pre-existing turbulence can significantly modify the transition to the kinetic regime is not currently known. Although most studies of turbulent reconnection have been based on MHD, recent advances in kinetic simulations are enabling 3D studies of turbulence and reconnection in the collisionless regime. A summary of these recent works, highlighting similarities and differences with the MHD models of turbulent reconnection, as well as comparison with in situ observations in the magnetosphere and in the solar wind, are presented

  13. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their ma...

  14. Studying internal and external magnetic fields in Japan using MAGSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, N. (Principal Investigator); Maeda, H.; Yukutake, T.; Tanaka, M.; Oshima, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kawamura, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Uyeda, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Examination of the total intensity data of CHRONIT on a few paths over Japan and its neighboring sea shows MAGSAT is extremely useful for studying the local magnetic anomaly. In high latitudes, the signatures of field aligned currents are clearly recognized. These include (1) the persistent basic pattern of current flow; (2) the more intense currents in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere; (3) more fluctuations in current intensities in summer dawn hours; and (4) apparent dawn-dusk asymmetry in the field-aligned current intensity between the north and south polar regions.

  15. Prototyping and testing of the Continuous External Rogowski ITER magnetic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Ph.; Le-Luyer, A.; Malard, P.; Pastor, P.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Spuig, P.; Lister, J.; Toussaint, M.; Marmillod, P.; Testa, D.; Peruzzo, S.; Knaster, J.; Vayakis, G.; Hughes, S.; Patel, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ITER Continuous External Rogowski (CER) are designed for plasma and vacuum vessel current measurement. ► CER are located in the casing of Toroidal Field Coils and thus will operate at 4 K. ► The design of the sensors has been completed. ► CER prototypes have been manufactured by 2 suppliers. ► The R and D campaign on CER prototypes consisted in the measurement of about 100 parameters to characterize the CER. -- Abstract: The measurement of the plasma current in ITER plays an outstanding role as it is part of the machine protection and is a safety-relevant measurement: it will be used in relation with regulatory limits to show that the operation remains within the safe envelope defined in the ITER license. The Continuous External Rogowski (CER) is an inductive sensor designed for current measurements and located in the casing of 3 Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs). After the completion of the design of the CER, 4 prototypes of the sensor were manufactured and R and D activities were performed under a Grant with the European Domestic Agency (F4E-GRT-012). The work was carried out between 2010 and 2011 by the ITERMAG consortium comprising 3 laboratories: CRPP (Switzerland) as leader, CEA (France) and RFX (Italy). The R and D campaign on CER prototypes consisted in the measurement of about 100 parameters to characterize the CER in terms of electrical, thermal, mechanical and also of vacuum compatibility. From these results, electromagnetic modeling of the CER response was performed. It is demonstrated that the CER fulfills ITER requirements. However, the vacuum compatibility of the prototype has to be improved and solutions to cope with this issue are proposed

  16. Prototyping and testing of the Continuous External Rogowski ITER magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.jacques.moreau@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Le-Luyer, A.; Malard, P.; Pastor, P.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Spuig, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lister, J.; Toussaint, M.; Marmillod, P.; Testa, D. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL (Switzerland); Peruzzo, S. [Consorzio RFX, Association EURATOM-ENEA, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Knaster, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); IFMIF EVEDA, Rokkasho (Japan); Vayakis, G.; Hughes, S.; Patel, K.M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► ITER Continuous External Rogowski (CER) are designed for plasma and vacuum vessel current measurement. ► CER are located in the casing of Toroidal Field Coils and thus will operate at 4 K. ► The design of the sensors has been completed. ► CER prototypes have been manufactured by 2 suppliers. ► The R and D campaign on CER prototypes consisted in the measurement of about 100 parameters to characterize the CER. -- Abstract: The measurement of the plasma current in ITER plays an outstanding role as it is part of the machine protection and is a safety-relevant measurement: it will be used in relation with regulatory limits to show that the operation remains within the safe envelope defined in the ITER license. The Continuous External Rogowski (CER) is an inductive sensor designed for current measurements and located in the casing of 3 Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs). After the completion of the design of the CER, 4 prototypes of the sensor were manufactured and R and D activities were performed under a Grant with the European Domestic Agency (F4E-GRT-012). The work was carried out between 2010 and 2011 by the ITERMAG consortium comprising 3 laboratories: CRPP (Switzerland) as leader, CEA (France) and RFX (Italy). The R and D campaign on CER prototypes consisted in the measurement of about 100 parameters to characterize the CER in terms of electrical, thermal, mechanical and also of vacuum compatibility. From these results, electromagnetic modeling of the CER response was performed. It is demonstrated that the CER fulfills ITER requirements. However, the vacuum compatibility of the prototype has to be improved and solutions to cope with this issue are proposed.

  17. External field threshold for the unlocking of magnetic islands in the presence of resistive Wall effects and toroidal mode coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, R.; Lazzaro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The unlocking of static resistive tearing modes by rotating external magnetic perturbations such as those which may arise from the natural tokamak error-field is discussed. For a single mode the balance between the accelerating torque imparted by the error-field and the braking torque due to the interaction of the mode with the wall sets a threshold for the error-field current [H. P. Furth et al. Phys. Fluids 6, 459 (1963)], below which the mode frequency will not lock to the error-field frequency. If the mode resonant with the error-field is coupled to another mode with a rational surface located elsewhere in the plasma, the unlocking process is more elaborated and substantial modifications to the current threshold are expected. The present analysis may contribute to the explanation of some mode unlocking events in tokamak discharges with a non negligible error-field. (orig.)

  18. Studies on entanglement entropy for Hubbard model with hole-doping and external magnetic field [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K. L.; Li, Y. C.; Sun, X. Z.; Liu, Q. M.; Qin, Y.; Fu, H. H.; Gao, G. Y.

    2005-10-01

    By using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, we have studied the von Neumann entropy of a quantum system, which describes the entanglement of the system block and the rest of the chain. It is found that there is a close relation between the entanglement entropy and properties of the system. The hole-doping can alter the charge charge and spin spin interactions, resulting in charge polarization along the chain. By comparing the results before and after the doping, we find that doping favors increase of the von Neumann entropy and thus also favors the exchange of information along the chain. Furthermore, we calculated the spin and entropy distribution in external magnetic filed. It is confirmed that both the charge charge and the spin spin interactions affect the exchange of information along the chain, making the entanglement entropy redistribute.

  19. Fermi Surface Manipulation by External Magnetic Field Demonstrated for a Prototypical Ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Młyńczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the details of the near-surface electronic band structure of a prototypical ferromagnet, Fe(001. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate openings of the spin-orbit-induced electronic band gaps near the Fermi level. The band gaps, and thus the Fermi surface, can be manipulated by changing the remanent magnetization direction. The effect is of the order of ΔE=100  meV and Δk=0.1  Å^{−1}. We show that the observed dispersions are dominated by the bulk band structure. First-principles calculations and one-step photoemission calculations suggest that the effect is related to changes in the electronic ground state and not caused by the photoemission process itself. The symmetry of the effect indicates that the observed electronic bulk states are influenced by the presence of the surface, which might be understood as related to a Rashba-type effect. By pinpointing the regions in the electronic band structure where the switchable band gaps occur, we demonstrate the significance of spin-orbit interaction even for elements as light as 3d ferromagnets. These results set a new paradigm for the investigations of spin-orbit effects in the spintronic materials. The same methodology could be used in the bottom-up design of the devices based on the switching of spin-orbit gaps such as electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy or tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of external source memory and its relation to cognitive insight in non-clinical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Hawco, Colin; Bodnar, Michael; Izadi, Sarah; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Messina, Katrina; Lepage, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has linked cognitive insight (a measure of self-reflectiveness and self-certainty) in psychosis with neurocognitive and neuroanatomical disturbances in the fronto-hippocampal neural network. The authors' goal was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive insight during an external source memory paradigm in non-clinical subjects. At encoding, 24 non-clinical subjects travelled through a virtual city where they came across 20 separate people, each paired with a unique object in a distinct location. fMRI data were then acquired while participants viewed images of the city, and completed source recognition memory judgments of where and with whom objects were seen, which is known to involve prefrontal cortex. Cognitive insight was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. External source memory was associated with neural activity in a widespread network consisting of frontal cortex, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporal and occipital cortices. Activation in VLPFC correlated with higher self-reflectiveness and activation in midbrain correlated with lower self-certainty during source memory attributions. Neither self-reflectiveness nor self-certainty significantly correlated with source memory accuracy. By means of virtual reality and in the context of an external source memory paradigm, the study identified a preliminary functional neural basis for cognitive insight in the VLPFC in healthy people that accords with our fronto-hippocampal theoretical model as well as recent neuroimaging data in people with psychosis. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of neural mechanisms in psychotic disorders associated with cognitive insight distortions. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. External and Internal Reconnection in Two Filament-Carrying Magnetic-Cavity Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We observe two near-limb solar filament eruptions, one of 2000 February 26 and the other of 2002 January 4. For both we use 195 A Fe XII images from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), both of which are on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). For the earlier event we also use soft X-ray telescope (SXT), hard X-ray telescope (HXT), and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) data from the Yohkoh satellite, and hard X-ray data from the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ra.v Observatory (CGRO). Both events occur in quadrupolar magnetic regions, and both have coronal features that we infer belong to the same magnetic cavity structures as the filaments. In both cases, the cavity and filament first rise slowly at approx.10 km/s prior to eruption and then accelerate to approx.100 km/s during the eruption, although the slow-rise movement for the higher altitude cavity elements is clearer in the later event. We estimate that both filaments and both cavities contain masses of approx.10(exp 14)-10(exp 15) and approx.10(exp 15)-10(exp 16) g, respectively. We consider whether two specific magnetic reconnection-based models for eruption onset, the "tether cutting" and the "breakout" models, are consistent with our observations. In the earlier event, soft X-rays from SXT show an intensity increase during the 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, which is consistent with tether- cutting-model predictions. Substantial hard X-rays, however, do not occur until after fast eruption is underway, and so this is a constraint the tether-cutting model must satisfy. During the same 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, there are brightenings and topological changes in the corona indicative of high-altitude reconnection early in the eruption, and this is consistent with breakout predictions. In both eruptions, the state of the overlying loops at the time of onset of the fast-rise phase of

  2. External and Internal Reconnection in Two Filament-Carrying Magnetic Cavity Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We observe two near-limb solar filament eruptions. one of 2000 February 26 and the other of 2002 January 4. For both we use 195 A Fe XII images from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI). both of which are on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. (SOHO). For the earlier event we also use soft X-ray telescope (SXT). hard X-ray telescope (HXT). and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) data from the Yohkoh satellite. and hard X-ray data from the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. (CGRO). Both events occur in quadrupolar magnetic regions. and both have coronal features that we infer belong to the same magnetic cavity structures as the filaments. In both cases. the cavity and filament first rise slowly at approx. 10 km/s prior to eruption and then accelerate to approx. 100 km/s during the eruption. although the slow-rise movement for the higher altitude cavity elements is clearer in the later event. We estimate that both filaments and both cavities contain masses of approx. 10(exp14) - 1 0(exp 15) and approx. l0(exp 15) - l0(exp 16) g. respectively. We consider whether two specific magnetic reconnection-based models for eruption onset. the "tether cutting" and the "breakout" models. are consistent with our observations. In the earlier event, soft X-rays from SXT show an intensity increase during the 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins. which is consistent with tether- cutting-model predictions. Substantial hard X-ray. however. do not occur until after fast eruption is underway. and so this is a constraint the tether-cutting model must satisfy. During the same 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, there are brightenings and topological changes in the corona indicative of high-altitude reconnection early in the eruption. and this is consistent with breakout predictions. In both eruptions. the state of the overlying loops at the time of onset of the fast

  3. Electromagnetic response of non-trivially shaped superconductors in external magnetic fields and with applied currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Leonardo Ribeiro Eulalio; Aguiar, Jose Albino Oliveira de

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The study of the electromagnetic response of high-T c superconductors is essential for future technological applications. Such materials are hard type II superconductors, where the mixed state (a state characterized by quantized normal flux tubes - also called vortices - immersed in a superconductor phase) occupies most of the phase diagram. Therefore, the electromagnetic properties are dictated by the vortex dynamics in these materials. One has also to consider the presence of structural defects and thermal effects, which turn the vortex dynamics very complex. These difficulties may be overcome throughout a macroscopic description, also known as continuum approximation, of the electromagnetic fields in superconductors, obtained from critical state models and constitutive relations E = E(j) and H = H(B) (where E is the electric field generated by moving vortices, j the current density, B the induction - related to the local density of vortices - and H the reversible magnetic field that is in equilibrium with B). In superconductors with negligible demagnetization factors, such as long cylinders and bars with applied magnetic fields and/or currents along their longer dimensions, the Meissner state and the flux penetration is quite well understood. However, the actual specimen shape plays an important role on the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. Numerical methods are often employed, since such cases are hard to treat analytically. In this work we studied the electromagnetic response of superconductors with various shapes. The Meissner state is obtained for thin curved strips and long cylinders with arbitrary cross-section, in perpendicular field and with applied currents. The flux penetration is numerically calculated for thin curved strips for the Bean (j c =const.) and the Kim (j c (B) = j c0 /(1 + βB)) models. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasilov, Sergei V. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institut für Theoretische Physik—Computational Physics, Technische Universität Graz Petersgasse 16, A–8010 Graz (Austria); Institute of Plasma Physics National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology” ul. Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.; Heyn, Martin F. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institut für Theoretische Physik—Computational Physics, Technische Universität Graz Petersgasse 16, A–8010 Graz (Austria); Maassberg, Henning [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant magnetic perturbations (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) is an important momentum source affecting the toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. The well-known force-flux relation directly links this torque to the non-ambipolar neoclassical particle fluxes arising due to the violation of the toroidal symmetry of the magnetic field. Here, a quasilinear approach for the numerical computation of these fluxes is described, which reduces the dimension of a standard neoclassical transport problem by one without model simplifications of the linearized drift kinetic equation. The only limiting condition is that the non-axisymmetric perturbation field is small enough such that the effect of the perturbation field on particle motion within the flux surface is negligible. Therefore, in addition to most of the transport regimes described by the banana (bounce averaged) kinetic equation also such regimes as, e.g., ripple-plateau and resonant diffusion regimes are naturally included in this approach. Based on this approach, a quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 [W. Kernbichler et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 3, S1061 (2008).] has been developed and benchmarked against a few analytical and numerical models. Results from NEO-2 stay in good agreement with results from these models in their pertinent range of validity.

  5. Research of transportation efficiency of low-energy high- current electron beam in plasma channel in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, E S; Grigoriev, V P

    2015-01-01

    Effective high current (5-20 kA) and low energy (tens of keV) electrons beam transportation is possible only with almost complete charging neutralization. It is also necessary to use quite high current neutralization for elimination beam self-pinching effect. The research is based on the self-consistent mathematical model that takes into account beam and plasma particles dynamic, current and charge neutralization of electron beam and examines the transportation of electron beam into a chamber with low-pressure plasma in magnetic field. A numerical study was conducted using particle in cell (PIC) method. The study was performed with various system parameters: rise time and magnitude of the beam current, gas pressure and plasma density and geometry of the system. Regularities of local virtual cathode field generated by the beam in the plasma channel, as well as ranges of parameters that let transportation beam with minimal losses, depending on the external magnetic field were determined through a series of numerical studies. In addition, the assessment of the impact of the plasma ion mobility during the transition period and during steady beam was performed. (paper)

  6. Templating Biomineralization: Surface Directed Protein Self-assembly and External Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaolan

    Biomineralization is a wide-spread phenomenon in the biological systems, which is the process of mineral formation by organisms through interaction between its organic contents and the inorganic minerals. The process is essential in a broad spectrum of biological phenomena ranging from bone and tooth formation to pathological mineralization under hypoxic conditions or cancerous formations. In this thesis I studied biomineralization at the earliest stages in order to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental principals involved. This knowledge is essential if we want to engineer devices which will increase bone regeneration or prevent unwanted mineral deposits. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play an essential role during biomineralization in bone and engineered tissues. In this dissertation, I present an approach to mimic the ECM in vitro to probe the interactions of these proteins with calcium phosphate mineral and with each other. Early stage of mineralization is investigated by mechanical properties of the protein fibers using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) and Shear Modulation Force Microscopy (SMFM). The development of mineral crystals on the protein matrices is also characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD). The results demonstrate complementary actions of the two ECM proteins to collect cations and template calcium phosphate mineral, respectively. Magnets have been clinically used as an "induction source" in various bone or orthodontic treatments. However, the mechanism and effects of magnetic fields remain unclear. In this dissertation, I also undertake the present investigation to study the effects of 150 mT static magnetic fields (SMF) on ECM development and cell biomineralization using MC3T3-E1 osteobalst-like cells. Early stage of biomineralization is characterized by SPM, SMFM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM). Late stage of

  7. Influence of external magnetic field, finite-size effects and chemical potential on the phase transition of a complex scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E.; Castro, E.; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    A scalar model is built, as a quantum field theory defined on a toroidal topology, to describe a phase transition in films subjected to periodic boundary conditions and influenced by an external and constant magnetic field. Criticality is studied and the relations between the critical temperature, the film thickness, the magnetic field strength and the chemical potential are investigated. Since the model describes a second-order phase transition a comparison with the Ginzburg-Landau theory is made. (orig.)

  8. Multidimensional oriented solid-state NMR experiments enable the sequential assignment of uniformly 15N labeled integral membrane proteins in magnetically aligned lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mote, Kaustubh R.; Gopinath, T.; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Kitchen, Jason; Gor’kov, Peter L.; Brey, William W.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Oriented solid-state NMR is the most direct methodology to obtain the orientation of membrane proteins with respect to the lipid bilayer. The method consists of measuring 1 H- 15 N dipolar couplings (DC) and 15 N anisotropic chemical shifts (CSA) for membrane proteins that are uniformly aligned with respect to the membrane bilayer. A significant advantage of this approach is that tilt and azimuthal (rotational) angles of the protein domains can be directly derived from analytical expression of DC and CSA values, or, alternatively, obtained by refining protein structures using these values as harmonic restraints in simulated annealing calculations. The Achilles’ heel of this approach is the lack of suitable experiments for sequential assignment of the amide resonances. In this Article, we present a new pulse sequence that integrates proton driven spin diffusion (PDSD) with sensitivity-enhanced PISEMA in a 3D experiment ([ 1 H, 15 N]-SE-PISEMA-PDSD). The incorporation of 2D 15 N/ 15 N spin diffusion experiments into this new 3D experiment leads to the complete and unambiguous assignment of the 15 N resonances. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated for the membrane protein sarcolipin reconstituted in magnetically aligned lipid bicelles. Taken with low electric field probe technology, this approach will propel the determination of sequential assignment as well as structure and topology of larger integral membrane proteins in aligned lipid bilayers.

  9. Multidimensional oriented solid-state NMR experiments enable the sequential assignment of uniformly 15N labeled integral membrane proteins in magnetically aligned lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Kaustubh R; Gopinath, T; Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Kitchen, Jason; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2011-11-01

    Oriented solid-state NMR is the most direct methodology to obtain the orientation of membrane proteins with respect to the lipid bilayer. The method consists of measuring (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings (DC) and (15)N anisotropic chemical shifts (CSA) for membrane proteins that are uniformly aligned with respect to the membrane bilayer. A significant advantage of this approach is that tilt and azimuthal (rotational) angles of the protein domains can be directly derived from analytical expression of DC and CSA values, or, alternatively, obtained by refining protein structures using these values as harmonic restraints in simulated annealing calculations. The Achilles' heel of this approach is the lack of suitable experiments for sequential assignment of the amide resonances. In this Article, we present a new pulse sequence that integrates proton driven spin diffusion (PDSD) with sensitivity-enhanced PISEMA in a 3D experiment ([(1)H,(15)N]-SE-PISEMA-PDSD). The incorporation of 2D (15)N/(15)N spin diffusion experiments into this new 3D experiment leads to the complete and unambiguous assignment of the (15)N resonances. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated for the membrane protein sarcolipin reconstituted in magnetically aligned lipid bicelles. Taken with low electric field probe technology, this approach will propel the determination of sequential assignment as well as structure and topology of larger integral membrane proteins in aligned lipid bilayers. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  10. Electrical Characterization of Gold-DNA-Gold Structures in Presence of an External Magnetic Field by Means of I-V Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haliza Abd Majid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.

  11. The effect of an homogeneous magnetic field on the line profiles of hydrogen; Effet d'un champ magnetique uniforme sur les profils des raies de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H; Herman, L [Universite de Paris Sorbonne, Lab. de Recherche Physique, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-07-01

    The profiles of the hydrogen lines have been calculated taking into account the intermolecular electric field, the electronic collisions, and an external homogeneous magnetic field in which the plasma is imbedded. We considered electron densities N within the range 10{sup 15} {<=} N {<=} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and magnetic field strengths < 1,2 10{sup 5} gauss. These values cover practically most of the experimental conditions in which one is interested in the present state of research. In the present paper we only present the numerical results for the lines Ly-{alpha}, Ly-{beta} and H-{alpha}. For very small magnetic fields our calculated line profiles coincide with the pure Stark profiles recently calculated by GRIEM, KOLB and SHEN (1960). With increasing magnetic fields, important deviations appear. The essential parameters for these deviations are, firstly: the direction of observation with regard to the direction of the magnetic field, and secondly: the ratio between the Zeeman splitting in a magnetic field only and the Stark splitting due to the mean intermolecular electric field. Experimental line profiles have been obtained using a linear discharge tube surrounded by an induction coil, the comparison of tie theoretical profiles with the experimental ones shows a satisfying agreement. The results for the lines originating from higher principal quantum numbers are actually exploited and will be communicated soon. (author) [French] Les profils des raies de l'hydrogene ont ete calcules en tenant compte des collisions electroniques, du champ electrique intermoleculaire et d'un champ magnetique uniforme exterieur. Nous avons considere des concentrations electroniques comprises entre 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} et 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} et des champs magnetiques inferieurs ou egaux a 1,2 10{sup 5} gauss. Ces valeurs couvrent pratiquement toutes les conditions experimentales qui ont un interet a l'heure actuelle. Dans le present travail, nous ne donnons que des resultats

  12. Fast-ion losses induced by ELMs and externally applied magnetic perturbations in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M; Rodriguez-Ramos, M; Äkäslompolo, S; De Marne, P; Dunne, M G; Dux, R; Fietz, S; Fuchs, C; Geiger, B; Herrmann, A; Hoelzl, M; Kurzan, B; McDermott, R M; Strumberger, E; Evans, T E; Ferraro, N M; Pace, D C; Lazanyi, N; Nocente, M; Shinohara, K

    2013-01-01

    Phase-space time-resolved measurements of fast-ion losses induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM mitigation coils have been obtained in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by means of multiple fast-ion loss detectors (FILDs). Filament-like bursts of fast-ion losses are measured during ELMs by several FILDs at different toroidal and poloidal positions. Externally applied magnetic perturbations (MPs) have little effect on plasma profiles, including fast-ions, in high collisionality plasmas with mitigated ELMs. A strong impact on plasma density, rotation and fast-ions is observed, however, in low density/collisionality and q 95 plasmas with externally applied MPs. During the mitigation/suppression of type-I ELMs by externally applied MPs, the large fast-ion bursts observed during ELMs are replaced by a steady loss of fast-ions with a broad-band frequency and an amplitude of up to an order of magnitude higher than the neutral beam injection (NBI) prompt loss signal without MPs. Multiple FILD measurements at different positions, indicate that the fast-ion losses due to static 3D fields are localized on certain parts of the first wall rather than being toroidally/poloidally homogeneously distributed. Measured fast-ion losses show a broad energy and pitch-angle range and are typically on banana orbits that explore the entire pedestal/scrape-off-layer (SOL). Infra-red measurements are used to estimate the heat load associated with the MP-induced fast-ion losses. The heat load on the FILD detector head and surrounding wall can be up to six times higher with MPs than without 3D fields. When 3D fields are applied and density pump-out is observed, an enhancement of the fast-ion content in the plasma is typically measured by fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy. The lower density during the MP phase also leads to a deeper beam deposition with an inward radial displacement of ≈2 cm in the maximum of the beam emission. Orbit simulations are used to test different models for 3D

  13. Thermal quantum and classical correlations in a two-qubit XX model in a nonuniform external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ali Saif M [Department of Physics, University of Amran, Amran (Yemen); Lari, Behzad; Joag, Pramod S, E-mail: alisaif73@gmail.co, E-mail: behzadlari1979@yahoo.co, E-mail: pramod@physics.unipune.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2010-12-03

    We investigate how thermal quantum discord (QD) and classical correlations (CC) of a two-qubit one-dimensional XX Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on the temperature of the bath as well as on nonuniform external magnetic fields applied to two qubits and varied separately. We show that the behavior of QD differs in many unexpected ways from the thermal entanglement (EOF). For the nonuniform case (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}), we find that QD and CC are equal for all values of (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}) and for different temperatures. We show that, in this case, the thermal states of the system belong to a class of mixed states and satisfy certain conditions under which QD and CC are equal. The specification of this class and the corresponding conditions are completely general and apply to any quantum system in a state in this class satisfying these conditions. We further find that the relative contributions of QD and CC can be controlled easily by changing the relative magnitudes of B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}. Finally, we connect our results with the monogamy relations between the EOF, CC and the QD of two qubits and the environment.

  14. Developing a Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurement of the forces within 3D granular materials under external loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrington, Stefan; Bertrand, Thibault; Frey, Merideth; Shattuck, Mark; O'Hern, Corey; Barrett, Sean

    2014-03-01

    Granular materials are comprised of an ensemble of discrete macroscopic grains that interact with each other via highly dissipative forces. These materials are ubiquitous in our everyday life ranging in scale from the granular media that forms the Earth's crust to that used in agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. Granular materials exhibit complex behaviors that are poorly understood and cannot be easily described by statistical mechanics. Under external loads individual grains are jammed into place by a network of force chains. These networks have been imaged in quasi two-dimensional and on the outer surface of three-dimensional granular materials. Our goal is to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect contact forces deep within three-dimensional granular materials, using hydrogen-1 relaxation times as a reporter for changes in local stress and strain. To this end, we use a novel pulse sequence to narrow the line width of hydrogen-1 in rubber. Here we present our progress to date, and prospects for future improvements.

  15. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  16. Influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field on the thermo-hydrodynamic stability in water-based nanofluids with metallic nanoparticles using the generalized Buongiorno's mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakif, Abderrahim; Boulahia, Zoubair; Mishra, S. R.; Mehdi Rashidi, Mohammad; Sehaqui, Rachid

    2018-05-01

    The onset of nanofluid convection in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field is investigated numerically based on the non-homogeneous Buongiorno's mathematical model. In this study, we use the latest experimental correlations and powerful analytical models for expressing the thermo-physical properties of some electrically conducting nanofluids, such as copper-water, sliver-water and gold-water nanofluids, in which the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects on slip flow in nanofluids are taken into account in this model ( i.e., two-phase transport model). In this paper, we assume that the nanofluid has Newtonian behavior, confined horizontally between two infinite impermeable boundaries and heated from below, in such a way that the nanoparticles tend to concentrate near the upper wall. Considering the basic state of the nanofluidic system, the linear stability theory has been successfully applied to obtain the principal stability equations, which are solved numerically for an imposed volumetric fraction of nanoparticles and no-slip impermeable conditions at the isothermal walls bounding the nanofluid layer. The linear boundary-value problem obtained in this investigation is converted into a pure initial-value problem, so that we can solve it numerically by the fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The generalized Buongiorno's mathematical model proposed in this study allows performing a highly accurate computational analysis. In addition, the obtained results show that the stability of the studied nanofluidic system depends on several parameters, namely, the magnetic Chandrasekhar number Q , the reference value for the volumetric fraction of nanoparticles φ_0 and the size of nanoparticles d_p . In this analysis, the thermo-hydrodynamic stability of the studied nanofluid is controlled through the critical thermal Rayleigh number R_{ac} , which characterizes the onset of convection cells, whose size is L_c=2π/a_c . Furthermore, the effects

  17. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekas, Nikola [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Granger, Michael [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Tondra, Mark [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Popple, Anthony [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Porter, Marc D. [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States)]. E-mail: mporter@porter1.ameslab.gov

    2005-05-15

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented.

  18. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekas, Nikola; Granger, Michael; Tondra, Mark; Popple, Anthony; Porter, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented

  19. Three dimensional boundary displacement due to stable ideal kink modes excited by external n = 2 magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willensdorfer, M.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Brida, D.; Cavedon, M.; Denk, S. S.; Igochine, V.; Giannone, L.; Kirk, A.; Kirschner, J.; Medvedeva, A.; Odstrčil, T.; Ryan, D. A.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    In low-collisionality (ν\\star) scenarios exhibiting mitigation of edge localized mode (ELMs), stable ideal kink modes at the edge are excited by externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP)-fields. In ASDEX Upgrade these modes can cause three-dimensional (3D) boundary displacements up to the centimeter range. These displacements have been measured using toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigidly rotating n=2 MP-fields with various applied poloidal mode spectra. These measurements are compared to non-linear 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria calculated by VMEC. Comprehensive comparisons have been conducted, which consider for instance plasma movements due to the position control system, attenuation due to internal conductors and changes in the edge pressure profiles. VMEC accurately reproduces the amplitude of the displacement and its dependencies on the applied poloidal mode spectra. Quantitative agreement is found around the low field side (LFS) midplane. The response at the plasma top is qualitatively compared. The measured and predicted displacements at the plasma top maximize when the applied spectra is optimized for ELM-mitigation. The predictions from the vacuum modeling generally fails to describe the displacement at the LFS midplane as well as at the plasma top. When the applied mode spectra is set to maximize the displacement, VMEC and the measurements clearly surpass the predictions from the vacuum modeling by a factor of four. Minor disagreements between VMEC and the measurements are discussed. This study underlines the importance of the stable ideal kink modes at the edge for the 3D boundary displacement in scenarios relevant for ELM-mitigation.

  20. Three dimensional numerical study of different parameters effect on the external magnetic field applied to center the arc of the horizontal mercury discharge lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the magnitude of the external magnetic field to be applied to a horizontal mercury discharge lamp such that the Lorentz forces counterbalance buoyancy forces and the hot region of the arc remains centered inside the lamp with the variation of six parameters of the lamp such as the external temperature of the lamp, envelope thickness, convective loss, Interelectrodeslength, pressure and current supply pointing to the influence of the parameters to the compensating magnetic field value. To achieve this objective, a commercial numerical software “Comsol Multiphysics” is used to implement the model that solves the equations of mass, energy and momentum for laminar compressible flow combined with the Laplace equation for the plasma in a three dimensional.

  1. Internal film cooling of permanent magnet external rotor machine using the example of a small wind power generator; Innenkuehlung permanentmagneterregter Aussenlaeufermaschinen am Beispiel eines Kleinwindenergiegenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miersch, Soeren; Eckart, Martin; Michalke, Norbert [HTW Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the fluid flow and thermal cooling system design of a permanent magnet small wind power generator in external rotor construction. Analytical calculation attachment pieces and numerical simulations will be served as authoring tool. Calculation and simulation results will be exhibited in comparing with model and prototype measurements. With the help of stationary temperature allocation, the effectiveness of intensive internal film cooling will be shown. (orig.)

  2. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  3. Probing Interfacial Friction and Dissipation in Granular Gold­ Nickel Alloys with a Quartz Crystal Oscillator in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K. M.; Krim, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present here a quartz crystal microbalance study of two-phase gold nickel alloys whose internal granular properties are probed by exposure to a fluctuating external magnetic field. The work is motivated by prior studies demonstrating that granular two-phase materials exhibited lower friction and wear than solid solution alloys with identical compositions. In particular, we report a ``flexing'' effect which appears when an external magnetic field is applied, and is manifested as a decrease in the magnitude of oscillation amplitude that is synchronized with the applied field; the effect is not seen on the complimentary solid solution samples. The effect is consistent with internal interfacial friction between nickel and gold grains, indicating a degree of freedom which may decrease friction even in the absence of an external magnetic field. This is supported through analysis of energy dissipation in the system, using the Butterworth­-Van Dyke equivalent circuit model. Data and interpretation are also presented that rule out alternate explanations such as giant magnetoresistance and/or other resistive phenomenon within the film. Funding provided by NSF DMR0805204. Thanks to L. Pan for sample preparation.

  4. Evidence for the ferromagnetic frustration in a classical spin- 1 / 2 system with multisite interaction in external magnetic field: Exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the influence of the multisite interaction among sites within elementary triangles of the kagome-like recursive lattice on the properties of the classical spin- 1 / 2 ferromagnetic Ising model in the external magnetic field. The exact solution of the model is found and it is shown that the model exhibits a nontrivial structure of the first order as well as second order phase transitions in nonzero external magnetic fields related to the multisite interaction. The equation for the exact determination of the positions of the critical points of the second order phase transitions is derived. The thermodynamic properties of the model are investigated in detail and it is shown that the competition between the ferromagnetic interaction and the multisite interaction leads to the appearance of strong ferromagnetic frustration effects represented by the formation of a nontrivial system of macroscopically degenerated plateau-like and single-point-like ground states. The residual entropies of all ground states are found and the kagome spin-ice-like highly macroscopically degenerated plateau state with nonzero magnetization is identified with the exact residual entropy per site s /kB = ln(4 / 3) / 3 ≈ 0 . 095894. The properties of the specific heat are investigated, its Schottky-type behavior near the single-point ground state values of the magnetic field is identified, the existence of large magnetocaloric effect is discussed, and the existence of the first order phase transitions without the specific heat capacity change is demonstrated.

  5. Classical states of an electric dipole in an external magnetic field: Complete solution for the center of mass and trapped states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenas, Boris; Pino, Luis A. del; Curilef, Sergio, E-mail: scurilef@ucn.cl

    2014-11-15

    We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentumC{sup →}. We obtain a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and complementary to previous results. - Highlights: • Bound states without turning points. • Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field. • Motion of the center of mass and trapped states. • Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy.

  6. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  7. Magnetic field effect on flow parameters of blood along with magnetic particles in a cylindrical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shashi, E-mail: shashisharma1984@gmail.com; Singh, Uaday; Katiyar, V.K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of external uniform magnetic field on flow parameters of both blood and magnetic particles is reported through a mathematical model using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approach. The fluid is acted upon by a varying pressure gradient and an external uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the cylindrical tube. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations were solved numerically and found that flow parameters are affected by the influence of magnetic field. Further, artificial blood (75% water+25% Glycerol) along with iron oxide magnetic particles were prepared and transported into a glass tube with help of a peristaltic pump. The velocity of artificial blood along with magnetic particles was experimentally measured at different magnetic fields ranging from 100 to 600 mT. The model results show that the velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under the influence of magnetic field, which is supported by our experimental results. - Highlights: • Effect of magnetic field on flow parameters of blood and magnetic particles is studied. • The velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under a magnetic field. • Experimental results of the velocity of magnetic particles within blood support the mathematical model results.

  8. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  9. Numerical and theoretical evaluations of AC losses for single and infinite numbers of superconductor strips with direct and alternating transport currents in external AC magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, K.; Funaki, K.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2010-11-01

    AC losses in a superconductor strip are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method formulated with a current vector potential. The expressions of AC losses in an infinite slab that corresponds to a simple model of infinitely stacked strips are also derived theoretically. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the superconductors are represented by Bean's critical state model. The typical operation pattern of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil with direct and alternating transport currents in an external AC magnetic field is taken into account as the electromagnetic environment for both the single strip and the infinite slab. By using the obtained results of AC losses, the influences of the transport currents on the total losses are discussed quantitatively.

  10. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  11. Topological instability of a semi-bounded magnetic fluid drop under influence of magnetic and ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashtovoi, V., E-mail: bashv@rambler.ru [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Reks, A. [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Baev, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of NAS of Belarus, 16 Akademicheskaya str., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Mansoor, Al-Jhaish Taha Malik [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus)

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on deformation and disintegration on parts (topological instability) of semi-bounded magnetic fluid drop placed on horizontal plate in the presence of gravity and vertical external uniform magnetic field, and the influence of acoustic wave on these processes, as well as an experimental results of acoustic fountain on free surface of magnetic fluid are presented. The role of individual mechanisms leading to disintegration is analyzed, and analytical relationships and experimental dependences for critical parameters are established.

  12. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory

  13. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.

  14. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  15. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of the external cryogenic sub-system for the magnets of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply, including design, installation, commissioning and testing at CERN of the external cryogenic sub-system for the magnets of the ATLAS experiment. Following a market survey carried out among 28 firms in eight Member States and eight firms in two non-Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2807/EP/ATLAS) was sent on 17 August 2000 to two firms in two Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the two firms. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with LINDE KRYOTECHNIK (CH), the lowest bidder, for the design, supply, installation, commissioning and testing at CERN of the external cryogenic sub-system for the magnets of the ATLAS experiment for a total amount of 6 652 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with options for interconnecting low- and high-pressure warm piping and for spare parts, for an additional amount of 910 170 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount...

  17. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  18. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K

    2004-10-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.

  19. Numerical simulation of the combination effect of external magnetic field and rotating workpiece on abrasive flow finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Saeid; Esmailian, Mojtaba; Fatahy, A. [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology (MUT), Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Finishing of a workpiece is a main process in the production. This affects the quality and lifetime. Finishing in order of nanometer, nowadays, is a main demand of the industries. Thus, some new finishing process, such as abrasive flow finishing, is introduced to respond this demand. This may be aided by rotating workpiece and imposing a magnetic field. Numerical simulation of this process can be beneficial to reduce the expense and predict the result in a minimum time. Accordingly, in this study, magnetorheological fluid finishing is numerically simulated. The working medium contains magnetic and abrasive particles, blended in a base fluid. Some hydrodynamic parameters and surface roughness variations are studied. It is found that combination of rotating a workpiece and imposing a magnetic field can improve the surface roughness up to 15 percent.

  20. School Uniforms Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  1. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  2. Mandatory School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Carl A.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)

  3. Dynamical properties of magnetized two-dimensional one-component plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Girija S.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Fessatidis, Vassilios

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation are used to examine the effect of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field on a two-dimensional interacting electron system. In this simulation we include the effect of the magnetic field classically through the Lorentz force. Both the Coulomb and the magnetic forces are included directly in the electron dynamics to study their combined effect on the dynamical properties of the 2D system. Results are presented for the velocity autocorrelation function and the diffusion constants in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. Our simulation results clearly show that the external magnetic field has an effect on the dynamical properties of the system.

  4. Non-uniform 3He polarization formed by multiple collisions of a fast 3He+ ion with polarized Rb vapor in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Y.; Yonehara, K.; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of a polarization in 3 He beam expected from a novel polarized 3 He ion source based on electron pumping, i.e., multiple electron capture and stripping collisions of an incident fast 3 He + ion with a polarized Rb vapor in a strong axial magnetic field. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out for 19 keV 3 He + ions with varying Rb vapor thickness, magnetic field, and beam emittance. The calculated results showed a distribution of the 3 He polarization that we call a 'polarization hole', which has a low polarization area around the beam axis. The parameters characterizing the polarization hole, i.e., the polarization and radius of the hole, were found to depend on the Rb vapor thickness, the magnetic field, the beam size, and the angular divergence of the initial beam. These parameters were successfully reproduced with analytical functions deduced from a probability density function prescription. This provides a powerful tool to treat complex phenomena of multiple collisions in strong magnetic fields without performing time-consuming Monte Carlo calculations

  5. The Role of Diffusion-Controlled Growth in the Formation of Uniform Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with a Link to Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolková, I. S.; Kazantseva, N.E.; Babayan, V.; Vilcakova, J.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Sáha, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2017), s. 2323-2332 ISSN 1528-7483 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : DIPOLAR INTERACTIONS * MONODISPERSE NANOCRYSTALS * HEAT-GENERATION * FIELD * PARTICLES * MODEL * THERMOTHERAPY * OPTIMIZATION * FEASIBILITY * ASSEMBLIES Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.055, year: 2016

  6. Numerical simulation of plasma response to externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicheng, LI; Zhonghe, JIANG; Jian, LV; Xiang, LI; Bo, RAO; Yonghua, DING

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an equilibrium on the J-TEXT tokamak with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are performed with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation, open discussion). Numerical simulation of plasma response to RMPs has been developed to investigate magnetic topology, plasma density and rotation profile. The results indicate that the pure applied RMPs can stimulate 2/1 mode as well as 3/1 mode by the toroidal mode coupling, and finally change density profile by particle transport. At the same time, plasma rotation plays an important role during the entire evolution process.

  7. Framing the impact of external magnetic field on bioconvection of a nanofluid flow containing gyrotactic microorganisms with convective boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Chakraborty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study is to examine the combined impacts of magnetic field and convective boundary state on bioconvection of a nanofluid flow along an expanding sheet co-existed with gyrotactic microorganisms. The fundamental partial differential equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations taking a guide of some appropriate similarity transformations. The numerical fallouts are calculated by considering the bvp4c function of Matlab. The impacts of magnetic field parameter, surface convection parameter, Eckert number and Peclet number on non-dimensional velocity, nanoparticle concentration, temperature and density of self-moving microorganisms are interpreted through graphs and charts. The fluid velocity near the surface and the Nusselt number is lessen with magnetic field. Surface convection parameter enhances the self-moving microorganism flux but a reverse result is noticed for Peclet number. Also, the contrast between the present results with formerly visited outcomes is in excellent harmony. Keywords: Nanofluid, Bioconvection, Gyrotactic microorganisms, Magnetic field, Convective boundary condition

  8. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing behavior problems in adolescent bullies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kang, Yun-Hyong; Lee, Jong-Min; Cha, Jungho; Park, Yeong-Hun; Kweon, Kuk-Ju; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2018-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for externalizing behavior problems in perpetrators of school bullying using assessments of brain activity and behavior. Twenty-five adolescent bullies participated in an 8-session intervention. Prior to and after participation, 24 adolescents were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 23 completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and scores on the CBCL were analyzed. We also compared the identified changes into 2 groups (low and high delinquency) differentiated by a cutoff of 65 points on the delinquency subscale of the CBCL. Following the intervention, participants exhibited improvement in the subscores of the CBCL and decreases in the fALFF of the inferior parietal lobule, lingual, interior frontal and middle occipital gyrus. A positive correlation was observed between changes in the CBCL externalizing behavior scores and fALFF of the inferior frontal gyrus. The high delinquency group showed a greater decrease in delinquency and externalizing CBCL subscores across time than did the low delinquency group. The high delinquency group had more areas that showed change in fALFF post-intervention than did the low delinquency group. A positive correlation was observed between changes in the CBCL delinquency scores and fALFF of the precentral gyrus in the high delinquency group. The results indicate that this CBT for externalizing behavior problems in bullies had more positive effects on delinquent behavior in adolescents with high levels of delinquency, and these changes were associated with functional changes in brain activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02670876. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xiaopeng; Xuan Yimin, E-mail: ymxuan@mail.njust.edu.cn; Li Qiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering (China)

    2013-05-15

    A new theoretical approach for calculating the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid is proposed, which is based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and T-matrix method. By means of this approach, the influence of particle diameter, particle volume fraction, and external magnetic filed on the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid is investigated. The results show that the extinction coefficient of the magnetic fluid linearly increases with increase in the particle volume fraction. For a given particle volume fraction, the extinction coefficient increases with increase in the particle diameter which varies from 5 to 20 nm. When a uniform external magnetic filed is applied to the magnetic fluid, the extinction coefficient of the magnetic fluid presents an anisotropic feature. These results agree well with the reported experimental results. The proposed approach is applicable to investigating the optical properties of magnetic fluids.

  10. Relativistic dynamics of an electron in a pulse of laser light with propagation along of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Ondarza, R.

    2003-01-01

    The exact solution for the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized spreading along a static and homogeneous magnetic field is obtained starting from the equation of force. The solution method allows to solve, in terms of the phase, the trajectory of an accelerated particle by a pulse of arbitrary width and modulated by an encircling in Gaussian form. The reported solutions in this work have diverse applications in the laser-plasma interaction physics. (Author)

  11. Relativistic quantum Hall conductivity for 3D and 2D electron plasma in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Perez Martinez, A.; Perez-Rojas, H.

    1990-05-01

    The complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor in the static limit, as well as the expression for the Hall conductivity, is obtained for the relativistic 3D and 2D electron gas in a magnetic field. The non-relativistic 2D limit is also discussed. The typical step form of the 2D Hall conductivity at zero temperature is obtained under the simple hypothesis of constancy of the chemical potential. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  12. Effect of rotation on peristaltic flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium with an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, A.M.; Abo-Dahab, S.M.; Al-Simery, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of both rotation and magnetic field of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium induced by sinusoidal peristaltic waves traveling down the channel walls are studied analytically and computed numerically. Closed-form solutions under the consideration of long wavelength and low-Reynolds number is presented. The analytical expressions for axial velocity, pressure rise per wavelength, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient are obtained in the physical domain. The effect of the rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude in the wave frame is analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically in each case considered. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and magnetic field. The results indicate that the effect of rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude are very pronounced in the phenomena. - Highlights: • The effects of induced magnetic field and rotation in peristaltic motion of a two dimensional of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium • The exact and closed form solutions are presented • Different wave shapes are considered to observe the behavior of the axial velocity, pressure rise, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient

  13. Effect of rotation on peristaltic flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium with an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, A.M., E-mail: mohmrr@yahoo.com [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Abo-Dahab, S.M., E-mail: sdahb@yahoo.com [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Maths Department, Faculty of Science, SVU, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Al-Simery, R.D. [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the effects of both rotation and magnetic field of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium induced by sinusoidal peristaltic waves traveling down the channel walls are studied analytically and computed numerically. Closed-form solutions under the consideration of long wavelength and low-Reynolds number is presented. The analytical expressions for axial velocity, pressure rise per wavelength, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient are obtained in the physical domain. The effect of the rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude in the wave frame is analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically in each case considered. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and magnetic field. The results indicate that the effect of rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude are very pronounced in the phenomena. - Highlights: • The effects of induced magnetic field and rotation in peristaltic motion of a two dimensional of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium • The exact and closed form solutions are presented • Different wave shapes are considered to observe the behavior of the axial velocity, pressure rise, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient.

  14. Fabrication of magnetic alginate beads with uniform dispersion of CoFe2O4 by the polydopamine surface functionalization for organic pollutants removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Lu, Haijun; Zhang, Yun; He, Fu; Jing, Lingyun; He, Xinghua

    2016-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for production of magnetic composites by decorating CoFe2O4 with polydopamine (PDA) through oxidative polymerization of dopamine was conducted. Further, magnetic alginate beads with porous structure containing well-dispersed CoFe2O4-PDA were fabricated by ionic crosslinking technology. The resulting SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption potential of SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads for organic dyes including Methylene Blue (MB), Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) was evaluated. SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads exhibited excellent adsorption performances due to the composite effect, large surface area and porous structure. Organic dyes could be removed from water solution with high efficiency in a wide pH range of 4.0-9.0. Moreover, it exhibited much higher adsorptivity towards MB and CV with the maximum adsorption capacities of 466.60 and 456.52 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than that of MG (248.78 mg/g). Ca-electrolyte had obvious adverse effects on MB and CV adsorption than MG. FTIR and XPS demonstrated that carboxylate, catechol, hydroxyl and amine groups might be involved in adsorption of organic dyes. The characteristics of wide pH range, high adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation would make SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads as effective adsorbent for removal of organic dyes from wastewater.

  15. Fabrication of magnetic alginate beads with uniform dispersion of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by the polydopamine surface functionalization for organic pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoli, E-mail: lixiaoli@lzu.edu.cn [Gansu Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, Haijun, E-mail: 784616040@qq.com [Gansu Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: zhangyun@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Fu, E-mail: hef15@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jing, Lingyun, E-mail: jingly12@lzu.edu.cn [Gansu Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Xinghua, E-mail: 466410250@qq.com [Institute of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA with magnetic particles and biopolymers were used for dye removal. • SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA exhibited the synergistic effect. • High adsorption capacities and fast kinetics were obtained. • Cationic dyes could be removed with high efficiency in a wide pH range. • Possible mechanism of adsorption was investigated. - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for production of magnetic composites by decorating CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with polydopamine (PDA) through oxidative polymerization of dopamine was conducted. Further, magnetic alginate beads with porous structure containing well-dispersed CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA were fabricated by ionic crosslinking technology. The resulting SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA beads were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption potential of SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA beads for organic dyes including Methylene Blue (MB), Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) was evaluated. SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA beads exhibited excellent adsorption performances due to the composite effect, large surface area and porous structure. Organic dyes could be removed from water solution with high efficiency in a wide pH range of 4.0–9.0. Moreover, it exhibited much higher adsorptivity towards MB and CV with the maximum adsorption capacities of 466.60 and 456.52 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than that of MG (248.78 mg/g). Ca-electrolyte had obvious adverse effects on MB and CV adsorption than MG. FTIR and XPS demonstrated that carboxylate, catechol, hydroxyl and amine groups might be involved in adsorption of organic dyes. The characteristics of wide pH range, high adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation would make SA@CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-PDA beads as effective adsorbent for removal of organic dyes from wastewater.

  16. Aging and magnetism: Presenting a possible new holistic paradigm for ameliorating the aging process and the effects thereof, through externally applied physiologic PicoTesla magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jerry; Sherlag, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions, physiologic PicoTesla range magnetic fields may decrease the production of excessive heat energy through target specific, bio molecular resonant interactions, renormalization of intrinsic electromagnetic tissue profiles, and autonomic modulation. Prospectively, we hypothesize that deleterious effects of physical trauma, immunogenic microbiological agents, stress, and anxiety may be ameliorated. A particle-wave equation is cited to ascertain magnetic field parameters for application to the whole organism thereby achieving desired homeostasis; secondary to restoration of structure and function on quantum levels. We hypothesize that it is at the atomic level that physical events shape the flow of signals and the transmission of energy in bio molecular systems. References are made to experimental data indicating the aspecific efficacy of non-ionizing physiologic magnetic field profiles for treatment of various pathologic states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron–Cyclotron Laser Using Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Radiation in a Strong Uniform Axial Magnetic Field and an Alternating Axial Electric Field in a Voltage-Supplied Pill-Box Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the radiation from the beam electrons traveling in a strong uniform axial magnetic field and an axial alternating electric field of wavelength λ_w generated by a voltage-supplied pill-box cavity. The beam electrons emit genuine laser radiation that propagates only in the axial direction through free-electron two-quantum Stark radiation. We find that laser radiation takes place only at the expense of the axial kinetic energy when λ_w ≪ c/(ω_c/γ), where ω_c/γ is the relativistic electron–cyclotron frequency. We formulate the laser power based on quantum-wiggler electrodynamics, and envision a laser of length 10 m with estimated power 0.1 GW/(kA) in the 10"−"4 cm wavelength range. (paper)

  18. Computational assessment of pregnant woman models exposed to uniform ELF-magnetic fields: compliance with the European current exposure regulations for the general public and occupational exposures at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo; Douglas, Mark; Capstick, Myles; Kuster, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The Recommendation 1999/529/EU and the Directive 2013/35/EU suggest limits for both general public and occupational exposures to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, but without special limits for pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of 40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages). (authors)

  19. Strike-point splitting induced by external magnetic perturbations: Observations on JET and MAST and associated modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nardon, E.; Cahyna, Pavel; Devaux, S.; Kirk, A.; Alfier, A.; De La Luna, E.; De Temmerman, G.; Denner, P.; Eich, T.; Gerbaud, T.; Harting, D.; Jachmich, S.; Koslowski, H.R.; Liang, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 415, č. 1 (2011), S914-S917 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Device/19th./. San Diego, 24.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamaks * ELM control * resonant magnetic perturbations * divertor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.10.072

  20. Multipactor Mitigation in Coaxial Lines by Means of Permanent Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Iglesias, D; Anza, S; Vague, J; Gimeno, B; Boria, V E; Raboso, D; Vicente, C; Gil, J; Caspers, F; Conde, L

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the analysis of the feasibility of employing permanent magnets for the multipactor mitigation in a coaxial waveguide. First, the study of a coaxial line immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field shows that multipactor can be suppressed at any RF frequency if the external magnetic field is strong enough. Both theoretical simulations and experimental tests validate this statement. Next, multipactor breakdown of a coaxial line immersed in a hollow cylindrical permanent magnet is analyzed. Numerical simulations show that multipactor can be suppressed in a certain RF frequency range. The performed experimental test campaign demonstrates the capability of the magnet to avoid the multipactor electron multiplication process.

  1. Displacements and intensities of the components of hydrogenic lines of the helium atom in the presence of exterior uniform electrical and magnetic fields; Deplacements et intensites des composantes des raies hydrogenoides de l'atome d'helium en presence de champs exterieurs electrique et magnetique uniformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C; Herman, L; Nguyen, H [Laboratoire de Recherches Physiques, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Association Euratom-CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The Waller-Foster method for hydrogenic lines of neutral helium is extended in order to take into account an external magnetic field (vector K) having an arbitrary angle with an external constant electric field (vector F). The diagonal correction has been evaluated numerically taking into account recent experimental data. A Fortran IV program written for the CDC 3600 computer allows to calculate the displacements and the intensities for any hydrogenic transition. Special attention is given to the {l_brace}2-4{r_brace} transitions in neutral helium. (authors) [French] La methode de perturbation de Waller et Foster est generalisee afin de tenir compte d'un champ magnetique exterieur (vecteurK) faisant un angle quelconque avec un champ electrique exterieur (vecteurF). La correction diagonale des matrices de perturbation est evaluee numeriquement a l'aide des donnees atomiques les plus recentes. Un programme ecrit pour l'ordinateur CDC 3600 permet le calcul des deplacements et des intensites pour des transitions hydrogenoides quelconques. Les transitions [2-4]d'helium neutre ont ete etudiees plus particulierement. (auteurs)

  2. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  3. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  4. Magnetic Active Agent Release System (MAARS): evaluation of a new way for a reproducible, externally controlled drug release into the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Christian T; Richert, Hendryk; Abert, Sandra; Merkel, Ute; Hippius, Marion; Stallmach, Andreas

    2012-08-10

    Human absorption studies are used to test new drug candidates for their bioavailability in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to replace invasive techniques (e.g. oral or rectal intubation) a variety of externally controlled capsule-based drug release systems has been developed. Most of these use ionizing radiation, internal batteries, heating elements or even chemicals for the localization and disintegration process of the capsule. This embodies potential harms for volunteers and patients. We report about a novel technique called "Magnetic Active Agent Release System" (MAARS), which uses purely magnetic effects for this purpose. In our trial thirteen healthy volunteers underwent a complete monitoring and release procedure of 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) targeting the flexura duodenojejunalis and the mid-part of the jejunum. During all experiments MAARS initiated a sufficient drug release and was well tolerated. Beside this we also could show that the absorption of ASA is about two times faster in the more proximal region of the flexura duodenojejunalis with a tmax of 47±13 min compared to the more distal jejunum with tmax values of 100±10 min (p=0.031). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Field dependent shape variation of magnetic fluid droplets on magnetic dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chiun-Peng; Yang, Shu-Ting; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of magnetic fluid droplets on magnetic thin film dots is studied experimentally, including the aspect ratio and the contact angle variation of the droplets. Under a uniform external magnetic field, the droplet's aspect ratio increases with the external field and with the diameter of the magnetic dot due to the concentrated magnetic flux inside the magnetic fluid droplet. Similar to the electrical wetting phenomenon, the induced magnetic dipoles in the magnetic film and in the magnetic fluid near the solid–liquid interface change the solid–liquid interfacial tension, and in consequence reduce the apparent contact angle of the magnetic fluid droplet. - Highlights: ► Morphology of ferrofluid droplets on magnetic thin film dots was studied experimentally. ► Aspect ratio of ferrofluid droplets was found to increase with increasing of magnetic field. ► Liquid–solid contact angle of ferrofluid droplets was found to vary with magnetic field. ► Relationship between magnetic field and the liquid–solid interfacial tension was modeled.

  6. [Measures of occupational exposure to time-varying low frequency magnetic fields of non-uniform spatial distribution in the light of international guidelines and electrodynamic exposure effects in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Zradziński, Patryk; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze by computer simulations the electrodynamic effects of magnetic field (MF) on workers, to harmonize the principles of occupational hazards assessment with international guidelines. Simulations involved 50 Hz MF of various spatial distributions, representing workers' exposure in enterprises. Homogeneous models of sigma = 0.2 S/m conductivity and dimensions of body parts - palm, head and trunk - were located at 50 cm ("hand-distance") or 5 cm (adjacent) from the source (circle conductor of 20 cm or 200 cm in diameter). Parameters of magnetic flux density (B(i)) affecting the models were the exposure measures, and the induced electric field strength (E(in)) was the measure of MF exposure effects. The ratio E(in)/B(i) in the analyzed cases ranged from 2.59 to 479 (V/m)/T. The strongest correlation (p assessing the effects of non-uniform fields exposure, resulting from a strong dependence of the E(in)/B(i) ratio on the conditions of exposure and its applied measures, requires special caution when defining the permissible MF levels and the principles of exposure assessment at workplace.

  7. Radiographic evaluation of vessel count and density with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging during external breast expansion in Asian women: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yujin; Kwon, Heeyeon; Pak, Changsik; Lee, Hobin; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Heo, Chan Yeong

    2016-12-01

    Breast augmentation with fat transfer does not bear the risks associated with silicone implantation. The method can potentially be especially useful in Asian women, who often reject augmentation mammoplasty with implants. This prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of external breast expansion on breast density and vessel count using magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-four enrolled patients were instructed to apply one of two devices, the conventional BRAVA device (used in the AESTES trial) or a novel external expansion device (EVERA) designed for Asian women, continuously for 8 h per day for 12 weeks. For external expansion, the pressure was set to 25 mmHg. Follow-up examinations were performed for 4 weeks after completion of the expansion. The ratio between the fibroglandular and adipose tissues of the breast was measured using T1-weighted MRI, and the number of vessels in the breast tissue was determined before and after the treatment by contrast MRI. Additionally, the volume of the breast was measured by laser scanning before, during, and after the device application. The obtained measurements were compared within and between the groups at different time points. Six patients dropped out, while 28 completed the trial without major side effects or adverse events. External expansion significantly increased breast vessel count in both the EVERA and AESTES groups (p = 0.019, p = 0.022). However, it did not significantly change breast density in either group (p = 0.186, p = 0.638). No significant intergroup differences were noted in vessel count (p = 0.874) or density (p = 0.482). Breast volume increases after 12 weeks of application were statistically significant in both groups, with mean changes of 81 ± 22 cc (AESTES) and 98 ± 30 cc (EVERA) (p Asian women. Level II, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling of the penetration process of externally applied helical magnetic perturbation of the DED on the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Y; Finken, K H; Jakubowski, M; Lehnen, M; Reiser, D; Sewell, G; Wolf, R C

    2006-01-01

    The error-field penetration process of the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the TEXTOR tokamak has been investigated analytically in terms of a single fluid MHD model with a finite plasma resistivity and viscosity in a cylindrical geometry. The linear model produces a localization of the induced current at the resonance surface and predicts a vortex structure of the velocity field near the resonance layer. Moreover, effects of the Alfven resonance for the error-field penetration are identified by two peaks in the radial profiles of the perturbed toroidal current and the perturbed magnetic flux when the relative rotation velocity between the DED and the rotating tokamak plasma is set to large. Fine structures of the vorticity induced by the DED in the vicinity of the rational surface disappear by introducing a finite plasma perpendicular viscosity. In addition, it is shown that the two peaks of the perturbed toroidal current overlap by an anomalous plasma perpendicular viscosity. Likewise, a bifurcation of the penetration process from the suppressed to the excited state is obtained by a quasi-linear approach taking into account modifications of the radial profiles of the equilibrium current and the plasma rotation due to the DED. A comparison with real experimental results of the DED on the TEXTOR tokamak is shown

  9. Effect of the averaging volume and algorithm on the in situ electric field for uniform electric- and magnetic-field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    The present study quantified the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissues of anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain method was applied to analyze this problem. The motivation of our investigation is that the dependence of the electric field induced in nerve tissue on the averaging volume/distance is not clear, while a cubical volume of 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 or a straight-line segment of 5 mm is suggested in some documents. The influence of non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue is also discussed by considering three algorithms for calculating the averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the volume-averaged electric field in the nerve tissue decreases with the averaging volume. In addition, the 99th percentile value of the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue is more stable than that of the maximal value for different averaging volume. When including non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue in the averaging volume, the resultant in situ electric fields were not so dependent on the averaging volume as compared to the case excluding non-nerve tissue. In situ electric fields averaged over a distance of 5 mm were comparable or larger than that for a 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 cube depending on the algorithm, nerve tissue considered and exposure scenarios. (note)

  10. Visibility of an iron-containing fiducial marker in magnetic resonance imaging for high-precision external beam prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Komeda, Hisao; Hirose, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Takuya; Ono, Kousei; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2017-11-29

    Visualization of fiducial gold markers is critical for registration on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for imaging-guided radiotherapy. Although larger markers provide better visualization on MRI, they tend to generate artifacts on CT. MRI is strongly influenced by the presence of metals, such as iron, in the body. Here we compared efficacies of a 0.5% iron-containing gold marker (GM) and a traditional non-iron-containing marker. Twenty-seven patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Markers were placed by urologists under local anesthesia. Gold Anchor (GA; diameter: 0.28 mm; length: 10 mm), an iron-containing marker, was placed on the right side of the prostate using a 22-G needle and VISICOIL (VIS; diameter: 0.35 mm; length: 10 mm), a non-iron-containing marker, was placed on the left side using a 19-G needle. T2*-weighted images MRI sequences were obtained. Two radiation oncologists and a radiation technologist evaluated and assigned scores for visual quality on a five-point scale (1, poor; 5, best visibility). Artifact generation on CT was slightly greater with GA than with VIS. The mean marker visualization scores on MRI of all three observers were significantly superior for GA than for VIS (3.5 vs 3.2, 3.9 vs 3.2, and 4.0 vs 2.9). The actual size of the spherical GA was about 2 mm in diameter, but the signal void on MRI was approximately 5 mm. Although both markers were well visualized and can be recommended clinically, the results suggest that GA has some subtle advantages for quantitative visualization that could prove useful in certain situations of stereotactic body radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Thermal quantum discord of spins in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Mi Yingjuan; Zhang Jian; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the thermal entanglement, we study the quantum discord and classical correlation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that the effects of the external magnetic fields, including the uniform and inhomogeneous magnetic fields, on the thermal entanglement, quantum discord and classical correlation behave differently in various aspects, which depend on system temperature and model type. We can tune the inhomogeneous magnetic field to enhance the entanglement or classical correlation and meanwhile decrease the quantum discord. In addition, taking into account the inhomogeneous magnetic field, the sudden change in the behaviour of quantum discord still survives, which can detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature, but not for a uniform magnetic field.

  12. Laboratory experiments on plasma jets in a magnetic field using high-power lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments to simulate astrophysical jet generation are performed using Gekko XII (GXII HIPER laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering. In the experiments a fast plasma flow generated by shooting a CH plane (10 μm thickness is observed at the rear side of the plane. By separating the focal spot of the main beams, a non-uniform plasma is generated. The non-uniform plasma flow in an external magnetic field (0.2∼0.3 T perpendicular to the plasma is more collimated than that without the external magnetic field. The plasma β, the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressure, is ≫ 1, and the magnetic Reynolds number is ∼150 in the collimated plasma. It is considered that the magnetic field is distorted by the plasma flow and enhances the jet collimation.

  13. Effect of liner non-uniformity on plasma instabilities in an inverse Z-pinch magnetized target fusion system: liner-on-plasma simulations and comparison with linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude

  14. Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

    1998-12-01

    Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

  15. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  16. Restricting uniformly open surjections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kania, Tomasz; Rmoutil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 355, č. 9 (2017), s. 925-928 ISSN 1631-073X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * uniform spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631073X17302261?via%3Dihub

  17. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  18. Equilibrium Shape of Ferrofluid in the Uniform External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    mentioned as free-surface instabilities. That makes their computational modeling rather challenging. For the sake of validation and verification , there...4 4. Toward Verification of the Ellipsoidal Shape 5 5. Conclusion 6 6. References 7 Distribution List 8 Approved for public release...authors claimed that this fact can be established on the basis of a rigorous theory, like it was done for the equilibrium shape of rotating self

  19. Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in an oblique magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed experimental investigation of the static properties of planar Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of a uniform external magnetic field applied in an arbitrary orientation with respect to the barrier plane. We considered annular junctions, as well as rectangular...

  20. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...