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Sample records for external tank project

  1. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  2. Support Provided to the External Tank (ET) Project on the Use of Statistical Analysis for ET Certification Consultation Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    In June 2004, the June Space Flight Leadership Council (SFLC) assigned an action to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and External Tank (ET) project jointly to characterize the available dataset [of defect sizes from dissections of foam], identify resultant limitations to statistical treatment of ET as-built foam as part of the overall thermal protection system (TPS) certification, and report to the Program Requirements Change Board (PRCB) and SFLC in September 2004. The NESC statistics team was formed to assist the ET statistics group in August 2004. The NESC's conclusions are presented in this report.

  3. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  4. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  5. Separation of the Shuttle Columbia's external fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Separation of the Shuttle Columbia's external fuel tank (ET), photographed by a camera in the umbilical bay. Camera was able to record the underside of the tank as the orbiter toward its earth-orbital mission and the fuel tank fell toward the earth.

  6. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  7. Structural Continuum Modeling of Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Brian; Ayala, Sam; Purlee, T. Eric; Shaw, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation reporting on work in modeling the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle External Tank. An analytical understanding of foam mechanics is required to design against structural failure. The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered primarily with closed cell foam to: Prevent ice, Protect structure from ascent aerodynamic and engine plume heating, and Delay break-up during re-entry. It is important that the foam does not shed unacceptable debris during ascent environment. Therefore a modeling of the foam insulation was undertaken.

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Britt, Vicki O.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Results of buckling and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle external tank superlightweight liquid-oxygen (LO2) tank are presented. Modeling details and results are presented for two prelaunch loading conditions and for two full-scale structural tests that were conducted on the original external tank. The results illustrate three distinctly different types of nonlinear response for thin-walled shells subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. The nonlinear response phenomena consist of bifurcation-type buckling, short-wavelength nonlinear bending, and nonlinear collapse associated with a limit point. For each case, the results show that accurate predictions of non- linear behavior generally require a large-scale, high-fidelity finite-element model. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled launch-vehicle shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. In addition, results presented for two full-scale structural tests of the original standard-weight external tank suggest that the finite-element modeling approach used in the present study is sufficient for representing the nonlinear behavior of the superlightweight LO2 tank.

  9. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  10. Failure Analysis of a Helicopter External Fuel-Tank Pylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I..., App. D Appendix D to Part 238—Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives The... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels under...

  12. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  13. Photogrammetry Measurements During a Tanking Test on the Space Shuttle External Tank, ET-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Schmidt, Tim; Tyson, John; Oliver, Stanley T.; Melis, Matthew E.; Ruggeri, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On November 5, 2010, a significant foam liberation threat was observed as the Space Shuttle STS-133 launch effort was scrubbed because of a hydrogen leak at the ground umbilical carrier plate. Further investigation revealed the presence of multiple cracks at the tops of stringers in the intertank region of the Space Shuttle External Tank. As part of an instrumented tanking test conducted on December 17, 2010, a three dimensional digital image correlation photogrammetry system was used to measure radial deflections and overall deformations of a section of the intertank region. This paper will describe the experimental challenges that were overcome in order to implement the photogrammetry measurements for the tanking test in support of STS-133. The technique consisted of configuring and installing two pairs of custom stereo camera bars containing calibrated cameras on the 215-ft level of the fixed service structure of Launch Pad 39-A. The cameras were remotely operated from the Launch Control Center 3.5 miles away during the 8 hour duration test, which began before sunrise and lasted through sunset. The complete deformation time history was successfully computed from the acquired images and would prove to play a crucial role in the computer modeling validation efforts supporting the successful completion of the root cause analysis of the cracked stringer problem by the Space Shuttle Program. The resulting data generated included full field fringe plots, data extraction time history analysis, section line spatial analyses and differential stringer peak ]valley motion. Some of the sample results are included with discussion. The resulting data showed that new stringer crack formation did not occur for the panel examined, and that large amounts of displacement in the external tank occurred because of the loads derived from its filling. The measurements acquired were also used to validate computer modeling efforts completed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  15. Friction Plug Weld Repair for the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paula J.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Michoud Operations in New Orleans, LA is the manufacturer of the External Fuel Tanks (ET) for the Space Transportation System (STS). The ET contains and delivers the propellants used by the Orbiters three main engines. Additionally, it also serves as the structural backbone for the Orbiter and the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), which combined, constitute the STS. In 1994, NASA established that in order to launch the International Space Station, the performance of the STS must be improved. One option was to reduce the weight of the ET, which would enable sufficient increase in performance. With the development of the Weldalite(R) series of Al-Cu-Li alloys in the late 1980's, Lockheed Martin was postured to replace the current A12219 fuel tanks with the high strength, light weight A12195 alloy. With the use of A12195 and some component redesign, the weight of the Super Lightweight (SLWT) ET was reduced by approximately 7,000 pounds, which added as much capability to the Space Shuttle. Since June 1998, seven STS missions have been successful with the use of the SLWT ET's.

  16. Manufacturing Challenges Implementing Material Changes for the Super Light Weight External Tank: A Welding Process Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, K.; Jones, C.

    2001-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the manufacturing challenges in implementing welding material changes for the super lightweight external tank. Details are given on the external tank configuration, the weld purging equipment used, planning the selection of weld filler wire alloy, the initial weld microstructure, the wide panel tensile testing, and the dome cap welding.

  17. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

    2009-01-15

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al

  19. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  20. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  1. A single launch lunar habitat derived from an NSTS external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles B.; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Hypes, Warren D.; Nealy, John E.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for using a spent External Tank from the National Space Transportation System (Shuttle) to derive a Lunar habitat is described. The concept is that the External Tank is carried into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) where the oxygen tank-intertank subassembly is separated from the hydrogen tank, berthed to Space Station Freedom and the subassembly outfitted as a 12-person Lunar habitat using extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA). A single launch of the NSTS Orbiter can place the External Tank in LEO, provide orbiter astronauts for disassembly of the External Tank, and transport the required subsystem hardware for outfitting the Lunar habitat. An estimate of the astronauts' EVA and IVA is provided. The liquid oxygen tank-intertank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for human access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modification includes installation of living quarters, instrumentation, and an air lock. Feasibility studies of the following additional systems include micrometeoroid and radiation protection, thermal-control, environmental-control and life-support, and propulsion. The converted Lunar habitat is designed for unmanned transport and autonomous soft landing on the Lunar surface without need for site preparation. Lunar regolith is used to fill the micrometeoroid shield volume for radiation protection using a conveyor. The Lunar habitat concept is considered to be feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and a Lunar lander for crew changeover and resupply.

  2. Analysis of stress concentration in the Dutton groove regions of the Super Lightweight External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.

    1995-05-01

    Because the 2195 aluminum-lithium material of the super lightweight external tank (SLWT ET) has a lower toughness than the 2219 aluminum used in previous ET's, careful attention must be paid to stress concentrations. This report details the analysis performed on some of the stress concentrations in the orthogrid panels of the liquid hydrogen tank.

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  4. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

  5. Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or open-quotes REDOXclose quotes process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as open-quotes assumed leakersclose quotes and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report

  6. External corrosion of tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, D.B.; Westerman, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) site, West Valley, New York, rest on layers of perlite brick contained within steel pans. The pans tend to collect water, which can contact the tanks directly and which also can be ''wicked'' to the external surfaces of the tank through the perlite brick. The presence of air in the tank vault is conducive to the formation of oxygen concentration cells, which can promote localized corrosion of the carbon steel tank wall. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an experiment to estimate the extent to which the external surfaces of the tanks could have corroded in the 30 years since their construction. Specimens of carbon steel, similar to that used in the tank construction, were partially embedded in an upright position in particulate perlite in closed containers. The water line in the containers.was maintained at two levels: above the perlite level (high water level tests) and below the bottoms of the specimens (low water level tests). The water used in the tests was obtained from the pan of tank 8D-1. The containers were maintained in an aerated condition. Specimens were examined after 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month exposures

  7. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  8. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  9. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm

  10. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

  11. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  12. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-01-01

    In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover

  13. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-01-01

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  14. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  15. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Britt, Vicki O.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The results of buckling and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle External Tank super-lightweight liquid oxygen (LOX) tank are presented. Modeling details and results are presented for two prelaunch loading conditions and for two full-scale structural tests conducted on the original external tank. These results illustrate three distinctly different types of nonlinear responses for thin-walled shells subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. These nonlinear response phenomena consist of bifurcation-type buckling, short-wavelength nonlinear bending, and nonlinear collapse associated with a limit point. For each case, the results show that accurate predictions of nonlinear behavior generally require a large scale high-fidelity finite element model. Results are also presented that show that a fluid filled launch vehicle shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. In addition, results presented for two full scale structural tests of the original standard weight external tank suggest that the finite element modeling approach used in the present study is sufficient for representing the nonlinear behavior of the super lightweight LOX tank.

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  17. The Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding Process: Its Application to the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, E. O., Jr.; Wilson, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress in the implementation of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process at the External Tank (ET) assembly facility. Design allowable data has been developed for thicknesses up to 1.00 in. More than 24,000 in. of welding on liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen cylinders has been made without an internal defect.

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary

  19. WVNS Tank Farm Process Support: Experimental evaluation of an inert gas (nitrogen) to mitigate external corrosion of high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion of the carbon steel waste storage tanks at West Valley Nuclear Services continues to be of concern, especially as the planned duration of waste storage time increases and sludge washing operations are conducted. The external surfaces of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 have been exposed for more than 10 years to water that has intruded into the tank vaults. Visual inspection of the external tank surfaces using a remote video camera has shown indications of heavy corrosion in localized areas on the tank walls. Tests on mild steel specimens under simulated tank vault conditions showed that corrosion is related to the availability of oxygen for the corrosion reactions; consequently, removing oxygen as one of the reactants should effectively eliminate corrosion. In terms of the waste tanks, excluding oxygen from the annular vault space, such as by continuous flushing with an inert gas, should substantially decrease corrosion of the external surfaces of the mild steel tanks (100% exclusion of oxygen is probably not practicable). Laboratory corrosion testing was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to give a preliminary assessment of the ability of nitrogen-inerting to reduce steel corrosion. This report summarizes test results obtained after 18-month corrosion tests comparing open-quotes nitrogen-inertedclose quotes corrosion with open-quotes air-equilibratedclose quotes corrosion under simulated tank vault conditions

  20. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  1. External Tank Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Prepress Regression Analysis Independent Review Technical Consultation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie s.

    2009-01-01

    The request to conduct an independent review of regression models, developed for determining the expected Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) External Tank (ET)-04 cycle count for the Space Shuttle ET tanking process, was submitted to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center NESC on September 20, 2005. The NESC team performed an independent review of regression models documented in Prepress Regression Analysis, Tom Clark and Angela Krenn, 10/27/05. This consultation consisted of a peer review by statistical experts of the proposed regression models provided in the Prepress Regression Analysis. This document is the consultation's final report.

  2. Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-211. Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for the future waste treatment plant, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AN-102, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the River Protection Project (RF'P) Waste Treatment Facility and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump-based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Execution Plan (PEP), derived from the predecessor Project Management Plan, documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list

  5. Project management plan double-shell tank system specification development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) members have been tasked by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support removal of wastes from the Hanford Site 200 Area tanks in two phases. The schedule for these phases allows focusing on requirements for the first phase of providing feed to the privatized vitrification plants. The Tank Waste Retrieval Division near-term goal is to focus on the activities to support Phase 1. These include developing an integrated (technical, schedule, and cost) baseline and, with regard to private contractors, establishing interface agreements, constructing infrastructure systems, retrieving and delivering waste feed, and accepting immobilized waste products for interim onsite storage. This document describes the process for developing an approach to designing a system for retrieving waste from double-shell tanks. It includes a schedule and cost account for the work breakdown structure task

  6. Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste's moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste's chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105

  7. Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

  8. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  9. Application of Digital Radiography to Weld Inspection for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussery, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of digital radiography to inspect the welds of the external tanks used to hold the cryogenic fuels for the Space Shuttle Main Engines. NASA has had a goal of replacing a significant portion of film used to inspect the welds, with digital radiography. The presentation reviews the objectives for converting to a digital system from film, the characteristics of the digital system, the Probability of detection study, the qualification and implementation of the system.

  10. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  11. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document

  12. Analysis of heat-transfer measurements from 2 AEDC wind tunnels on the Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    Previous aerodynamic heating tests have been conducted in the AEDC/VKF Supersonic Wind Tunnel (A) to aid in defining the design thermal environment for the space shuttle external tank. The quality of these data has been under discussion because of the effects of low tunnel enthalpy and slow model injection rates. Recently the AEDC/VKF Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (C) has been modified to provide a Mach 4 capability that has significantly higher tunnel enthalpy with more rapid model injection rates. Tests were conducted in Tunnel C at Mach 4 to obtain data on the external tank for comparison with Tunnel A results. Data were obtained on a 0.0175 scale model of the Space Shuttle Integrated Vehicle at Re/ft = 4 x 10 to the 6th power with the tunnel stagnation temperature varying from 740 to 1440 R. Model attitude varied from an angle of attack of -5 to 5 deg and an angle of sideslip of -3 to 3 deg. One set of data was obtained in Tunnel C at Re/ft = 6.9 x 10 to the 6th for comparison with flight data. Data comparisons between the two tunnels for numerous regions on the external tank are given.

  13. Investigation of thermoelastic stresses induced at high altitudes on aircraft external fuel tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Stephanie Lynn Steber

    As composite technology has grown over the past several decades, the use of composite materials in military applications has become more feasible and widely accepted. Although composite materials provide many benefits, including strength optimization and reduced weight, damage and repair of these materials creates an additional challenge, especially when operating in a marine environment, such as on a carrier deck. This is evident within the Navy, as excessive damage often leads to the scrapping of F/A-18 External Fuel Tanks. This damage comes in many forms, the most elusive of which is delamination. Often the delamination found on the tanks is beyond repairable limits and the cause unknown, making it difficult to predict and prevent. The purpose of this investigation was to study the structure of the Navy's 330 gallon External Fuel Tanks and investigate one potential cause of delamination, stresses induced at high altitudes by cold temperatures. A stress analysis was completed using finite element software, and validation of the model was accomplished through testing of a scale model specimen. Due to the difficulties in modeling and predicting delamination, such as unknown presence of voids and understanding failure criteria, delamination was not modeled in Abaqus, rather stresses were observed and characteristics were studied to understand the potential for delamination within the layup. In addition, studies were performed to understand the effect of material properties and layup sequence on the stress distribution within the tank. Alternative design solutions are presented which could reduce the radial stresses within the tank, and recommendations are made for further study to understand the trade-offs between stress, cost, and manufacturability.

  14. Nuclear criticality project plan for the Hanford Site tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, D.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    The mission of this project is to provide a defensible technical basis report in support of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This technical basis report will also be used to resolve technical issues associated with the nuclear criticality safety issue. The strategy presented in this project plan includes an integrated programmatic and organizational approach. The scope of this project plan includes the provision of a criticality technical basis supporting document (CTBSD) to support the FSAR as well as for resolution of the nuclear criticality safety issue. Specifically, the CTBSD provides the requisite technical analysis to support the FSAR hazard and accident analysis as well as for the determination of the required FSAR limits and controls. The scope of The CTBSD will provide a baseline for understanding waste partitioning and distribution phenomena and mechanistics for current operational activities inclusive of single-shell tanks, double-shell tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, and miscellaneous underground storage tanks.. Although the FSAR does not include future operational activities, the waste partitioning and distribution phenomena and mechanistics work scope identified in this project plan provide a sound technical basis as a point of departure to support independent safety analyses for future activities. The CTBSD also provides the technical basis for resolution of the technical issues associated with the nuclear criticality safety issue. In addition to the CTBSD, additional documentation will be required to fully resolve U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters administrative and programmatic issues. The strategy and activities defined in this project plan provide a CTBSD for the FSAR and for accelerated resolution of the safety issue in FY 1996. On April 30, 1992, a plant review committee reviewed the Final Safety Analysis Reports for the single-shell, double-shell, and aging waste tanks in light of the conclusions of the inadequate waste

  15. Project Management Plan for Initial Tank Retrieval Systems, Project W-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for future processing plants, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AP-108, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the Privatized waste processing plant and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Management Plan (PMP) documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering

  16. Impacts of external convection on release rates in metal hydride storage tanks. Paper no. IGEC-1-080

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, B.; Rowe, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Ho, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible metal hydrides can be used to store hydrogen at relatively low pressures, with very high volumetric density. The rate hydrogen can be drawn from a given tank is strongly influenced by the rate heat can be transferred to the reaction zone. Because of this, enhancing and controlling heat transfer is a key area of research in the development of metal hydride storage tanks. In this work, the impacts of external convection resistance on hydrogen release rates are examined. A one-dimensional resistive analysis determines the thermal resistances in the system based on one case where no external heat transfer enhancements are used, and a second case where external fins are used. A two-dimensional, transient model, developed in FEMLAB, is used to determine the impact of the external fins on the mass flow rate of hydrogen in more detail. For the particular metal hydride alloy (LaNi 4.8 Sn 0.2 ) and tank geometry studied, it was found that the fins have a large impact on the hydrogen flow rate during the initial stages of desorption. The flow rate with no fins is only 20% of the flow rate with fins for a full tank, 57% when the tank is 33% full, and 74% when the tank is 5% full. As the reaction proceeds, the resistance of the metal hydride alloy within the tank increases and becomes dominant. Therefore, the impact of the fins becomes less significant as the tank empties. (author)

  17. Project Specific Quality Assurance Plan Project (QAPP) W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALL, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program is implemented by CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc (CHG) for managing the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), Project W-211. This QAPP is responsive to the CHG Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) (LMH-MP-599) which provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830 120, ''Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements'', and DOE Order 5700 6C, ''Quality Assurance'' Project W-211 modifies existing facilities and provides systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for future processing plants, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. This project includes the design, procurement, construction, startup and turnover of these retrieval systems This QAPP identifies organizational structures and responsibilities. Implementing procedures used by CHG project management can be found in the CHG Quality Assurance Program (CHG QAP) Implementation Matrix located in HNF-IP-0842, Volume XI, Attachment Proposed verification and inspection activities for critical items within the scope of project W-211 are identified in Attachment 1 W-211. Project participants will identify the implementing procedures used by their organization within their QAF'Ps. This project specific QAPP is used to identify requirements in addition to the QAPD and provide, by reference, additional information to other project documents

  18. Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database

  19. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. (a...

  20. The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

  1. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

  2. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL and REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure

  3. Utilization of Space Shuttle External Tank materials by melting and powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Crucible Melt Extraction Process was demonstrated to convert scraps of aluminum alloy 2219, used in the Space Shuttle External Tank, into fibers. The cast fibers were then consolidated by cold welding. The X-ray diffraction test of the cast fibers was done to examine the crystallinity and oxide content of the fibers. The compressive stress-strain behavior of the consolidated materials was also examined. Two conceptual schemes which would adapt the as-developed Crucible Melt Extraction Process to the microgravity condition in space were finally proposed.

  4. State-of-the-art of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    The designation, structure and environment of the External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle as well as plans for increasing the facilities and tooling to meet the required production rate capability of 40 or more ETs per year in 1992 are described. Special attention is given to the weight reduction of ET, since 1.0 lb of weight saved on the empty structure translates into about 0.9 lb of additional payload. To determine the potentiality of the weight reduction, structural tests were conducted. It was found that the tank could function properly with interior support structures reduced, and selected stringers eliminated. It is reported that an alternate sprayable polyisocyanurate foam capable of replacing a foam insulation over ablator bilayer thermoprotective composite on the aft-dome of the tank was developed: a commercially available material was modified to adhere to the -423 F aluminum substrate in the 2000 F engine-plume radiant-heat environment. It is mentioned that the weight savings program which started in Oct. 1975 saved 6000 lb by Jan. 1979. To reduce weld testing time and gain 100 times the accuracy, an electromechanical check system was developed. Problems of using robots are discussed.

  5. Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of the North American FJ-4 Airplane with External Fuel Tanks, TED No. NACA AD 3112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Frederick M.

    1958-01-01

    A supplementary investigation to determine the effect of external fuel tanks on the spin and recovery characteristics of a l/28-scale model of the North American FJ-4 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The model had been extensively tested previously (NACA Research Memorandum SL38A29) and therefore only brief tests were made to evaluate the effect of tank installation. Erect spin tests of the model indicate that flat-type spins-are more prevalent with 200-gallon external fuel tanks than with tanks not installed. The recovery technique determined for spins without tanks, rudder reversal to full against the spin accompanied by simultaneous movement of ailerons to full with the spin, is recommended for spins encountered with external tanks installed. If inverted spins are encountered with external tanks installed, the tanks should be jettisoned and recovery attempted by rudder reversal to full against the spin with ailerons maintained at neutral.

  6. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  7. External financing of projects on cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Olmedo, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE), provides technical advisement and economical support to those industries requiring an improvement in the energy efficiency of their production chain. This paper focusses on administrative procedures to get external financing as one way to undertake the construction of cogeneration plants. Relationships among user, promoter and financier should be developed according to the outlined procedures. (Author)

  8. Tensile behavior of humid aged advanced composites for helicopter external fuel tank development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condruz Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of humid aging on tensile properties of two polymeric composites was studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the materials for a naval helicopter external fuel tank. Due to the application, the humid environment was kerosene and saline solution to evaluate the sea water effect on the composite tensile strength. The composite samples were immersed in kerosene for 168 hours, respective 1752 hours and in saline solution for 168 hours. Tensile tests were performed after the immersion. The composite sample tensile tests showed that kerosene and saline solution had no influence on the elastic modulus of the materials, but it was observed a slight improvement of the tensile strength of the two polymeric composites.

  9. Slide release mechanism. [for space shuttle orbiter/external tank connection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A releasable support device is described which is comprised of a hollow body with a sleeve extending transversely there-through for receiving the end of a support shank. A slider-latch, optionally lubricated, extends through side recesses in the sleeve to straddle the shank, respectively, in latched and released positions. The slider-latch is slid from its latched to its unlatched position by a pressure squib whereupon a spring or other pressure means pushes the shank out of the sleeve. At the same time, a follower element is lodged in and closed the hole in the body wall from which the shank was discharged. The mechanism was designed for the shuttle orbiter/external tank connection device.

  10. Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement

  11. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  12. Project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing acceptance for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify the Project W-320 Chiller Documentation required to be turned over from the Projects Organization to Tank Farm Operations as part of the acceptance of the new equipment for beneficial use

  13. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, July 20, 1990: Hanford Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Morgan, L.G.

    1991-02-01

    The second meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 20, 1990. Science Panel members discussed the prioritization of various analyses to be performed on core samples from tank 101-SY, and were asked to review and comment on the draft Westinghouse Hanford Company document ''Analytical Chemistry Plan.'' They also reviewed and discussed the initial contributions to the report titled Chemical and Physical Processes in Tank 101-SY: A Preliminary Report. Science Panel members agreed that a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical processes in the tank is essential, and strongly recommended that no remediation measures be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena that result in the episodic gas release from tank 101-SY. 1 ref

  14. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D.

    2003-01-01

    tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted

  15. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS and RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to

  16. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

  17. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  18. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank's contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates

  19. Modeling needs assessment for Hanford Tank Farm Operations. Vadose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results of a modeling-needs assessment conducted for Tank Farm Operations at the Hanford Site. The goal of this project is to integrate geophysical logging and subsurface transport modeling into a broader decision-based framework that will be made available to guide Tank Farm Operations in implementing future modeling studies. In support of this goal, previous subsurface transport modeling studies were reviewed, and stakeholder surveys and interviews were completed (1) to identify regulatory, stakeholder, and Native American concerns and the impacts of these concerns on Tank Farm Operations, (2) to identify technical constraints that impact site characterization and modeling efforts, and (3) to assess how subsurface transport modeling can best be used to support regulatory, stakeholder, Native American, and Tank Farm Operations needs. This report is organized into six sections. Following an introduction, Section 2.0 discusses background issues that relate to Tank Farm Operations. Section 3.0 summarizes the technical approach used to appraise the status of modeling and supporting characterization. Section 4.0 presents a detailed description of how the technical approach was implemented. Section 5.0 identifies findings and observations that relate to implementation of numerical modeling, and Section 6.0 presents recommendations for future activities

  20. Assembly of a Full-Scale External Tank Barrel Section Using Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chip; Adams, Glynn

    1999-01-01

    A full-scale pathfinder barrel section of the External Tank for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Transport System (Space Shuttle) has been assembled at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) via a collaborative effort between NASA/MSFC and Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems. The barrel section is 27.5 feet in diameter and 15 feet in height. The barrel was assembled using Super-Light-Weight (SLWT), orthogrid, Al-Li 2195 panel sections and a single longeron panel. A vertical weld tool at MSFC was modified to accommodate FSW and used to assemble the barrel. These modifications included the addition of a FSW weld head and new controller hardware and software, the addition of a backing anvil and the replacement of the clamping system with individually actuated clamps. Weld process 4evelopment was initially conducted to optimize the process for the welds required for completing the assembly. The variable thickness welds in the longeron section were conducted via both two-sided welds and with the use of a retractable pin tool. The barrel assembly was completed in October 1998. Details of the vertical weld tool modifications and the assembly process are presented.

  1. External tank chill effect on the space transportation system launch pad environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R. A.; Boraas, S.

    1991-01-01

    The external tank (ET) of the STS contains liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as oxidizer and fuel for the SSMEs. Once the cryogen have been loaded into the ET, the temperature of the air surrounding the STS is chilled by the cold outer surface of the ET. This paper describes a two-dimensional flow and thermal analysis to determine this chill effect on the STS launch pad environment subsequent to the ET loading operation. The analysis was done assuming winter conditions and a northwest wind direction. An existing CFD code, PHOENICS '81, was used in the study. The results are presented as local and average values of the heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the surface temperature around the redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRMs) and the ET. The temperature depression caused by the ET chilling of the air in the vicinity of the RSRMs was calculated to be 3 F below the ambient. This compares with the observed 1-2 F RSRM surface temperature depression based upon measurements made prior to the winter flight of STS-29. Since the surface temperature would be expected to be slightly higher than the local air temperature, the predicted temperature depression of the air appears to be substantiated.

  2. Development of polyisocyanurate pour foam formulation for space shuttle external tank thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    Four commercially available polyisocyanurate polyurethane spray-foam insulation formulations are used to coat the external tank of the space shuttle. There are several problems associated with these formulations. For example, some do not perform well as pourable closeout/repair systems. Some do not perform well at cryogenic temperatures (poor adhesion to aluminum at liquid nitrogen temperatures). Their thermal stability at elevated temperatures is not adequate. A major defect in all the systems is the lack of detailed chemical information. The formulations are simply supplied to NASA and Martin Marietta, the primary contractor, as components; Part A (isocyanate) and Part B (poly(s) and additives). Because of the lack of chemical information the performance behavior data for the current system, NASA sought the development of a non-proprietary room temperature curable foam insulation. Requirements for the developed system were that it should exhibit equal or better thermal stability both at elevated and cryogenic temperatures with better adhesion to aluminum as compared to the current system. Several formulations were developed that met these requirements, i.e., thermal stability, good pourability, and good bonding to aluminum.

  3. THESEUS - a research project to improve the safety standard of tank vehicles for dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.

    1992-01-01

    A research project reffered to as THESEUS was initiated by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of Germany. The intent of the investigation is to generate measures designed to enhance the safety standard of commercial transports of dangerous goods in tank vehicles. Hereby, the analysis of real accidents by teams within the project will provide the relevant parameters for the experimental and theoretical investigation of vehicles, tank components and safety devices. The project started in summer 1990. This paper will focus main features and the work done so far. Special consideration will be made to the failure behaviour of tank components as the authors field of activity. (orig.)

  4. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  5. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  6. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  7. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple

  8. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

  9. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-01-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and ∼420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed ∼5.5 years ahead of schedule and ∼$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team

  10. Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. [comp.

    1991-06-01

    The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Safety Project; and be briefed on the ferrocyanide issues included in the expanded scope of the Science Panel. The shapes of the gas release curves from the past three events are similar and correlate well with changes in waste level, but the correlation between the released volume of gas and the waste height is not as good. An analysis of the kinetics of gas generation from waste height measurements in Tank 101-SY suggests that the reaction giving rise to the gases in the tank is independent of the gas pressure and independent of the physical processes that give rise to the episodic release of the gases. Tank waste height data were also used to suggest that a floating crust formed early in the history of the tank and that the current crust is being made thicker in the eastern sector of the tank by repeated upheaval of waste slurry onto the surface. The correlation between the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} generated in the October release appears to be 1:1, suggesting a single mechanistic pathway. Analysis of other gas generation ratios, however, suggests that H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O are evolved together, whereas N{sub 2} is from the air. If similar ratios are observed in planned radiolysis experiments are Argonne National Laboratory, radiolysis would appear to be generating most of the gases in Tank 101-SY. Data from analysis of synthetic waste crust using a dynamic x-ray diffractometer suggest that, in air, organics are being oxidized and liberating CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments at Savannah River Laboratory indicate that irradiation of solutions containing NO{sub 3} and organics can produce N{sub 2}O.

  11. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  12. Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-11-30

    This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor.

  13. Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single-Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

  14. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  15. Recommandations pour la protection des fonds de réservoirs contre la corrosion externe et interne Recommendations for Protecting Tank Bottoms Against External and Internal Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce document analyse le sprincipales causes de corrosion externe et inerne des réservoirs de stockage à axe vertical et recommande diverses mesures de prévention. Pour la protection externe, ces mesures concernent la conception des fondations et des fonds et la protection cathodique our la protection interne, elles concernet l'inhibition chimique, la protection cathodique et surtout les revêtements. This article analyzes the leading causes of external ant internal corrosion of vertical-axis storage tanks ant reccomends different prevention measures to protect the outside these measures have to do with the design of the foundations and bottom as well as with cathodic protection. t protect the inside they have to do with chemical inhibition, cathodic production and espacially coatings.

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA trademark and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks

  19. Installation of the liquid nitrogen tank for the external cryogenics system

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The picture shows the installation of the 50000l liquid nitrogen tank in its first position next to the SHL annex of the SX5 building. The tank will be moved to its final position after the completion of the surface tests.

  20. Impact of externally funded projects on development of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of externally funded projects on development of research capability of national agricultural research system. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL's program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge

  2. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  3. Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ''Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,'' 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms' instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems

  4. Single Shell Tank Waste Characterization Project for Tank B-110, Core 9 - data package and PNL validation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.N.; Jones, T.E.; McKinley, S.G.; Tingey, J.M.; Longaker, T.M.; Gibson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This Data Package contains results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization and analyses of Core 9 segments taken from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) 110B. The characterization and analysis of Core 9 segments are outlined in the Waste Characterization Plan for Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks and in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Single-Shell Tank Waste Characterization Support FY 89/90 Statement of Work (SOW), Rev. 1 dated March, 1990. Specific analyses for each sub-sample taken from a segment are delineated in Test Instructions prepared by the PNL Single-Shell Tank Waste Characterization Project Management Office (SST Project) in accordance with procedures contained in the SST Waste Characterization Procedure Compendium (PNL-MA-599). Analytical procedures used in the characterization activities are also included in PNL-MA-599. Core 9 included five segments although segment 1 did not have sufficient material for characterization. The five samplers were received from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on 11/21-22/89. Each segment was contained in a sampler and was enclosed in a shipping cask. The shipping cask was butted up to the 325-A hot cell and the sampler moved into the hot cell. The material in the sampler (i.e., the segment) was extruded from the sampler, limited physical characteristics assessed, and photographed. At this point samples were taken for particle size and volatile organic analyses. Each segment was then homogenized. Sub-samples were taken for required analyses as delineated in the appropriate Test Instruction. Table 1 includes sample numbers assigned to Core 9 segment materials being transferred from 325-A Hot Cell. Sample numbers 90-0298, 90-0299, 90-0302, and 90-0303 were included in Table 1 although no analyses were requested for these samples. Table 2 lists Core 9 sub-sample numbers per sample preparation method

  5. Project W-320 Tank 106-C waste retrieval study analysis session report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company Project W-320 Tank 106-C Waste Retrieval Study Analysis Session Report readily retrievable. This facilitated session was requested by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to review the characterization data and select the best alternatives for a double-shell receiver tank and for a sluicing medium for Tank 106-C waste retrieval. The team was composed of WHC and Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) personnel knowledgeable about tank farm operations, tank 106-C requirements, tank waste characterization and analysis, and chemical processing. This team was assembled to perform a structured decision analysis evaluation and recommend the best alternative-destination double-shell tank between tanks 101-AY and 102-AY, and the best alternative sluicing medium among dilute complexant (DC), dilute noncomplexant (DNC), and water. The session was facilitated by Richard Harrington and Steve Bork of KEH and was conducted at the Bookwalter Winery in Richland from 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. from July 27 through July 29, 1993. Attachment 1 (Scope Statement Sheet) identifies the team members, scope, objectives, and deliverables for the session

  6. Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MERCADO, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects

  7. Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGGS, S.R.

    2000-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

  8. Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS

  9. Tank characterization project (TWRS) process engineering data management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Tank Characterization Data Management (TCDM) system provides customers and users with data and information of known and acceptable quality when they are needed, in the form they are needed, and at a reasonable cost. The TCDM mission will be accomplished by the following: (1) maintaining and managing tank characterization data and information based on business needs and objectives including transfer of ownership to future contractors; (2) capturing data where it originates and entering it only once to control data consistency, electronic data and information management shall be emphasized to the extent practicable; (3) establishing data quality standards, and managing and certifying databases and data sources against these standards to maintain the proper level of data and information quality consistent with the importance of the data and information, data obtained at high cost with significant implications to decision making regarding tank safety and/or disposal will be maintained and managed at the highest necessary levels of quality; (4) establishing and enforcing data management standards for the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and supporting data sources including providing mechanisms for discovering and correcting data errors before they propagate; (5) emphasizing electronic data sharing with all authorized users, customers, contractors, and stakeholders to the extent practicable; (6) safeguarding data and information from unauthorized alteration or destruction; (7) providing standards for electronic information deliverables to subcontractors and vendors to achieve uniformity in electronic data management; and (8) investing in new technology (hardware and/or software) as prudent and necessary to accomplish the mission in an efficient and effective manner

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  13. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  15. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  16. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  19. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices)

  20. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  1. Supplement analysis for the proposed upgrades to the tank farm ventilation, instrumentation, and electrical systems under Project W-314 in support of tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The mission of the TWRS program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Within this program, Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, has been established to provide upgrades in the areas of instrumentation and control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical distribution for existing tank farm facilities. Requirements for tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support safe storage were being developed under Project W-314 at the same time that the TWRS EIS alternative analysis was being performed. Project W-314 provides essential tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support continued safe storage of existing tank wastes until the wastes can be retrieved and disposed of through follow-on TWRS program efforts. Section4.0 provides a description of actions associated with Project W-314. The TWRS EIS analyzes the environmental consequences form the entire TWRS program, including actions similar to those described for Project W-314 as a part of continued tank farm operations. The TWRS EIS preferred alternative was developed to a conceptual level of detail to assess bounding impact areas. For this Supplement Analysis, in each of the potential impact areas for Project W-314, the proposed action was evaluated and compared to the TWRS EIS evaluation of the preferred alternative (Section 5.0). Qualitative and/or quantitative comparisons are then provided in this Supplement Analysis to support a determination on the need for additional National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis. Based on this Supplement Analysis, the potential impacts for Project W-314 would be small in comparison to and are bounded by the impacts assessed for the TWRS EIS preferred alternative, and therefore no additional NEPA analysis is required (Section 7.0)

  2. Dose rate analysis for Tank 101 AZ (Project W151)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.A.; Hillesland, K.E.; Carter, L.L.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the expected dose rates for modification to tank 101 AZ including modifications to the steam coil, mixer pump, and temperature probes. The thrust of the effort is to determine dose rates from: modification of a steam coil and caisson; the installation of mixer pumps; the installation of temperature probes; and estimates of dose rates that will be encountered while making these changes. Because the dose rates for all of these configurations depend upon the photon source within the supernate and sludge, comparisons were also made between measured dose rates within a drywell and the corresponding calculated dose rates. The calculational tool used is a Monte Carlo (MCNP 2 ) code since complicated three dimensional geometries are involved. A summary of the most important results of the entire study is given in Section 2. The basic calculational geometry model of the tank is discussed in Section 3, along with a tabulation of the photon sources that were used within the supernate and the sludge, and a discussion of uncertainties. The calculated dose rates around the steam coil and caisson before and after modification are discussed in Section 4. The configuration for the installation of the mixer pumps and the resulting dose rates are given in Section 5. The predicted changes in dose rates due to a possible dilution of the supernate source are given in Section 6. The calculational configuration used to model the installation of temperature probes and the resulting predicted dose rates are discussed in Section 7. Finally, comparisons of measured to calculated dose rates within a drywell are summarized in Section 8. Extended discussions of calculational models and Monte Carlo optimization techniques used are included in Appendix A

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  4. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the &apos

  5. Project W-340 tank 241-C-106 manipulator system closeout summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, L.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document summarizes the work that was ongoing when Project W-340 was put on hold. Project W-340: Tank 241-C-106 Manipulator Retrieval System, was a candidate FY98 Major System Acquisition. The project was to develop, procure and deploy a Long Reach Manipulator (LRM) waste retrieval system to provide an alternate method to completing the in-tank demonstration of Single Shell Tank waste retrieval technology. The need for enhanced capabilities derives from (1) the inability of the baseline technology to retrieve certain hard waste forms; (2) uncertainty in the quantity of leakage which will be allowed. Numerous studies over the years have identified an arm architecture as a promising retrieval technology to overcome these concerns. The W340 project was intended to further develop and demonstrate this alternative, as part of selecting the best approach for all tanks. Prior to completing the effort, it was determined that an LRM system was too architecture specific and was envisioned to be too expensive for a one time demonstration of retrieval technology. At the time the work was stopped, an effort was underway to broaden the project scope to allow alternatives to an arm-based system

  6. Progress of the Enhanced Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Castleberry, Jim L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. In late 2010, seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  7. Test and evaluation plan for Project W-314 tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations'' (TFRSO), Project W-314 will restore and/or upgrade existing Hanford Tank Farm facilities and systems to ensure that the Tank Farm infrastructure will be able to support near term TWRS Privatization's waste feed delivery and disposal system and continue safe management of tank waste. The capital improvements provided by this project will increase the margin of safety for Tank Farms operations, and will aid in aligning affected Tank Farm systems with compliance requirements from applicable state, Federal, and local regulations. Secondary benefits will be realized subsequent to project completion in the form of reduced equipment down-time, reduced health and safety risks to workers, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and minimization of radioactive and/or hazardous material releases to the environment. The original regulatory (e.g., Executive Orders, WACS, CFRS, permit requirements, required engineering standards, etc.) and institutional (e.g., DOE Orders, Hanford procedures, etc.) requirements for Project W-314 were extracted from the TWRS S/RIDs during the development of the Functions and Requirements (F and Rs). The entire family of requirements were then validated for TWRS and Project W-314. This information was contained in the RDD-100 database and used to establish the original CDR. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team recognizes that safety, quality, and cost effectiveness in the Test and Evaluation (T and E) program is achieved through a planned systematic approach to T and E activities. It is to this end that the Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) is created. The TEP for the TFRSO Project, was developed based on the guidance in HNF-IP-0842, and the Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-005, ''Test and Evaluation,'' which is derived from DOE Order 430.1, ''Life Cycle Asset Management.'' It describes the Test and Evaluation program for the TFRSO project starting with the definitive design phase and ending

  8. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  9. OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis

  10. Overview Of Enhanced Hanford Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project - 12128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venetz, T.J.; Boomer, K.D.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Johnson, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of

  11. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, November 11--13, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. [comp.

    1992-04-01

    The sixth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held November 11--13, 1991, in Pasco and Richland, Washington. Participating scientists presented the results of recent work on various aspects of issues relating to the generation and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the presence of ferrocyanide in other tanks at Hanford. Results are discussed.

  12. System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems'' (ITRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate systems engineering requirements for W-211

  13. System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-05-05

    This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate systems engineering requirements for W-211.

  14. Fifth Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project Expert Panel Meeting August 28-29, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Todd M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States; Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    On August 28th and 29th, 2014 the Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) Expert Panel (Panel) convened in Richland, Washington. This was the Panel’s first meeting since 2011 and, as a result, was focused primarily on updating the Panel on progress in response to the past recommendations (Single-Shell Tank Integrity Expert Panel Report, RPP-RPT-45921, Rev 0, May 2010). This letter documents the Panel’s discussions and feedback on Phase I activities and results.

  15. Project management plan for inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    *This document identifies the roles and responsibilities of the project team members and identifies the project scope, schedule, and cost reporting activities for a maintenance activity to remove and dispose of three inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) system tanks and to isolate and fill one LLLW tank with grout. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 are located in concrete vaults and tank 3013 is buried directly in the soil. The maintenance project consists of cutting the existing pipes attached to the tanks; capping the piping to be left in place; removing the tanks and filling the vaults with grout for tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30; and filling tank 3013 with grout. Because the LLLW line serving tank 3001-B will be needed for discharging the 3001 canal demineralizer back flush and regeneration waste to tank WC-19, tank 3001-B will be replaced with a section of piping

  16. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  17. Production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae in stirred tank and internal- and external-loop airlift reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Roselei Claudete; da Silveira, Maurício Moura

    2012-11-01

    The production of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase (PG) by Aspergillus oryzae was assessed in stirred tank reactors (STRs), internal-loop airlift reactors (ILARs) and external-loop airlift reactors (ELARs). For STR production, we compared culture media formulated with either pectin (WBE) or partially hydrolyzed pectin. The highest enzyme activities were obtained in medium that contained 50% pectin in hydrolyzed form (WBE5). PG production in the three reactor types was compared for WBE5 and low salt WBE medium, with additional salts added at 48, 60 and 72h (WBES). The ELARs performed better than the ILARs in WBES medium where the exo-PG was the same concentration as for STRs and the endo-PG was 20% lower. These results indicate that PG production is higher under experimental conditions that result in higher cell growth with minimum pH values less than 3.0. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TANK 241-AN-102 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT LESSONS LEARNED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAYLOR T; HAGENSEN A; KIRCH NW

    2008-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, a new Multi-Probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) was designed and fabricated for use in double-shell tank 241-AN-102. The system was successfully installed in the tank on May 1, 2008. The 241-AN-102 MPCMS consists of one 'fixed' in-tank probe containing primary and secondary reference electrodes, tank material electrodes, Electrical Resistance (ER) sensors, and stressed and unstressed corrosion coupons. In addition to the fixed probe, the 241-AN-102 MPCMS also contains four standalone coupon racks, or 'removable' probes. Each rack contains stressed and unstressed coupons made of American Society of Testing and Materials A537 CL1 steel, heat-treated to closely match the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the 241-AN-102 tank wall. These coupon racks can be removed periodically to facilitate examination of the attached coupons for corrosion damage. Along the way to successful system deployment and operation, the system design, fabrication, and testing activities presented a number of challenges. This document discusses these challenges and lessons learned, which when applied to future efforts, should improve overall project efficiency

  19. Large Scale Shearography Inspection of the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussery, Warren; Scheurer, Phillip; Rivers, Joanna; Walker, James; Lovell, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Shearography was successfully used to inspect the damaged region of ET122 for nonvisible damage. The shearography inspection was extensive covering over 3100 square feet of foam and lasting 9 months. Most foam damage was visible and shearography results confirmed that foam damage in visibly impacted regions did not extend outside the area with visible damage. Of the 21 nonvisible defect indications detected with shearography, none were determined to be actual foam damage. Inspections were intentionally conservative since no experience base was available for debris damaged foam. Shearography results were used in conjunction with tactile and visual inspection to support the acceptance of the foam application allowing the tank to move forward for refurbishment.

  20. Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Sluicing Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This revised contingency plan addresses potential scenarios involving the release of radioactively contaminated waste from the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Contents Removal project to the environment. The tanks are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project involves sluicing the contents of the five underground tanks to mix the sludge and supernatant layers, and pumping the mixture to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for future processing. The sluicing system to be used for the project consists of a spray nozzle designated the open-quotes Borehole Miner,close quotes with an associated pump; in-tank submersible pumps to transfer tank contents from the sluice tanks to the recycle tank; high-pressure pumps providing slurry circulation and slurry transport to the MVST; piping; a ventilation system; a process water system; an instrumentation and control system centered around a programmable logic controller; a video monitoring system; and auxiliary equipment. The earlier version of this plan, which was developed during the preliminary design phase of the project, identified eight scenarios in which waste from the tanks might be released to the environment as a result of unanticipated equipment failure or an accident (e.g., vehicular accident). One of those scenarios, nuclear criticality, is no longer addressed by this plan because the tank waste will be isotopically diluted before sluicing begins. The other seven scenarios have been combined into three, and a fourth, Borehole Miner Failure, has been added as follows: (1) underground release from the tanks; (2) aboveground release or spill from the sluicing system, a tank riser, or the transfer pipeline; (3) release of unfiltered air through the ventilation system; and (4) Borehole Miner arm retraction failure. Methods for preventing, detecting, and responding to each release scenario are set out in the plan

  1. Preliminary safety equipment list for Tank 241-C-106 Manipulator Retrieval System, Project W-340

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies the anticipated safety classification of the estimated major subsystems, based on the projected major functions, that will be used as guidance for the development of the conceptual design of the Manipulator Retrieval System for Tank 241-C-106. This document is intended to be updated as the design of the Manipulator Retrieval System evolves through the conceptual and definitive design phases. The Manipulator Retrieval System is to be capable of removing the hardened sludge heel at the bottom of single shell Tank 241-C-106 and to perform an overall clean out of the tank that leaves a maximum of 360 ft 3 (TPA milestone M-45-00). The thickness of the heel prior to initiation of waste retrieval with the Manipulator Retrieval System is estimated to be 1- to 2-ft. The Manipulator Retrieval System is currently in the pre-conceptual phase with no definitive systems or subsystems. The anticipated retrieval functions for the Manipulator Retrieval System is based on Table 6-2 of WHC-SD-W340-ES-001, Rev. 1. Projected equipment to accomplish these functions were based on the following systems and equipment: Rotary Mode Core Sampling Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032); Light Duty Utility Arm System Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-034); Single Shell Tanks Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-020)

  2. Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project's work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve

  3. A survey of available information on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Siemer, D.D.; Wallace, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    As a result of a concerted effort to determine the chemical and physical mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 241-SY-101, more commonly known as tank 101-SY, the Tank Waste Science Panel has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Four of the members of this panel met to screen the available information on tank 101-SY and provide to the remaining members a shortened list of references that could be used to assess the mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 101-SY. This document is the result of this preliminary screening of information for the Tank Waste Science Panel and was provided to the Panel members at their first meeting. 14 refs., 3 tabs

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  5. Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Burger, L.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 CS exchanged materials to form tank ''hot-spots.'' This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. If radioactive cesium is exchanged and concentrated by the remaining nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, this heating could cause temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide tanks. For the purposes of this study, two simulants, In-Farm-2 and U-Plant-2, were chosen to represent the wastes generated by the scavenging processes. These simulants were formulated using protocols from the original cesium scavenging campaign. Later additions of cesium-rich wastes from various processes also were considered. The simulants were prepared and centrifuged to obtain a moist ferrocyanide sludge. The centrifuged sludges were treated with the original supernate spiked with a known amount of cesium nitrate. After analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, distribution coefficients (K d ) were calculated. The capacity of solid waste simulants to exchange radioactive cesium from solution was examined. Initial results showed that the greater the molar ratio of cesium to cesium nickel ferrocyanide, the less effective the exchange of cesium from solution. The theoretical capacity of 2 mol cesium per mol of nickel ferrocyanide was not observed. The maximum capacity under experimental conditions was 0.35 mol cesium per mol nickel ferrocyanide. Future work on this project will examine the layering tendency of the cesium nickel ferrocyanide species

  6. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  7. Design review plan for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes how the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project conducts reviews of design media; describes actions required by Project participants; and provides the methodology to ensure that the design is complete, meets the technical baseline of the Project, is operable and maintainable, and is constructable. Project W-236A is an integrated project wherein the relationship between the operating contractor and architect-engineer is somewhat different than that of a conventional project. Working together, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and ICF Karser Hanford (ICF KH) have developed a relationship whereby ICF KH performs extensive design reviews and design verification. WHC actively participates in over-the-shoulder reviews during design development, performs a final review of the completed design, and conducts a formal design review of the Safety Class I, ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code items in accordance with WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT. DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    M and D Professional Services, Inc. (M and D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh

  9. Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks sluicing project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), plans to begin a sluicing (flushing) and pumping project to remove the contents from five inactive, underground storage tanks at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tank contents will be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, which are part of the active waste treatment system at ORNL. The purpose of the project is to minimize the risk of leaking the highly radioactive material to the environment. The five OHF tanks each contain a layer of sludge and a layer of supernatant. Based on a sampling project undertaken in 1995, the sludge in the tanks has been characterized as transuranic and mixed waste and the supernatants have been characterized as mixed waste. The combined radioactivity of the contents of the five tanks is approximately 29,500 Ci. This contingency plan is based on the preliminary design for the project and describes a series of potential accident/release scenarios for the project. It outlines Energy Systems' preliminary plans for prevention, detection, and mitigation. Prevention/detection methods range from using doubly contained pipelines to alarmed sensors and automatic pump cutoff systems. Plans for mitigation range from pumping leaked fluids from the built-in tank drainage systems and cleaning up spilled liquids to personnel evacuation

  10. Root cause analysis for waste area grouping 1, Batch I, Series 1 Tank T-30 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Four inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks were scheduled for remedial actions as the Batch L Series I Tank Project during fiscal year (FY) 1995. These tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. The initial tank remediation project was conducted as a maintenance action. One project objective was to gain experience in remediation efforts (under maintenance actions) to assist in conducting remedial action projects for the 33 remaining inactive LLLW tanks. Batch I, Series 1 project activities resulted in the successful remediation of tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and 3013. Tank T-30 remedial actions were halted as a result of information obtained during waste characterization activities. The conditions discovered on tank T-30 would not allow completion of tank removal and smelting as originally planned. A decision was made to conduct a root cause analysis of Tank T-30 events to identify and, where possible, correct weaknesses that, if uncorrected, could result in similar delays for completion of future inactive tank remediation projects. The objective of the analysis was to determine why a portion of expected project end results for Tank T-30 were not fully achieved. The root cause analysis evaluates project events and recommends beneficial improvements for application to future projects. This report presents the results of the Batch I, Series root cause analysis results and makes recommendations based on that analysis

  11. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-05-30

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

  12. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1

  13. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars

  14. Managing externally financed projects: the Integrated Primary Health Care Project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homedes, N

    2001-12-01

    Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Health indicators are very poor, communicable diseases are prevalent and, coupled with malnutrition, remain the major killers of children under 5 years old. The Integrated Primary Health Care Project (PROISS) was a US$39 million project executed by the Ministry of Health (MOH), 50% financed by the World Bank and aimed at improving primary health care in the four largest Bolivian municipalities. The implementation of the project started in 1990 and ended in 1997. During implementation it went through three distinct phases: Phase 1 (1990-94) was a period characterized by conflict and confusion; Phase 2 (1995-mid-1996) documented major improvements in coverage and service quality; and Phase 3 (mid-1996-97) witnessed the decline of the project. This paper explores the factors that contributed to the success and the decline of the project, draws lessons for project managers and international agencies involved in the definition and implementation of social sector projects, and discusses the unlikelihood that externally financed projects can have a sustainable impact on the development of the health sector of recipient countries.

  15. Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  17. Permitting plan for project W-320 tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the permitting plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). A comprehensive review of environmental regulations have indicated that several environmental reviews [e.g. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA)], permits, and approvals are required prior to construction or operation of the facility. The environmental reviews, permits and approvals, as well the regulatory authority, potentially applicable to the Tank 241-C-106 WRSS include the following: for NEPA - U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters: Action Description Memorandum, Environmental Assessment, Categorical Exclusion, and Environmental Impact Statement; and for SEPA - State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) Determination of Nonsignificance, Mitigated Determination of Nonsignificance, Determination of Significance, and SEPA Environmental Checklist

  18. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-ANSYS BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    M and D Professional Services, Inc. (M and D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but the capabilities and limitations of ANSYS to perform fluid-structure interaction are less well understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the ANSYS solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions of similar problems and to the results from Dytran simulations. The capabilities and limitations of the finite element code Dytran for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation (Abatt 2006). In conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS

  20. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  1. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria

  2. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT-TOP TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed

  4. The role of external partners in regional cooperation projects in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bar-El; Miki Malul

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the extent to which external partners contribute to the internalization of externalities arising from regional cooperation in the Middle East, that is, the degree to which they help increase welfare gains generated by the projects. This is classified by extent, intensity, and sectors of cooperation. Externalities are defined macroeconomically and sociopolitically. The results show that the international community does play a role in the internalization of externalities. ...

  5. Permitting plan for Project W-340, Tank 241-C-106 manipulator retrieval arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the regulatory requirements and describes alternative strategies for obtaining permits and approvals for Project W-340, Tank 241-C-106 Manipulator Retrieval Arm. A comprehensive review of environmental regulations has indicated that several environmental reviews, permits, and approvals are required before design, construction, and operation of the facility. The environmental reviews, permits, and approvals, as well the regulatory authority potentially applicable to the Project W-340 Long Reach Manipulator Arm include the following: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 -- US Department of Energy, Headquarters; State Environmental Policy Act of 1971 -- State of Washington Department of Ecology; Air Permitting; Dangerous Waste Permitting; Miscellaneous Reviews/Permits/Approvals. This document describes the environmental reviews, permits, and approval requirements for the project. It provides a summary of permit application data requirements, alternative strategies for permit completion and approval, as well as the estimated probability of success for each alternative strategy

  6. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization

  7. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement - Part III: Material Property Characterization, Analysis, and Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Johnson, Theodore F.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to contribute to the independent assessment of the Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Material. This report specifically addresses material modeling, characterization testing, data reduction methods, and data pedigree. A brief description of the External Tank foam materials, locations, and standard failure modes is provided to develop suitable background information. A review of mechanics based analysis methods from the open literature is used to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art in material modeling of closed cell foams. Further, this report assesses the existing material property database and investigates sources of material property variability. The report presents identified deficiencies in testing methods and procedures, recommendations for additional testing as required, identification of near-term improvements that should be pursued, and long-term capabilities or enhancements that should be developed.

  8. Tank waste remediation system privatization Phase 1 infrastructure, project W-519, project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented

  9. Design review report: AN valve pit upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farms' waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project's work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first package to be performed is the AN Valve Pit Upgrades package. The scope of the modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, transfer line connections (for future planned transfer lines), and special protective coating for the 241-AN-A and 241-AN-B valve pits

  10. Project W-211 initial tank retrieval systems year 2000 compliance assessment project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a limited assessment of Year 2000 compliance for Project W-211. Additional information is provided as a road map to project documents and other references that may be used to verify Year 2000 compliance

  11. Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a limited assessment of Year 2000 compliance for Project W-151. Additional information is provided as a road map to project documents and other references that may be used to verify Year 2000 compliance

  12. Project management in libraries, archives and museums working with government and other external partners

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at practitioners and managers, this practical handbook provides a source of guidance on project management techniques for the academic and cultural heritage sectors, focusing on managing projects involving public sector and other external partners. Issues under consideration and illustration include: different approaches to managing projects and how to select appropriate methods; using project management tools and other applications in project development and implementation; ensuring the sustainability of project outcomes and transferability into practice; realistic monitoring methodolog

  13. The Externe project. Assessment of the external costs of the natural gas fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed bottom-up methodology for assessment of the external costs of energy has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, pan-European team as part of the European Commissions's JOULE Programme. The consequences of the generation of electricity from fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, in terms of damages to human health, buildings and the wider environment, have been assessed within a consistent framework. The potential application of the results in cost-benefit analysis, power system optimisation, emissions charging, etc. is also now under investigation. The analysis starts with definition of the fuel cycle, and specification of the technologies and locations to be considered. Results to date show that for typical modern examples of power plants burning different fossil fuels, externalities (including possible global warming effects) are lowest for gas-burning plant. (R.P.)

  14. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE's instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department's obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act

  15. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  16. Evaluation of waste temperatures in AWF tanks for bypass mode operation of the 702-AZ ventilation system (Project W-030)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of thermal hydraulic analysis performed to provide data in support of Project W-030 to startup new 702-AZ Primary Ventilation System. During the startup of W-030 system, the ventilation system will be operating in bypass mode. In bypass made of operation, the system is capable of supplying 1000 cfm total flow for all four AWF doubleshell tanks. The design of the W-030 system is based on the assumption that both the recirculation loop of the primary ventilation system and the secondary ventilation which provides cooling would be operating. However, during the startup neither the recirculation system nor the secondary ventilation system will be operating. A minimum flow of 100 cfm is required to prevent any flammable gas associated risk. The remaining 600 cfm flow can be divided among the four tanks as necessary to keep the peak sludge temperatures below the operating temperature limit. For the purpose of determining the minimum flow required for cooling each tank, the thermal hydraulic analysis is performed to predict the peak sludge temperatures in AY/AZ tanks under different ventilation flows. The heat load for AZ farm tanks is taken from characterization reports and for the AY farm tanks, the heat load was estimated by thermal analysis using the measured waste temperatures and the waste liquid evaporation rates. The tank 241-AZ-101 and the tank 241-AZ-102 have heat loads of 241,600 and 199,500 Btu/hr respectively. The tank 241-AY-101 and tank 241-AY-102 have heat loads of 41,000 and 33,000 Btu/hr respectively. Using the ambient meteorological conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the air and tank, some soil surface and the sludge levels reported in recent documents, the peak sludge and supernatant temperatures were predicted for various primary ventilation flows ranging from 100 to 400 cfm for AZ tanks and 100 and 150 cfm for AY tanks. The results of these thermal hydraulic analyses are presented. Based on the

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15

    design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.

  18. Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excess liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. A technique known as confined sluicing, which uses a high-pressure, low-volume water jet integrated with a jet pump, will be used to remove the sludge. The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are those operational requirements that specify the operating limits and surveillance requirements, the basis thereof, safety boundaries, and the management of administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of the STF remediation project. Effective implementation of TSRs will limit to acceptable levels the risks to the public and workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous material

  19. Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPENCER, S.G.

    1999-04-26

    The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

  20. Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPENCER, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates

  1. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gunite and Associated Tanks Stabilization Project-Low-Tech Approach with High-Tech Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.; Alsup, T.; Bolling, D.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental restoration of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a priority to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) because of their age and deteriorating structure. These eight tanks ranging up to 170,000 gallons in capacity were constructed in 1943 of a Gunite or ''sprayed concrete material'' as part of the Manhattan Project. The tanks initially received highly radioactive waste from the Graphite Reactor and associated chemical processing facilities. The waste was temporarily stored in these tanks to allow for radioactive decay prior to dilution and release into surface waters. Over time, additional wastes from ongoing ORNL operations (e.g., isotope separation and materials research) were discharged to the tanks for storage and treatment. These tanks were taken out of service in the 1970s. Based on the structure integrity of GAAT evaluated in 1995, the worst-case scenario for the tanks, even assuming they are in good condition, is to remain empty. A recently completed interim action conducted from April 1997 through September 2000 removed the tank liquids and residual solids to the extent practical. Interior video surveys of the tanks indicated signs of degradation of the Gunite material. The tanks continued to receive inleakage, which generated a relatively high volume waste stream that required periodic removal, treatment, and disposal. For these reasons, DOE chose in-place stabilization of Tanks W-3 through W-10 as a non-timecritical removal action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Tank stabilization activities involved removal of liquid from inleakage and placement of a grout mixture or ''flowable fill'' into the tanks to within 3-ft of the ground surface. Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) awarded Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) a subcontract in March 2001 to complete the documentation and fieldwork necessary to achieve tank stabilization in

  3. Predicting fatigue service life extension of RC bridges with externally bonded CFRP repairs : [project brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) are increasingly used to : repair concrete bridges. CFRP design techniques are a proven approach for enhancing the strength : of existing structures. This project investigated the d...

  4. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks

  5. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements

  6. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy's site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information

  7. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

    2013-11-14

    In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy's site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information.

  8. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  9. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  10. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  11. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines

  12. FY 1993 Ferrocyanide Tank Safety Project: Effects of Aging on Ferrocyanide Wastes test plan for the remainder of FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1993-06-01

    Researchers in the Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team are studying safety issues associated with ferrocyanide precipitates in single shell waste storage tanks (SST). Ferrocyanide is a stable complex of ferrous, ion and cyanide ion that is considered nontoxic because it does not dissociate readily in aqueous solutions. However, in the laboratory at temperatures in excess of 180 degrees C and in the presence of oxidizers such as nitrates and nitrites, dry ferrocyanide and ferrocyanide waste stimulants can be made to react exothermically. The Ferrocyanide Safety Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is part of the Waste Tank Safety Program at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The purpose of the WHC program is to (1) maintain the ferrocyanide tanks with minimal risk of an accident, (2) select one or more strategies to assure safe storage, and (3) close out the unreviewed safety question (USQ). Tank ferrocyanide wastes were exposed to highly alkaline wastes from subsequent processing operations. Chemical reactions with caustic may have changed the ferrocyanide materials during 40 years of storage in the SSTs. Research in the open-quotes Effects of Aging on Ferrocyanide Wastesclose quotes task is targeted at studying aging of ferrocyanide tank simulants and other ferrocyanide materials to obtain a better understanding of how tank materials may have changed over the years. The research objective in this project is to determine the solubility and hydrolysis characteristics of simulated ferrocyanide tank wastes in alkaline media. The behavior of ferrocyanide simulant wastes is being determined by performing chemical reactions under conditions that might mimic the potential ranges in SST environments. Experiments are conducted at high pH, at high ionic strength, and in the presence of gamma radiation. Verification of simulant study findings by comparison with results with actual waste will also be required

  13. Statements of work for FY 1996 to 2001 for the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The statements of work for each activity and task of the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment project are given for the fiscal years 1996 through 2001. The end product of this program is approval of a final performance assessment by the Department of Energy in the year 2000

  14. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Hydro fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrud, S.; Riise, J.; Strand, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the External Costs of Fuel Cycles (ExternE) study is to develop methods to measure and monetize all the externalities associated with incremental investments in electric power production, taking account of the different stages of the fuel cycles. Since fuel cycle externalities are characterised by being very site-specific, the impact pathway damage function approach, developed in ExternE, has been implemented in different European countries for each of the selected fuel cycles. This is done to demonstrate that this methodological framework can be used at different locations, to motivate further development of the methods, and to look at the sensitivity of the estimates to different locations. Electricite de France (EdF) in France and ENCO Environmental Consultants a.s. in Norway have taken on a joint responsibility for adapting the methodological framework for hydroelectric fuel cycle analyses in Europe. We report the first implementation of the hydroelectric fuel cycle within ExternE. Choice of reference site and technology Two stages of the hydroelectric fuel cycle have been identified: 1. Electricity generation 2. Transmission There are three phases of each of these stages: construction, operation and dismantling. We have assumed a construction period of 5 years (starting in 1990) and an operation period of 40 years. Dismantling after 40 years is not a realistic option. Therefore, we have focused on the construction and operation phases, of both electricity generation and transmission. The Sauda Hydroelectric Development Project (SHDP) was selected, because it illustrates upgrading and extention of an existing hydro power project. Such projects are likely to be the dominating strategy for future hydroelectric development in Norway, many other European countries and in the U.S., due to the lack of new sites available for development. SHDP consists of an extention of a previously developed area (Basis project) and six new diversion projects. The

  15. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  16. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  17. Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site

  18. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks content removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks content removal project is to transfer inventory from the five OHF tanks located in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) storage facility, and remediate the remaining OHF tank shells. The major activities involved are identified in this document along with the organizations that will perform the required actions and their roles and responsibilities for managing the project

  19. Recent progress of the waste processing and disposal projects within the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Remediation has created the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to provide new and improved remediation technologies for the 1 x 10 8 gal of radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five DOE sites. The OTD established and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) to perform demonstrations, tests, and evaluations on these new technologies before these processes are transferred to the tank sites for use in full-scale remediation of the USTs. The UST-ID projects are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). During FY 1994, the WPDP is funding 12 projects in the areas of supernate processing, sludge processing, nitrate destruction, and final waste forms. The supernate projects are primarily concerned with cesium removal. A mobile evaporator and concentrator for cesium-free supernate is also being demonstrated. The sludge projects are emphasizing sludge dissolution and the evaluation of the TRUEX and diamide solvent extraction processes for transuranic waste streams. One WPDP project is examining both supernate and sludge processes in an effort to develop a system-level plan for handling all UST waste. The other WPDP studies are concerned with nitrate and organic destruction as well as subsequent waste forms. The current status of these WPDP projects is presented

  20. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Coal fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.E.; Holland, M.R.; Watkiss, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Background to the ExternE Project Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors; The need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies. The need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. Increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy. The need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. Major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good

  1. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Oil fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.; Runte, K.-H.; Kortum, G.; Weltschev, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988), Ottinger et al. (1990) and Friedrich and Voss (1993) provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. It is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Lignite fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988] and Ottinger et al. [1990] provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature [Friedrich, Voss, 1993]. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. If is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  3. Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions need to be implemented

  4. Flammable gas project expert elicitation results for Hanford Site double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the second phase of parameter quantification by the flammable gas expert panel. This second phase is focused on the analysis of flammable gas accidents in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks. The first phase of parameter quantification, performed in 1997 was focused on the analysis of Hanford single-shell tanks

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  6. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page

  7. CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR

  8. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  9. Tank 241C106 structural evaluation in support of Project W320 retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    Tank 241C106 structural evaluation to support W320. It includes ACI code input and riser evaluations. This work uses the in situ conditions established by Julyk to develop a three-dimensional model of the tank. Non-axisymmetric loads associated with retrieval activities are applied to assess their influence on structural integrity of the tank. This study addresses loads associated with normal opertion and credible accident scenarios. The concrete structure of tank C106 is classified as a Safety Class I non-reactor structure in accordance with the definition given in SDC 4.1. The operating specifications document (OSD) limits applicable to tank C106 include a live load limit for the C Tank Farm of 100 tons. For the technical basis of this limit, the OSD references SD-RE-TI-012, which qualifies the 100 tons as that distributed over a 10-ft radius. However, there is no specification for a uniform live load that would accompany natural hazard phenomena such as snow or ash fall. There is no specific guidance on crane loads applied at the surface outside the tank radius. Further, there is no record of any seismic analysis of tanks in the C Tank Farm. The analysis documented in this report evaluates nonseismic conditions that include a concentrated live load, a uniform live load, and a crane load, in addition to the in situ loads. The model documented in this study also is used to provide the nonseismic stress contribution to the seismic load combination documented by Wallace

  10. HANFORD DST THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; ABATT FG

    2007-02-14

    Revision 0A of this document contains new Appendices C and D. Appendix C contains a re-analysis of the rigid and flexible tanks at the 460 in. liquid level and was motivated by recommendations from a Project Review held on March 20-21, 2006 (Rinker et al Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968 Rev 1). Appendix D contains the benchmark solutions in support of the analyses in Appendix C.

  11. External force back-projective composition and globally deformable optimization for 3-D coronary artery reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Cong, Weijian; Fan, Jingfan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Chen, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm. (paper)

  12. Externality costing for hydroelectric projects: Is it desirable? Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, L.

    1992-01-01

    The assignment of monetary values to environmental and social impacts of hydroelectric projects is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the economic approach to externality costing are noted. The problem to be faced is that environmental externalities associated with a hydro project very often involve resources that have little or no relation with the market, such as disturbances of land not used for commercial activities. The valuation of externalities related to thermal power plants is examined to provide lessons for quantifying the externalities of hydro projects. One observation is that there is very little information on the real impacts of such phenomena as the release of greenhouse gases, making quantification of their effect difficult; another is that impacts from atmospheric emissions are well in excess of simple deterioration of material goods or recreational activities that have some relationship to the market. Applied to hydro projects, the lessons from these observations indicate that there are no exact and homogeneous measurement units for impacts of actions such as diking or alteration of wildlife habitats. One approach that has been tried is the contingent valuation method, which relies on asking respondents how much they would pay to avoid an impact or risk. This approach is criticized and it is suggested to experiment with a review of the tradeoffs between several possible environmental impacts defined in a precise manner

  13. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  14. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 2; Structural Analysis Technologies and Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    A technology review and assessment of modeling and analysis efforts underway in support of a safe return to flight of the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) are summarized. This review and assessment effort focuses on the structural modeling and analysis practices employed for ET TPS foam design and analysis and on identifying analysis capabilities needed in the short-term and long-term. The current understanding of the relationship between complex flight environments and ET TPS foam failure modes are reviewed as they relate to modeling and analysis. A literature review on modeling and analysis of TPS foam material systems is also presented. Finally, a review of modeling and analysis tools employed in the Space Shuttle Program is presented for the ET TPS acreage and close-out foam regions. This review includes existing simplified engineering analysis tools are well as finite element analysis procedures.

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system

  16. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  17. Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275

  18. Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to the Municipality of Montreal-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, G.; Joly, R.; Guay, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explored the environmental impacts associated with Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to its refinery in the east-end of Montreal. The project plan is based on a 6 year horizon from 2006-2012. The additional reservoirs would store new products destined for the petrochemical industry and for consumers, thus improving the flexibility and reliability of the refinery. The products would include low sulfur diesel and ethanol gasoline. The project does not involve any increase in refining capacity, and is estimated to cost $15 million. The main issues associated with this project are ambient air quality, the protection of groundwater and soil, as well as the security of areas inhabited by neighbouring areas in risk of a major accident. Emissions of organic compounds, including benzene, are considered minimal considering the use of sealed floating roofs. Geomembranes will be installed under the storage tanks to ensure the protection of groundwater and soil. Any consequences to the population of neighbouring areas resulting from accidents inside the industrial park will be limited since the reservoirs will be located more than 1 km away from a populated area. Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks recommended that this project be approved as long as the terms and measures of environmental regulations are respected, and that an emergency plan is submitted before the operation of the first reservoir. 1 tab

  19. Mental model differences between external designers and their clients : The influence on project exploration, project exploitation and project performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, K.E.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.; Hultink, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research indicated that external designers are often hired by their clients to bring new knowledge into their organization. To assure that an external designer’s knowledge is implemented in the organization of the client, managing the relationship between the two is essential. Although it

  20. Evaluation of the Induced Activity in Air by the External Proton Beam in the Target Room of the Proton Accelerator Facility of Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik; Ahn, So Hyun

    2007-01-01

    One of the radiological concerns is the worker's exposure level and the concentration of the radionuclides in the air after shutdown, for the safety analysis on the proton accelerator facility. Although, the primary radiation source is the protons accelerated up to design value, all of the radio-nuclide is produced from the secondary neutron and photon induced reaction in air. Because, the protons don't penetrate the acceleration equipment like the DTL tank wall or BTL wall, secondary neutrons or photons are only in the air in the accelerator tunnel building because of the short range of the proton in the materials. But, for the case of the target rooms, external proton beams are occasionally used in the various experiments. When these external proton beams travel through air from the end of the beam transport line to the target, they interact directly with air and produce activation products from the proton induced reaction. The external proton beam will be used in the target rooms in the accelerator facility of the Proton Accelerator Frontier Project (PEFP). In this study, interaction characteristics of the external proton beam with air and induced activity in air from the direct interaction of the proton beam were evaluated

  1. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Wind fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1994-01-01

    electricity use, although they are of a somewhat preliminary nature. The task of calculating the externalities is rendered difficult by a range of problems. It is particularly important for renewables that the site and project specificity of many impacts are recognised. In consequence of this, the ExternE Project of Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current programme has 4 principal objectives: 1) To create a unified conceptual design for quantifying the various social costs associated with the production and consumption of energy from different fuel sources. 2) To demonstrate an accounting framework that can be used to estimate the external costs that result from the incremental use of different fuel types. 3) To use this information in an international comparative analysis of fuel types. 4) To identify critical methodological issues and information needs. The objective of this particular study is to develop the methodology for wind energy and to implement it at two sites in the United Kingdom. Modern wind turbines bear little resemblance to the medieval designs of windmills characteristic of many European landscapes. The aerodynamic systems have been developed using aviation technology. Current designs typically have two or three blades, manufactured from glass reinforced elastic or wood epoxy, and rotate at 0.5 to 0.8 Hz. The most cost effective sizes currently have rotor diameters of approximately 30 metres, giving an output of a few hundreds of kW. The commercial wind energy programme in the UK is relatively recent, having been stimulated in England and Wales through the mechanism of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, originally designed to subsidise nuclear electricity production. There is now well over 100 MW of capacity in place, mostly in wind farms situated in hill or coastal areas where mean wind speeds are in excess of 7m

  2. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TC MACKEY; FG ABATT; MW RINKER

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is in the spring constants used to model the anchor bolt response for the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. Consequently, focus was placed on the changes in the anchor bolt responses, and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary. To confirm this judgement, primary tank stresses from the revised analysis of the BES-BEC case are compared to the original analysis and it was verified that the changes are small, as expected.

  3. Functions and Requirements for West Valley Demonstration Project Tank Lay-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Documents completion of Milestone A.1-1, ''Issue Functions and Requirements for WVDP Tank Lay-Up,'' in Technical Task Plan TTP RL3-WT21A - ''Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up.'' This task is a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). Because of the site-specific nature of this task, the involvement of WVNS personnel is critical to the success of this task

  4. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. The objective of the research work that underpins this paper was to investigate the Factors and Consequences of construction projects on local contractors. A construction project is commonly acknowledged as successful when the aim of the project is achieved in terms of predetermined objectives that are mainly completed the project on time, within budget and specified quality in accordance with the specifications and to stakeholders’ satisfaction. One of the most important problems that may arise in the construction project is delays and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from project to project. According to delay categories that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labour related and external related, the study revealed the six major effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation.

  5. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  6. EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion

  7. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This revision (Rev. 1) updates the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. Ongoing and planned future activities include: cold testing of the sluicing and pumping system; readiness assessment; equipment relocation and assembly; isotopic dilution of fissile radionuclides; sluicing and transfer of the tanks contents; and preparation of the Removal Action Completion Report. The most significant change is that the sluicing and pumping system has been configured by and will be operated by CDM Federal Programs Corporation. In addition, a new technical lead and a new project analyst have been designated within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. The schedule for tanks contents removal has been accelerated, with transfer of the final batch of tank slurry now scheduled for March 31, 1998 (instead of November 10, 1998). The OHF sluicing and pumping project is proceeding as a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The purpose of the project is to remove the contents from five inactive underground storage tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9. The tanks contain an estimated 52,700 gal of liquid and sludge, together comprising a radioactive inventory of approximately 30,000 Ci

  8. Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program's inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II)

  9. Organic tank safety project: Equilibrium moisture determination task. FY 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1998-08-01

    During fiscal year 1998, PNNL investigated the effect of P H 2 O at or near maximum tank waste surface temperatures on the equilibrium water content of selected Hanford waste samples. These studies were performed to determine how dry organic-bearing wastes will become if exposed to environmental Hanford water partial pressures. The samples tested were obtained from Organic Watch List Tanks. At 26 C, the lowest temperature used, the water partial pressures ranged from 2 to 22 torr. At 41 C, the highest temperature used, the water partial pressures ranged from 3.5 to 48 torr. When the aliquots exposed to the lowest and highest water partial pressures reached their equilibrium or near-equilibrium water contents, they were exchanged to determine if hysteresis occurred. In some experiments, once equilibrated, aliquots not used in the hysteresis experiments were allowed to equilibrate at room temperature (23 C) until the hysteresis experiments ended; this provides a measure of the effect of temperature

  10. Performance Assessment of the Waste Dislodging Conveyance System During the Gunite And Associated Tanks Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (WD and CS) and other components of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) were developed to address the need for removal of hazardous wastes from underground storage tanks (USTs) in which radiation levels and access limitations make traditional waste retrieval methods impractical. Specifically, these systems were developed for cleanup of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WD and CS is comprised of a number of different components. The three primary hardware subsystems are the Hose Management System (HMS), the Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE), and the Flow Control Equipment and Containment Box (FCE/CB). In addition, a Decontamination Spray Ring (DSR) and a control system were developed for the system. The WD and CS is not a stand-alone system; rather, it is designed for deployment with either a long-reach manipulator like the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) or a remotely operated vehicle system such as the Houdinitrademark. The HMS was designed to act as a pipeline for the transfer of dislodged waste; as a hose-positioning and tether-management system; and as a housing for process equipment such as the water-powered jet pump that provides the necessary suction to vacuum slurried waste from the UST. The HMS was designed to facilitate positioning of an end-effector at any point within the 25-ft- or 50-ft-diameter USTs in the GAAT OU

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  12. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed

  13. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  14. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 1; Materials Characterization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.; Nemeth, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The use of foam insulation on the External Tank (ET) was necessitated by the potentially hazardous build up of ice on the vehicle prior to and during launch. This use of foam was initiated on the Saturn V rocket, which, like the Space Shuttle, used cryogenic fuel. Two major types of foam have been used on the ET. The first type is NCFI 24-124, an acreage material that is automatically sprayed on in a controlled environment. It replaced CPR 488 in 1998 and has been used since that time. The other major foams, BX-250 or BX-265, are handsprayed foams that are used to close out regions where the various sections of the ET are attached. The objectives of the present report are to study the chemistries of the various foam materials and to determine how physical and mechanical anomalies might occur during the spray and curing process. To accomplish these objectives, the report is organized as follows. First, the chemistries of the raw materials will be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of how chemistry relates to void formation. Finally, a TGA-MS will be used to help understand the various foams and how they degrade with the evolution of chemical by-products.

  15. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essadki, A.H.; Gourich, B.; Vial, Ch.; Delmas, H.; Bennajah, M.

    2009-01-01

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm 2 , but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H 2 microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  16. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@hotmail.com [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Vial, Ch. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, LGCB-UBP/ENSCCF, 24 avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France); Delmas, H. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bennajah, M. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H{sub 2} microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  17. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements...

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  19. Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  1. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  3. Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

  4. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  5. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  6. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-104: Results from samples collected on June 24, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104) on June 24, 1994. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze inorganic and organic samples collected from the tank headspace. The sample job was designated S4019 and was performed by WHC on June 24, 1994 using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used in the determination of safety and toxicological issues related to the tank-headspace gas as described in the WHC report entitled Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0. Sampling devices, including 16 sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and 5 SUMMA trademark canisters (for organic analyses), were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on June 20, 1994. Samples were taken (by WHC) on June 24. The samples were returned from the field on June 27. The inorganic samples delivered to PNL on chain-of-custody (COC) 006893 included 16 sorbent trains as described in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Additional inorganic blank spikes were obtained from related sample jobs. SUMMA trademark samples delivered to PNL on COC 006896 included one ambient air sample, one ambient-air sample through the sampling system, and three tank-headspace SUMMA trademark canister samples. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL laboratory record book 55408. Custody of the sorbent trains was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program

  7. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, Project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from customer guidance. Included are incorporation of the recommendations from HNF-2500, agreements regarding interfaces with Project W-211, and assumption of scope previously assigned to Project W-454

  8. Recent Developments in the External Conjugate-T Matching Project at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, I.; Walden, A.

    2007-01-01

    The External Conjugate-T (ECT) matching system is planned for installation on two A2 ICRH antenna arrays at JET in 2007. This will enhance the operational capabilities of the RF plant during ELMy plasma scenarios and create new opportunities for ITER-relevant matching studies. The main features of the project are discussed in the paper focusing on the specific challenges of the ECT automatic matching and arc detection in optimized ELM-tolerant configurations. A 'co/counter-clockwise' automatic control mode selection and an Advanced Wave Amplitude Comparison System (AWACS) complementing the existing VSWR monitoring are proposed as simple and viable solutions to the identified problems

  9. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  10. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  11. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  12. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Amendment 1 for Appendix B: Install flex-pipe on tank riser spools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This amendment to Appendix B contains the specific ALARA evaluations for installing flex-pipe on riser spools to accommodate ventilation duct connections to the north risers of each tank. The work will be a routine task that is part of the Equipment Installation and Mobilization phase of the project. The dose rates were estimated using the recent Radiological Surveillance Section radiological survey: SAAS-97-063S. Task B-6 has been added to the OHF Project ALARA review process to address a field decision to modify an approach to installing the tank ventilation system. The revised approach will incorporate 12-in. diameter, 36-in. long, stainless steel flex-pipe connected to each north riser spool to address the problem of pipe fitting multiple bends and turns expected with the 12-in. PVC duct. This improved approach will reduce the time necessary to install the duct system between the tanks and the ventilation skid. However, the task includes opening the 12-in. riser spool connections to replace the currently installed blind gaskets. Since a riser spool for each tank will be opened, there is a potential for significant personnel exposure and spread of contamination that will addressed through this ALARA review process

  13. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  14. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  15. External communication in environmental projects; La comunicacion externa en los proyectos ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Feltrer, C.

    2004-07-01

    The public's awareness of industrial projects is constantly growing. In addition, if such project imply any sort of environmental impact, their awareness increases and may result in a series of deterrents to the start-up of the said projects. The present article focuses on one of the most powerful of management tools through, at the same time, the one most often forgotten by companies: external communication. In the first part of the article, we shall analyse the reasons why many industrial projects never actually see the light of day. Starting from three working hypotheses, we came to the conclusion that we must be proactive in our communication if we wish our development to be durable and to last. In the second part, we put forward a method for planning communication aimed at first of all, foreseeing, and, ultimately, solving situations arising from the deterrents already mentioned. We have used a classical planning model from which to develop a specific application called Environmental Communication. (Author)

  16. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  17. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge-a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  18. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge—a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  19. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  20. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    On January 1, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) concerning the Oak Ridge Reservation. The FFA requires that inactive liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) be remediated in accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This revision is to update the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. The scope of this project is to transfer inventory from the five inactive LLLW tanks at the OHF into the active LLLW system

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-TY-102: Results from samples collected on 04/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-TY-102 (Tank TY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to'characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes, and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  5. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from Alternative Generation Analysis (AGA), customer guidance, and changing requirements. It defines the actual upgrades currently in scope, and provides traceability to the requirements and/or drivers

  6. Risk Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Risk Management Plan for Project W-314 describes the systems, processes and procedures for implementation of applicable risk management practices described in HNF-0842, Volume IV, Section 2.6, ''Risk Management''. This plan is tailored specifically for use by Project W-314

  7. Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safety Operations, Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314 has been prepared within the guidelines of HNF-SD-WM-SEMP-002, TWRS Systems Engineering Management Plan. The activities within this SEMP have been tailored, in accordance with the TWRS SEMP and DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, to meet the needs of the project

  8. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Report for SUMMA trademark canister samples received 11/29/93 (sample jobs 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.; Allwine, K.J.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of Sample Jobs 4 and 5 was to determine whether the organic nitrites observed on the outside of tank 241-C-103 originated in the tank or from degradation products of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The plan was to take samples from either side of the HE-PA filter. The relative level of organic nitrites would help determine whether they were produced in the filter or the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was responsible for analyzing the SUMMA trademark canisters collected in support of this study. The laboratory was to analyze the SUMMA trademark Canister samples according to letters of instruction and report all semivolatile and volatile organic constituents detected in the tank headspace. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was also to submit a letter report to the Program Manager of all qualitative and quantitative analytical data, and estimate concentrations of any aliphatic nitrites identified. This was one of the first sampling activities for this program, and a number of errors were made both in the field and in the laboratory. Because of these errors, the samples and results were of questionable value. Therefore, Westinghouse program management asked that the analysis of the samples for this report not be completed. This report describes the few results that were generated before we were asked to stop work on this activity. In addition to analyzing SUMMA trademark canisters, PNL operates a site portable weather station near tank 241-C-103. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was required to collect atmospheric data starting 11/15/93, but the weather station was already collecting data during the time of both these two sample jobs (11/12/93 and 11/16/93). Therefore, a summary of the atmospheric data is also presented in this report

  9. Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy''s Hanford Site. Because of water''s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site''s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as open-quotes Unsafe.close quotes To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P H2O on their equilibrium water content

  10. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruccelli, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.petruccelli@unibas.it

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  11. An Apparatus For Student Projects Using External-Beam PIXE And PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, Francis D.; Edsall, Douglas W.; DePooter, Katherine A.; Maskell, Nicholas D.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    We recently installed a simple endstation at the Naval Academy Tandem Accelerator Laboratory to support student projects using external-beam PIXE and PIGE. It consists of a short, graphite-lined beamline extension with a thin window, an interlocked box that surrounds the target, detectors for x- and gamma rays, provision for flooding the target with helium gas, easily changed x-ray absorbers, and a compact video camera for monitoring the position of the beam spot. We used this system to measure the elemental composition of colonial-era architectural materials, principally bricks and mortar, from James Madison's Montpelier, the reconstructed Virginia estate of the fourth President of the United States. We describe the design and construction of the system, relate some of our experiences using it, and present some preliminary data from our investigations.

  12. Tank waste remediation system privatization phase I infrastructure, project W-519, Quality Assurance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUSTON, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document has been prepared to identify the quality requirements for all products/activities developed by or for Project W-519. This plan is responsive to the Numatec Hanford Corporation, Quality Assurance Program Plan, NHC-MP-001

  13. External Economies Evaluation of Wind Power Engineering Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ze Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external economies of wind power engineering project may affect the operational efficiency of wind power enterprises and sustainable development of wind power industry. In order to ensure that the wind power engineering project is constructed and developed in a scientific manner, a reasonable external economies evaluation needs to be performed. Considering the interaction relationship of the evaluation indices and the ambiguity and uncertainty inherent, a hybrid model of external economies evaluation designed to be applied to wind power engineering project was put forward based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and matter-element extension model in this paper. The AHP was used to determine the weights of indices, and the matter-element extension model was used to deduce final ranking. Taking a wind power engineering project in Inner Mongolia city as an example, the external economies evaluation is performed by employing this hybrid model. The result shows that the external economies of this wind power engineering project are belonged to the “strongest” level, and “the degree of increasing region GDP,” “the degree of reducing pollution gas emissions,” and “the degree of energy conservation” are the sensitive indices.

  14. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, 3 ; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv

  15. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  16. Computational analysis of coupled fluid, heat, and mass transport in ferrocyanide single-shell tanks: FY 1994 interim report. Ferrocyanide Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1994-11-01

    A computer modeling study was conducted to determine whether natural convection processes in single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes could generate localized precipitation zones that significantly concentrate the major heat-generating radionuclide, 137 Cs. A computer code was developed that simulates coupled fluid, heat, and single-species mass transport on a regular, orthogonal finite-difference grid. The analysis showed that development of a ''hot spot'' is critically dependent on the temperature dependence for the solubility of Cs 2 NiFe(CN) 6 or CsNaNiFe(CN) 6 . For the normal case, where solubility increases with increasing temperature, the net effect of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport is to disperse any local zones of high heat generation rate. As a result, hot spots cannot physically develop for this case. However, assuming a retrograde solubility dependence, the simulations indicate the formation of localized deposition zones that concentrate the 137 Cs near the bottom center of the tank where the temperatures are highest. Recent experimental studies suggest that Cs 2 NiFe(CN) 6 (c) does not exhibit retrograde solubility over the temperature range 25 degree C to 90 degree C and NaOH concentrations to 5 M. Assuming these preliminary results are confirmed, no natural mass transport process exists for generating a hot spot in the ferrocyanide single-shell tanks

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year

  18. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

  19. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste

  20. Technical safety requirments for the South Tank Farm Remediation Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance

  1. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  2. Tank waste remediation system immobilized high-level waste storage project configuration management implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgard, K.G.; Schaus, P.S.; Rossi, H.

    1998-01-01

    This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control.This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control

  3. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in

  5. Procedural Influence on Internal and External Assessment Scores of Undergraduate Vocational and Technical Education Research Projects in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C., John; Manabete, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the procedural influence on internal and external assessment scores of undergraduate research projects in vocational and technical education programmes in the university under study. A survey research design was used for the conduct of this study. The population consisted of 130 lecturers and 1,847 students in the…

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  7. Hanford DST Thermal and Seismic Project - Dytran Analysis Of Seismically Induced Fluid-Structure Interaction In A Hanford Double-Shell Primary Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Rinker, M.W.; Abatt, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Revision 0A of this document contains new Appendices C and D. Appendix C contains a re-analysis of the rigid and flexible tanks at the 460 in. liquid level and was motivated by recommendations from a Project Review held on March 20-21, 2006 (Rinker et al Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968 Rev 1). Appendix D contains the benchmark solutions in support of the analyses in Appendix C.

  8. Monitoring external irradiation FI4P CT96 0049 final project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, W.; Wielunski, M.; Andrasi, A.; Palfalvi, J.; Schmitzer, C.; Stadtmann, H.

    1999-08-01

    This project is devoted to the innovative development of more sensitive and more specific methods for the monitoring of external radiation, as described in the 4th framework programme Nuclear Fission Safety executive work program item D.2.5. The general topic ('Evaluation of Radiation Risk') defines the area of radiation protection where this research effort is located. Hence, the rational behind such a project is the extension of knowledge about the risk of human exposure by improving the detection methodology. This may be achieved by enhancing the sensitivity of the detection element, by exploiting more detailed information on the type and energy of radiation, and by in depth understanding of the photon and neutron interaction in order to aid the interpretation of acquired data. The radiation may be characterised per se, i.e. free in air, however, more relevant for practical purposes are the interaction processes with matter. Since this interaction of radiation with neighbouring bodies - or the material composition of the measuring element itself - must not be neglected, the involvement of phantoms both in the modelling process and the experimental verification was proposed. The overall objective of this project, therefore, is the modelling and the development of an innovative semiconductor sensor and suitable phantoms for the application in mixed photon and neutron fields. The chosen approach relies heavily on numerical modelling and experimental verification of the detector design, taking into account the back-scatter effects represented by the specific phantoms involved. Based on commercially available silicon pin diodes, new detectors are being develooped, simulated and experimentallly verified as a joint effort amongst the project partners. The partnership constellation consists of two poject partners and a Hungarian subcontractor fully integrated in the line of work. Neuron modelling: For neutron detection the converter of radiator technology was adopted

  9. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  10. Risk reduction of international mining projects by means of investor consortia and diversification of external financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, C.

    1982-01-01

    Investors and creditors of international mining projects bear specific risks which may be reduced by means of forming investor and financing consortia. Risk is defined for each actor separately. Project risk and investor risk respectively credit risk are useful categories in order to analyze risk reduction. In each case formation of consortia has a positive influence on the economic viability of the project, and thus reduces the project risk. Furthermore, formation of consortia leads to better compliance of the host country of the mining project with the project and financing agreements. Thus, investor and credit risk may be reduced. (orig.) [de

  11. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  12. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability

  13. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  14. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  15. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  16. Education and the Economy: The External Efficiency of Education. Educational Policy and Planning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W., Ed.; Boediono, Ed.

    External inefficiency in education--inequity between the characteristics of graduates and the job market--is a problem in Indonesia and many other countries. Job markets at the junior secondary level are very tight in Indonesia with low levels of unemployment at all ages, short job-search times, and high real rates of return. Unemployment,…

  17. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  18. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  19. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  20. The SKI-project External events - Phase 2. Estimation of fire frequencies per plant and per building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.

    1996-08-01

    The Swedish-Finnish handbook for initiating event frequencies, I-Book, does not contain any fire frequencies. This matter of fact is not defensible considering the substantial risk contribution caused by fires. In the PSAs performed hitherto the initiating fire frequencies have been determined from case to case. Because data are usually very scarce in these areas it is very important to develop unique definitions, to systematically utilize both international and national experiences and to establish an appropriate statistical estimation method. It is also important to present the accumulated experience such that it can be used for different purposes, not only within PSA but also in the concrete fire preventive work. During phase 1 of the project External Events an inventory was made of existing methods for probabilistic fire analysis in general. During phase 2 of the project it was decided to initialize the work on a complementary handbook, called X-Book, in order to encompass the frequencies of system external events, i.e. initiating events that are caused by events occurring outside the system boundaries. In Version 1 of the X-Book the attention is mainly focussed on the estimation of initiating fire frequencies, per plant and per building. This estimation is basically founded on reports that the power companies have collected for this specific purpose. This report describes the statistical model and method that have been used in the estimation process. The methodological results achieved may, possibly after some modification, be applicable also to other types of system external events

  1. Exposure Based Health Issues Project Report: Phase I of High Level Tank Operations, Retrieval, Pretreatment, and Vitrification Exposure Based Health Issues Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Bowers, Harold N.; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Brady, William H.; Ladue, Buffi; Samuels, Joseph K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to understand the ''big picture'' of worker health and safety which includes fully recognizing the vulnerabilities and associated programs necessary to protect workers at the various DOE sites across the complex. Exposure analysis and medical surveillance are key aspects for understanding this big picture, as is understanding current health and safety practices and how they may need to change to relate to future health and safety management needs. The exposure-based health issues project was initiated to assemble the components necessary to understand potential exposure situations and their medical surveillance and clinical aspects. Phase I focused only on current Hanford tank farm operations and serves as a starting point for the overall project. It is also anticipated that once the pilot is fully developed for Hanford HLW (i.e., current operations, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal), the process and analysis methods developed will be available and applicable for other DOE operations and sites. The purpose of this Phase I project report is to present the health impact information collected regarding ongoing tank waste maintenance operations, show the various aspects of health and safety involved in protecting workers, introduce the reader to the kinds of information that will need to be analyzed in order to effectively manage worker safety

  2. Consideration of external hazards and multi-source interactions in the USNRC's site level 3 PSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Stutzke, M.; Drouin, M.; Tobin, K.; Coyne, K.; Kuritzky, A.

    2014-01-01

    U.S.NRC launched a project in September 2011 to evaluate the total risk at a selected reference NPP (the Vogtle plant) according to the entire initiators, including external hazards. The scope of this risk evaluation was given as 'reactor in all operational modes, including full power, low power and shutdown modes, spent fuel pool and dry cask storage, where all the internal and external hazards are considered'. As part of this study, an Integrated Site Risk Analysis (ISRA) addressing the combinations of and interactions between the different sources of radiological risk (reactors, spent fuel pool (SFP), dry casks) is underway. A number of modeling and implementation challenges were identified. The former include the problem of combinatorial explosion associated with the need to treat multiple sources over extended periods of time

  3. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  4. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H.; Casteleyn, L.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Sepai, O.; Exley, K.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis

  5. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R., E-mail: roel.smolders@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H. [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Casteleyn, L. [KU LEUVEN (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance - Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Sepai, O.; Exley, K. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [FPS Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis.

  6. Valuing real estate externality-based option in development of transit system projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Capital-intensive transit projects rely on strong public support and availability of funds. While the general : public has become a strong advocate for transit systems, budget shortfalls and financial constraints are still : resulting in delays in pr...

  7. ALARACT Demonstration for Primary Ventilation Systems at the DST Tank Farms for the Interim Stabilization Project (Saltwell Pumping) [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAM, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP and SY farms are scheduled to receive SST waste prior to new ventilation systems being installed at the farms. As a result, full evaluations were performed for the 241-AP and SY systems, whereas only partial evaluations were performed for the 241-AN and AW systems. The full evaluation included the evaluation of the stack sampling system, whereas the partial evaluation did not. Also, 241-AY and AZ are not scheduled to receive SST waste so they were both excluded completely from the evaluation. This ALARACT demonstration evaluated the ability of the abatement and control technologies in the DST ventilation systems identified above to function during SST waste transfers as part of the SST Interim Stabilization Project. Where available, field data (waste temperatures) gathered during actual saltwell pumping activities, were used to support this demonstration. Also used were other process data and equipment capacities associated with the system evaluation. Where actual field data were not available, conservative assumptions, based upon process knowledge and standard engineering calculation methodologies, were used. The DST ventilation systems were also evaluated for compliance against the technology standards identified in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radioactive Air Emissions, as well as other governing codes and standards

  8. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  9. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  10. ASN guide project. Protection of base nuclear installations against external flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This guide aims at defining criteria to be taken into account to assess risks of flooding of a nuclear installation in case of external flooding, at proposing an acceptable method to assess such risks, at listing recommendations to define protection means adapted to the peculiarities of the flood risk and implemented by the operators with respect to the life phases of the installation, and in taking the climate change into account. The first part proposes an approach allowing the identification of reference situations which are to be taken into account for the flood risk. The second part deals with the quantification of parameters which characterize physical phenomena associated with these situations. The third part identifies the peculiarities of the flood risk as well as the guiding principles for designing options and protection mean selection with respect to a given flood risk

  11. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  12. Externally Funded Research and ‎Development ‎‎Projects in Perspective of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauno Ilmari Pirinen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on stunted-centered learning activity ‎which ‎collaborates ‎learning ‎and research in an interoperative ‎way ‎and shares the regional-national ‎research ‎and development ‎‎(R&D capabilities, interests and agenda.‎ The study is addressed ‎to ‎the cooperation model and factors of learning within R&D ‎projects that develop ‎academic knowledge, competences and ‎regional—national capabilities for all ‎participants by ‎contributing ‎authentic R&D scopes or problems in real-life ‎situations. The study includes analysis of the ‎research data regarding ‎the R&D project, namely SATERISK (SATEllite ‎positioning ‎‎RISKs, which was initiated by two security ‎management students at Laurea University of ‎Applied ‎Sciences ‎and that has evolved into a substantial three-year R&D ‎project ‎between 2008 and 2011 and is funded by the ‎Finnish ‎Funding Agency for ‎Technology and Innovations (TEKES.‎

  13. Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abston, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  14. Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abston, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures

  15. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried ...

  16. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  17. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GiS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  18. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  19. Internal and External Barriers Impacting Non-Food Cellulosic Biofuel Projects in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Withers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Escalating demand, along with EPAct 2005, has led the United States government to assume a twofold leadership approach of energy security and environmental practices. This has initiated several important issues pertaining to cellulosic biofuel production. However, little is known about what is needed for the U.S. to lead long-term renewable energy security, how the US will develop and implement leading environmental energy practices, what supply capabilities and refining technologies are available to produce renewable fuels, and how funding can be used to adopt available technologies. This article examines geographical aspects, operational status, and barriers tending to prevent the successful commercialization of non-food cellulosic ethanol projects in the U.S. from secondary sources. Outcomes of this research can be used to further understand inhibitors that impact the production and commercialization of ethanol from non-food cellulosic sources.

  20. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  1. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  2. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  4. Ferrocyanide tank safety program: Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 Cs uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford Site waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 Cs-exchanged materials to form ''hot-spots'' in the tanks. This research, performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company, stems from concerns regarding possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. After ferrocyanide was added to 18 high-level waste tanks in the 1950s, some of the ferrocyanide tanks received considerable quantities of saltcake waste that was rich in 137 Cs. If radioactive cesium was exchanged and concentrated by the nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, the associated heating could cause tank temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide-containing tanks, especially if the supernate in the tanks is pumped out and the waste becomes drier

  5. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  6. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  7. Valuing Externalities of Watershed Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in Mediterranean Basins: A Comparative Analysis of the Contingent Valuation and Replacement Cost Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Maria Del Carmen Almansa; Calatrava-Requena, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of th...

  8. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  9. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  10. Operational waste volume projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1995-06-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the tri-party agreement. Assumptions are current as of June 1995

  11. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000

  12. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  14. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  15. Kaiser Engineers Hanford internal position paper -- Project W-236A, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility -- Peer reviews of selected activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a proposed position on the performance of independent peer reviews on selected design and analysis components of the Title 1 [Preliminary] and Title 2 [Final] design phases of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility [MWTF] project. An independent, third-party peer review is defined as a documented critical review of documents, data, designs, design inputs, tests, calculations, or related materials. The peer review should be conducted by persons independent of those who performed the work, but who are technically qualified to perform the original work. The peer review is used to assess the validity of assumptions and functional requirements, to assess the appropriateness and logic of selected methodologies and design inputs, and to verify calculations, analyses and computer software. The peer review can be conducted at the end of the design activity, at specific stages of the design process, or continuously and concurrently with the design activity. This latter method is often referred to as ''Continuous Peer Review.''

  16. Evaluation of Settler Tank Thermal Stability during Solidification and Disposition to ERDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Ten 16-foot-long and 20-inch diameter horizontal tanks currently reside in a stacked 2×5 (high) array in the ~20,000-gallon water-filled Weasel Pit of the 105-KW Fuel Storage Basin on the US-DOE Hanford Site. These ten tanks are part of the Integrated Water Treatment System used to manage water quality in the KW Basin and are called “settler” tanks because of their application in removing particles from the KW Basin waters. Based on process knowledge, the settler tanks are estimated to contain about 124 kilograms of finely divided uranium metal, 22 kg of uranium dioxide, and another 55 kg of other radioactive sludge. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is charged with managing the settler tanks and arranging for their ultimate disposal by burial in ERDF. The presence of finely divided uranium metal in the sludge is of concern because of the potential for thermal runaway reaction of the uranium metal with water and the formation of flammable hydrogen gas as a product of the uranium-water reaction. Thermal runaway can be instigated by external heating. The STP commissioned a formal Decision Support Board (DSB) to consider options and provide recommendations to manage and dispose of the settler tanks and their contents. Decision criteria included consideration of the project schedule and longer-term deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of the KW Basin. The DSB compared the alternatives and recommended in-situ grouting, size-reduction, and ERDF disposal as the best of six candidate options for settler tank treatment and disposal. It is important to note that most grouts contain a complement of Portland cement as the binding agent and that Portland cement curing reactions generate heat. Therefore, concern is raised that the grouting of the settler tank contents may produce heating sufficient to instigate thermal runaway reactions in the contained uranium metal sludge.

  17. Review of Tank Lay-Up Status at US Department of Energy Radioactive Waste Tank Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-01-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 2001 as part of a Tanks Focus Area strategic initiative, tank lay-up options were developed and evaluated for the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. As follow-on task, a list of key waste tank contacts throughout the US Department of Energy complex was developed. Visits were then made to the primary DOE sites with radioactive waste storage tanks to discuss the concept and applicability of tank lay-up. This report documents the results of individual discussions with tank closure staff at the four DOE Sites concerning tank closure status and plans as well as lay-up options and activities

  18. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  19. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  20. Nondestructive examination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) reaction control subsystem (RCS) propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, James M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive examination to determine flaw sizes in completely assembled hydrazine propellant tanks. The study was performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project to help determine whether existing propellant tanks could meet the fracture analysis requirements of the current pressure vessel specification, MIL-STD-1522A and, therefore be used on the TRMM spacecraft. After evaluating several nondestructive test methods, eddy current testing was selected as the most promising method for determining flaw sizes on external and internal surfaces of completely assembled tanks. Tests were conducted to confirm the detection capability of the eddy current NDE, procedures were developed to inspect two candidate tanks, and the test support equipment was designed. The non-spherical tank eddy current NDE test program was terminated when the decision was made to procure new tanks for the TRMM propulsion subsystem. The information on the development phase of this test program is presented in this paper as a reference for future investigation on the subject.

  1. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed

  2. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE-SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Abatt, F.G.; Johnson, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10 3 Pa and 4.135 x 10 9 Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks and tanks

  4. Tank Space Alternatives Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.; Kirch, N.W.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Schaus, P.S.; Wodrich, D.D.; Wiegman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  5. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H 2 O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 (± 133) mg/m 3 and 659 (± 88) mg/m 3 , respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m 3 at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m 3 at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m 3 at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 ± 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound

  6. Exploring the influence of external actors on the cooperation in public–private project organizations for constructing infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, L.S.W.; Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.; Bakker, H.L.M.; Hertogh, M.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Though different forms of public–private partnerships exist, in the organizational structure of most forms a public and a private project organization can be derived, resulting in two collaborating project organizations. The literature on project management however mostly considers one project

  7. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  8. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  9. Online fibre optic OSL in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance of external beam radiation therapy treatments: The ANR-TECSAN Codofer Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, S.; Ferdinand, P.; De Carlan, L.; Bridier, A.; Isambert, A.; Hugon, R.; Guillon, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Codofer Project (2007-2009), led under the ANR-TECSAN Call, was coordinated by CEA LIST, in partnership with IGR and the Fimel company. The aim of the project was to design and test both metrologically and in clinical conditions OSL optical fiber sensors dedicated to in vivo dosimetry during external beam radiation therapy treatment with high-energy electrons. This study, combined with the results of clinical tests obtained within the European Project Maestro, has demonstrated the advantages of OSL/FO dosimetry for providing quality assurance of treatments. However, the French market for dosimetry has greatly changed as a result of the rules decreed by the French government in 2007. The OSL/FO product is now targeted for other treatment modalities lacking suitable dosimeters (ANR-INTRADOSE Project [2009-2011]). (authors)

  10. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  11. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  12. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Mendoza, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    their subcontractors, national laboratories, and other external technology providers execute technology development and deployment. WRPS executes technology development and deployment for the RPP tank waste management mission at Hanford by integrating numerous processes that define scope, funding, and project execution. Technology development for the RPP spans dozens of individual technologies, some that are mission-critical and some that would reduce mission cost, accelerate mission completion, or enhance site safety. Priorities for technology development are set based on the urgency of need and the potential benefit of the technology solution. Criteria applied in setting priorities include timing, safety, and cost. Appendix A summarizes key aspects of the technology activities being developed and deployed for the RPP mission.

  13. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  14. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  15. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  16. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151

  17. C-106 tank sluicer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Acceptance Test Report for the Sluicer Control System, Project W-320 This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the C-Farm tank C-106 sluicer functions as required by the design criteria

  18. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based ... This project responds to the needs of TTI-funded institutions by launching the Policy ... highly engaged support and continual learning, the program will enable TTI ...

  19. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  20. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  1. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  4. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  5. Tank 241-C-106 in-tank imaging system operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of operational testing of the 241-C-106 In-Tank Video Camera Imaging System. This imaging system was installed as a component of Project W-320 to monitor sluicing and waste retrieval activities in Tank 241-C-106

  6. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  7. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  8. Modes of interannual variability in northern hemisphere winter atmospheric circulation in CMIP5 models: evaluation, projection and role of external forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Ying, Kairan; Grainger, Simon; Zheng, Xiaogu

    2018-04-01

    Models from the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset are evaluated for their ability to simulate the dominant slow modes of interannual variability in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation 500 hPa geopotential height in the twentieth century. A multi-model ensemble of the best 13 models has then been used to identify the leading modes of interannual variability in components related to (1) intraseasonal processes; (2) slowly-varying internal dynamics; and (3) the slowly-varying response to external changes in radiative forcing. Modes in the intraseasonal component are related to intraseasonal variability in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and North American, and Eurasian regions and are little affected by the larger radiative forcing of the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The leading modes in the slow-internal component are related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Pacific North American or Tropical Northern Hemisphere teleconnection, the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern. While the structure of these slow-internal modes is little affected by the larger radiative forcing of the RCP8.5 scenario, their explained variance increases in the warmer climate. The leading mode in the slow-external component has a significant trend and is shown to be related predominantly to the climate change trend in the well mixed greenhouse gas concentration during the historical period. This mode is associated with increasing height in the 500 hPa pressure level. A secondary influence on this mode is the radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosols associated with volcanic eruptions. The second slow-external mode is shown to be also related to radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosols. Under RCP8.5 there is only one slow-external mode related to greenhouse gas forcing with a trend over four times the historical trend.

  9. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  10. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  11. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  12. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  13. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  14. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  15. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  16. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  17. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  18. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  19. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  20. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  1. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  3. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  4. Development of risk assessment methodology against natural external hazards for sodium-cooled fast reactors: project overview and strong Wind PRA methodology - 15031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, H.; Nishino, H.; Kurisaka, K.; Okano, Y.; Sakai, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishizuka, Y.; Geshi, N.; Furukawa, R.; Nanayama, F.; Takata, T.; Azuma, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes mainly strong wind probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology development in addition to the project overview. In this project, to date, the PRA methodologies against snow, tornado and strong wind were developed as well as the hazard evaluation methodologies. For the volcanic eruption hazard, ash fallout simulation was carried out to contribute to the development of the hazard evaluation methodology. For the forest fire hazard, the concept of the hazard evaluation methodology was developed based on fire simulation. Event sequence assessment methodology was also developed based on plant dynamics analysis coupled with continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method in order to apply to the event sequence against snow. In developing the strong wind PRA methodology, hazard curves were estimated by using Weibull and Gumbel distributions based on weather data recorded in Japan. The obtained hazard curves were divided into five discrete categories for event tree quantification. Next, failure probabilities for decay heat removal related components were calculated as a product of two probabilities: i.e., a probability for the missiles to enter the intake or out-take in the decay heat removal system, and fragility caused by the missile impacts. Finally, based on the event tree, the core damage frequency was estimated about 6*10 -9 /year by multiplying the discrete hazard probabilities in the Gumbel distribution by the conditional decay heat removal failure probabilities. A dominant sequence was led by the assumption that the operators could not extinguish fuel tank fire caused by the missile impacts and the fire induced loss of the decay heat removal system. (authors)

  5. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  6. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GIS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  7. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  8. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  9. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  10. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  11. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  12. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  13. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  14. External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

  15. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  16. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  17. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  18. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  19. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  20. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  1. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  2. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  3. Operational waste volume projection. Revision 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of July 1994

  4. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  5. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  6. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  7. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  8. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  9. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  10. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  11. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  12. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  13. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  14. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  15. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  16. Acceptance test report for the Tank 241-C-106 in-tank imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-C-106 in-tank video camera imaging system. The purpose of this imaging system is to monitor the Project W-320 sluicing of Tank 241-C-106. The objective of acceptance testing of the 241-C-106 video camera system was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with procurement specification requirements and original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) specifications. This document reports the results of the testing

  17. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  18. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  19. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  20. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  1. Single-Shell Tanks Leak Integrity Elements/ SX Farm Leak Causes and Locations - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal [URS- Safety Management Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Harlow, Don [ELR Consulting Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Venetz, Theodore; Washenfelder, Dennis [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Johnson, Jeremy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-91F Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal 1-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX- 111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and dry-wells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  2. A study on corium melt pool behavior under external vessel cooling : investigation of the first phase research results in the OECD RASPLAV project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Yoo, Kun Joong

    1998-04-01

    The scope and contents of the OECD RASPLAV program are to investigate natural convection heat transfer in the corium, chemical and mechanical interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel, crust formation of the corium, and thermal behaviour of the corium by experiments and model development during external vessel cooling to prevent reactor vessel failure in severe accidents of nuclear power plant. This study includes evaluation and analysis of the RASPLAV V phase I results for three years between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1997. These results supply technical basis for our experimental program on severe accident research. Two large-scale experiments of RASPLAV-AW-between the corium and the reactor vessel. Several small-scale experiments were conducted to analyze thermal stratification in the corium. The salt experiments were conducted to estimate the crust and the mushy region formation, and natural convection heat transfer in the corium. In the analytical studies, pre and post analysis of the RASPLAV-AW-200 experiments and evaluation of the salt test results have been performed using CONV 2 and 3D computer codes, which were developed during RASPLAV program phase I. Low density corium was separated from the high density corium during the RASPLAV-AW-200 tests and the TULPAN test, which was a new finding in the RASPLAV project phase I. From the salts test, heat flux distribution in the side wall heating case is similar to the direct internal heat generation case, and the crust formation is a little effect on heat transfer rate. The results of CONV 2 and 3 D were very well with with the experimental results. The results of RASLAV project phase I, such as furnace design and the techniques on fuel melting, are very helpful to our severe accident experimental program. (author). 57 refs., 13 tabs., 52 figs.

  3. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  4. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  5. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  6. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  7. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  8. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  9. Subpopulations of somatostatin-immunoreactive nonpyramidal neurons in the amygdala and adjacent external capsule project to the basal forebrain: evidence for the existence of GABAergic projection neurons in the cortical nuclei and basolateral nuclear complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. McDonald

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and amygdala are key structures of the limbic system whose connections include reciprocal interactions with the basal forebrain (BF. The hippocampus receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the medial septal area of the BF. Hippocampal projections back to the medial septal area arise from nonpyramidal GABAergic neurons that express somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, and neuropeptide Y (NPY. Recent experiments in our lab have demonstrated that the basolateral amygdala, like the hippocampus, receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the BF. These projections arise from neurons in the substantia innominata and ventral pallidum. It remained to be determined, however, whether the amygdala has projections back to the BF that arise from GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons. This question was investigated in the present study by combining Fluorogold (FG retrograde tract tracing with immunohistochemistry for GABAergic nonpyramidal cell markers, including SOM, CB, NPY, parvalbumin, calretinin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD. FG injections into the basal forebrain produced a diffuse array of retrogradely labeled neurons in many nuclei of the amygdala. The great majority of amygdalar FG+ neurons did not express nonpyramidal cell markers. However, a subpopulation of nonpyramidal SOM+ neurons, termed long range nonpyramidal neurons (LRNP neurons, in the external capsule, basolateral amygdala, and cortical and medial amygdalar nuclei were FG+. About one-third of the SOM+ LRNP neurons were CB+ or NPY+, and one-half were GAD+. It remains to be determined if these inhibitory amygdalar projections to the BF, like those from the hippocampus, are important for regulating synchronous oscillations in the amygdalar-BF network.

  10. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  11. Intelligent Evaluation Method of Tank Bottom Corrosion Status Based on Improved BP Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Dai, Guang; Zhang, Ying

    According to the acoustic emission information and the appearance inspection information of tank bottom online testing, the external factors associated with tank bottom corrosion status are confirmed. Applying artificial neural network intelligent evaluation method, three tank bottom corrosion status evaluation models based on appearance inspection information, acoustic emission information, and online testing information are established. Comparing with the result of acoustic emission online testing through the evaluation of test sample, the accuracy of the evaluation model based on online testing information is 94 %. The evaluation model can evaluate tank bottom corrosion accurately and realize acoustic emission online testing intelligent evaluation of tank bottom.

  12. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  13. Technology Successes in Hanford Tank Waste Storage and Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, E. J.

    2002-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP), which is responsible for dispositioning approximately 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that has accumulated in 177 large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. The RPP is comprised of five major elements: storage of the waste, retrieval of the waste from the tanks, treatment of the waste, disposal of treated waste, and closure of the tank facilities. Approximately 3785 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of waste have leaked from the older ''single-shell tanks.'' Sixty-seven of the 147 single shell tanks are known or assumed ''leakers.'' These leaks have resulted in contaminant plumes that extend from the tank to the groundwater in a number of tank farms. Retrieval and closure of the leaking tanks complicates the ORP technical challenge because cleanup decisions must consider the impacts of past leaks along with a strategy for retrieving the waste in the tanks. Completing the RPP mission as currently planned and with currently available technologies will take several decades and tens of billions of dollars. RPP continue to pursue the benefits from deploying technologies that reduce risk to human health and the environment, as well as, the cost of cleanup. This paper discusses some of the recent technology partnering activities with the DOE Office of Science and Technology activities in tank waste retrieval and storage

  14. Hanford Tanks Initiative requirements and document management process guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    This revision of the guide provides updated references to project management level Program Management and Assessment Configuration Management activities, and provides working level directions for submitting requirements and project documentation related to the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project. This includes documents and information created by HTI, as well as non-HTI generated materials submitted to the project

  15. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  16. Tank vent processing system having a corrosion preventive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Shoichi; Sato, Hirofumi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion of a tank vent processing device by injecting an oxygen gas. Constitution: Oxygen gas and phosphorous at high temperature are poured into a tank vent processing device and amorphous oxide layers optimum to the prevention of external corrosion are formed to the inner surface of the device. Since the corrosion preventive device using the oxygen gas injection can be constituted as a relatively simple device, it is more economical than constituting a relatively large tank vent processing device with corrosion resistant stainless steels. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.S.; Kindinger, J.P.; Deremer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  18. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  19. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  1. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  2. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence Fiscal Year 2000 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project (RPP) updated for Fiscal Year 2000. The SST retrieval sequence identifies the proposed retrieval order (sequence), the tank selection and prioritization rationale, and planned retrieval dates for Hanford SSTs. In addition, the tank selection criteria and reference retrieval method for this sequence are discussed

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  4. Evaluation and monitoring plan for consolidation tanks: Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit, Waste Area Grouping 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of an integrity evaluation of Tanks W-8 and W-9, part of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), in the South Tank Farm at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), together with a plan for monitoring those tanks for potential releases during the GAAT CERCLA treatability study and waste removal activities. This work was done in support of an ORNL plan to use W-8 and W-9 as consolidation tanks during remediation of the other tanks in the North and South Tank Farms. The analysis portion of the report draws upon both tank-internal measurements of liquid volume change and tank-external measurements of the change in electrical conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells adjacent to each tank. The results of the analysis show that both W-8 and W-9 are liquid-tight and are suitable for use as consolidation tanks. The recommended monitoring plan will utilize the dry well conductivity monitoring method as the primary release detection tool during the CERCLA activities. This method is expected to be able to detect releases of less than 0.5 gal/h with a 95% probability of detection, most of the time. The results described here validate three prior independent efforts: a liquid integrity assessment made in 1995, a structural integrity assessment made in 1995 by experts in the field of gunite tanks, and a structural integrity assessment made in 1994 using a three-dimensional, finite-element computer model. This work, along with the three prior efforts, shows that Tanks W-8 and W-9 are structurally sound and liquid-tight. Based upon this work it is concluded that these tanks are suitable for use as consolidation tanks during the GAAT CERCLA treatability study and waste removal actions and it is recommended that the tanks be monitored for potential releases during this period using the methods described in this report

  5. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  6. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report

  7. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  8. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  9. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  10. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  11. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  12. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  13. Recommended Practices to Improve Nurse Tank Safety: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project addressed four topics: Pinhole leaks in nurse tanks were studied by radiography, serial milling, and side-angle ultrasound. These measurements indicated that welding surfaces contaminated by water, mill scale, rust, or other contamin...

  14. Interface Control Document Between the Double-Shell Tank (DST) system and the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) describes interfaces between the Double-Shell Tanks (DST) System and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) (figure 1). WESF is currently operational as a storage facility for cesium and strontium capsules. This ICD covers current operational interfaces and those envisioned during Terminal Clean Out (TCO) activities in the future. WESF and the DST System do not have a direct physical interface. The waste will be moved by tank trailer to the 204-AR waste unloading facility. The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the River Protection Project (RPP) DST System and systems/facilities operated by organizations or companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  15. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenseigne, D. L.

    1997-09-15

    The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

  16. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents

  17. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  18. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  19. Hanford Tanks Initiative quality assurance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities defines the controls for the products and activities developed by HTI. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD)(HNF-PRO599) is the document that defines the quality requirements for Nuclear Facilities. The QAPD provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830.120 Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements. Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year activity resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the US Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30), and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). HTI will develop and demonstrate technologies and processes for characterization and retrieval of single shell tank waste. Activities and products associated with HTI consist of engineering, construction, procurement, closure, retrieval, characterization, and safety and licensing

  20. Testing underground tanks for leak tightness at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.K.; Sites, R.L.; Sledge, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of tank systems are present at the Livermore Site: tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel (forty-three systems), and tanks or sumps and associated piping for the retention of potentially contaminated wastewater (forty systems). The fuel systems were tested using commercially available test methods: Petro-Tite, Hunter Leak Lokator, Ezy-Chek, and Associated Environmental Systems (A.E.S.). In contrast to fuel tank systems, wastewater systems have containers that are predominantly open at the top and not readily testable. Therefore, a project to test and evaluate all available testing methods was initiated and completed. The commercial method Tank Auditor was determined to be appropriate for testing open-top tanks and sumps and this was the method used to test the majority of the open-top containers. Of the 81 tanks tested, 61 were found to be leak tight, 9 were shown to have leaks, and 11 yielded inconclusive results. Two tanks have not yet been tested because of operational constraints; they are sheduled to be tested within the next two months. Schedules are being developed for the retesting of tanks and for remedial actions

  1. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  2. Corrosion Evaluation of INTEC Waste Storage Tank WM-182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk, W. J.; Anderson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been stored and reprocessed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1953 using facilities located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This reprocessing produced radioactive liquid waste which was stored in the Tank Farm. The INTEC Tank Farm consists of eleven vaulted 300,000-gallon underground tanks including Tank WM-182. Tank WM-182 was put into service in 1955, has been filled four times, and has contained aluminum and zirconium fuel reprocessing wastes as well as sodium bearing waste. A program to monitor corrosion in the waste tanks was initiated in 1953 when the first of the eleven Tank Farm tanks was placed in service. Austenitic stainless steel coupons representative of the materials of construction of the tanks are used to monitor internal tank corrosion. This report documents the final inspection of the WM-182 corrosion coupons. Physical examination of the welded corrosion test coupons exposed to the tank bottom conditions of Tank WM-182 revealed very light uniform corrosion. Examination of the external surfaces of the extruded pipe samples showed very light uniform corrosion with slight indications of preferential attack parallel to extrusion marks and start of end grain attack of the cut edges. These indications were only evident when examined under stereo microscope at magnifications of 20X and above. There were no definite indications of localized corrosion, such as cracking, pitting, preferential weld attack, or weld heat affected zone attack on either the welded or extruded coupons. Visual examination of the coupon support cables, where they were not encased in plastic, failed to reveal any indication of liquid-liquid interface attack of any crevice corrosion. Based on the WM-182 coupon evaluations, which have occurred throughout the life of the tank, the metal loss from the tank wall due to uniform corrosion is not expected to exceed 5.5 x 10-1 mil (0.00 055 inch

  3. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  4. Engineering task plan for tank farm ventilation strategy document preparation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZanden, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Active and passive systems provide ventilation for single shell tanks (SST), double shell tanks (DST), and doubly contained receiver tanks (DCRT). The systems perform or contribute to one or more of the following functions: maintain structural integrity (prevent overpressurization), confinement, cooling, vapor and gas removal, and leak detection. For certain tanks, ventilation also removes particles, in addition to vapors, to permit visual observation of the tank inner walls and waste surface. The function(s) performed are dependent on tank construction, watchlist classification, and tank contents. The function(s) should be maintained to support the TWRS mission. The tank farm mission is expected to extend to 2028, based on Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone, M-50-00, for completion of waste pretreatment. Many systems are currently beyond service life expectations and continued operation will result in decreased reliability and increased maintenance. Therefore, the systems must be replaced or upgraded to ensure adequate reliability. Ventilation system upgrades are included in a capital Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations. The ventilation upgrades are expected to be completed by June 2002. The new ventilation systems will satisfy the required function(s) of the tanks and/or tank farms. However, interim component upgrades may be required to guarantee reliability of systems until the capital project is completed. Some upgrades originally identified in the project might more suitably be provided with non-project resources

  5. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  6. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, L.H.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM)

  8. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  9. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  10. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  11. Calculation note: project W-320 primary ventilation air flow requirements for mitigation of steady state flammable gas concentrations in the headspaces of tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-106 is analyzed prior to sluicing; tank 241-AY-102 is analyzed both prior to and after completion of sluicing. Specific analyses, using both best estimated and bounding hydrogen generation rates, include the minimum primary ventilation flow rates required in the tanks to ensure that the steady state hydrogen concentration in the respective tank headspace does not exceed 25% and 100% of the LFL. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of time as well as the time required to reach 25% and 100% of LFL upon complete loss of active ventilation, starting from the steady state hydrogen concentration based on a 200 CFM minimum flow rate in tank 241-C-106 and a 100 CFM minimum flow rate in tank241-AY-102. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of thee following partial loss of active ventilation (i.e., step changes to l60, l20, 80, and 40 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-C-106, staffing from a 200 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 200 CFM flow rate. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of the following partial loss of active ventilation i.e., step changes to 80, 60, 40, and 20 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-AY-102, starting from a 100 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 100 CFM flow rate

  12. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  13. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  14. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  15. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  16. Double-shell tank waste system assessment status and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The integrated program for completing the integrity assessments of the dangerous waste tank systems managed by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Division of Westinghouse Hanford Company is presented in the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank System Integrity Assessments Program Plan, WHC-SD-AP017, Rev. 1. The program plan identified the assessment requirements and the general scope to which these requirements applied. Some of these assessment requirements have been met and others are either in process of completion or scheduled to be worked. To define the boundary of the double-shell tank (DST) system and the boundaries of the DST system components (or system parts) for the purpose of performing integrity assessment activities; To identify the planned activities to meet the assessment requirements for each component; Provide the status of the assessment activities; and Project a five year assessment activity schedule

  17. Low-level tank waste simulant data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1996-04-01

    The majority of defense wastes generated from reprocessing spent N- Reactor fuel at Hanford are stored in underground Double-shell Tanks (DST) and in older Single-Shell Tanks (SST) in the form of liquids, slurries, sludges, and salt cakes. The tank waste remediation System (TWRS) Program has the responsibility of safely managing and immobilizing these tank wastes for disposal. This report discusses three principle topics: the need for and basis for selecting target or reference LLW simulants, tanks waste analyses and simulants that have been defined, developed, and used for the GDP and activities in support of preparing and characterizing simulants for the current LLW vitrification project. The procedures and the data that were generated to characterized the LLW vitrification simulants were reported and are presented in this report. The final section of this report addresses the applicability of the data to the current program and presents recommendations for additional data needs including characterization and simulant compositional variability studies

  18. Think Tank-University Relations in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each type of organization has differences in culture, functions, and in the perceptions of governments and external funders about roles and capabilities. Differences may also occur across Anglophone, Francophone, and Lusophone countries. The study will explore these different relationships between African think tanks ...

  19. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  20. The use of aluminum dome tank roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovich, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the aluminum dome tank roof has gained wide usage for both new and retrofit applications. The increased application for the structure results from a need for maintenance reduction, environmental considerations, concern for product quality and economics. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has approved Standard API 650, Appendix G - Structurally Supported Aluminum Dome Roofs for publication. The aluminum dome was originally used as weather cover for retrofiting external floating roof tanks. The roof was considered for the reduction of maintenance related to draining water from the external floating roofs and problems resulting from freezing of drain lines and snow accumulation. This paper reports that environmental concerns have expanded the value of aluminum dome roofs. Rainwater bypassing the seals of an external floating roof became classified as a hazardous material requiring special and expensive disposal procedures. The marketing terminal facilities typically do not have the capacity for proper treatment of contaminated bottom water. With new fuel additives being water soluble, water contamination not only created a hazardous waste disposal problem, but resulted in reduced product quality

  1. An Aluminum Salvage Station for the External Tank (ASSET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    CONVERSION DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION *RjECT R6C REJCT REJCT KJACT NUET TO HTOrATT "ETmTy IEATO HEA TO WACE WAE TTo TOe ~.IET ER! OVR T,~~UITO rioPROVIDE...TO IORIWA!S WACE POVIE TO ICONVERIIO~~jI I CONTRWO WTHN CONTROL CONTROL I ONTROL CONTROL CO4TROL 01RINTRIN VM COVRMLMN ICH 10TH ORINT UNCNARG ROVAIN...American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977. 30. Grant, Eugene L. and others. Princip!es of Engineering Economy . New York: John Wiley & Sons

  2. External tank program productivity and quality enhancements - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of the Manned Space Systems productivity and quality enhancement program is described. The guidelines and standards of the program and the roles played in it by various employee groups are addressed. Aspects of the program involving job/organization redefinition, production and planning in automation, and artificial intelligence and robotics are examined.

  3. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  4. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  5. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  6. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  7. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  8. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  9. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

  10. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  11. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  12. NASA TEERM Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt; Rothgeb, Matt

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA project to select an alternative to hexavalent chrome in the aerospace industry. Included is a recent historic testing and research that the Agency has performed on (1) the external tank, (2) the shuttle orbiter, (3) the Shuttle Rocket Booster, and (4) the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Other related Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) projects are reviewed. The Phase I process of the project performed testing of alternatives the results are shown in a chart for different coating systems. International collaboration was also reviewed. Phase II involves further testing of pretreatment and primers for 6 and 12 months of exposure to conditions at Launch Pad and the beach. Further test were performed to characterize the life cycle corrosion of the space vehicles. A new task is described as a joint project with the Department of Defense to identify a Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics.

  13. W-030, AY/AZ tank farm cooling and miscellaneous instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This is the acceptance test report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 cooling systems and related instrumentation. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Tank Farm Cooling System consists of four forced draft cooling towers, a chilled water system, and associated controls

  14. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project's cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion

  15. Mixing processes in high-level waste tanks. Progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1997-01-01

    'U.C. Berkeley has made excellent progress in the last year in building and running experiments and performing analysis to study mixing processes that can affect the distribution of fuel and oxygen in the air space of DOE high-level waste tanks, and the potential to create flammable concentrations at isolated locations, achieving all of the milestones outlined in the proposal. The DOE support has allowed the acquisition of key experimental equipment, and has funded the full-time efforts of one doctoral student and one postdoctoral researcher working on the project. In addition, one masters student and one other doctoral student, funded by external sources, have also contributed to the research effort. Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and ventilation systems, which remove the flammable gases and maintain a well-mixed condition in the tanks. Upon failure of the ventilation system, due to seismic or other events, however, it has proven more difficult to make strong arguments for well-mixed conditions, due to the potential for density-induced stratification which can potentially sequester fuel or oxidizer at concentrations significantly higher than average. This has complicated the task of defining the safety basis for tank operation. The author is currently developing numerical tools for modeling the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in waste tanks following loss of ventilation. When used with reasonable grid resolutions, standard multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes suffer from excessive numerical diffusion effects, which strongly over predict mixing and provide nonconservative estimates, particularly after stratification occurs. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed

  16. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  17. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...

  18. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  19. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Batch I, Series I tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 technical memorandum. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This technical memorandum provides information that can be used to make decisions concerning the disposition of four inactive tank systems that have been designated Batch 1, Series 1, by the Inactive Tanks Remediation Program team. The Batch I, Series 1, tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30. The report offers viable alternatives for tank system disposition. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems are evaluated and, if appropriate, remediated through the CERCLA process. The Inactive Tanks Remediation Program and the Gunite and Associated Tanks Project (GAAT) are the two efforts that will meet this FFA objective. This memorandum addresses tank systems within the Inactive Tanks Remediation Program. Separate CERCLA documentation addresses the tank systems within the GAAT Project

  20. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...