WorldWideScience

Sample records for external tank liquid

  1. External Tank Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Prepress Regression Analysis Independent Review Technical Consultation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie s.

    2009-01-01

    The request to conduct an independent review of regression models, developed for determining the expected Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) External Tank (ET)-04 cycle count for the Space Shuttle ET tanking process, was submitted to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center NESC on September 20, 2005. The NESC team performed an independent review of regression models documented in Prepress Regression Analysis, Tom Clark and Angela Krenn, 10/27/05. This consultation consisted of a peer review by statistical experts of the proposed regression models provided in the Prepress Regression Analysis. This document is the consultation's final report.

  2. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  3. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... external product piping (wetlines) on a cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV) unless the CTMV is equipped with... National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., and the Tank Truck Manufacturers Association requesting an extension...

  4. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... flammable liquids in unprotected external product piping on DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles. If... specification cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV), unless the vehicle is equipped with bottom damage...

  5. External Tank Program - Legacy of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Jeffery C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle; Welzyn, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The largest single element of Space Shuttle is the External Tank (ET), which serves as the structural backbone of the vehicle during ascent and provides liquid propellants to the Orbiter s three Main Engines. The ET absorbs most of the seven million pounds of thrust exerted by the Solid Rocket Boosters and Main Engines. The design evolved through several block changes, reducing weight each time. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. The initial configuration, the standard weight tank, weighed 76,000 pounds and was an aluminum 2219 structure. The light weight tank weighed 66,000 pounds and flew 86 missions. The super light weight tank weighed 58,500 pounds and was primarily an aluminum-lithium structure. The final configuration and low weight enabled system level performance sufficient for assembly of the International Space Station in a high inclination orbit, vital for international cooperation. Another significant challenge was the minimization of ice formation on the cryogenic tanks. This was essential due to the system configuration and the choice of ceramic thermal protection system materials on the Orbiter. Ice would have been a major debris hazard. Spray on foam insulation materials served multiple functions including thermal insulation, conditioning of cryogenic propellants, and thermal protection for the tank structure during ascent and entry. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, and handling, and transportation operations were developed. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir

  6. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  7. Origin and development of ablator for Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) represents the largest element of the Space Shuttle transportation system. The ET is the fuel tank which contains cryogenic propellants, including liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The task of providing a suitable Thermal Protection System (TPS) which is mass producible for the ET represented a challenge for the aerospace industry. The difficulties were compounded by stringent insulation and ablation requirements for the materials to maintain their integrity over a wide range of operating temperatures during prelaunch and ascent. Attention is given to the configuration of the Space Shuttle system, the configuration of the external tank, the initial ET TPS concept, TPS materials and processes concepts, design rationale, TPS materials structural considerations, material and processes development, development tests, material/process verification, and flight results.

  8. External Tank CIL Closed Loop Verification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eugene A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin was requested to develop a closed loop CIL system following the Challenger accident. The system that was developed has proven to be very robust with minimal problems since implementation, having zero escapes in the last 7 years (27 External Tanks). We are currently investigating expansion of the CIL Closed Loop system to include "MI" CILs.

  9. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. ...

  10. Fluid damping of cylindrical liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habenberger, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed in order to calculate the damping effects of viscous fluids in liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquakes. The potential equation of an ideal fluid can satisfy only the boundary conditions normal to the surface of the liquid. To satisfy also the tangential interaction conditions between liquid and tank wall and tank bottom, the potential flow is superimposed by a one-dimensional shear flow. The shear flow in this boundary layer yields to a decrease of the mechanical energy of the shell-liquid-system. A damping factor is derived from the mean value of the energy dissipation in time. Depending on shell geometry and fluid viscosity, modal damping ratios are calculated for the convective component.

  11. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  13. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be...

  14. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General requirements. (1) A cargo tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than...

  15. Cryogenic Liquid Fluctuations in a Motionless Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Vin Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers approximate numerical methods to determine own frequencies of cryogenic liquid fluctuations stratification of which changes under any law. The increasing use of cryogenic liquids, liquefied gas, superfluid solutions, and slush liquids in modern mechanical engineering define relevance of a perspective. Interest in the considered problem is also caused by the fact that in cryogenic liquid along with superficial waves there can be internal wave movements penetrating all thickness of liquid in a tank and therefore playing important role in many hydro-dynamic processes.This article considers problems of determining the own frequencies of cryogenic liquid fluctuations, partially filling cylindrical tank of any cross section. It is supposed that the change of the liquid particles density due to thermal stratification of entire liquid mass can proceed continuously under any law. To solve numerically a similar problem, a method of trigonometric series (MTS and a method of final elements (MFE were used. When using the MTS method the unknown solution and variable coefficients of the equation were presented in the form of trigonometric series. Further, after multiplication of series and the subsequent mathematical operations the frequency equation was obtained. Bubnov-Galyorkin's approach was used to obtain solutions by the MFE method. Reliability of received numerical results is confirmed by coincidence with frequency results calculated by analytical formulas of solutions of differential equations with constant frequency of buoyancy.

  16. Permeation Barrier for Lightweight Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiß, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the ins...

  17. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General specification applicable to cryogenic... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic...

  18. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  19. Estimating Liquid And Gas Contents In A Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T.; Van Buskirk, Paul; Weber, William; Froebel, Richard

    1991-01-01

    General approach to estimation of amounts of liquid and gas in tank based on measurements of pressure perturbations and temperatures and use of thermodynamic relationships among pressures, temperatures, and volumes. Although approach approximate and indirect, advantageous where such direct and precise methods as observation of stationary liquid/gas interface in gravitational field cannot be used. Used in presence or absence of gravitation or acceleration, and regardless of numbers, shapes, and movements of liquid/gas interfaces in tank. Also useful where liquid stationary but too hazardous to permit direct observation. Implemented in variety of ways, depending on type of liquid and conditions of operation and design of tank system.

  20. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  1. Permeation barrier for lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, D.

    2007-04-16

    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the insulating vacuum. The derived objective of this dissertation was to find and apply an adequate permeation barrier (liner) on CFRP. The investigated liners were either foils adhered on CFRP specimens or coatings deposited on CFRP specimens. The coatings were produced by means of thermal spraying, metal plating or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The materials of the liners included Al, Au, Cu, Ni and Sn as well as stainless steel and diamond-like carbon. The produced liners were tested for their permeation behavior, thermal shock resistance and adherence to the CFRP substrate. Additionally, SEM micrographs were used to characterize and qualify the liners. The foils, although being a good permeation barrier, adhered weakly to the substrate. Furthermore, leak-free joining of foil segments is a challenge still to be solved. The metal plating liners exhibited the best properties. For instance, no permeation could be detected through a 50 {mu}m thick Cu coating within the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. This corresponds to a reduction of the permeation gas flow by more than factor 7400 compared to uncoated CFRP. In addition, the metal platings revealed a high adherence and thermal shock resistance. The coatings produced by means of thermal spraying and PVD did not show a sufficient permeation barrier effect. After having investigated the specimens, a 170 liter CFRP tank was fully coated with 50 {mu}m Cu by means of metal plating. (orig.)

  2. Thermal design of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Vaniman, J. L.; Elam, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the engineering and manufacturing requirements leading to the final Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the External Tank (ET) is presented. The thermal design for the ET must be optimized, based on considerations of cost, weight, and application of the TPS. The significant thermal requirements include the structural and component temperature limits, the propellant quality, the minimization of ice and frost, no air liquefaction, and no film boiling. The TPS materials selected to meet the requirements are a low density closed cell foam (CPR-488) and two light-weight ablators (SLA-56 and MA-25s). The first four flights of the Space Shuttle (1981) will measure and evaluate external environmental, structural, propulsion, electrical, and engine performance data. The ET will be instrumented to measure acoustics, pressures, heat transfer, vibration, temperatures, and structural strains. TPS weight reductions are planned for future ETs through the use of a comprehensive thermal instrumentation system.

  3. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  4. At Launch Pad 39B, the external tank mated to Space Shuttle Discovery shows damage from hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A hole, created by recent hail storms, is identified as number one on the surface of the external tank (ET) mated to Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39B. Workers are investigating the damage and potential problems for launch posed by ice forming in the holes, which may number as many as 150 over the entire tank. The average size of the holes is one-half inch in diameter and one-tenth inch deep. The external tank contains the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer and supplies them under pressure to the three space shuttle main engines in the orbiter during liftoff and ascent. The ET thermal protection system consists of sprayed-on foam insulation. The Shuttle Discovery is targeted for launch of mission STS-96 on May 20 at 9:32 a.m.

  5. Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the relevance of the cross-sided externality between liquidity makers and takers from the two-sided market perspective. We use exogenous changes in the make/take fee structure, minimum tick-size and technological shocks for liquidity takers and makers, as exper

  6. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  7. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C; Witzgall, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the "LO2" and "LH2" tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered.

  8. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE SLOSHING LOADING ON CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL LIQUID TANKS WITH INTERIOR SEMI-POROUS BARRIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of sloshing loading on liquid tanks is of fundamental importance due to the wide and important applications of liquid tanks in various engineering aspects. Analytical solutions for the sloshing loading on circular cylindrical liquid tanks with an interior concentric vertical thin semi-porous barrier under external excitations are presented. And the extensions of the solutions to the elastic vibrations and to the high frequency limit to count for the earthquake response are also included.   A clear view on the influence of semi-porous barriers to the sloshing response of oscillating tanks is obtained by the analyses of systematic computational results. The present results may offer guidance to the corresponding design for liquid tanks of various applications and also a basis of comparison for the development of more sophisticated numerical methods for hydrodynamic and hydro-elastic analyses.

  9. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... an internal hydrostatic pressure equal to 150 percent of the maximum internal pressure reached in...

  10. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  11. Prediction of pressurant mass requirements for axisymmetric liquid hydrogen tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, N. T.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data from several test series are compared to an existing correlation that predicts the amount of pressurant gas mass required to expel liquid hydrogen from axisymmetric tanks. It was necessary to use an alternate definition of the tank equivalent diameter to accommodate thermal mass in the tank wall that is initially warm and to accommodate liquid residuals in the tank after expulsion is stopped. With this modification, the existing correlation predicted mass requirements to within 14 percent of experimental results. Revision of the correlation constants using a nonlinear least-squares fit of the current experimental data has a minor effect, thus supporting the validity of the original correlation's form, its fitted constants, and the alternate definition of the tank equivalent diameter.

  12. Assessment of the hydrogen external tank pressure decay anomaly on Space Transportation System (STS) 51-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Challenger tragedy, an evaluation of the integrated main propulsion system flight data revealed a premature decay in the hydrogen external tank ullage pressure. A reconstruction of predicted ullage pressure versus time indicated an inconsistency between predicted and measured ullage pressure starting at approximately 65.5 seconds into the flight and reaching a maximum value between 72 and 72.9 seconds. This discrepancy could have been caused by a hydrogen gas leak or by a liquied hydrogen leak that occurred either in the pressurization system or in the external tank. The corresponding leak rates over the time interval from 65.5 to 72.9 seconds were estimated to range from 0.28 kg/s (0.62 lbm/s) + or - 41 percent to between 0.43 and 0.51kg/s (0.94 and 1.12lbs/s) + or - 1 percent for a gas leak and from 72.9 kg/s (160.5 lbs/s) + or - 41 percent to between 111.6 and 133.2 kg/s (245.8 and 293.3 lbs/s) + or - 1 percent for a liquid leak. No speculation is made to ascertain whether the leak is liquid or gas, as this cannot be determined from the analysis performed. Four structural failures in the hydrogen external tank were considered to explain the leak rates. A break in the 5-cm (2 in) pressurization line, in the 13-cm (5 in) vent line, or in the 43-cm (17 in) feedline is not likely. A break in the 10-cm (4 in) recirculation line with a larger structural failure occurring in the 72 to 73-second time period, the time of the visibly identified premature pressure decay, does seem plausible and the most likely of the four modes considered. These modes are not all-inclusive and do not preclude the possibility of a leak elsewhere in the tank.

  13. Seismic Response of Liquid-Filled Tank with Baffles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Shekari

    2014-01-01

    In thispaper, the effects of a rigid baffle on the seismic response of liquid in a rigid cylindrical tank are evaluated. A baffle is an annular plate which supplies a kind of passive control on the effects of ground excitation. The contained liquid is assumed incompressible, inviscid and has irrotational motion. To estimate the seismic response, the method of superposition of modes has been applied. To analyze the rigid tank response, Laplace's equation is considered as the governing equation of the fluid domain, in both time and frequency domains. The boundary element method (BEM) is employed to evaluate the natural modes of liquid in a cylindrical tank. To gain this goal, the fluid domain is divided into two upper and lower parts partitioned by the baffle. Linearized kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions of the free surface of the contained liquid have been considered.

  14. Selective crystallization of tank supernatant liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford Site tank waste by a large-scale fractional crystallization process. Two thirds of all the nuclear waste stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks is sodium nitrate (mass basis, excluding water). Fractional crystallization can remove essentially nonradioactive NaNO{sub 3} and other sodium salts from the waste, thereby reducing the volume of low-level waste glass by as much as 90%.

  15. Moment of inertia of liquid in a tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyeong Joong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inertial properties of fully filled liquid in a tank were studied based on the potential theory. The analytic solution was obtained for the rectangular tank, and the numerical solutions using Green’s 2nd identity were obtained for other shapes. The inertia of liquid behaves like solid in recti-linear acceleration. But under rotational acceleration, the moment of inertia of liquid becomes small compared to that of solid. The shapes of tank investigated in this study were ellipse, rectangle, hexagon, and octagon with various aspect ratios. The numerical solu¬tions were compared with analytic solution, and an ad hoc semi-analytical approximate formula is proposed herein and this formula gives very good predictions for the moment of inertia of the liquid in a tank of several different geometrical shapes. The results of this study will be useful in analyzing of the motion of LNG/LPG tanker, liquid cargo ship, and damaged ship.

  16. Mixing and transient interface condensation of a liquid hydrogen tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Nyland, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of axial jet-induced mixing on the pressure reduction of a thermally stratified liquid hydrogen tank. The tank was nearly cylindrical, having a volume of about 0.144 cu m with 0.559 m in diameter and 0.711 m long. A mixer/pump unit, which had a jet nozzle outlet of 0.0221 m in diameter was located 0.178 m from the tank bottom and was installed inside the tank to generate the axial jet mixing and tank fluid circulation. The liquid fill and jet flow rate ranged from 42 to 85 percent (by volume) and 0.409 to 2.43 cu m/hr, respectively. Mixing tests began with the tank pressure ranging from 187.5 to 238.5 kPa at which the thermal stratification results in 4.9 to 6.2 K liquid sub cooling. The mixing time and transient vapor condensation rate at the liquid-vapor interface are determined. Two mixing time correlations, based on the thermal equilibrium and pressure equilibrium, are developed. Both mixing time correlations are expressed as functions of system and buoyancy parameters and compared well with other experimental data. The steady state condensation rate correlation of Sonin et al. based on steam-water data is modified and expressed as a function of jet subcooling. The limited liquid hydrogen data of the present study shows that the modified steady state condensation rate correlation may be used to predict the transient condensation rate in a mixing process if the instantaneous values of jet sub cooling and turbulence intensity at the interface are employed.

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  18. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yawalkar, Archis A.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric gas—liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) data available in the literature for larger tanks (T = 0.39 m to 2.7 m) have been analyzed on the basis of relative dispersion parameter, N/Ncd. It was observed that at a given superficial gas velocity (VG), kLa values were approximately the same

  19. Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yawalkar, Archis A.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) data available in the literature for larger tanks (T = 0.39 m to 2.7 m) have been analyzed on the basis of relative dispersion parameter, N/Ncd. It was observed that at a given superficial gas velocity (VG), kLa values were approximately the same

  20. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  1. Liquid oxygen tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid oxygen (LOX) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen LOX, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  2. Pressurization and expulsion of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, N. T.; Stochl, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for pressurization and expulsion of a flight-weight 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank under normal gravity conditions. Pressurization and expulsion times are parametrically varied to study the effects of longer transfer times expected in future space flight applications. It is found that the increase in pressurant consumption with increased operational time is significant at shorter pressurization or expulsion durations and diminishes as the duration lengthens. Gas-to-wall heat transfer in the ullage is the dominant mode of energy exchange, with more than 50 percent of the pressurant energy being lost to tank wall heating in expulsions and the long duration pressurizations. Advanced data analysis will require a multidimensional approach combined with improved measurement capabilities of liquid-vapor interfacial transport phenomena.

  3. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic..., including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded unless... Division 2.1 (flammable gas) material that is a cryogenic liquid; or (ii) A tank car, except for a DOT-106A...

  4. Simulation of Foam Divot Weight on External Tank Utilizing Least Squares and Neural Network Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of divot weight in the insulating foam, associated with the external tank of the U.S. space shuttle, has been evaluated using least squares and neural network concepts. The simulation required models based on fundamental considerations that can be used to predict under what conditions voids form, the size of the voids, and subsequent divot ejection mechanisms. The quadratic neural networks were found to be satisfactory for the simulation of foam divot weight in various tests associated with the external tank. Both linear least squares method and the nonlinear neural network predicted identical results.

  5. Global Response of the Space Shuttle External Tank with the Presence of Intertank Stringer Cracks and Radius Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    After propellant was loaded into the external tank (ET), the November 5, 2010 launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 was scrubbed due to a gaseous hydrogen leak located in a vent line near the ground umbilical and ET connection. Subsequent visual inspections identified cracks in the sprayed-on foam insulation in the forward end of the ET intertank segment, adjacent to the liquid oxygen (LOX) tank, as shown in Figure 1. These cracks necessitated repair of the foam due to debris concerns that violated launch constraints. As part of the repair process, the affected foam was removed to reveal cracks in the underlying external hat stiffeners on the intertank, as shown in Figure 2. Ultimately, five stiffeners were discovered to be cracked adjacent to the LOX tank. As the managing center for the ET Project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) coordinated failure investigation and repair activities among multiple organizations, which included the ET prime contractor (Lockheed Martin Space Systems Michoud Operations), the Space Shuttle Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). STS-133 utilized the external tank designated as ET-137. Many aspects of the investigation have been reported previously in Refs. 1-7, which focus on the root cause of the failures, the flight readiness rationale and the local analyses of the stringer failures and repair. This paper summarizes the global analyses that were conducted on ET-137 as part of the NESC effort during the investigation, which was conducted primarily to determine if the repairs that were introduced to the stringers would alter the global response of the ET. In the process of the investigation, a new STAGS tabular input capability was developed to more easily introduce the aerodynamic pressure loads using a method that could easily be extended to incorporate finite element property data such as skin and stiffener

  6. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  7. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalities of Liquid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalities associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalities from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalities are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalities is also presented. The report reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExternE and ExternE-transport projects related the externalities of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  8. Polynomial Digital Control of a Series Equal Liquid Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobála Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays are mainly caused by the time required to transport mass, energy or information, but they can also be caused by processing time or accumulation. Typical examples of such processes are e.g. pumps, liquid storing tanks, distillation columns or some types of chemical reactors. In many cases time-delay is caused by the effect produced by the accumulation of a large number of low-order systems. Several industrial processes have the time-delay effect produced by the accumulation of a great number of low-order systems with the identical dynamic. The dynamic behavior of series these low-order systems is expressed by high-order system. One of possibilities of control of such processes is their approximation by low-order model with time-delay. The paper is focused on the design of the digital polynomial control of a set of equal liquid cylinder atmospheric tanks. The designed control algorithms are realized using the digital Smith Predictor (SP based on polynomial approach – by minimization of the Linear Quadratic (LQ criterion. The LQ criterion was combined with pole assignment.

  9. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  10. 49 CFR 178.275 - Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for... Portable Tanks § 178.275 Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and... definitions and requirements that apply to UN portable tanks intended for the transportation of liquid...

  11. Thermal Performance Comparison of Glass Microsphere and Perlite Insulation Systems for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    A technology demonstration test project was conducted by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide comparative thermal performance data for glass microspheres, referred to as bubbles, and perlite insulation for liquid hydrogen tank applications. Two identical 1/15th scale versions of the 3,200,000 liter spherical liquid hydrogen tanks at Launch Complex 39 at KSC were custom designed and built to serve as test articles for this test project. Evaporative (boil-off) calorimeter test protocols, including liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, were established to provide tank test conditions characteristic of the large storage tanks that support the Space Shuttle launch operations. This paper provides comparative thermal performance test results for bubbles and perlite for a wide range of conditions. Thermal performance as a function of cryogenic commodity (nitrogen and hydrogen), vacuum pressure, insulation fill level, tank liquid level, and thermal cycles will be presented.

  12. Estimation of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Load on Space Shuttle External Tank Protuberances from a Component Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.

  13. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Gary L.; Buchholtz, Brian; Olsen, Al

    2012-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells, turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However, the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry, tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked, helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

  15. Final Report: Research Study on Development of Environmental Friendly Spray-on Foam Insulation (SOFI) for the External Tank (ET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The selection and quantification of four foams using a more environmentally friendly HCFC-141b blowing agent replacing foams that used the CFC-11 blowing agent for the external tank (ET) LWT has been addressed along with problems and solutions that were encountered during verification. The effort on two lower density spray foams for the ET SLWT are presented, but predicted weight savings were not encouraging. Suggestions for possible problem solving are included along with a new approach for selecting foams for qualification as back-up foams for the foams used on the ET LWT. We investigated three resins for use as thermally sprayed coatings for corrosion prevention on metal. The best coating was obtained with a thermoplastic polyimide resin. This coating has a good chance of meeting ET requirements. Possible third generation blowing agents have been shown usable in polyurethane spray and pour foams, and solubility in isocyannate foam components are acceptable. We considered aerogels as insulation materials on space vehicles, and suggested a liner for a liquid oxygen (LOX) composite tank.

  16. Evaluation of Liquid Dynamic Loads in Slack LNG Cargo Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Absirect This report provides an evaluacion of dynimi,c sloshing loads in slack LNG cargo tanks. A comprehensive review of vcrid4ide scale model sloshing...Cycles at Transducer Location 1 for a 25% Full Tank .......................................... 69 IV-7 Integrated Nondimensional Pressure Values for...Location 14 for a 75% Full Tank ......................................................... 70 IV 12 Integrated Nondimensional Pressure Values for 200

  17. The Impact of Sloshing Liquids on Ship Stability for Various Dimensions of Partly Filled Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Krata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid sloshing phenomenon taking place in partly filled ships’ tanks directly affects the stability of a vessel. However, only static calculations are carried out onboard ships nowadays and static transfer of liquid weight is taken into account in the course of routine stability calculation. The paper is focused on a dynamic heeling moment due to liquid sloshing in tanks onboard ships. A number of numerical simulations of liquid sloshing taking place in a moving tank is carried out. The wide range of ship’s tanks is taken into account. The conducted CFD simulations are experimentally verified. Finally, the method of an assessment of the liquid sloshing impact on ship transverse stability is worked out. The key point of the method is a dynamic coefficient describing relation of the researched dynamic heeling moment and the quasi-static one in terms of dynamic stability of a vessel which is related to the weather criterion of ship stability assessment.

  18. Utilization of Space Shuttle External Tank materials by melting and powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Crucible Melt Extraction Process was demonstrated to convert scraps of aluminum alloy 2219, used in the Space Shuttle External Tank, into fibers. The cast fibers were then consolidated by cold welding. The X-ray diffraction test of the cast fibers was done to examine the crystallinity and oxide content of the fibers. The compressive stress-strain behavior of the consolidated materials was also examined. Two conceptual schemes which would adapt the as-developed Crucible Melt Extraction Process to the microgravity condition in space were finally proposed.

  19. Pressurization of a Flightweight, Liquid Hydrogen Tank: Evaporation & Condensation at a Liquid/Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and simulation of evaporation and condensation at a motionless liquid/vapor interface. A 1-D model equation, emphasizing heat and mass transfer at the interface, is solved in two ways, and incorporated into a subgrid interface model within a CFD simulation. Simulation predictions are compared with experimental data from the CPST Engineering Design Unit tank, a cryogenic fluid management test tank in 1-g. The numerical challenge here is the physics of the liquid/vapor interface; pressurizing the ullage heats it by several degrees, and sets up an interfacial temperature gradient that transfers heat to the liquid phase-the rate limiting step of condensation is heat conducted through the liquid and vapor. This physics occurs in thin thermal layers O(1 mm) on either side of the interface which is resolved by the subgrid interface model. An accommodation coefficient of 1.0 is used in the simulations which is consistent with theory and measurements. This model is predictive of evaporation/condensation rates, that is, there is no parameter tuning.

  20. Self-pressurization of a spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stratification and self-pressurization of partially filled liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks under microgravity condition is studied theoretically. A spherical tank is subjected to a uniform and constant wall heat flux. It is assumed that a vapor bubble is located in the tank center such that the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall form two concentric spheres. This vapor bubble represents an idealized configuration of a wetting fluid in microgravity conditions. Dimensionless mass and energy conservation equations for both vapor and liquid regions are numerically solved. Coordinate transformation is used to capture the interface location which changes due to liquid thermal expansion, vapor compression, and mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface. The effects of tank size, liquid fill level, and wall heat flux on the pressure rise and thermal stratification are studied. Liquid thermal expansion tends to cause vapor condensation and wall heat flux tends to cause liquid evaporation at the interface. The combined effects determine the direction of mass transfer at the interface. Liquid superheat increases with increasing wall heat flux and liquid fill level and approaches an asymptotic value.

  1. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID SLOSHING IN A RECTANGULAR TANK UNDER LOW GRAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu-duo; HU Mei-zhu; LIU Zhi-yun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of liquid sloshing in a rectangular tank under low gravity was investigated. The basic frequencies and the velocity potentials of sloshing of liquid were obtained by expansion of the Fourier series. The characteristics of force and moment of the liquid acting on a rectangular tank were analyzed. The equivalent mechanical models of spring-vibrator-damper of sloshing of liquid were established with mechanical equivalent principle and numerical results were given. The numerical results show that the equivalent sloshing mass increases with the increase of gravity, and that the basic frequency and the equivalent sloshing mass increase with the increase of the liquid depth.

  2. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID SLOSHING IN A TRANS-VERSELY VIBRATING SPHERICAL TANK WITH A SPACER UNDER LOW GRAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of liquid sloshing in a transversely vibrating spherical tank with spacer under low gravity were investigated. By expanding the characteristic functions, the frequencies and velocity potentials of liquid free-sloshing were obtained. The dynamic equations and boundary conditions of liquid sloshing in the traverse vibrational spherical tank with spacer under low gravity were derived. By modifying the velocity potentials of liquid free-sloshing, the velocity potentials of liquid sloshing in the traverse vibrating spherical tank with a spacer were obtained. Furthermore, the forces and the moments acting on tank wall were given. The numerical results show when a spacer is inserted in the tank, the sloshing frequencies of liquid and the forces acting on tank wall will decrease, but the moment of force to the centre of the tank which is caused by the force of liquid acting on the spacer will occur.

  3. Updated Drainable Interstitial Liquid Volume Estimates for 119 Single Shell Tanks (SST) Declared Stabilized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2000-02-08

    This document assesses the volume of drainable interstitial liquid (DIL) and pumpable liquid remaining in 119 single-shell tanks (SSTs) that were previously stabilized. Based on the methodology and assumptions presented, the DIL exceeded the stabilization criterion of less than 50,000 gal in two of the 119 SSTs. Tank 241-C-102 had an estimated DIL of 62,000 gal, and the estimated DIL for tank 241-BY-103 was 58,000 gal. In addition, tanks 241-BX-103, 241-T-102, and 241-T-112 appear to exceed the stabilization criterion of 5,000 gal supernatant. An assessment of the source of the supernatant in these tanks is beyond the scope of this document. The actual DIL and pumpable liquid remaining volumes for each tank may vary significantly from estimated volumes as a result of specific tank waste characteristics that are not currently measured or defined. Further refinement to the pumpable liquid and DIL volume estimates may be needed as additional tank waste information is obtained.

  4. Precise measurement of liquid petroleum tank volume based on data cloud analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Liu, Ziyong; Zhang, Long; Guo, Ligong; Bao, Xuesong; Tong, Lin

    2010-08-01

    Metal tanks are generally used for the measurement of liquid petroleum products for fiscal or custody transfer application. One tank volume precise measurement method based on data cloud analysis was studied, which was acquired by laser scanning principle. Method of distance measurement by laser phase shift and angular measurement by optical grating were applied to acquire coordinates of points in tank shell under the control of a servo system. Direct Iterative Method (DIM) and Section Area Method (SAM) were used to process measured data for vertical and horizontal tanks respectively. In comparison experiment, one 1000m3 vertical tank and one 30m3 horizontal tank were used as test objects. In the vertical tank experiment, the largest measured radius difference between the new laser method and strapping method (international arbitrary standard) is 2.8mm. In the horizontal tank experiment, the calibration result from laser scanning method is more close to reference than manual geometric method, and the mean deviation in full-scale range of the former and latter method are 75L and 141L respectively; with the increase of liquid level, the relative errors of laser scanning method and manual geometric method become smaller, and the mean relative errors are 0.6% and 1.5% respectively. By using the method discussed, the calibration efficiency of tank volume can be improved.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Gas—Liquid Flow in a Stirred Tank with a Rushton Impeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGWeijing; MAOZaisha

    2002-01-01

    The gas-liquid flow field in a stirred tank with a Rushton disk turbine,including the impeller region,was numerically simulated using the improved inner-outer iterative procedure.The characteristic features of the strirred tank,such as gas cavity and accumulation of gas at the two sides of wall baffles,can be captured by the simulation.The simulated results agree well with available experimental data.Since the improved inner-outer iterative algorithm demands no empirical formula and experimental data for the impeller region,and the approach seems generally applicable for simulating gas-liquid stirred tanks.

  6. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented.

  7. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

  8. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  9. Breakup of free liquid jets influenced by external mechanical vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, V. N.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2017-02-01

    The breakup of liquid jets has been studied with various test liquids using externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Images of the jets were captured by a high speed camera up to the speed of 1000 frames per second, and analyzed to obtain the profile of the jet and breakup length. The dynamics of the jets have also been studied to understand the effects of additives—a surfactant and polymer—incorporating externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Different types of breakup modes have been explored with respect to the Weber number and Ohnesorge number. The introduction of mechanical vibrations have caused jet breakup with separated droplets at a comparatively lower Weber number. The region of jet breakup by neck formation at constant jet velocities also contracted due to mechanical vibrations.

  10. Repair work begins on the external tank of Space Shuttle Discovery after damage from hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    United Space Alliance technician Don Pataky repairs one of the hail-created divots in the foam insulation on the external tank of Space Shuttle Discovery. The Shuttle was rolled back from Pad 39B to the Vehicle Assemby Building for repairs because access to all of the damaged areas was not possible at the pad. The work is expected to take two to three days, allowing Discovery to roll back to the pad late this week for launch of mission STS-96, the 94th launch in the Space Shuttle Program. Liftoff will occur no earlier than May 27. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-shared experiment.

  11. Repair work continues on the external tank of Space Shuttle Discovery after damage from hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), United Space Alliance technician Robert Williams sands the repaired areas near the top of Space Shuttle Discovery's external tank. Repairs were required for damage caused by hail during recent storms. Because access to all of the damaged areas was not possible at the pad, the Shuttle was rolled back from Pad 39B to the VAB. The work is expected to take two to three days, allowing Discovery to roll back to the pad late this week for launch of mission STS-96, the 94th launch in the Space Shuttle Program. Liftoff will occur no earlier than May 27. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-shared experiment.

  12. Repair work begins on the external tank of Space Shuttle Discovery after damage from hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Standing inside a protective tent around the external tank of Space Shuttle Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), United Space Alliance technician Don Pataky repairs divots caused by hail storms. The Shuttle was rolled back from Pad 39B to the VAB for repairs because access to all of the damaged areas was not possible at the pad. The work is expected to take two to three days, allowing Discovery to roll back to the pad late this week for launch of mission STS-96, the 94th launch in the Space Shuttle Program. Liftoff will occur no earlier than May 27. STS- 96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- shared experiment.

  13. Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chungsying; Huang, Hsiaoyun; Chang, Shenteng; Hsu, Shihchieh

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

  14. Laboratory investigation of the hydroelastic effect on liquid sloshing in rectan- gular tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅荣; 任冰; 王国玉; 王永学

    2014-01-01

    A sloshing experiment is conducted to study the hydroelastic effect in an elastic tank. For this purpose, a translational harmonic excitation is applied to a 2-D rectangular tank model. The lowest-order natural frequencies of the liquid in the tank are determined through the sweep test. The wave elevation and the sloshing pressure are obtained by changing the excitation frequency and the liquid depth. Then the characteristics and the variation of the elevation and the pressure are discussed. The results are compared with the experimental results and the theoretical calculations in a rigid tank. Our analysis indicates that, in the non- resonant cases, the elastic results, the rigid experimental results and the theoretical values are all close to each other. In contrast, under the resonant condition, the elastic experimental result is slightly smaller than the rigid one. Also, the theoretical values are smaller than the experimental results at the resonant frequency.

  15. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  16. Multi-function waste tank facility path forward engineering analysis technical task 3.3, single-shell tank liquid contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.G.; Mattichak, R.W.

    1995-04-28

    Results are reported on actions taken to determine the quantity of liquid wastes in the single shell tanks that still need stabilization, and to determine the amount of flush water needed to support the stabilization effort.

  17. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID FORCED SLOSHING IN A TURNING SPHERICAL TANK WITH A SPACER UNDER LOW GRAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu-duo; HU Mei-zhu; WEN Ji-hua

    2008-01-01

    Under the condition of low gravity the characteristics of liquid forced sloshing in a turning spherical tank with a spacer were investigated. The static shape of the liquid surface was analyzed. By expanding the characteristic functions, the frequencies and velocity potential of liquid free-sloshing were derived. The governing equations and boundary conditions for the forced sloshing of liquid under the tank turning were established. The transverse force of liquid acting on the tank and the moment of force to the centre of the tank which is caused by the force of liquid acting on the spacer were given. Numerical results were compared with the ones of the spherical tank without a spacer. The results show that when a spacer is inserted in the tank, the sloshing frequency of liquid and the transverse force of liquid acting on the tank will decrease, but the moment of force to the centre of the tank which is caused by the force of liquid acting on the spacer will occur.

  18. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Rabaza, Ovidio

    2016-05-19

    A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel) and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU(-1) and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10(-4) and 16.5 × 10(-4) RIU.

  19. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Rabaza, Ovidio

    2016-01-01

    A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel) and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU. PMID:27213388

  20. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU.

  1. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  2. Simplified design and evaluation of liquid storage tanks relative to earthquake loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    A summary of earthquake-induced damage in liquid storage tanks is provided. The general analysis steps for dynamic response of fluid-filled tanks subject to horizontal ground excitation are discussed. This work will provide major attention to the understanding of observed tank-failure modes. These modes are quite diverse in nature, but many of the commonly appearing patterns are believed to be shell buckling. A generalized and simple-to-apply shell loading will be developed using Fluegge shell theory. The input to this simplified analysis will be horizontal ground acceleration and tank shell form parameters. A dimensionless parameter will be developed and used in predictions of buckling resulting from earthquake-imposed loads. This prediction method will be applied to various tank designs that have failed during major earthquakes and during shaker table tests. Tanks that have not failed will also be reviewed. A simplified approach will be discussed for early design and evaluation of tank shell parameters and materials to provide a high confidence of low probability of failure during earthquakes.

  3. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  4. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  5. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  6. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  7. HYDROELASTIC VIBRATIONS AND LIQUID SLOSHING SUPPRESSION IN A RECTANGULAR TANK WITH ELASTIC SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu-duo; LIANG Yong; WEN Ji-hua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the couple vibration of liquid and elastic spacer in a rectangular tank is investigated. Two different velocity potential functions corresponding respectively to the liquid above and below the elastic spacer are assumed. Complicated boundary conditions corresponding to two velocity potential functions and vibrations of elastic spacer are given. Using the method of energy, the equation of couple frequency is obtained. Through numerical computation the natural frequencies that change according to the location and stiffness of the spacer are shown.

  8. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  9. Study on Orbital Liquid Transport and Interface Behavior in Vane Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qi; Rui, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Liquid propellant tank is used to supply gas free liquid for spacecraft as an important part of propulsion system. The liquid behavior dominated by surface tension in microgravity is obviously different with that on the ground, which put forward a new challenge to the liquid transport and relocation. The experiments which are investigated at drop tower in National Microgravity Lab have concentrated on liquid relocation following thruster firing. Considered that the liquid located at the bottom in the direction of the acceleration vector, a sphere scale vane tank is used to study the liquid-gas interface behaviors with different acceleration vector and different filling independently and we obtain a series of stable equilibrium interface and relocation time. We find that there is an obvious sedimentation in the direction of acceleration vector when fill rate greater than 2% fill. Suggestions have been put forward that outer vanes transferring liquid to the outlet should be fixed and small holes should be dogged at the vane close to the center post to improve the liquid flow between different vanes when B0 is greater than 2.5. The research about liquid transport alone ribbon vanes is simulated though software Flow3D. The simulation process is verified by comparing the liquid lip and vapor-liquid interface obtained from drop tower experiment and simulation result when fill rate is 15%. Then the influence of fill rate, numbers of vanes and the gap between vane and wall is studied through the same simulate process. Vanes' configurations are also changed to study the effect on the lip and liquid volume below some section. Some suggestions are put forward for the design of vanes.

  10. Stable response of low-gravity liquid non-linear sloshing in a circle cylindrical tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under pitch excitation, the sloshing of liquid in circular cylindrical tank includes planar motion, rotary motion and rotary motion inside planar motion. The boundaries between stable motion and unstable motion depend on the radius of the tank, the liquid height, the gravitational intension, the surface tensor and the sloshing damping. In this article, the differential equations of nonlinear sloshing are built first.And by variational principle, the Lagrange function of liquid pressure is constructed in volume intergration form. Then the velocity potential function is expanded in series by wave height function at the free surface. The nonlinear equations with kinematics and dynamics free surface boundary conditions through variation are derived. At last, these equations are solved by multiple-scales method. The influence of Bond number on the global stable response of nonlinear liquid sloshing in circular cylinder tank is analyzed in detail. The result indicates that variation of amplitude frequency response characteristics of the system with Bond, jump, lag and other nonlinear phenomena of liquid sloshing are investigated.

  11. Effects of Transverse Baffle Design on Reducing Liquid Sloshing in Partially Filled Tank Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-lian Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal liquid sloshing in partially filled clear-bore tanks causes extensive degradation of tankers braking performance. To reduce the negative effect of longitudinal liquid sloshing on tankers, three kinds of transverse baffles were designed, namely, the conventional baffle, the circular baffle, and the staggered baffle. Each kind of baffle took several forms to investigate the impact of baffle installation angle, the sizes of holes pierced on the baffle, and their arrangement on the antisloshing effect. FLUENT software was used to simulate liquid sloshing in tanks equipped with different kinds of transverse baffles and subject to constant braking deceleration. A time-series analysis of the forces act on tank walls and transverse baffles was carried out. It was drawn that the baffle shape and its installation angle have great impact on the antisloshing effect of baffles. The study on the antisloshing effect of different transverse baffles is of great significance for tank vehicle driving and braking safety, as well as for the design of optimal transverse baffles.

  12. Zero Boil-Off Methods for Large Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multi-layer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  13. Experimental Study on Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with an Intermig Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yin, Pan

    2017-02-01

    The scale-up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales. The scale-up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small-scale and large-scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled-up. The results of impeller just-off-bottom speed gave X = 0.868 in the scale-up relationship ND X = constant. Based on this criterion, the stirring power per unit volume obviously decreased at N = N js, and the power number ( N P) was approximately equal to 0.3 when the solids are uniformly distributed in the vessels.

  14. Coupling Frequency of the Liquid Sloshing in a Cylindrical Tank with a Flexible Baffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The coupling oscillation of a liquid in a cylindrical tank with an elastic slosh baffle is investigated. Free surface conditions are considered in the study. The complexity of the coupled boundary-value problem for the liquid and elastic damping spacer results in significant analytical difficulties. Two different velocity potential functions are respectively used in the liquid domain above, or below the damping spacer. A coupled frequency equation is obtained by using the pair of velocity potential functions. The numerical and theoretical analysis show that the natural frequency changes according to the location and stiffness of the spacer. Results indicate that the frequency coupling between damping spacer and sloshing liquid is obvious near the free liquid surface. It is shown that the coupling frequency increases with the increase of damping baffle rigidity.

  15. Computer programs for pressurization (RAMP) and pressurized expulsion from a cryogenic liquid propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis to predict the pressurant gas requirements for the discharge of cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks is presented, along with an algorithm and two computer programs. One program deals with the pressurization (ramp) phase of bringing the propellant tank up to its operating pressure. The method of analysis involves a numerical solution of the temperature and velocity functions for the tank ullage at a discrete set of points in time and space. The input requirements of the program are the initial ullage conditions, the initial temperature and pressure of the pressurant gas, and the time for the expulsion or the ramp. Computations are performed which determine the heat transfer between the ullage gas and the tank wall. Heat transfer to the liquid interface and to the hardware components may be included in the analysis. The program output includes predictions of mass of pressurant required, total energy transfer, and wall and ullage temperatures. The analysis, the algorithm, a complete description of input and output, and the FORTRAN 4 program listings are presented. Sample cases are included to illustrate use of the programs.

  16. Method of calculation of tanks forced ventilation from the remnants of liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. О. Пузік

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of gasoline compared to other petroleum products in terms of feasibility of their research. Calculations of the duration of ventilation and changes in the concentration of vapors of gasoline remains in the gas space of the vertical tank with a capacity of 1000 m3 (RUS-1000. Nomogram constructed for the quantitative forecast available liquid balances petrol A-95 and the time duration ventylyaiyi RUS-1000 from the remnants of the petrol

  17. Measuring Air Leaks into the Vacuum Space of Large Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Nurge, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Large cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks are composed of inner and outer shells. The outer shell is exposed to the ambient environment while the inner shell holds the liquid hydrogen. The region between these two shells is evacuated and typically filled with a powderlike insulation to minimize radiative coupling between the two shells. A technique was developed for detecting the presence of an air leak from the outside environment into this evacuated region. These tanks are roughly 70 ft (approx. equal 21 m) in diameter (outer shell) and the inner shell is roughly 62 ft (approx. equal 19 m) in diameter, so the evacuated region is about 4 ft (approx. equal 1 m) wide. A small leak's primary effect is to increase the boil-off of the tank. It was preferable to install a more accurate fill level sensor than to implement a boil-off meter. The fill level sensor would be composed of an accurate pair of pressure transducers that would essentially weigh the remaining liquid hydrogen. This upgrade, allowing boil-off data to be obtained weekly instead of over several months, is ongoing, and will then provide a relatively rapid indication of the presence of a leak.

  18. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  19. Analysis of the Effect of Variation of Baffle Height on the Liquid Sloshing In the Tank with CFD Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Patil. G. L,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sloshing is a common physical phenomenon which occurs in moving tanks with contained liquid masses, such as liquid cargo carriers, rockets, aircrafts, and the seismically excited storage tanks, dams, reactors, and nuclear vessels. The sloshing frequencies of contained liquid are essential in the analysis and design of the liquid tanks and the associated structures. In this paper an attempt made with the VOF model and considered with immiscible fluids by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. Further investigated the effect of the vertical baffle heights on the liquid sloshing in a three-dimensional (3D rectangular tank. studied dynamic analysis of sloshing in rectangular tanks with multiple vertical baffles. ANSYS-CFX software was used to study this dynamic analysis subjected to random excitations including earthquake induced motions. analytically estimated hydrodynamic damping ratio for liquid sloshing phenomenon in a partially filled rectangular tank for baffles. They used the velocity potential formulation and linear wave theory for analytic calculations.

  20. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  1. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  2. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  3. Influence of heat transfer rates on pressurization of liquid/slush hydrogen propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, G. P.; Hochstein, J. I.; Hardy, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-dimensional computational model of the pressurization process in liquid/slush hydrogen tank is developed and used to study the influence of heat flux rates at the ullage boundaries on the process. The new model computes these rates and performs an energy balance for the tank wall whereas previous multi-dimensional models required a priori specification of the boundary heat flux rates. Analyses of both liquid hydrogen and slush hydrogen pressurization were performed to expose differences between the two processes. Graphical displays are presented to establish the dependence of pressurization time, pressurant mass required, and other parameters of interest on ullage boundary heat flux rates and pressurant mass flow rate. Detailed velocity fields and temperature distributions are presented for selected cases to further illuminate the details of the pressurization process. It is demonstrated that ullage boundary heat flux rates do significantly effect the pressurization process and that minimizing heat loss from the ullage and maximizing pressurant flow rate minimizes the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize the tank. It is further demonstrated that proper dimensionless scaling of pressure and time permit all the pressure histories examined during this study to be displayed as a single curve.

  4. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  6. Standard practice for examination of liquid-Filled atmospheric and Low-pressure metal storage tanks using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of new and in-service aboveground storage tanks of the type used for storage of liquids. 1.2 This practice will detect acoustic emission in areas of sensor coverage that are stressed during the course of the examination. For flat-bottom tanks these areas will generally include the sidewalls (and roof if pressure is applied above the liquid level). The examination may not detect flaws on the bottom of flat-bottom tanks unless sensors are located on the bottom. 1.3 This practice may require that the tank experience a load that is greater than that encountered in normal use. The normal contents of the tank can usually be used for applying this load. 1.4 This practice is not valid for tanks that will be operated at a pressure greater than the examination pressure. 1.5 It is not necessary to drain or clean the tank before performing this examination. 1.6 This practice applies to tanks made of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and oth...

  7. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav M Živković; Aleksandar V Nikolić; Radovan B Slavković; Fatima T Živić

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE) analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary condi...

  9. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  10. Stochastic resonance in the presence or absence of external signal in the continuous stirred tank reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

    1999-07-01

    A two variable model, which has been proposed to describe a first-order, exothermic, irreversible reaction A→B carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), is investigated when the control parameter is modulated by random and/or periodic forces. Within the bistable region where a limit cycle and a stable node coexist, stochastic resonance (SR) is observed when both random and periodic modulations are present. In the absence of periodic external signal noise induced coherent oscillations (NICO) appear when the control parameter is randomly modulated near the supercritical Hopf bifurcation point. In addition, the NICO-strength goes through a maximum with the increment of the noise intensity, characteristic for the occurrence of internal signal stochastic resonance (ISSR).

  11. Multidimensional modal analysis of liquid nonlinear sloshing in right circular cylindrical tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The multidimensional modal theory proposed by Faltinsen, et al. (2000) is applied to solve liquid nonlinear free sloshing in right circular cylindrical tank for the first time. After selecting the leading modes and fixing the order of magnitudes based on the Narimanov-Moiseev third order asymptotic hypothesis, the general infinite dimensional modal system is reduced to a five dimensional asymptotic modal system (the system of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations coupling the generalized time dependent coordinates of free surface wave elevation). The numerical integrations of this modal system discover most important nonlinear phenomena, which agree well with both pervious analytic theories and experimental observations. The results indicate that the multidimensional modal method is a very good tool for solving liquid nonlinear sloshing dynamics and will be developed to investigate more complex sloshing problem in our following work.

  12. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  13. Numerical study of air-core vortex dynamics during liquid draining from cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Sam; Patnaik, B S V [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Tharakan, T John, E-mail: bsvp@iitm.ac.in [Flow and Acoustics Group, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Indian Space Research Organization, Trivandrum 695547 (India)

    2014-04-01

    An air core is often formed during liquid draining from cylindrical tanks. An understanding of the mechanism behind its formation and the parameters that accentuate its growth is central to the development of an air-core vortex suppression strategy. In the present study, liquid draining from a cylindrical tank is investigated with the aid of computational fluid dynamics tools. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the temporal variation of critical height against available experiments is reported. A systematic investigation has revealed that, drain port shape, size, pressurization, initial rotation, etc, play a vital role in the formation of an air core vortex and its growth. These variables were also observed to influence critical height and total drain time, both of which are of engineering interest. Towards the development of a gas-core suppression strategy, the circular drain port is modified to either a stepped or a bell mouth shape. Although the new drain port shapes have delayed the gas-core from entering the drain-port, they were found to be only marginally advantageous. (paper)

  14. Survey on Detecting Method of Liquid Level of Tank%储罐液位检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁朝庆; 谌飞翔; 徐松芝; 刘燕; 李晓丽; 于洋; 刘迎春

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of liquid level of tanks is an important role in management and safety production. There are some common methods to detect liquid level of tank, such as hand gauging measurement, differential pressure liquid measurement, magnetostriction liquid level measurement, ultrasonic liquid level measurement, radar liquid level measurement, fiber-optical liquid level measurement. The basic principle, advantage / and disadvantage, detection range and accuracy of every method of detecting liquid level of tank are presented in detail in the paper, and meanwhile a comparative analysis is given.%储罐液位的准确测量对生产安全和管理起着重要的作用。储罐液位常用的检测方法主要有人工检尺法、差压式液位测量法、磁致伸缩液位测量法、超声波液位测量法、雷达液位测量法、光纤液位检测法。详细介绍了每种储罐液位检测方法的基本原理、优缺点以及它们各自的检测范围和精度,并对其进行了对比分析。

  15. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-14

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  16. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@hotmail.com [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Vial, Ch. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, LGCB-UBP/ENSCCF, 24 avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France); Delmas, H. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bennajah, M. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H{sub 2} microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  17. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Vial, Ch; Delmas, H; Bennajah, M

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12mA/cm(2), but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H(2) microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  18. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  19. Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Viatcheslav; Muratov, Cyrill; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI tests. We present an overview of the HOVI tests to make conclusion on the risk of strong explosions in possible liquid rocket incidents and provide a semi-quantitative interpretation of the HOVI data based on aerosol combustion. We uncover the most dangerous situations and discuss the foreseeable risks which can arise in space missions and lead to tragic outcomes. Our analysis relates to only unconfined mixtures that are likely to arise as a result of liquid propellant space vehicle incidents.

  20. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs{sup +} ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs{sup +} ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors.

  1. Design and analysis of a multi-cell subscale tank for liquid hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapeinos, I.; Koussios, S.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the structural performance of a conformable pressurizable tank consisting of intersecting spherical shells (multi-cell tank). Multi-cell tanks outrival conventional multiple cylindrical tanks in volumetric efficiency when required to fit in a rectangular envelope in the

  2. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  3. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental investigation of self-pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank subjected to low heat flux (0.35, 2.0, and 3.5 W/sq m) under normal gravity conditions. Tests were performed at fill levels of 83 to 84 percent (by volume). The LH2 tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass-to-volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Results show that the pressure rise rate and thermal stratification increase with increasing heat flux. At the lowest heat flux, the pressure rise rate is comparable to the homogenous rate, while at the highest heat flux, the rate is more than three times the homogeneous rate. It was found that initial conditions have a significant impact on the initial pressure rise rate. The quasi-steady pressure rise rates are nearly independent of the initial condition after an initial transient period has passed.

  4. Micromixing characteristics in a gas-liquid-solid stirred tank with settling particles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanbo Li; Xingye Geng; Yuyun Bao; Zhengming Gao

    2015-01-01

    The parallel-competing iodide–iodate reaction scheme was used to study the micromixing performance in a multi-phase stirred tank of 0.3 m diameter. The impeller combination consisted of a half el iptical blade disk tur-bine below two down-pimping wide-blade hydrofoils, identified as HEDT+2WHD. Nitrogen and glass beads of 100μm diameter and density 2500 kg·m−3 were used as the dispersed phases. The micromixing could be improved by sparging gas because of its additional potential energy. Also, micromixing could be improved by the solid particles with high kinetic energy near the impeller tip. In a gas–solid–liquid system, the gas–liquid film vibration with damping, due to the frequent collisions between the bubbles and particles, led to the decrease of the turbulence level in the liquid and caused eventual y the deterioration of the micromixing. A Damping Film Dissipation model is formulated to shed light on the above micromixing performances. At last, the micromixing time tm according to the incorporation model varied from 1.9 ms to 6.7 ms in our experiments.

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; JOHNSON KI; PILLI SP; KARRI NK; RINKER MW; ABATT FG; CARPENTER BG

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the SDT System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  6. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horel, J. D.; de Winter, F.

    1978-04-20

    A study was made of the methods available to transfer heat from the collector to the water storage tank in water heating systems. In counterflow heat exchangers used in double loop water heating systems, it was found to be more important to use a high water flowrate than a high heat transfer fluid flowrate. It was earlier thought to be best to have matched WC/sub p/ (mass flowrate-specific heat) products in the loops. It was shown in this study that the water WC/sub p/ product should be about twice as large as that of the heat transfer fluid. It was found that neither the heat exchanger type nor the size was very critical, so that very simple criteria were adequate in determining optimum heat exchanger size. It was found that there is a definite system size below which one should use a traced tank or a coil in a tank. Equations and optimization criteria were developed for traced tanks or tanks with coils. At present, there is no quantitative understanding of liquid to liquid (direct contact) heat exchangers, though they are clearly quite effective. Draindown systems are discussed, and several appendices are included on heat transfer and other characteristics of fluid and of equipment.

  7. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement - Part III: Material Property Characterization, Analysis, and Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Johnson, Theodore F.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to contribute to the independent assessment of the Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Material. This report specifically addresses material modeling, characterization testing, data reduction methods, and data pedigree. A brief description of the External Tank foam materials, locations, and standard failure modes is provided to develop suitable background information. A review of mechanics based analysis methods from the open literature is used to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art in material modeling of closed cell foams. Further, this report assesses the existing material property database and investigates sources of material property variability. The report presents identified deficiencies in testing methods and procedures, recommendations for additional testing as required, identification of near-term improvements that should be pursued, and long-term capabilities or enhancements that should be developed.

  8. Vortical flows in strongly coupled Yukawa liquids under external forcing - A molecular dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rajaraman; Charan, Harish

    2016-07-01

    Understanding vortical flows under external forcing in two dimensional (2D) fluids is a fundamental paradigm for structure formation in driven, dissipative systems. Considering Yukawa liquid as a prototype for strongly correlated or strongly coupled plasmas characterized by coupling strength (Γ, the ratio of average potential to kinetic energy per particle) and screening parameter (κ, ratio of mean inter-particle distance to shielding length), we address two important problems: 1. Onset of Rayleigh Benard convection cell (RBCC) in 2D Yukawa liquids subject to gravity and external temperature gradient 2. Onset of von Karman vortices in 2D Yukawa liquid under external pressure head, using large scale, first principles molecular dynamics simulations. For typical values of (Γ,κ), existence of a critical external temperature difference is demonstrated, beyond which RBCC are seen to set in. Beyond this critical external temperature difference, the strength of the maximum convective flow velocity is shown to exhibit a new, hitherto unsuspected linear relationship with external temperature difference and with a slope independent of (Γ,κ). The time taken for the transients to settle down to a steady state RBCC τ_s, is found to be maximum close to the above said critical external temperature difference and is seen to reduce with increasing external temperature difference. For the range of values of (Γ, κ) considered here, τ_s ≃ 10 000-20 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, where ω_{pd} is dust plasma frequency. As Γ is increased to very high values, due to strong coupling effects, RBC cells are seen to be in a transient state without attaining a steady state for as long as 100 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, even for a very high external temperature difference. In the second part, we address the existence of universal relation between Strouhal (St) and Rayleigh (Ry) numbers for Yukawa liquid using first principles based classical molecular dynamics. The flow past an obstacle is seen to indeed

  9. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Essadki, Abdel Hafid; Gourich, Bouchaib; Vial, Christophe; Delmas, Henri; Bennajah, Mounir

    2009-01-01

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency...

  10. Liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid in a uniform external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stan G; Stevens, Mark J; Grest, Gary S

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a uniform (nonspatially varying) external field on the liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid (Lennard-Jones particles embedded with a point dipole) has been investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. The long-ranged parts of both the dipole and Lennard-Jones interactions are treated using an Ewald summation, which removes the effects of the cutoff. The direction of the field shifts the critical point and interfacial properties in different directions. For an external field parallel to the interface, the critical temperature increases, while for a field applied perpendicular to the interface, it decreases. The effects of the field on surface tension and interfacial width are also investigated. For zero field, dipoles near the liquid-vapor interface show a weak orientation parallel to the interface. For fields parallel to the interface, ordering in the liquid phase is greater than the vapor, while for fields perpendicular to the interface, the opposite is true.

  11. Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Viatcheslav; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI ...

  12. Material Modeling of Space Shuttle Leading Edge and External Tank Materials For Use in the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Upon the commencement of the analytical effort to characterize the impact dynamics and damage of the Space Shuttle Columbia leading edge due to External Tank insulating foam, the necessity of creating analytical descriptions of these materials became evident. To that end, material models were developed of the leading edge thermal protection system, Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC), and a low density polyurethane foam, BX-250. Challenges in modeling the RCC include its extreme brittleness, the differing behavior in compression and tension, and the anisotropic fabric layup. These effects were successfully included in LS-DYNA Material Model 58, *MAT_LAMINATED_ COMPOSITE_ FABRIC. The differing compression and tension behavior was modeled using the available damage parameters. Each fabric layer was given an integration point in the shell element, and was allowed to fail independently. Comparisons were made to static test data and coupon ballistic impact tests before being utilized in the full scale analysis. The foam's properties were typical of elastic automotive foams; and LS-DYNA Material Model 83, *MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM, was successfully used to model its behavior. Material parameters defined included strain rate dependent stress-strain curves for both loading and un-loading, and for both compression and tension. This model was formulated with static test data and strain rate dependent test data, and was compared to ballistic impact tests on load-cell instrumented aluminum plates. These models were subsequently utilized in analysis of the Shuttle leading edge full scale ballistic impact tests, and are currently being used in the Return to Flight Space Shuttle re-certification effort.

  13. High-density mammalian cell cultures in stirred-tank bioreactor without external pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Chen, Hao

    2016-08-10

    Maintaining desired pH is a necessity for optimal cell growth and protein production. It is typically achieved through a two-sided pH control loop on the bioreactor controller. Here we investigated cell culture processes with minimum or no pH control and demonstrated that high-density mammalian cell cultures could be maintained for long-term protein production without pH control. The intrinsic interactions between pCO2, lactate, and pH were leveraged to maintain culture pH. Fed-batch cultures at the same lower pH limit of 6.75 but different upper pH limits (7.05, 7.30, 7.45, 7.65) were evaluated in the 3L bioreactors and comparable results were obtained. Neither CO2 sparging nor base addition was required to control pH in the pH range of 6.75-7.65. The impact of sparger configurations (drilled hole sparger vs. frit sparger) and scales (3L vs. 200L) on CO2 accumulation and culture pH was also demonstrated. The same principle was applied in two perfusion cultures with steady state cell densities at 42.5±3.3 or 68.3±6.0×10(6)cells/mL with low cell specific perfusion rates (15±2 to 23±3pL/cell/day), achieving up to 1.9±0.1g/L/day bioreactor productivity. Culture pH level in the 3L perfusion bioreactors was steadily maintained by controlling the residual lactate and pCO2 levels without the requirement of external pH control for up to 40days with consistent productivity and product quality. Furthermore, culture pH could be potentially modulated via adjusting residual glucose levels and CO2 stripping capability in perfusion cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic study was performed to evaluate the long-term cell cultivation and protein production in stirred-tank bioreactors without external pH control.

  14. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  15. Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    Coupon tests on A537 carbon steel materials were conducted to evaluate the Liquid-Air Interface (LAI) corrosion susceptibility in a series of solutions designed to simulate conditions in the radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Nuclear Facility. The new stress corrosion cracking requirements and the impact of ammonia on LAI corrosion were the primary focus. The minimum R value (i.e., molar ratio of nitrite to nitrate) of 0.15 specified by the new stress corrosion cracking requirements was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion at the LAI. The pH of the test solutions was 10, which was actually less than the required pH 11 defined by the new requirements. These tests examined the effect of the variation of the pH due to hydroxide depletion at the liquid air interface. The pits from the current testing ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 inch in solutions with nitrate concentrations of 0.4 M and 2.0 M. The pitting and general attack that occurred progressed over the four-months. No significant pitting was observed, however, for a solution with a nitrate concentration of 4.5 M. The pitting depths observed in these partial immersion tests in unevaporated condensates ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 inch after 4 months. The deeper pits were in simulants with low R values. Simulants with R values of approximately 0.6 to 0.8 appeared to significantly reduce the degree of attack. Although, the ammonia did not completely eliminate attack at the LAI, the amount of corrosion in an extremely corrosive solution was significantly reduced. Only light general attack (< 1 mil) occurred on the coupon in the vicinity of the LAI. The concentration of ammonia (i.e., 50 ppm or 500 ppm) did not have a strong effect.

  16. High efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with an external stable resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Fardad, Shima; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2010-06-21

    An amplified cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser performance is demonstrated by utilizing a binary-dye mixture (with 62 wt% DCM and 38 wt% PM597) as the active medium and an external stable resonator. The measured results show that the laser efficiency is enhanced as compared to the highest efficiency of each individual dye. Furthermore, using such an active CLC in an external stable resonator leads to a approximately 92X improved efficiency over the single CLC laser. In this instance, the binary-dye doped CLC simultaneously functions as laser oscillator and amplifier.

  17. The model of back-flow mixed tanks-in-series used for representing the liquid flow in a reciprocating plate column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubiša B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different working parameters (vibration intensity superficial gas and liquid rate and content of the solid phase on liquid flow in a multiphase (gas-liquid: RPC-II and gas-liquid-solid: RPC-III reciprocating plate column was analyzed using step-response methods and sorbic acid as a tracer. The liquid flow was determined using a model of N-tanks in series followed by back mixing of the liquid phase between the tanks. The parameters of this model N, a and x were calculated by applying several methods: calculation of the moments of the residence time distribution function for a constant number of tanks in series (N=const analysis of a set of linear equations for N *const and determination of the minimum of defined goal function using the optimization technique leastsq.m of MATLAB software.

  18. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  19. Stress Analysis and Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center to Study Cause and Corrective Action of Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    After the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, large cracks were discovered in two of the External Tank intertank stringers. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, as managing center for the External Tank Project, coordinated the ensuing failure investigation and repair activities with several organizations, including the manufacturer, Lockheed Martin. To support the investigation, the Marshall Space Flight Center formed an ad-hoc stress analysis team to complement the efforts of Lockheed Martin. The team undertook six major efforts to analyze or test the structural behavior of the stringers. Extensive finite element modeling was performed to characterize the local stresses in the stringers near the region of failure. Data from a full-scale tanking test and from several subcomponent static load tests were used to confirm the analytical conclusions. The analysis and test activities of the team are summarized. The root cause of the stringer failures and the flight readiness rationale for the repairs that were implemented are discussed.

  20. Liquid Level Measurement in Oil Tanks Based on Double-differential Pressure Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The system principle and configuration of the double-differential pressure method for measuring oil tank level are presented. The fundamental method and circuit of fiber optic transmission are analyzed .The accuracy and security of level measurement in the oil tanks have been greatly improved.

  1. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  2. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  3. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  4. Liquid fueled external heating system for STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.; Godett, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The STM4-120 Stirling engine, currently under development at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., is a 40 kW variable stroke engine with indirect heating using a sodium heat pipe. The engine is functionally separated into an application independent Energy Conversion Unit (ECU) consisting of the Stirling cycle and drive heated by condensing sodium and the application dependent External Heating System (EHS), designed to supply the ECU with sodium vapor heated by the particular energy source, connected by tubes with mechanical couplings. This paper describes an External Heating System for the STM4-120 ECU designed for the combustion of liquid fuel, comprised of a recuperative preheater, a combustion chamber, and a heat exchanger/evaporator where heat is transferred from the flue gas to the sodium causing it to evaporate. The design concept and projected performance are described and discussed.

  5. Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-11-24

    It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and

  6. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

    2003-04-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  7. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  8. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  9. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, M. J., E-mail: mattiti@gmail.com [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joloit-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    An assembly for a commercial Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga{sup +} ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga{sup +} and Au{sup +} ion beams will be reported as well.

  10. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary conditions of the problem. General 3D problem for heat conduction is considered, from which solutions for two- and one-dimensional heat conduction can be obtained, as special cases. Forming of the finite element matrices using Galerkin method is briefly described. The procedure for solving equations of energy balance is discussed, by methods of resolving iterative processes of nonlinear transient heat conduction. Solution of this problem illustrates possibilities of PAK-T software package, such as materials properties, given as tabular data, or analytical functions. Software also offers the possibility to solve nonlinear and transient problems with incremental methods. Obtained results for different thicknesses of the tank wall insulation materials enable its comparison in regards to given conditions

  11. Analysis of the Pressure Rise in a Partially Filled Liquid Tank in Microgravity with Low Wall Heat Flux and Simultaneous Boiling and Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments performed with Freon 113 in the space shuttle have shown that in a pro- cess of very slow heating, high liquid superheats can be sustained for a long period in microgravity. In a closed system explosive vaporization of superheated liquid resulted in pressure spikes of varying magnitudes. In this paper, we analyze the pressure rise in a partially lled closed tank in which a large vapor bubble (i.e., ullage) is initially present, and the liquid is subjected to a low wall heat ux. The liquid layer adjacent to the wall becomes superheated until the temperature for nucleation of the bubbles (or the incipience of boiling) is achieved. In the absence of the gravity-induced convection large quantities of superheated liquid can accumulate over time near the heated surface. Once the incipience temperature is attained, explosive boiling occurs and the vapor bubbles that are produced on the heater surface tend to quickly raise the tank pressure. The liquid-vapor saturation temperature increases as well. These two e ects tend to induce condensation of the large ullage bubble that is initially present, and tends to mitigate the tank pressure rise. As a result, the tank pressure is predicted to rise sharply, attain a maximum, and subsequently decay slowly. The predicted pressure rise is compared with experimental results obtained in the microgravity environments of the space shuttle for Freon 113. The analysis is appli- cable, in general to heating of liquid in closed containers in microgravity and to cryogenic fuel tanks, in particular where small heat leaks into the tank are unavoidable.

  12. Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

    1977-01-01

    An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

  13. Dynamics of viscous liquid bridges inside microchannels subject to external oscillatory flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2015-02-01

    We report on two-dimensional simulations of liquid bridges' dynamics inside microchannels of uniform wettability and subject to an external oscillatory flow rate. The oscillatory flow results in a zero net flow rate and its effects are compared to those of a stationary system. To handle the three phase contact lines motion, Cahn-Hilliard diffuse-interface formulation was used and the flow equations were solved using the finite element method with adaptively refined unstructured grids. The results indicate that the liquid bridge responds in three different ways depending on the substrate wettability properties and the frequency of the oscillatory flow. In particular below a critical frequency, the liquid bridge will rupture when the channel walls are philic or detach from the surface when they are phobic. However, at high frequencies, the liquid bridge shows a perpetual periodic oscillatory motion for both philic and phobic surfaces. Furthermore, an increase in the frequency of the flow velocity results in stabilization effects and a behavior approaching that of the stationary system where no rupture or detachment can be observed. This stable behavior is the direct result of less deformation of the liquid bridge due to the fast flow direction change and motion of contact lines on the solid substrate. Moreover, it was found that the flow velocity is out of phase with the footprint and throat lengths and that the latter two also show a phase difference. These differences were explained in terms of the motion of the two contact lines on the solid substrates and the deformation of the two fluid-fluid interfaces.

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TC MACKEY; FG ABATT; MW RINKER

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is in the spring constants used to model the anchor bolt response for the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. Consequently, focus was placed on the changes in the anchor bolt responses, and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary. To confirm this judgement, primary tank stresses from the revised analysis of the BES-BEC case are compared to the original analysis and it was verified that the changes are small, as expected.

  15. STRONTIUM-90 LIQUID CONCENTRATION SOLUBILITY CORRELATION IN THE HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOHL, T.; PLACE, D.; WITTMAN, R.

    2004-08-05

    A new correlation was developed to estimate the concentration of strontium-90 in a waste solution based on total organic carbon. This correlation replaces the strontium-90 wash factors, and when applied in the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator, significantly reduced the estimated quantity of strontium-90 in the delivered low-activity waste feed. This is thought to be a more realistic estimate of strontium-90 than using the wash-factor method.

  16. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels With BX-265 and PDL-1034 External Tank Foam for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1-fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2-subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3-full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with external tank foam impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated two types of debris projectiles: BX-265 and PDL-1034 external tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the foam and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  17. Influence of an external magnetic field on forced turbulence in a swirling flow of liquid metal

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile; Mordant, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation on the influence of an external magnetic field on forced 3D turbulence of liquid gallium in a closed vessel. We observe an exponential damping of the turbulent velocity fluctuations as a function of the interaction parameter N (ratio of Lorentz force over inertial terms of the Navier-Stokes equation). The flow structures develop some anisotropy but do not become bidimensional. From a dynamical viewpoint, the damping first occurs homogeneously over the whole spectrum of frequencies. For larger values of N, a very strong additional damping occurs at the highest frequencies. However, the injected mechanical power remains independent of the applied magnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of induced magnetic field and electrical potential differences shows a very weak correlation between magnetic field and velocity fluctuations. The observed reduction of the fluctuations is in agreement with a previously proposed mechanism for the saturation of turbulent dynamos and wit...

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichioroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz . The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6in the strong direct current field.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz .The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6 in the strong direct current field.

  20. Study of deformation of droplet in external force field by using liquid-gas model of lattice-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The deformation of the droplet by the external force which is assumed to be gravity is studied by using the liquid-gas model of lattice-gas. Two types of liquid-gas models, one is the minimal model and the other is the maximal model, which are distinguished from each other by the added long-range interactions are used for the simulation of the droplet deformation. The difference of the droplet deformation between the maximal model and the minimal model was observed. While the droplet of the minimal model elongates in the direction of the external force, the droplet of the maximal model elongates in the perpendicular direction to the external force. Therefore the droplet deformation in the external force field of the maximal model is more similar to the droplet deformation which is observed in experiments than that of the minimal model. (author)

  1. Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Cassidy, D T

    1996-08-20

    A liquid detection system consisting of a diode laser with multiple short external cavities (MSXC's) is reported. The MSXC diode laser operates single mode on one of 18 distinct modes that span a range of 72 nm. We selected the modes by setting the length of one of the external cavities using a piezoelectric positioner. One can measure the transmission through cells by modulating the injection current at audio frequencies and using phase-sensitive detection to reject the ambient light and reduce 1/f noise. A method to determine regions of single-mode operation by the rms of the output of the laser is described. The transmission data were processed by multivariate calibration techniques, i.e., partial least squares and principal component regression. Water concentration in acetone was used to demonstrate the performance of the system. A correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.997 and 0.29% root-mean-square error of prediction are found for water concentration over the range of 2-19%.

  2. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  3. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing. PMID:21301636

  4. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  5. Flow pattern and cleaning performance of a stationary liquid jet operating at conditions relevant for industrial tank cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldung Damkjær, N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Jensen, B. B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning of processing tanks by impinging liquid jets is common practice in the food and biotechnology sectors. However, satisfactory prediction of the cleaning performance of such jets has so far only been achieved in small scale experiments. In the present work, cleaning with a horizontal water...... jet was studied using a 19m3 tank and settings applicable to industrial operations; nozzle internal diameters, dN, of 2–5.5mm, cleaning distances, L, of 80–2490mm, and flow rates, Q, of 0.05–3.0m3h−1. Experimental data and model predictions of the behaviour of the jet when striking an unsoiled surface...... showed reasonable agreement for a nozzle with dN=2mm at small cleaning distances (L 80 and 200mm). At greater dN and cleaning distances there was poorer agreement, which was attributed to jet break-up and splatter.Similar observations were made when cleaning a surface soiled with white petroleum jelly...

  6. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  7. PLC Based Adaptive PID Control of Non Linear Liquid Tank System using Online Estimation of Linear Parameters by Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan.E

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an idea to design an adaptive PID controller for Non-linear liquid tank System and is implemented in PLC. Online estimation of linear parameters (Time constant and Gain brings an exact model of the process to take perfect control action. Based on these estimated values, the controller parameters will be well tuned by internal model control. Internal model control is an unremarkably used technique and provides well tuned controller in order to have a good controlling process. PLC with its ability to have both continues control for PID Control and digital control for fault diagnosis which ascertains faults in the system and provides alerts about the status of the entire process.

  8. LNG储罐外墙温度应力分析及预应力筋设计%Thermal stress analyses on external wall of LNG storage tank and the design of prestressed reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旭东; 朱兴吉

    2012-01-01

    The external wall of large-scale LNG storage tank is mainly built by the prestressed concrete and it has complicated stress distribution and deformation. Based on the introduction to a computing method for the thermal stress of prestressed concrete wall, we deduced computing formulae of the cylindrical wall thermal stress, the prestressed reinforcement of external wall subjected to the temperature difference load and other common loads, and locations of the maximum hoop stress by means of theoretic analyses. Consequently, a optimized scheme for prestessed reinforcement was then given. The results show that the ultra-low temperature liquid in the inner tank will produce a huge thermal stress to the prestressed concrete external wall and the maximum hoop thermal stress can reach up to a half of the tensile strength of concrete, which makes the external wall more dangerous when it is subject to internal pressure. Therefore, the temperature difference load should be considered in the design of the loop prestressed reinforcement. Numerical simulations taken afterwards by applying the automatic dynamic incremental nonlinear analysis (ADINA) finite element software to set up various discrete models of prestessed concrete verified not only the correctness of formulae deduced but also the prestessed reinforcement optimized scheme that makes the stress distribution and deformation of external wall more sound.%大型LNG储罐的外墙一般由预应力混凝土建造,其应力分布及变形比较复杂.在介绍预应力混凝土外墙温度应力计算方法的基础上,采用理论分析的方法,推导出了圆筒形外墙温度应力的计算公式,外墙在温差荷载及其他普通荷载作用下预应力筋的计算公式以及最大环向应力所在位置计算公式,进而给出了预应力筋结构调整的方案.研究结果表明,内罐的超低温液体会使预应力混凝土外墙产生很大的温度应力,环向温度应力最大可达混凝土抗拉强

  9. 用于外浮顶油罐的BSMF型二次密封%BSMF TYPE SECONDARY SEAL FOR USE IN EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF OIL TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小芳; 姚定湘; 刘宗良

    2001-01-01

    石油及其产品在储存过程中的蒸发损耗,不仅造成油品数量的损失和环境污染,还导致油品质量的下降和增加不安全因素,因此对储油罐的密封是人们一直关注的问题。用于外浮顶油罐的二次密封,可以弥补一次密封的不足而使油品蒸发降低,大大减轻油气对环境造成的污染和减小不安全因素,并可保护一次密封免受阳光、雨雪、风沙的影响,从而保证储存油品的质量。%During the process of storage for petroleum and itsproduction,the evaporation loss not only makes the oil quanlity loss and envoriment pollution,but also makes the oil quality decrease and increase the unsafe factors.So the seal of oil tank is a problem with general great interesting.The secondary seal for the use of external floating roof oil tank may remedy the defect of fist seal,and makes oil evaporation decrease,So the envoroment pollution,caused by oil gas,reduces and the unsafe factors decrease.It can protects the first seal against the enfluence of sun light,rain and snow,wind and sand,and secure the quality of storage oil.

  10. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study.

  11. Liquid hydrogen bubble chamber (diam. 30 cm), seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1959-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  12. Simulation Research of Vaporization and Pressure Variation in a Cryogenic Propellant Tank at the Launch Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Liang, Guo-zhu

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve depiction of pressure variation and investigate the interrelation among the physical processes in propellant tanks, a 2D axial symmetry Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) CFD model is established to simulate a large-sized liquid propellant tank when the rocket is preparing for launch with propellant loaded at the launch site. The numerical model is considered with propellant free convection, heat transfer between the tank and the external environment, thermal exchange between propellant and inner tank wall surfaces, gas compressibility, and phase change modeled under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Vaporization rate of the vented LH2 tank and prediction of pressure change in the tank pressurized with GHe are obtained through simulation. We analysis the distributions of phase, temperature, and velocity vectors to reveal interactions among the propellant's own convection motion, heat transfer and phase change. The results show that the vaporization rate is mainly affected by heat leaks though the tank wall when the tank is vented, but it does not completely accord with the trend of the leakage because of convection motion and temperature nonuniformity of the liquid propellant in the tank. We also find that the main factors on pressure variation in the pressurized tank are the heat transfer on the tank wall surface bonding the ullage and propellant vaporization which has comparatively less influence.

  13. 卧式液氢贮罐内温度分层数值模拟%NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION PHENOMENON IN LIQUID HYDROGEN HORIZONTAL STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天祥; 陈虹; 雷刚; 李爱华

    2012-01-01

    A numerical study was performed for physical field of liquid hydrogen horizontal tank based on CFD technique and the distribution of temperature field, velocity field and tank pressure changes were depicted. The appearance and cause of thermal stratification phenomenon were analyzed. It is found that heat transfer of liquid hydrogen is convection and the convection boundary layer was formed between the tank wall and the hydrogen liquid. The thermal stratification appeared along the gravity direction, and the profile of the liquid hydrogen is Gauss probability curve. The flow in the tank is a unsteady and the location of vortexes changed continually. The self-pressurization phenomenon of the tank is obvious and the curve of the self-pressurization is nonlinear.%实验采用CFD技术,通过对静置卧式液氢贮罐内部物理场数值模拟,揭示了卧式贮罐内部温度场、速度场的分布规律以及气枕压力变化情况,分析了液氢温度分层形成的过程及原因.研究表明,卧式贮罐内液氢区域的传热方式为自然对流,自然对流边界层覆盖整个与液氢接触的贮罐壁面.在贮罐竖直方向上存在温度分层,液氢温度分布近似于高斯概率曲线.贮罐内部流动是一个不稳定状态,涡旋的位置也在不断变化.静置卧式液氢贮罐自生增压现象较为明显,压力增长曲线为非线性.

  14. The Design of Drainage System for External Floating Roof Tank in International Stockpile Project%浅谈国际储备库浮顶排水系统的设计选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭可昕

    2012-01-01

    Large external floating roof storage tank is widely used in petroleum,chemical,civil construction,transportation,metallurgy,national defense and other important fields.Central drainage system is the main accessory for external floating roof tank,its analysis and comparison of structure and type are important for the tank design.The paper summarized the design of central drainage system for external floating roof tank in international stockpile project.%大型外浮顶储罐广泛应用于石油、化工、市政建设、交通、冶金、国防等领域。中央排水系统是外浮顶罐的主要附件,其结构类型的分析和比较是储罐设计中的重要问题。文章综述了在国内一国际储备库项目中,外浮顶罐中央排水系统的设计选用。

  15. Dynamic structures of bubble-driven liquid flows in a cylindrical tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Sang [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of); LG Electronics Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Moon [Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Dong; Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The spatial and temporal structures of turbulent water flows driven by air bubbles in a cylindrical tank were investigated. The time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique was adopted for quantitative visualization. Flow rates of compressed air were changed from 1 to 5 L/min at 0.5 MPa, and the corresponding range of bubble-based Reynolds number (Re) ranged from 8,300 to 21,100. The dynamics of flow structures was further investigated by the time-resolved proper orthogonal decomposition analysis technique. With increasing Re, mean velocity fields driven by the rising bubbles are almost same, but turbulence is dramatically enhanced. Both spatial and temporal modes were quite different with respect to the air flow rates. Three most dominant spatial structures are recirculating flow, bubble-induced motion, and sloshing of free surface, the bigger the latter the higher Re. We found the frequency of sloshing motion from flow visualization and the FFT analysis of temporal modes. (orig.)

  16. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  17. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  18. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  20. Steady-state liquid sloshing in a rectangular tank with a slat-type screen in the middle: Quasilinear modal analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltinsen, O. M.; Firoozkoohi, R.; Timokha, A. N.

    2011-04-01

    Two-dimensional resonant liquid sloshing in a rectangular tank equipped with a central slat-type screen is studied theoretically and experimentally with focus on nonsmall solidity ratios of the screen (0.5≲Sn≲0.95), nonlarge number of slots (N ≲50), and steady-state conditions. The tank is horizontally and harmonically excited with frequencies in a range covering the two lowest primary-excited natural sloshing resonance frequencies in the corresponding clean tank. The liquid depth is finite. Theoretical analysis is based on the multimodal method with linear free-surface conditions and a quadratic pressure drop condition at the screen expressing an "integral" effect of the screen-induced cross-flow separation (or jet flow). New experimental data on the maximum wave elevations at the wall are compared with the theoretical predictions. Very good agreement is shown for the smallest forcing amplitudes (the forcing amplitude-to-tank width ratio is ≈0.001). Increasing the nondimensional forcing amplitude to ≈0.01 leads to discrepancies due to secondary resonance causing the energy context from the two primary-excited antisymmetric modes to other, first of all, symmetric modes. A further increase of the nondimensional forcing amplitude to 0.03 leads to more complex secondary resonance effects. Specific surface wave phenomena, e.g., wave breaking, are experimentally observed and documented by photographs and videos.

  1. Pressurant requirements for discharge of liquid methane from a 1.52-meter-(5-ft-) diameter spherical tank under both static and slosh conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Mcintire, T. O.

    1974-01-01

    Pressurized expulsion tests were conducted to determine the effect of various physical parameters on the pressurant gas (methane, helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen) requirements during the expulsion of liquid methane from a 1.52-meter-(5-ft-) diameter spherical tank and to compare results with those predicted by an analytical program. Also studied were the effects on methane, helium, and hydrogen pressurant requirements of various slosh excitation frequencies and amplitudes, both with and without slosh suppressing baffles in the tank. The experimental results when using gaseous methane, helium, and hydrogen show that the predictions of the analytical program agreed well with the actual pressurant requirements for static tank expulsions. The analytical program could not be used for gaseous nitrogen expulsions because of the large quantities of nitrogen which can dissolve in liquid methane. Under slosh conditions, a pronounced increase in gaseous methane requirements was observed relative to results obtained for the static tank expulsions. Slight decreases in the helium and hydrogen requirements were noted under similar test conditions.

  2. Orientational instabilities in nematic liquid crystals with weak anchoring under combined action of steady flow and external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibullayev, I Sh; Tarasov, O S; Krekhov, A P; Kramer, L

    2005-11-01

    We study the homogeneous and the spatially periodic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal layer subjected to steady plane Couette or Poiseuille flow. The initial director orientation is perpendicular to the flow plane. Weak anchoring at the confining plates and the influence of the external electric and/or magnetic field are taken into account. Approximate expressions for the critical shear rate are presented and compared with semianalytical solutions in case of Couette flow and numerical solutions of the full set of nematodynamic equations for Poiseuille flow. In particular the dependence of the type of instability and the threshold on the azimuthal and the polar anchoring strength and external fields is analyzed.

  3. Investigations of the Gas-Liquid Multiphase System Involving Macro-Instability in a Baffled Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD in gas-liquid multiphase system is of particular interest and the quantification of gas characteristics is still a challenge today. In this contribution, multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulations are combined with Population Balance Model (PBM to investigate the bubble SMD in baffled stirred tank reactor (STR. Hereby, special attention is given to the phenomenon known as the fluid macro-instability (MI, which is a large-scale low-frequency fluid velocity variation in baffled STRs, since the fluid MIs have a dominating influence on the bubble breakage and coalescence processes. The simulations, regarding the fluid velocity, are validated with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA experiments, in which the instant radial velocity is analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform (FFT spectrum. The frequency peaks of the fluid MIs are found both in the simulation and in the experiment with a high degree of accuracy. After the validation, quantitative predictions of overall bubble SMD with and without MIs are carried out. Due to the accurate prediction of the fluid field, the influence of the fluid MI to bubble SMD is presented. This result provides more adequate information for engineers working in the field of estimating bubble SMDs in baffled STRs.

  4. Function and requirement for a waste disloging and conveyance system for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory high level liquid waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O.D.

    1996-09-10

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development initiated the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) program to support the Consent Order between the State of Idaho, U.S. Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency that requires ceasing use of the 11 high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP).

  5. The Mechanical of the Small Axisymmetric Oscillations of the Liquid with the Surface Tension Forces in Elastic Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate small axisymmetric oscillations of a liquid in an elastic tank. We also take into account the influence of surface tension forces. For this, we turn to the mechanical analogue of the considered mechanical system. To realize the transition to mechanical analogue we use the energy method: postulating the equality of kinetic and potential energy for the investigated mechanical system and the mechanical system analog. Due to this transition we can further investigate the oscillations of a mechanical analogue. As a mechanical analogue, we consider the oscillator in the spring. The mass of the oscillator is calculated as the weight of the fluid to make oscillations. The oscillator spring constant is calculated using the identity of equations, namely, equation of free small oscillations of the oscillator and equation of free small oscillations of the system under investigation: the fluid in the elastic tank. The identity of equations allows us to draw conclusion about the identity of the natural frequencies for the source mechanical system and the system of a mechanical analogue. Next, we take into consideration the action of the surface tension. We record the Laplace condition for excess pressure because of the forces of surface tension. Then we compile the expression for the generalized force, taking into account the phenomenon of the surface tension. Next, we write the equation of oscillations of a mechanical analogue. The surface tension, due to the introduction of the generalized force in the equation for small oscillations of the mechanical analogue will change the natural frequency of the mechanical analogue. The paper presents the appropriate dependencies. The abovementioned allows us to investigate the stability of small motions of fluid in microgravity or low gravity by studying the stability of small motions of mechanical analogue. The latter is especially important due to the design and development of advanced

  6. Design and development of a helium injection system to improve external leakage detection during liquid nitrogen immersion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    The testing of assemblies for use in cryogenic systems commonly includes evaluation at or near operating (therefore cryogenic) temperature. Typical assemblies include valves and pumps for use in liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen rocket engines. One frequently specified method of cryogenic external leakage testing requires the assembly, pressurized with gaseous helium (GHe), be immersed in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and allowed to thermally stabilize. Component interfaces are then visually inspected for leakage (bubbles). Unfortunately the liquid nitrogen will be boiling under normal, bench-top, test conditions. This boiling tends to mask even significant leakage. One little known and perhaps under-utilized property of helium is the seemingly counter-intuitive thermodynamic property that when ambient temperature helium is bubbled through boiling LN2 at a temperature of -195.8 °C, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen will reduce. This paper reports on the design and testing of a novel proof-of-concept helium injection control system confirming that it is possible to reduce the temperature of an LN2 bath below boiling point through the controlled injection of ambient temperature gaseous helium and then to efficiently maintain a reduced helium flow rate to maintain a stabilized liquid temperature, enabling clear visual observation of components immersed within the LN2. Helium saturation testing is performed and injection system sizing is discussed.

  7. Rushton桨搅拌槽中气液两相流动的全流场数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Gas-Liquid Flow in a Stirred Tank with a Rushton Impeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫京; 毛在砂

    2002-01-01

    The gas-liquid flow field in a stirred tank with a Rushton disk turbine, including the impeller region,was numerically simulated using the improved inner-outer iterative procedure. The characteristic features of the stirred tank, such as gas cavity and accumulation of gas at the two sides of wall baffles, can be captured by the simulation. The simulated results agree well with available experimental data. Since the improved inner-outer iterative algorithm demands no empirical formula and experimental data for the impeller region, and the approach seems generally applicable for simulating gas-liquid stirred tanks.

  8. Fuel reprocessing tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, Sumitora

    1998-10-09

    A tank of the present invention for spent fuels comprises a stainless steel tank main body for storing a highly corrosive dissolving solution, a steam jet pump disposed to the inside of the tank main body for transferring the dissolving solution to the outside of the tank main body and pipelines connecting them. With such a constitution, abnormal abrasion and drag of mechanical parts are less caused. In addition, a cleaning nozzle and a cleaning liquid pipeline which eliminates clogging of a sucking port of the steam jet pump if clogging is caused by sludges are disposed thereby enabling to avoid possibility of clogging. (T.M.)

  9. REPAIR SUMMARY OF LARGE LIQUID AMMONIA STORAGE TANK%大型液氨储罐检修过程综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大伟

    2012-01-01

    large liquid ammonia storage tank is of a special equipment with highly source of danger and big safety risk existed during the repair, The company has successfully conducted the repair work of theammonia tank with a series of measures including careful organization, draw-up of scheme, risk evaluation and safety management and control and a safe running of the tank is ensured.This complete set of operation regulations and work criteria for the tank repair has formulated and provided valuable experiences for the like.%大型液氨储罐是高危险源特种设备,检修安全风险大。经过周密组织、方案编写、风险评估、安全管控等一系列措施,成功进行了氨罐检修工作,保障了氨罐的安全运行,形成一套完整的氨罐检修操作规程及工作标准。

  10. 罐车横向运动时液体晃动的仿真分析%Simulation of Liquid Slosh in Lateral Movement of Tank Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振; 谢模毅; 朱兵; 赵云云

    2015-01-01

    Based on full-scale modeling simulation of tank, the VOF model based on multi-phase lfow, contrast research liquid ratio, the inlfuence of the density and viscosity of liquid sloshing.Results show that the tank car lateral movement, the liquid sloshing water hammer internal pressure with the increase of liquid than ifrst increases then decreases, maximum when liquid ratio 0.4;And the inner wall of the water hammer pressure increased with the increase of liquid density increases, decreases with the increase of liquid viscosity.When washboard area greater than 60%, the floods hit wall pressure significantly reduced, the wave effect is obvious.%通过对罐体进行全尺寸建模模拟,对比研究充液比、密度和黏度对液体晃动的影响。结果表明:罐车横向运动时,液体晃动水击内壁压力随着充液比的增加先增大后减小,充液比为0.4时达到最大;且水击内壁压力随着液体密度的增加而增大,随着液体黏度的增加而减小。当防波板面积大于60%时,最大水击内壁压力显著降低,防波效果明显。

  11. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 μg/cigarette and 1.5 μg/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  12. 液氨储罐泄露后果模拟及应急处置%Consequences Simulation and Emergency Disposal of Liquid Ammonia Tank Leakage Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙高穹; 刘剑俊

    2016-01-01

    Taking a liquid ammonia tank of a enterprise cold storage as an example,This paper identified the risk of ammonia storage possible poisoning and explosion accident,used the TNT equivalent method and overpressure criterion to simulate the accident consequences of the steam explosion caused by the leakage of a single tank,predicted the toxic gas leakage diffusion effect based on multi-puff model,Finally put forward prevention and emergency response measures of the liquid ammonia tank leak accident.%文章以某企业冷库配备的液氨储罐为实例,对液氨储存过程可能发生的中毒和爆炸事故进行风险识别,运用TNT当量法和超压准则模拟单个储罐泄露后引发蒸汽云爆炸的事故后果,同时运用多烟团模式预测有毒气体泄露扩散影响范围,最后提出液氨储罐泄露事故防范和应急处置措施。

  13. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating Modified Ice Adhesion to Liquid Oxygen Feed Line Bracket, Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Kruskal-Wallis test (Siegel and Castellan 1988, Zar 1999), was used in- stead. The results of this test show that at the 95% confidence level (α...strength. Huntsville, AL: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Siegel, S. and N. J. Castellan , Jr. (1988) Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral

  14. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating Modified Ice Adhesion to Liquid Oxygen Food Line Bracket, Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Kruskal-Wallis test (Siegel and Castellan 1988, Zar 1999), was used in- stead. The results of this test show that at the 95% confidence level (α...strength. Huntsville, AL: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Siegel, S. and N. J. Castellan , Jr. (1988) Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral

  15. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  16. Tanks and Tank Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    operational in the Bundeswehr. These include the well-known U.S. M113 APC, the HS-30 APC, developed by the Swiss company Hispano- Suiza , as well as the...powered by the Leyland L-60 engine, and the French AMX-30, powered by the Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine. The new Japanese STB-6 tank (ඒ") is...of all foreign series-produced tank engines. A complete tank engine replacement can be performed in four hours. The Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine

  17. SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height

  18. Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

  19. Volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient in an external-loop airlift reactor with inserted membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the inserted membrane in the downcomer of an external-loop airlift reactor, the gas sparger type (single orifice and sinter plate and added alcohol (ethanol, n-butanol, or n-hexanol on the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa were studied. Due to the presence of the membrane in the downcomer, kLa did not change significantly; the differences were smaller than 10%. The highest values of the kLa were obtained using the sinter plate. It was found that the addition of small amounts of alcohol increased the mass transfer. Using our experimental results and the data of other authors, the feed-forward back propagation neural network for prediction of kLa in external-loop airlift reactors with alcohol solutions was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172025

  20. On The Possible Leakage of ET-RR1 Liquid Waste Tank: Hydrological and Migration Modes Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Mahmoud; EL-Hemamy, S. T.

    2005-01-01

    The first Egyptian (ET-RR1) research reactor has been in operation since 1961 at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) Inshas site. Therefore, at present, it faces a serious problem due to aging equipment, especially those directly in contact with the environment such as the underground settling tanks of nuclear and radioactive waste. The possible leakage of radionuclides from these aging tanks and their migration to the aquifer was studied using instantaneous release.This study was don...

  1. 外测液位计在液氯测量中的应用%The Application of External Liquid Meter in Liquid Chlorine Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆河

    2014-01-01

    在液氯储罐的液位测量中,普遍存在差压液位计易腐蚀、雷达液位计精度较低、不稳定的问题。本文讲述了在东营赫邦化工30万吨/年离子膜烧碱项目中,应用外测液位计解决了这些难题的成功案例。%In the level measurement of liquid chlorine,the differential level meter is easy corrosion,the radar level meter is low precision and instable.The article introduce in the 300 million kilogram per year ionic membrane caustic soda project,the use of external liquid meter successfully solve these problems.

  2. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  3. Liquid Sloshing in a Horizontal Circular Container with Eccentric Tube under External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate conformal mapping transformation in combination with the linear potential theory is employed to develop mathematical model for two-dimensional sloshing in horizontal circular cylindrical containers with overall eccentric hole. The tube-type tank is filled with inviscid incompressible fluid up to its half depth and subjected to lateral accelerations. A ramp-step excitation encountered in a road turning maneuver as well as real seismic event is used to simulate the lateral acceleration excitation. The resulting linear sets of ordinary differential equations are truncated and then solved numerically by employing Laplace transform technique followed by Durbin’s numerical inversion pattern. The effects of excitation input time, eccentricity, and radii ratio on the hydrodynamic responses and suppression of the induced destabilizing lateral forces are examined. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with available analytic and numerical solutions as well as the simulations performed by using a commercial FEM software package are obtained.

  4. Solid-Liquid Dispersion in a Stirred Tank%固-液搅拌槽的分散性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张优; 尹喜祥; 黄雄斌

    2011-01-01

    在直径为0.478 m的立式搅拌槽中,采用高岭土和水为物料,比较了四斜叶、六直叶涡轮等8种桨的固-液分散性能及搅拌功率(P)、桨组合形式对分散性能的影响规律.结果表明,8种桨中分散效果最好的是六直叶涡轮桨和四斜叶桨,分散速率最快的是两叶CBY桨;分散速率与P1.08成正比;分散前期,搅拌功率增加,相对分散效果Y随之提高,当Y达到0.999以上,提高搅拌功率对搅拌效果几乎不起作用;采用分散速率较快(两叶CBY桨)与分散效果较好(四斜叶桨)的双桨组合,更适于连续操作过程.%The solid-liquid dispersion property by eight types of impeller such as four-pitched-blade turbine (PBT), Rushton turbine (RT), etc, and the influences of stirring power and impeller combinations on dispersion property were studied in a vertical stirred tank with diameter of 0.478 m. Kaolin particles were chosen as the particulate material to be dispersed in the water. The experimental results show that PBT and RT have the optimum dispersion performance, while the 2-blade CBY propeller has the shortest dispersion time. The dispersion rate is in the direct ratio of 1.08 to the stirring power. In the beginning period, the relative dispersion performance Y increases with the stirring power, but the stirring power has little influence on the dispersion performance when the relative dispersion performance Y is more than 0.999. The results also reveal that the combination of a bottom 2-blade CBY and an upper PBT has a clear advantage in continuous operation.

  5. Application of liquid level meter in ammonia storage tank%液氨储罐液位测量仪表的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之忠

    2016-01-01

    本文对差压变送器、磁翻板液位计和缆式导波雷达液位计这三种液氨储罐液位测量仪表的应用问题展开了分析,从而为关注这一话题的人们提供参考。%This article presents the application of cable guide wave radar gauge, differential pressure transmitter, and magnetism vane liquid meter in ammonia storage tank for reference.

  6. Luminit Optical Tank-level Sensing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for innovative methods to measure liquid propellant tank volume and tank fluid level with improved accuracy, repeatability, and minimal tank...

  7. Applying rotary jet heads for mixing and mass transfer in a forced recirculation tank reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hummer, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    An approximation to an ideally mixed tank reactor can be obtained by vigorous stirring with mechanical mixers. For an aerated reactor the gas dispersion contributes to the mixing process. Mixing can also be achieved by recirculation of a portion of the liquid through either an internal...... or an external loop.In this study, we determine mixing times in water and CMC solutions and oxygen mass transfer coefficients in water for a tank reactor system where a small fraction of the total liquid volume is rapidly circulated through an external loop and injected through the nozzles of rotary jet heads...... at 1-9 bar gauge pressure into the bulk liquid. Liquid feed can be added to the bulk volume or it may be injected into the pressurized recirculation loop. Gas is always fed to the recirculation loop, and the heat of reaction is removed in a plate-type heat exchanger inserted in the recirculation loop...

  8. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  9. 白僵菌生产中发酵罐培养技术研究%Technology Research of Liquid Fermentation Tank Culture of Beauveriabassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈媛媛; 赵东容; 沈伟清; 张建华

    2015-01-01

    In order to master the technology of fermentation culture of Beauveria bassiana ,and put the culture of ex‐panding Beauveria bassiana into industrial production ,we used Beauveria bassiana strain of Yiling district ,Yichang as the material and fermentation technical parameters such as the appropriate liquid fermentation medium and the growth mor‐phology of strain and pH values of growth environment were studied by liquid fermentation tank culture which could help identify the time of transferring liquid from seed tank to fermentation tank .The results showed that Carbon ,Nitrogen and Phosphorus were three kinds of necessary nutrient elements in the liquid fermentation .Besides ,these three essential factors for the growth of Beauveria bassiana had different proportion ,the addition of a small amount of microelement in the liquid fermentation medium at the early stage could increase growth rate and the number of Beauveria bassiana evi‐dently;Beauveria bassiana has the cyclic growth history that is mutual transformation between saprophyte and mycelium in its multistage continuous liquid fermentation ,and the comparative analysis of spore form and the numbers showed that the fastest growth appeared in the pH value between 4 and 5 which the growth environment of Beauveria bassiana owned by self‐regulation and artificial adjustment ,although we had given condition that the medium was a pH of 6 initially;Considering the growth morphology and the number and the activity of Beauveria bassiana and the workshop operation schedule ,we made the following arrangements ,and the first process was producing mycelium in the seed tank for 42~45 hours ,and the second one was producing saprophyte which was the strain of solid fermentation production in the fermen‐tation tank for 21 to 26 hours .%为掌握白僵菌发酵罐培养技术,白僵菌可工业化生产,以宜昌夷陵区白僵菌菌种为材料,对白僵菌液体发酵罐发酵培养的培养基、菌种生

  10. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  11. Visualization of magnetic microcapsules in liquid by optical coherent tomography and control of their arrangement via external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, T. A.; Akchurin, Ga G.; Portnov, S. A.; Khomutov, G. B.; Akchurin, Ge G.; Naumova, O. G.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Gorin, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new, non-invasive, noncontact in vivo imaging technology. We demonstrated that the OCT can be used as a sufficient technique for nanocomposite microcapsule visualization in a liquid medium. As a model system we choose a water/glycerol mixture with viscosity in a variable range from 1.01 to 1.41×103 mPa s, including viscosity of a blood plasma. We have found that tomography spatial resolution is enough to visualize capsules and their aggregates in liquids and to estimate their concentration via two-dimensional (2D) tomography scan analysis. In our experimental conditions microcapsule concentration measured by OCT was 3.9×107 cm-3 and this value correlated well with the concentration measured in a counting chamber (1.9×107 cm-3). We also demonstrated the possibility to control capsule spatial distribution in glycerol solutions by external magnetic field and determined the dependence of capsule sedimentation time on the liquid medium viscosity.

  12. 49 CFR 179.500-8 - Openings in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings in tanks. 179.500-8 Section 179.500-8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) §...

  13. 49 CFR 179.500-14 - Test of tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test of tanks. 179.500-14 Section 179.500-14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) §...

  14. Results of Experimental Investigations to Determine External Tank Protuberance Loads Using a 0.03-Scale Model of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration (Model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA19OA/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA19OA) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA19OB). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline; (2) GO2 pressure line; (3) LO2 antigeyser line; (4) GH2 pressure line; (5) LH2 tank cable tray; (6) LO2 tank cable tray; (7) Bipod; (8) ET/SRB cable tray; and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  15. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA190A/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA190A) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA190B). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline, (2) GO2 pressure line, (3) LO2 antigeyser line, (4) GH2 pressure line, (5) LH2 tank cable tray, (6) LO2 tank cable tray, (7) Bipod, (8) ET/SRB cable tray, and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: (1) Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above. (2) 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements. (3) Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures. (4) Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  16. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  17. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Tank Sloshing and Pressure Calculation based on Volume of Fluid Method%基于VOF法的液舱晃荡数值模拟及载荷计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桢兵

    2011-01-01

    建立了液舱晃荡的有限元模型,运用CFD计算软件Fluent 6.3模拟了单激励和耦合激励下不同舱室结构以及不同幅度的液舱晃荡,并计算监测点压力,得到了晃荡在激励下的变化规律.对仿真结果进行讨论分析.%As a common phenomenon in liquid motions, sloshing usually happens partially in a filled liquid tank of moving ship. When coupling with ship motions it can cause violent motions and even capsizing under extreme conditions. At the same time, the sloshing of liquid tank is a complex liquid motions phenomenon which represent strong nonlinear and randomness. Based on the CFD software Fluent 6.3, under the force of single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom which would reflect in various range of the sloshing, the paper numerically simulated the different tank structures, calculated the pressure of monitor points and obtained the variation law of sloshing under stimulation. The effects of the different forms of liquid tank sloshing and variation trend are discussed.

  19. Equilibrium configurations of a jet of an ideally conducting liquid in an external nonuniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a jet of an ideally conducting liquid placed in a nonuniform magnetic field are considered. The magnetic field is generated by two thin wires that are parallel to the jet and bear oppositely directed currents. Equilibrium is due to a balance between capillary and magnetic forces. For the plane symmetric case, when the jet deforms only in the plane of its cross section, two one-parameter families of exact solutions to the problem are derived using the method of conformal mapping. According to these solutions, a jet with an initially circular cross section deforms up to splitting into two separate jets. A criterion for jet splitting is derived by analyzing approximate two-parameter solutions.

  20. Ion-cage interpretation for the structural and dynamic changes of ionic liquids under an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2013-05-01

    In many applications, ionic liquids (ILs) work in a nonequilibrium steady state driven by an external electric field. However, how the electric field changes the structure and dynamics of ILs and its underlying mechanism still remain poorly understood. In this paper, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the structure and dynamics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([EMIm][NO3]) under a static electric field. The ion cage structure was found to play an essential role in determining the structural and dynamic properties of the IL system. With a weak or moderate electric field (0-10(7) V/m), the external electric field is too weak to modify the ion cage structure in an influential way and thus the changes of structural and dynamic properties are negligible. With a strong electric field (10(7)-10(9) V/m) applied, ion cages expand and deform apparently, leading to the increase of ion mobility and self-diffusion coefficient with electric field, and the self-diffusion of ions along the electric field becomes faster than the other two directions due to the anisotropic deformation of ion cages. In addition, the Einstein relation connecting diffusion and mobility breaks down at strong electric fields, and it also breaks down for a single ion species even at moderate electric fields (linear-response region).

  1. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  2. Solitons and defects in nematic liquid crystals under a simple shear flow and in a static external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Kai-Fu; Jiang Xiu-Li; Yang Yu-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Under a simple shear flow and in a static external magnetic field, the production of defects in the director-aligning regime of nematic liquid crystals has been investigated in terms of the Leslie-Ericksen theory. The equation of motion of the nematic director, which conforms to the driven over-damped sine-Gordon equation, has a soliton solution of the amplitude π. We show that the stationary state with the director uniformly oriented at a Leslie angle is only a metastable state and the potential, which governs the motion of the director, has a number of stable stationary states. For a strong magnetic field, the higher energy barrier between the stable and unstable states leads the director to be locked along the magnetic field direction. However, at the appropriate shear rate and magnetic field the defects, which appear as a stable solitary solution, can be nucleated from a uniformly aligned nematic liquid crystal. We have calculated the stationary travelling velocity of the solitary waves and the distance between a pair of defects.

  3. Kinetic study on external mass transfer in high performance liquid chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Kanji; Kawaguchi, Yuuki; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-04-30

    External mass transfer coefficients (k(f)) were measured for a column packed with fully porous C(18)-silica spherical particles (50.6 microm in diameter), eluted with a methanol/water mixture (70/30, v/v). The pulse response and the peak-parking methods were used. Profiles of elution peaks of alkylbenzene homologues were recorded at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.0 mL min(-1). Peak-parking experiments were conducted under the same conditions, to measure intraparticle and pore diffusivity, and surface diffusion coefficients. Finally, the values of k(f) for these compounds at 298 K were derived from the first and second moments of the elution peaks by subtracting the contribution of intraparticle diffusion to band broadening. As a result, the Sherwood number (Sh) was measured under such conditions that the Reynolds (Re) and the Schmidt numbers (Sc) varied from 0.004 to 0.05 and from 1.8x10(3) to 2.7x10(3), respectively. We found that Sh is proportional to Re(alpha) and Sc(beta) and that the correlation between these three nondimensional parameters is almost the same as those given by conventional literature equations. The values of alpha and beta were close to those in the literature correlations, between 0.26 and 0.41 and between 0.31 and 0.36, respectively. The use of the Wilson-Geankoplis equation to estimate k(f) values entails a relative error of ca. 15%. So, conventional literature correlations provide correct estimates of k(f) in HPLC systems, even for particle sizes of the order of a micrometer.

  4. 水平和竖向地震激励下大型储液罐响应分析%The Response Analysis of Liquid Storage Tank under Horizontal and Vertical Seismic Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵清; 刘望峰; 赵晓波; 梁乐杰

    2012-01-01

    基于ANSYS软件建立了100km3锚固型大型储液罐模型,并对此进行了水平和竖向地震激励下的地震响应分析,地震波为EL-CENTRO波。计算结果表明,锚固型大型储液罐内液体的晃动、应力和应变在水平地震激励下比竖向地震激励下大很多,这说明水平地震激励是影响储液罐力学性状的主要因素之一。储液罐的应力和应变峰值发生在罐的中下部,而罐口变形较大。%The finite element model of the 1×105 m3 anchored liquid-storage tank was set up based on ANASYS.The response of the tank in horizontal and vertical seismic excitation were analyzed,and the exciting seismic wave was EL-CENTRO wave.The results show that the sloshing of the liquid in the liquid-storage under horizontal seismic excitation is more wildly than that under vertical seismic excitation,and also the stress and strain under horizontal seismic excitation are greater than that under vertical seismic excitation.The result shows that the horizontal seismic excitation is one main factor that affects the mechanical properties of the liquid storage tank when earthquake happened.The peak values of the stress and the strain occurs at the middle or lower parts of the liquid storage tank,and deformation at port of the liquid storage tank is bigger than anywhere else.

  5. Fire Control System Design of Flammable Liquid Vertical Storage Tank Farm%可燃液体立式储罐罐区消防系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时晓宁; 王全贵

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces classification and structure of the fire-control cooling water system and foam fire-fighting system about the flammable liquid vertical storage tank farm, and combines some tank farm project engineering design example to expound the calculation process and the equipment selection of the fixed fire-control cooling water system as wel as the calculation process and equipment selection of fixed foam fire-fighting system.%介绍了甲、乙、丙类可燃液体立式储罐罐区消防冷却水系统和泡沫灭火系统的分类和组成,并结合某项目罐区工程设计实例阐述了固定式消防冷却水系统计算过程、设备选型以及固定式泡沫灭火系统计算过程和设备选型。

  6. 化工企业可燃液体储罐区的通用安全要求%The General Safety Requirements of Chemical Companies Flammable Liquid Storage Tank Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article mainly introduce the selection,layout and security monitoring equipment of chemical companies flammable liquid storage tank.%  介绍在化工装置可燃液体罐区储罐的选型、布置和安全监控装备的设置。

  7. Dielectric relaxation studies in 5CB nematic liquid crystal at 9 GHz under the influence of external magnetic field using microwave cavity spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Johri; Abhay Saxena; S Johri; S Saxena; D P Singh

    2011-04-01

    Resonance width, shift in resonance frequency, relaxation time and activation energy of 5CB nematic liquid crystal are measured using microwave cavity technique under the influence of an external magnetic field at 9 GHz and at different temperatures. The dielectric response in liquid crystal at different temperatures and the effects of applied magnetic field on transition temperatures are studied in the present work. The technique needs a small quantity (< 0.001 cm3) of the sample and provides fruitful information about the macroscopic structure of the liquid crystal.

  8. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  9. Accountability Tanks Calibration Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, William Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Finstad, Casey Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-25

    MET-1 utilizes tanks to store plutonium in solution. The Nuclear Material Control & Accountability group at LANL requires that MET-1 be able to determine the amount of SNM remaining in solution in the tanks for accountability purposes. For this reason it is desired to determine how well various operators may read the volume of liquid left in the tank with the tank measurement device (glass column or slab). The accuracy of the measurement is then compared to the current SAFE-NMCA acceptance criteria for lean and rich plutonium solutions to determine whether or not the criteria are reasonable and may be met.

  10. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  11. First-order Freedericksz transition at the threshold point for weak anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell under external electric and magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关荣华; 杨国琛

    2003-01-01

    Based on the modified formula of Rapini-Papoular, the equilibrium equation and boundary condition of the director have been obtained and the behaviour of the Freedericksz transition at the threshold point has been studied for weak-anchoring nematic liquid crystal cells under external electric and magnetic fields with the methods of analytical derivation and numerical calculation. The results show that, except for the usual second-order transition, the first-order Freedericksz transition can also be induced by a suitable surface anchoring technique for the liquid crystal cell given in the paper. The conditions for the existence of the first-order Freedericksz transition are obtained. They are related to the material elastic coefficient k11, k33 the thickness of the liquid crystal cell, the external electric field and the strength of surface anchoring, etc.

  12. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  13. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  14. 某涉氨制冷企业液氨储罐泄漏事故的后果分析%Analysis of An Ammonia Refrigeration Enterprise Involved in Liquid Ammonia Storage Tank Leakage Accident Consequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰

    2014-01-01

    以某涉氨制冷企业液氨储罐为例,选用蒸气云爆炸、沸腾液体扩展蒸气爆炸和中毒模型对液氨储罐泄漏事故进行后果分析,定量地得出各类伤害半径,为企业制定应急救援预案和政府进行安全监管提供科学依据。%Taking the liquid ammonia tank of a refrigeration enterprise as example, the consequences of liquid ammonia storage tank leakage accident were analyzed using vapor cloud explosion model, boiling liq-uid expanding vapor explosion model and poisoning model. The various damage radiuses were calculated. It provided the scientific basis for enterprises to formulate emergency rescue plans and for safety supervision of government.

  15. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  16. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW.

  17. Effects of Perforated Baffle on Reducing Sloshing in Rectangular Tank:Experimental and Numerical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛米安; 林鹏智; 郑金海; 马玉祥; 苑晓丽; Viet-Thanh NGUYEN

    2013-01-01

    A liquid sloshing experimental rig driven by a wave-maker is designed and built to study liquid sloshing problems in a rectangular liquid tank with perforated baffle. A series of experiments are conducted in this experimental rig to estimate the free surface fluctuation and pressure distribution by changing external excitation frequency of the shaking table. An in-house CFD code is also used in this study to simulate the liquid sloshing in three-dimensional (3D) rectangular tank with perforated baffle. Good agreements of free surface elevation and pressure between the numerical results and the experimental data are obtained and presented. Spectral analysis of the time history of free surface elevation is conducted by using the fast Fourier transformation.

  18. Effects of perforated baffle on reducing sloshing in rectangular tank: Experimental and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mi-an; Lin, Peng-zhi; Zheng, Jin-hai; Ma, Yu-xiang; Yuan, Xiao-li; Nguyen, Viet-Thanh

    2013-10-01

    A liquid sloshing experimental rig driven by a wave-maker is designed and built to study liquid sloshing problems in a rectangular liquid tank with perforated baffle. A series of experiments are conducted in this experimental rig to estimate the free surface fluctuation and pressure distribution by changing external excitation frequency of the shaking table. An in-house CFD code is also used in this study to simulate the liquid sloshing in three-dimensional (3D) rectangular tank with perforated baffle. Good agreements of free surface elevation and pressure between the numerical results and the experimental data are obtained and presented. Spectral analysis of the time history of free surface elevation is conducted by using the fast Fourier transformation.

  19. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  20. Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  1. STS-133/ET-137 Tanking Test Photogrammetry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stanley T.

    2012-01-01

    Following the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, an anomalous condition of cracked and raised thermal protection system (TPS) foam was observed on the External Tank (ET). Subsequent dissection of the affected TPS region revealed cracks in the feet of two Intertank (IT) metallic stringers. An extensive investigation into the cause(s) and corrective action(s) for the cracked stringers was initiated, involving a wide array of material and structural tests and nondestructive evaluations, with the intent to culminate into the development of flight rational. One such structural test was the instrumented tanking test performed on December 17, 2010. The tanking test incorporated two three-dimensional optical displacement measurement systems to measure full-field outer surface displacements of the TPS surrounding the affected region that contained the stringer cracks. The results showed that the radial displacement and rotation of the liquid oxygen (LO2) tank flange changed significantly as the fluid level of the LO2 approached and passed the LO2 tank flange.

  2. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  3. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  4. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AW-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AW-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  5. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the S-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on S-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  6. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  7. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C H; Stroup, J L; Funk, J. W.

    1997-03-12

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  8. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AP-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AP-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  9. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AN-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AN-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  10. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on B-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  11. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the SX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  12. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for C-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on C-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  13. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  14. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on A-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  15. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  16. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate of U-tank fram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-26

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  17. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  18. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Scott J.; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Carter, Campbell D.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through X-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence. An inside- out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an X-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low X-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength and line-of-sight averaged density ρ( y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveals a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry.

  19. Spray-On Foam Insulations for Launch Vehicle Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Cofman, B. E.; Menghelli, B. J.; Heckle, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) has been developed for use on the cryogenic tanks of space launch vehicles beginning in the 1960s with the Apollo program. The use of SOFI was further developed for the Space Shuttle program. The External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle, consisting of a forward liquid oxygen tank in line with an aft liquid hydrogen tank, requires thermal insulation over its outer surface to prevent ice formation and avoid in-flight damage to the ceramic tile thermal protection system on the adjacent Orbiter. The insulation also provides system control and stability with throughout the lengthy process of cooldown, loading, and replenishing the tank. There are two main types of SOFI used on the ET: acreage (with the rind) and closeout (machined surface). The thermal performance of the seemingly simple SOFI system is a complex of many variables starting with the large temperature difference of from 200 to 260 K through the typical 25-mm thickness. Environmental factors include air temperature and humidity, wind speed, solar exposure, and aging or weathering history. Additional factors include manufacturing details, launch processing operations, and number of cryogenic thermal cycles. The study of the cryogenic thermal performance of SOFI under large temperature differentials is the subject of this article. The amount of moisture taken into the foam during the cold soak phase, termed Cryogenic Moisture Uptake, must also be considered. The heat leakage rates through these foams were measured under representative conditions using laboratory standard liquid nitrogen boiloff apparatus. Test articles included baseline, aged, and weathered specimens. Testing was performed over the entire pressure range from high vacuum to ambient pressure. Values for apparent thermal conductivity and heat flux were calculated and compared with prior data. As the prior data of record was obtained for small temperature differentials on non-weathered foams, analysis of the

  20. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Propellant Tank Leakage%液体推进剂贮罐泄漏数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锋; 黄智勇; 施慧玮; 王煊军

    2012-01-01

    Liquid propellants are hazardous chemical that can cause various kinds of accidents during leakage such as fires, explosions, poisoning, and environmental pollution. Thus, effective control of propellant leakage is critical to accident disposal and harm reduction. The CFD software-FUNENT was used to simulate the leakage propellant from storage tank; the distribution of leaking speed was studied under the condition that the leak hole was under the liquid level. The effect of internal pressure, hole diameter, hole height, and the kind of propellant on the velocity distribution of leak hole was analyzed. The results of simulation were contrasted to the empirical formula results, and simulation accuracy was verified.%液体推进剂属于危险化学品,一旦发生泄漏,可能会引起火灾、爆炸、人员中毒、环境污染等后果.因此,有效控制推进剂泄漏,对事故处理和降低危害非常重要.运用FUNENT软件对推进剂贮罐泄漏进行数值模拟,研究泄漏孔位于液面下方时,液体推进剂泄漏到不同液位时的速度分布情况,分析了内压、孔径、孔高以及液体推进剂种类等因素对泄漏后泄漏口速度分布的影响,并将模拟结果与经验公式进行对比分析,验证了模拟结果的准确性.

  1. 液氯贮槽定期检验及腐蚀原因分析%Analysis of Periodic Inspection and Cause Analysis of Corrosion for Liquid Chlorine Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月龙; 单卫群

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了液氯贮槽的定期检验情况,对检验中发现的腐蚀凹坑的成因进行了分析,确认凹坑是由于与贮槽相连的液氯工艺管道安装时水压试验残留水分未完全清除所造成的,提出了对液氯贮槽安全防护的措施,以保证液氯贮槽的安全稳定运行,减少事故发生。%This paper introduced the periodic inspection situation of liquid chlorine tank, analyzed the causes of corrosion pits found in inspection, conifrmed that the corrosion pits were caused by the residual water without been completely removed after hydrotest of the process pipeline connected with liquid chlorine tank. In order to reduce the accident, some measures to ensure the safe and stable operation of liquid chlorine tank were put forward.

  2. CFD Modeling of Helium Pressurant Effects on Cryogenic Tank Pressure Rise Rates in Normal Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Gary; Lopez, Alfredo; Chandler, Frank; Hastings, Leon; Hedayat, Ali; Brethour, James

    2007-01-01

    A recently developed computational fluid dynamics modeling capability for cryogenic tanks is used to simulate both self-pressurization from external heating and also depressurization from thermodynamic vent operation. Axisymmetric models using a modified version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software are used to simulate actual physical tests. The models assume an incompressible liquid phase with density that is a function of temperature only. A fully compressible formulation is used for the ullage gas mixture that contains both condensable vapor and a noncondensable gas component. The tests, conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, include both liquid hydrogen and nitrogen in tanks with ullage gas mixtures of each liquid's vapor and helium. Pressure and temperature predictions from the model are compared to sensor measurements from the tests and a good agreement is achieved. This further establishes the accuracy of the developed FLOW-3D based modeling approach for cryogenic systems.

  3. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  4. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  5. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  6. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  7. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

    1998-04-01

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed.

  8. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Mattick, Stephen; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2008-01-01

    A) Advanced Gas/Liquid Framework with Real Fluids Property Routines: I. A multi-fluid formulation in the preconditioned CRUNCH CFD(Registered TradeMark) code developed where a mixture of liquid and gases can be specified: a) Various options for Equation of state specification available (from simplified ideal fluid mixtures, to real fluid EOS such as SRK or BWR models). b) Vaporization of liquids driven by pressure value relative to vapor pressure and combustion of vapors allowed. c) Extensive validation has been undertaken. II. Currently working on developing primary break-up models and surface tension effects for more rigorous phase-change modeling and interfacial dynamics B) Framework Applied to Run-time Tanks at Ground Test Facilities C) Framework Used For J-2 Upper Stage Tank Modeling: 1) NASA MSFC tank pressurization: a) Hydrogen and oxygen tank pre-press, repress and draining being modeled at NASA MSFC. 2) NASA AMES tank safety effort a) liquid hydrogen and oxygen are separated by a baffle in the J-2 tank. We are modeling pressure rise and possible combustion if a hole develops in the baffle and liquid hydrogen leaks into the oxygen tank. Tank pressure rise rates simulated and risk of combustion evaluated.

  9. Reactor models for a series of continuous stirred tank reactors with a gas-liquid-solid leaching system: Part I. Surface reaction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papangelakis, V. G.; Demopoulos, G. P.

    1992-12-01

    In this three-part series of articles, comprehensive three-phase steady-state hydrometallurgical reactor models of the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) type are developed and applied to a commercial (pressure oxidation) process. The key features of the developed models are the coupling of both mass and heat balance equations, the description of the nonisothermal performance (autothermal) of a multistage continuous reactor, and the treatment of multimineral feed materials. The model considers only the oxidation reactions, because they mainly affect the thermal balance of the reactor. The stoichiometries and intrinsic kinetics of the heterogeneous leaching reactions, which are established via independent experiments, are the foundation of the developed model. A three-phase (g-l-s) reaction process might be controlled by either surface reaction control, i.e., the rate(s) of the heterogeneous leaching reaction(s), or by gas transfer control, i.e., the rate of transfer of the gaseous reactant into the liquid phase. In the present article (Part I), the case of surface reaction control is treated. The article addresses, in particular, the following topics: (1) it outlines the basic mass and heat balance equations which describe the performance of a multistage leaching reactor; (2) it presents a continuous function to describe the particle size distribution of the feed; and (3) it develops, on the basis of probability theory, number- and mass-particle size density functions which give the size distribution of particle populations reacting according to the surface reaction control-shrinking core model.

  10. 罐车制动时液体晃动的仿真分析%Simulation of liquid slosh in braking process of tank truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 康宁

    2009-01-01

    The liquid sloshing in braking process of tank truck was simulated by volume of fluid (VOF) model. The forces and their locations of a single room and weight distribution of a truck were calculated. The reliability of the calculation method was validated by comparing with experimental results. The results show that the maximum of F_x( force in direction x) , F_y( force in direction y) and C (The ratio of weight acting on the front axle and rear axle) increase as the deceleration increases without a baffle. When the liquid filling ratio increases, the maximum of F_z increases firstly and decreases afterwards, the maximum of F_y increase, and C increases in the starting and ending period of braking process and decreases during the period around 1 s. When there is a baffle, as the area of the baffle becomes bigger, the maximum of F_x, F_y and C decreases.%采用Volume of Fluid(VOF)模型对罐车制动时液体的晃动进行了数值模拟,对单室受力、受力位置及整车轴荷分配进行了计算,并通过与实验结果的对比验证了计算方法的可靠性.计算结果表明,无防波板时,随减速度增加,单室x,y方向受力峰值增大,整车轴荷比增大;随充液比增加,单室x方向受力峰值先增大后减小,y方向受力峰值增大,制动初始与结束时充液比越大轴荷比越大,1s左右充液比越大轴荷比越小;单室带防波板时,随防波板面积增加,x,y方向受力峰值减小,当防波板面积大于横截面的40%时,增加防波板面积能显著改善罐体受力,且防波板面积越大轴荷比峰值越小.

  11. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  12. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-02

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  13. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  14. 控制输水管道瞬态液柱分离的空气阀调压室%Air-valve surge tank for controlling liquid column separation in water supply projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开林

    2011-01-01

    A new type air-valve surge tank for controlling liquid column separation occured to water supply projects is developed.It consists of a vertical short pipe and air valves installed on the top.The tanks are installed on the main to form a series of local convexities.They are full of water during normal operations.As soon as the water pressure drops to under the atmospheric pressure,air will be sucked into the tank through the air valve to form an air chamber.The air in the tank will be released slowly while the water pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure.The application indicates that the tank not only can control the negative pressure during hydraulic transients,but also the positive pressure.%提出了用于控制输水管道瞬态液柱分离的新型空气阀调压室,即在输水线路上设置一个短管,短管顶部密封,然后在它顶部设置空气阀。在正常输水时,空气阀关闭,调压室(短管)充满水体,没有气体。当调压室顶部水压下降到大气压以下时,空气阀进气,在调压室中形成气囊,防止输水管道发生液体汽化现象,或者出现超过管道承受能力的高度真空压力。当调压室底部水压超过大气压时,调压室中气体压缩,气体由空气阀缓慢排出,避免发生较大冲击水压。

  15. Efficient chemical potential evaluation with kinetic Monte Carlo method and non-uniform external potential: Lennard-Jones fluid, liquid, and solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method of a direct evaluation of the chemical potential of fluid, liquid, and solid with kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The method is illustrated with the 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) system over a wide range of density and temperature. A distinctive feature of the methodology used in the present study is imposing an external potential on the elongated simulation box to split the system into two equilibrium phases, one of which is substantially diluted. This technique provides a reliable direct evaluation of the chemical potential of the whole non-uniform system (including that of the uniformly distributed dense phase in the central zone of the box), which, for example, is impossible in simulation of the uniform crystalline phase. The parameters of the vapor-liquid, liquid-solid, and fluid-solid transitions have been reliably determined. The chemical potential and the pressure are defined as thermodynamically consistent functions of density and temperature separately for the liquid and the solid (FCC) phases. It has been shown that in two-phase systems separated by a flat interface, the crystal melting always occurs at equilibrium conditions. It is also proved that in the limit of zero temperature, the specific heat capacity of an LJ crystal at constant volume is exactly 3Rg (where Rg is the gas constant) without resorting to harmonic oscillators.

  16. 舞钢VOD炉热井液位PID控制系统的开发及应用%Development and Application of Hot Well TanK Liquid Level PID Control System for Wugang′s VOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢党辉; 贾淑荣

    2014-01-01

    针对舞钢公司 VOD 炉热井系统对恒液位的需要,介绍了一种水箱恒液位 PID 控制系统的开发与设计。该系统通过西门子 S7-400系列 PLC 指令实现对液位的 PID 闭环控制,液位传感器将液位值作为反馈信号传给 PLC,对变频器进行调节控制,实现电机转速调节,从而达到恒液位控制目的。运行结果表明改造取得了节能降耗的效果。%For the demand of hot well tank in Wugang′s VOD system on constant liquid level,the paper intro-duces the development and design of PID for constant liquid level control of hot well tank. The system uses the com-mand from Siemens S7 - 400 series PLC to achieve PID closed loop control over liquid level. The PLC receives the sig-nal from liquid level sensor as feedback. The signal from liquid level sensor feedback to PLC controls the frequency con-verter. The converter regulates the rotational speed of motor so as to achieve constant liquid level control. The opera-tion result proves that the revamp reduces power consumption and maintenance cost.

  17. Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A reduced dynamical model describing temperature stratification effects driven by natural convection in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has been developed. It...

  18. 液体硝酸铵储存输送工艺与储罐的设计%Design of the Storage and Transportation Technology for Liquid Ammonium Nitrate and Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨民刚; 夏光; 粟峰雷

    2012-01-01

    通过对直接用于工业炸药生产的液体硝酸铵工艺参数的分析,提出液体硝酸铵储存输送的工艺途径,有泵送或高位差输送或两者结合等形式;论述了适合液体硝酸铵储存的储罐结构形式,储罐为薄壁容器,设计多采用立式圆筒形结构,封头多采用平盖,半椭圆形和锥形;文章还研讨了液体硝酸铵储罐和储存输送控制系统的设计方法.%Based on the analysis of the process parameters of liquid ammonium nitrate used directly in the production of industrial explosive, the store and transportation processes of liquid ammonium nitrate were advanced, such as pumping, high potential difference transportation or both. The structure of storage tank suitable for liquid ammonium nitrate was usually designed as thin walled and vertical cylindrical type, and the head was flat, semi elliptic or cone shaped. The design method of storage tank and the control system of store and transportation were also discussed.

  19. 液体火箭贮箱增压排液过程温度场数值研究%Numerical study on temperature distribution of tank pressurization process of liquid rocket during outflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 厉彦忠; 李翠; 程向华

    2011-01-01

    In view of the tank pressurization process of a certain liquid rocket during out-flow, a two-dimensional numerical simulation method was adopted to study the law of temperature distribution in the ullage gas and in the tank wall. In this model, the low-Re κ-ε model was selected to calculate the coupled heat transfer between fluid and tank wall, and a user-defined function (UDF) for phase transition was compiled and embedded into Fluent so as to research the effect of heat and mass transfer at the liquid surface. Certain experimental data in reference were selected to verify the results of this model on the same condition. The comparison results show that this two dimensional model can forecast axial temperature distribution in ullage gas and in tank wall correctly. In addition, the computation results show that the effect of the direction and the area of pressurized gas injector on the axial temperature distribution in the ullage gas and in the tank wall is weak, but the temperature field nearby gas inlet is little affected by them. When pressurized gas is injected downstream into the tank ullage, the gas temperature nearby tank top is lower, which may be favorable to the normal operation of relief value. When pressurized gas is injected into the tank ullage hori zontally, the bigger diameter of the injector means larger high temperature region nearby the tank top.%针对某液体火箭贮箱增压排液过程,采用二维数值模拟方法对其温度场进行计算.选用低雷诺数κ-ε模型分析流体与固壁问的耦合换热,考虑到气液之间发生热质转移现象,编写了控制相变的用户自定义程序(UDF)并植入Fluent软件.采用文献实验数据对相同工况下的计算结果进行验证,对比结果表明所建立的二维模型能够有效预测气枕温度、壁面温度沿轴向分布规律.数值模拟结果发现:气体扩散器人口方向、入口面积对气枕温度、壁面温度的轴向分布

  20. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  1. Fluid in Rectangular Tank – Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquids. During earthquake activity the liquid exerts impulsive and convective pressures (sloshing on the walls and bottom of the rectangular tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of circular frequencies and hydrodynamic pressures developed during an earthquake in rectangular container. Analytical results of first natural frequency are compared with experiment.

  2. Thermography to Inspect Insulation of Large Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Thermography has been used in the past to monitor active, large, cryogenic storage tanks. This approach proposes to use thermography to monitor new or refurbished tanks, prior to filling with cryogenic liquid, to look for insulation voids. Thermography may provide significant cost and schedule savings if voids can be detected early before a tank is returned to service.

  3. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... symbols used in lines 1 and 2, in order, under the tank segregation column of Table 151.05....

  4. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks: Filling limits. 154.1844 Section 154.1844... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1844 Cargo tanks... cargo tank is not loaded: (1) More than 98 percent liquid full; or (2) In excess of the...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF TAILING UNDERWATER SEDIMENTS AND LIQUID INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN STORAGE TANK ON THE BASIS OF ECHOLOCATION AND GPS-SYSTEMS AT JSC “BELARUSKALI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to calculate volume of tailing underwater sediments and liquid industrial wastes on the basis of innovative technologies. Two theodolites which are set at various points and a boat with a load for measuring water depth have been traditionally used for topographic survey of slime storage bottom. Horizontal directions have been simultaneously measured on the boat marker while using theodolites. Water depth has been determined while using  a 2-kg circular load which was descended into brine solution with the help of rope. In addition to rather large time and labour costs such technology has required synchronization in actions on three participants involved in the work: operators of two theodolites and boat team in every depth measuring point. Methodology has been proposed for more efficient solution of the problem. It presupposes the use of echolocation together with space localization systems (GPS-systems which can be set on a boat with the purpose to measure depth of a storage tank bed. An echolocation transducer has been installed under the boat bottom at the depth of 10 cm from the brine solution level in the slime storage.  An aerial of GPS-receiver has been fixed over the echo-sounder transducer. Horizontal positioning of bottom depth measuring points have been carried out in the local coordinate system. Formation of digital model for slime storage bottom has been executed after data input of the coordinate positioning that corresponded to corrected depths in the software package LISCAD Plus SEE. The formation has been made on the basis of a strict triangulation method.  Creation of the digital model makes it rather easy to calculate a volume between a storage bottom and a selected level (height of filling material. In this context it is possible to determine a volume and an area not only above but also lower of the datum surface. For this purpose it is recommended to use digital models which are developed

  6. An adjustment method of transferring liquid among tanks automatically to reach the re-balance of the ship%液舱导移自动控制系统调节船体平衡方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明春; 唐猛

    2009-01-01

    本文目的是通过液舱导移的方式实现船体平衡被破坏后的再平衡.本文利用船体结构有限元分析中的自动调整方法建立船体平衡模型.在选定液舱导移方案后,根据舰船静力学相关知识进行船体平衡的理论分析和计算,推导出液舱导移过程中参数之间的关系,并根据这些参数关系以及单容水箱液位控制模型,以LabVIEW为平台进行液舱导移和整个船体平衡调节过程的仿真.通过计算机仿真和物理实验说明,在一定条件下,通过液舱导移的方式可实现船体平衡被破坏后的再平衡.%The purpose of this paper is to reach the re-balance of the ship through the adjustment method of transferring liquid among tanks automatically when the balance posture is changed,and also to demonstrate the balance-adjustment process and the process of transferring liquid among tanks on LabVIEW. First,a ship model was built in the light of the calculation method of adjusting automatically the afloat condition for the ship in the FE direct analysis. Secondly,after selecting a scheme of how to transfer liquid among tanks,the theoretical analysis and the calculation about the ship balance through the static mechanical knowledge of warship was investigated,and then the relationship of related parameters in the system of liquid-transfer among tanks was established. Lastly,based on the relationship,it is easy to describe the process of ship blanance adjustment. the simulation results based on virtual instrument on LabVIEW shows the adjuement scheme is reasonable to control the ship posture for balance purpose.

  7. Numerical Simulation on Stir System of Jet Ballast in High Level Liquid Waste Storage Tank%高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯迎春

    2012-01-01

    以后处理厂高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统为模拟对象,其中气相、液相和固相分别为空气、硝酸钠水溶液和球磨后的钛白粉,基于颗粒动力学理论,建立适用于高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统的气、液、固三相流动的数学模型,用CFD商用计算软件对其进行计算,得到了高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌过程中气、液和固三相的速度、压力和相含率等详细数据.研究结果表明,计算值与实验值吻合较好,验证了建立的数学模型的正确性和适用性,为高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统进一步优化设计和放大提供参考.%The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD software by commerciality was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank.

  8. 合成氨厂液氨库安全因素分析及安全措施%ANALYSIS OF SAFETY FACTORS AND SAFETY MEASURES FOR TANK-FARM OF LIQUID AMMONIA IN AMMONIA PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    以某合成氨厂为例,对该合成氨厂液氨球罐可能发生的各种危险因素采用软件进行计算和分析,有针对性的在设计中提出安全设施和措施。%Both calculation and analysis for various dangerous factors possibly occurred on a tank-farm of liquid ammonia in an ammonia plant have been carded out and the targeted safety facilities measures are requested in design work..

  9. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, W.B.; Beer, M.J.; Cukars, M.; Law, J.P.; Millet, C.B.; Murphy, J.A.; Nenni, J.A.; Park, C.V.; Pruitt, J.I.; Thiel, E.C.; Ward, F.S.; Woodard, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D&D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare.

  10. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  11. Supporting document for the North East Quandrant Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for BX-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1994-06-01

    This supporting document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quandrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  12. Supporting document for the north east quadrant historical tank content estimate report for AX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered in AX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quadrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  13. Supporting document for the north east quadrant historical tank content estimate report for C-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered on C-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quadrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  14. Dependence of hemostasis indices on external environment nemperature in women with physiological pregnancy accompanied by limitation of liquid intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the influence of extremely high temperatures on the hemostasis indices in patients with uncomplicated pregnancies with the concomitant limitation of liquid intake. The research results of hemostasis of pregnant women being hospitalized during the period of spring and summer in 2010 have been analyzed. The differences in the level of hypercoagulation changes of hemostasis in summer and spring have been found to be insignificant. In the platelet link hemostasis in summer of 2010, as compared to the spring, the increase of platelet aggregation and amount has been observed, with the exception of the third trimester, which is marked by the decrease of platelet amount. Hot seasons and liquid intake limitations make additional demands on hemostasis adaptive capacity, increasing the risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  16. Analysis of Organic Samples from the 5-H and 3-F Pump Tanks and Waste Tank 38H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingle, R.F. II

    1999-07-28

    Analyses for organic materials in aqueous and surface floating samples taken from the 5-H Pump Tank and Waste Tank 38H and in vapor samples taken from the 5-H and 3-F Pump Tanks have been completed. The results indicate that the concentration of organic materials is extremely low in all samples. This report documents the development of sampling and analysis techniques for this sampling as well as the results of the analyses of vapor samples pulled from Pump Tanks 5-H and 3-F and liquid samples pulled from Waste Tank 38H and Pump Tank 5-H.

  17. Limitation of Traditional Differential Pressure Transmitter in Liquid Ammonia Spherical Tank Liquid Level Measurement and Renovation%传统差压变送器在液氨球罐液位测量中的局限性及改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕江

    2016-01-01

    The limitation of measuring liquid level in liquid ammonia spherical tank with traditional differential pressure transmitter is analyzed and discussed , the technical characteristics of 3051S ERS, electrics remote digital differential pressure liquid level system , are presented.After the revamp of traditional differential pressure transmitter with ERS , the problem of gas-phase tube liquid accumulation of traditional differential pressure transmitter is solved completely .%分析探讨了传统差压变送器在液氨球罐液位测量中的局限性,介绍了3051S ERS电子远传数字差压液位系统的技术特点。对传统的差压变送器采用ERS系统改造后,彻底解决了传统差压变送器气相管积液的问题。

  18. Chemical composition of Hanford Tank SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, E.; Agnew, S.; Jarvinen, G.; Yarbro, S.

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the radioactive waste, both current and future, stored in double-shell and single-shell tanks at the Hanford sites. One major program element in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal using the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. In support of this program, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a conceptual process flow sheet which will remediate the entire contents of a selected double-shelled underground waste tank, including supernatant and sludge, into forms that allow storage and final disposal in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound manner. The specific tank selected for remediation is 241-SY-102 located in the 200 West Area. As part of the flow sheet development effort, the composition of the tank was defined and documented. This database was built by examining the history of liquid waste transfers to the tank and by performing careful analysis of all of the analytical data that have been gathered during the tank`s lifetime. In order to more completely understand the variances in analytical results, material and charge balances were done to help define the chemistry of the various components in the tank. This methodology of defining the tank composition and the final results are documented in this report.

  19. ANALYSIS AND CONTROL OF FIRE EXPLOSION RISK IN LIQUID AMMONIA STORAGE TANK%液氨储罐的火灾爆炸危险性分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐科

    2012-01-01

    采用危险度分析法、池火灾伤害数学模型分析法、事故树分析法对液氨储罐区火灾爆炸事故的危险性进行定性和定量评价,从不同角度对危险源的危险性进行全方位描述。从而得出清晰、准确、全面的评价结论,并且以此制定液氨储罐区火灾、爆炸危险的控制措施。%A qualitative and quantitative evaluations on the risk of fire explosion accident in tank farm of liquid ammonia are implemented by application of risk factor analysis method,pond fire harm mathematic model analysis method and accident tree analysis method and a comprehensive description of the hazard from dangerous source is given from different angle and a distinct,accurate and overall evaluation conclusion is reached and based on which,the control measures for fire explosion risk in tank farm of liquid ammonia formulated.

  20. Design Points for the Equipment and Piping Arrangement of Flammable Liquid Tank Farm%可燃液体罐区设备及管道布置设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2015-01-01

    可燃液体罐区是化工装置不可或缺的重要设施,其设备选型、管道布置等在设计上是有较高要求的,正确的设备及管道布置对罐区起着至关重要的安全保障作用。本文以甲醇为例,介绍了可燃液体储罐的设计选型、容量确定、设备布置及与之相通管道的设计要点,可为今后的可燃液体储罐的相关设计提供参考与借鉴。%Flammable liquid tank farm is an indispensable facility in chemical devices. Equipment selection, piping arrangement etc. have to meet higher requirements. Correct equipment and piping arrangement play an important guarantee role in the safety of the farm. In this paper, the methanol plant was introduced as an example for the design of unit mode selection, capacity determination, equipment arrangement and piping arrangement. This will offer some references for the design of the equipment and piping arrangement in the flammable liquid tank farm.

  1. Effect of tip curvature on ionic emissions from Taylor cones of ionic liquids from externally wetted tungsten tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S.; Fernández de la Mora, J.

    2009-02-01

    Several ionic liquids (ILs) of relatively high electrical conductivity (K) and surface tension (γ) are electrosprayed under vacuum from electrochemically sharpened and roughened tungsten wires with tip radii R varying from 2 to 80 μm. All our tips exhibit a purely ionic emission, confirming the versatility of these ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) previously demonstrated by Lozano and Martínez-Sánchez using R ˜20 μm. A drastic increase in ion current from 50 to 1000 nA results when increasing R from 2.5 up to 29 μm and above, offsetting the considerable disadvantage in current emission level previously observed for ILIS (˜200 nA) versus conventional internally fed capillary tube emitters (˜1000 nA). Experiments with shielding electrodes show that this increase in current is not due to a reduction in space charge effects associated to the higher onset voltages required at smaller curvatures. It results from a reduction in flow impedance at increasing R. Long-term stable Taylor cone operation was not achieved with any of the ILs tested, even when alternating the tip voltage to minimize electrochemical reactions.

  2. Development of an experimental system for characterization of high-temperature superconductors cooled by liquid hydrogen under the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

    2014-05-01

    An experimental system has been developed to investigate electro-magnetic properties of high-Tc superconductors cooled by liquid hydrogen under the external magnetic field of up to 7 T. A LH2 cryostat is concentrically mounted on the inside of a LHe cryostat to cool a NbTi superconducting magnet. The experimental system is installed in an explosion-proof room. Explosion proof electrical devices are used and current leads are covered with an enclosure filled with nitrogen gas. A remote control system has been developed. Furthermore, the effects of stray magnetic field on the existing and the new devices are investigated and electro-magnetic shielding panels and enclosure made of iron were designed. It is confirmed through the cryogenic test that the experimental system meets the design requirements.

  3. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  4. Research on the safety management of hospital liquid oxygen tank%医院液氧罐区的安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪厚云

    2016-01-01

    目的:防止医院液氧罐区安全事故发生,实现罐区零泄漏、零火灾、零爆炸、零事故和零死亡的目标。方法:通过现场调查省级5家、市级2家、县级3家医院罐区情况,了解罐区设备数量、贮罐容积大小、消防配置、静电接地和防雷措施,指出日常检查罐区应注意事项。结果:制定出加强液氧罐区日常安全管理、罐区设备设施安全管理、罐区消防安全管理、罐区防雷防静电接地安全管理、槽车安全等措施,防控风险。结论:医院应切实落实罐区安全工作主体责任,严格监督检查,消除隐患,杜绝事故,强化罐区安全管理,确保医院用氧安全。%Objective:To prevent hospital oxygen area security accident, realize the goal of the zero leakage, fire, explosive null, zero accidents, zero death.Methods:Through the field investigation of oxygen tank area at the 5 provincial level hospitals, 2 municipal hospitals, 3 county hospitals to understand the equipment quantity, tank volume, fire protection configuration, static electricity grounding and lightning protection measures, pointed out the matters needing attention of daily check O2 tank area.Results: Hospital oxygen tank area is dangerous area and prone to leakage, fire or explosion. Strengthen the security tanks area can avoid all kinds of accidents.Conclusion: Hospital implemented oxygen tank area main responsibility for safety, conducted strict supervision and inspection for eliminating hidden dangers and preventing accidents. It strengthen the tank area safety management to ensure safe oxygen used in hospital.

  5. The influence of an external electric field on the propagation of light waves in cholesteric liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, E. V.; Karetnikov, A. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Krainyukov, E. S.; Svanidze, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The specific features of light transmission in a cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) cell with a director rotated by 90° have been investigated. In this structure, where a light wave is incident at a large angle with respect to the LC surface, the light is reflected (refracted) in the LC layer near the opposite boundary. It is shown that the application of an electric field changes the character of extraordinary wave refraction, as a result of which light starts passing through a cell. The transmission threshold voltage is determined, and its dependence on the angle of incidence of light is obtained. The dependence of the transmitted-light intensity on the voltage across the cell is obtained as well. The same dependences are also derived by numerical calculations with allowance for the turning points and extinction.

  6. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsbosch-Dam Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load – for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  7. 旋转喷吹除气箱中气液两相流动行为的数值研究%Numerical Study on Gas-liquid Flow Behavior in Rotating Spray Degassing Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会

    2011-01-01

    The Eulerian two-fluid model incorporating with the multiple reference frame method was adopted to simulate the gas-liquid flow field in rotating spray degassing tank, and a new modeling method based on the computational domain was proposed to describe the liquid top surface. The influences of factors on the gas-liquid flow behavior were also investigated. The results show that the modeling method for describing the liquid top surface is feasible. With the decrease of bubble size and the increase of rotational speed, the purging time and melt/bubble interface increase, and purge gas distribution in degassing tank improves, which are beneficial to the refinement of melt. In addition, using the cylindrical tank, the purge gas mainly congregates around the rotational shaft, and swirl always occurs, which is disadvantage to the degassing of hydrogen.%利用欧拉模型和多参考坐标系法对旋转喷吹除气箱中的气液两相流场进行数值模拟,提出基于计算域的选取获取自由液面波动的建模方法,并考察了不同因素对除气箱内气液两相流动行为产生的影响.结果表明.提出的获取自由液面波动的建模方法是可行的.随气泡直径的减小、搅拌转速的增加,气体在除气箱中停留时间延长.与铝熔体接触面积增大,气体在除气箱中的分布得到改善,有利于铝熔体的净化.此外,采用圆柱形除气箱,气体大多聚集在转杆周围,且易发生打漩现象,这对铝熔体的除氢不利.

  8. Liquid mixing and Curcumin nanoparticle preparation in stirred tanks%搅拌釜内液-液混合溶析沉淀法制备纳米姜黄素颗粒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵述芳; 王文坦; 胡银玉; 邵婷; 金涌; 程易

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of Curcumin nanoparticles was realized in a small stirred tank by the anti-solvent precipitation process. The influences of such factors as tank size, stirring style, initial concentration and rotation speed on nanoparticle preparation were investigated. Meanwhile, planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used to quantitatively measure the liquid-liquid mixing performance in the tank, and the mixing environment was found to be important for the preparation of nanoparticles. A low stirring speed in a small stirred tank with a turbine impeller could not achieve the desired mixing efficiency because of agglomeration of nanoparticles. An overly high stirring speed brought in strong shearing interaction between particles and fluid so that many particles were broken up. Overly high over-saturation in local areas would cause growth and agglomeration of particles. The optimal mixing environment with moderate process intensification was crucial to successfully prepare high quality Curcumin nanoparticles with spherical shape and narrow size distribution.%研究了在搅拌釜内利用溶析沉淀法制备姜黄素纳米颗粒的过程,分别探讨了搅拌釜尺寸、搅拌形式、初始浓度以及搅拌转速对制备结果的影响.通过平面激光诱导荧光技术定量测量釜内液液混合行为,揭示了流体混合环境的控制是决定溶析沉淀产品过程的关键因素.实验表明,搅拌速度过低无法保证流体混合效率,将导致颗粒黏结;搅拌速度过高带来颗粒与流场的强剪切作用,引起颗粒破碎;局部过饱和度过大,引起颗粒的生长和聚团.搅拌釜内纳米颗粒制备需提供适度强化的流体混合环境.

  9. TANK48 CFD MODELING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-05-17

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four dual-nozzle slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. For the work, a Tank 48 simulation model with a maximum of four slurry pumps in operation has been developed to estimate flow patterns for efficient solid mixing. The modeling calculations were performed by using two modeling approaches. One approach is a single-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to evaluate the flow patterns and qualitative mixing behaviors for a range of different modeling conditions since the model was previously benchmarked against the test results. The other is a two-phase CFD model to estimate solid concentrations in a quantitative way by solving the Eulerian governing equations for the continuous fluid and discrete solid phases over the entire fluid domain of Tank 48. The two-phase results should be considered as the preliminary scoping calculations since the model was not validated against the test results yet. A series of sensitivity calculations for different numbers of pumps and operating conditions has been performed to provide operational guidance for solids suspension and mixing in the tank. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary. Major solid obstructions including the pump housing, the pump columns, and the 82 inch central support column were included. The steady state and three-dimensional analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENT{trademark} for the single-phase approach and CFX for the two-phase approach. Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and spatial mixing under single-phase tank model. For quantitative analysis, a two-phase fluid-solid model was developed for the same modeling conditions as the single

  10. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  11. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned.

  12. Tank 241-BX-106: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-106. (Waste from this tank shall be transferred to a double-shell tank.)

  13. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  14. Production of Validamycins from Crude Substrates by Streptomyces hygroscopicus in an External-loop Airlift Bioreactor with a Low Height-to-Diameter Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 陈小龙; 汪钊; 沈寅初

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation experiments to produce validamycins from crude substrates by Streptomyces hygroscopicus were carried out in an external-loop airlift bioreactor (0.0115 m3 ) with a low ratio of height to diameter of the riser of 2.9 and a ratio of riser to downcomer diameter of 6.6. The influences of gas flow rate and liquid volume on fermentation of validamycins were investigated. Comparisons of validamycin fermentation were made among the external-loop airlift bioreactor, a mechanically stirred tank bioreactor (0.010m3 ) and shaking flasks. Under the same operation conditions including fermentation medium composition, inoculum ratio and culture temperature, the fermentation time in the external-loop airlift bioreactor (45 h) was shorter than that in the shaking flasks (100 h) and the same as that in the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. After a total fermentation time of 45 h under optimized operation conditions, average validamycin concentration obtained in the external-loop airlift bioreactor was close to 19630 μg·ml-1 validamycin concentration in the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It was demonstrated that the external-loop airlift bioreactor could substitute for the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor in production of validamycins from crude substrates with dregs by Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

  15. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  16. AX Tank farm process impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-03-18

    This study provides facility and process concepts and costs for partial decontamination of the most heavily contaminated debris from the demolition of the four AX tanks and ancillary equipment items. This debris would likely be classified as high-level and/or remote handle TRU waste based on source and radiological inventory. A process flow sheet was developed to treat contaminated metal wastes such as pipes and tank liners as well as contaminated concrete and the residual waste and grout left in the tanks after final waste retrieval. The treated solid waste is prepared for delivery to either the ERDF or the Low-Level waste burial grounds. Liquid waste products are delivered to the private vitrification contractor for further treatment and storage. This is one of several reports prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to develop retrieval performance criteria for tank farms.

  17. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  18. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  19. 锅炉储水罐液位控制系统的创新设计%Innovative Design of Liquid Level Control System of Boiler Water Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平

    2014-01-01

    In view of the imperfect of the existing boiler whose control device of liquid level of water storage tank can't accu-rately control water level, this paper designed a kind of safe ,reliable and accurate ultrasonic liquid level control system. Through the ultrasonic non-contact measurement, the chemical and physical properties of liquid of the system turned out to be adaptively strong. Simple structure, easy installation, high measurement precision, wide applicability integrate the system.%针对现有锅炉储水罐液位控制装置,不能精确控制水位的缺陷,设计了一种安全可靠、精确度高的超声波液位控制系统。该系统通过超声波非接触测量,液体的物理、化学性质的适应性极强。该系统结构简单、安装方便、测量精度高、适用性广。

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TANK 18F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Click, D.; Diprete, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 18F closure samples. Tank 18F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the 'as-received' slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 18F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 18F in March 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 18F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one North Tank 18F Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one South Tank 18F Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 18F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the minimum detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 18F, some were not met due to spectral interferences. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 19F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 19F closure samples. Tank 19F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 19F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 19F in April 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 19F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one Tank 19F North Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one Tank 19F South Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 19F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on detection values of 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the target detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 19F, some were not met. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  4. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  5. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  6. 气泡尺寸对曝气池内气液两相流数值模拟的影响%Influence of the bubble size on numerical simulation of the gas-liquid flow in aeration tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖柏青; 张法星; 戎贵文

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of bubble size on numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow in aeration tanks, a mathematical model for two-phase flow in aeration tanks was established using large-eddy simulation and Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Based on the measured bubble size distribution produced by a commonly used membrane diffuser in model experiments, three kinds of bubble size set schemes in numerical simulation were designed. The effect of the different set schemes on the calculation of the flow velocity and gas holdup was studied. Bubble size had a great influence on the flow field in aeration tanks, and had little effect on the gas holdup distribution in most regions except the vicinity of the gas holdup peak; the input of bubble size using multiple size groups instead of a single group improved the prediction of two-phase flow in aeration tanks; when single bubble size was used, it should be as close to the average bubble diameter as possible.%为探索在曝气池气液两相流数值模拟中气泡尺寸对两相流流动特性的影响,采用大涡模拟和欧拉—拉格朗日方法建立了曝气池两相流数学模型.基于模型实验得到的工程上常用的微孔曝气盘的气泡尺寸分布,在数值模拟中设定了3种气泡尺寸分布方案,比较了不同的气泡尺寸设定方案对计算曝气池内水流流速和气含率等参数的影响.结果表明,气泡尺寸对水流流场具有较大的影响,而对气含率分布的影响在大部分区域不明显,只在气含率峰值附近影响较显著;使用多组气泡尺寸的设定方案可以提高计算结果的准确性,采用单组气泡尺寸时应尽量使其接近平均气泡直径.

  7. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  8. The modified swirl sedimentation tanks for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochowiak, Marek; Matuszak, Magdalena; Włodarczak, Sylwia; Ancukiewicz, Małgorzata; Krupińska, Andżelika

    2017-03-15

    This paper discusses design, evaluation, and application for the use of swirl/vortex technologies as liquid purification system. A study was performed using modified swirl sedimentation tanks. The vortex separators (OW, OWK, OWR and OWKR) have been studied under laboratory conditions at liquid flow rate from 2.8⋅10(-5) to 5.1⋅10(-4) [m(3)/s]. The pressure drop and the efficiency of purification of liquid stream were analyzed. The suspended particles of different diameters were successfully removed from liquid with the application of swirl chambers of proposed constructions. It was found that damming of liquid in the tank increases alongside liquid stream at the inlet and depends on the tank construction. The efficiency of the sedimentation tanks increases alongside the diameters of solid particles and decrease in the liquid flow rate. The best construction proved to be the OWR sedimentation tank due to smallest liquid damming, even at high flow rates, and the highest efficiency of the purification liquid stream for solid particles of the smallest diameter. The proposed solution is an alternative to the classical constructions of sedimentation tanks.

  9. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  10. New insights in the velocity dependency of the external mass transfer coefficient in 2D and 3D porous media for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert

    2012-03-02

    Numerical calculations of the mobile zone mass transfer rate in a variety of ordered 2D and 3D structures are presented. These calculations are in line with earlier theoretical and experimental findings made in the field of chemical engineering and suggest that the Sherwood-number (Sh(m)) appearing in the mobile phase mass transfer term of the general plate height expression of liquid chromatography is not correctly predicted by the Wilson-Geankoplis--or the Kataoka--or the penetration model expression that have been used up to now to in the field of LC, and that at least more research is needed before these expressions can be continued to be used with confidence. The aforementioned expressions were obtained by neglecting the effect of axial dispersion on the mass transfer process, and it seems that they therefore underestimate the true Sh(m)-number by a factor of 2-5 around the minimum of the van Deemter-curve. New correlations describing the variation of the Sh(m)-coefficient as a function of the reduced velocity for a number of other packing geometries (tetrahedral monolith, 2D pillar array) are proposed. These correlations are in agreement with earlier theoretical and experimental studies showing that at low velocities the local-driving force-based Sh(m)-value is of the order of 10-20 in a packed bed column with an external porosity on the order of 35-40%.

  11. Compound fault diagnosis of liquid ammonia tank car based on probabilistic neural network%基于概率神经网络的液氨汽车罐车复合故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马成正

    2011-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is important to ensure the safety of hazardous chemical tank car' transportation. From the requirements of transportation security, based on the structural features of liquid ammonia tank car and the requirements of laws in domestics, the fault signature parameters of liquid ammonia tank car were analyzed ali sidedly.The parameters were established as input nodes of probabilistic neural network. According to the fault classification in view of the facts, the fault tolerant and adaptive abilities of fault diagnosis were considered to structure the compound fault diagnosis model based on probabilistic neural network. Using index parameters as the network training samples, the unknown failure modes were diagnosed. The proposed method was applied to prove the liquid ammonia sense data which provided by pressure vessel inspection of Guangxi area. The result indicated that the model has the advantages of the clear physical concepts and high precision, so the used method is feasible and rational.The work specified in this paper can be as reference to the compound fault diagnosis of hazardous chemical tank car.%故障诊断在保证危险化学品汽车罐车运输安全方面具有重要意义.从国内交通运输安全的实际要求出发,依据液氨汽车罐车的结构特点及国家法律法规的要求,比较全面、系统地分析了液氨汽车罐车故障特征的相关参数,并将其作为概率神经网络的输入结点.根据实际可能发生的故障分类模式,考虑到故障诊断的容错能力和自适应能力,提出了基于概率神经网络的复合故障诊断模型.利用指标参数作为网络训练样本,对未知故障模式进行诊断,并以广西地区压力容器检验所液氨检测数据为例进行说明.理论分析和实例计算表明,该模型物理概念清晰,计算结果合理,精度较高,在危险化学品汽车罐车故障诊断中有很好的适用性.该项工作可为我国危险化学品汽车罐车

  12. Composite propellant tank study for very low cost space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. J.; Keith, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study of life-cycle cost is conducted to determine acceptable options for composite propellant tanks at low cost and weight and for use at moderate pressures. The review examines all cost issues relevant to the production, mass, applications, and reliability of the tanks for pressure-fed rockets. Specific attention is given to the manufacturing and life-cycle issues relevant to the use of composite materials in this application since composites are effective materials for liquid propellant tanks. Specific costs and parametric considerations are given for several tank candidates with 62,303-lb capacities. The mass sensitivity of the fourth stage for the concept vehicle is shown to be high, and the use of a 325-psi fourth-stage tank is shown to yield the minimum cost/lb for the stage. Wound S-glass/epoxy composites can be employed as cost-effective replacements for steel in the design of liquid-propellant tanks.

  13. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  14. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  15. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  16. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Technical Retrofit of Chlorine Leakage Treatment in Liquid Chlorine Tank and Packing District%液氯罐区、包装区氯气泄漏处理的技改

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红霞; 张金; 王林

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine is virulent, it will cause significant harm to people and environment if chlorine leals. Therefore, in most alkali enterprises, it is the most important for preventing the leakage of liquid chlorine in the production and storage. The chlorine leakage treatment of existing installations in the small and medium scale chlor-alkali enterprises in our region were introduced and then, a retrofit scheme was proposed. A spray device was designed both for the storage tank of liquid chlorine and package area. It works more effectively in case of chlorine leakage.%氯气属于剧毒品,如果泄漏对环境和人身均会造成重大危害.所以在液氯的生产和储存管理中如何防止泄漏是氯碱企业的重中之重.本文介绍了本地区中小型氯碱企业现有装置氯气泄漏的处理,提出了技改方案,设计了一种用于液氯液化储槽、液氯包装区的事故氯喷淋装置,有效地预防了氯气的泄漏.

  18. Contoured tank outlets for draining of cylindrical tanks in low-gravity environment. [Lewis Research Center Zero Gravity Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented for defining the outlet contour of a hemispherical-bottomed cylindrical tank that will prevent vapor ingestion when the tank is drained. The analysis was used to design two small-scale tanks that were fabricated and then tested in a low gravity environment. The draining performance of the tanks was compared with that for a tank with a conventional outlet having a constant circular cross-sectional area, under identical conditions. Even when drained at off-design conditions, the contoured tank had less liquid residuals at vapor ingestion than the conventional outlet tank. Effects of outflow rate, gravitational environment, and fluid properties on the outlet contour are discussed. Two potential applications of outlet contouring are also presented and discussed.

  19. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  20. Thermal stratification in LH2 tank of cryogenic propulsion stage tested in ISRO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, M.; Raj, R. Edwin; Narayanan, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are used as oxidizer and fuel respectively in cryogenic propulsion system. These liquids are stored in foam insulated tanks of cryogenic propulsion system and are pressurized using warm pressurant gas supplied for tank pressure maintenance during cryogenic engine operation. Heat leak to cryogenic propellant tank causes buoyancy driven liquid stratification resulting in formation of warm liquid stratum at liquid free surface. This warm stratum is further heated by the admission of warm pressurant gas for tank pressurization during engine operation. Since stratified layer temperature has direct bearing on the cavitation free operation of turbo pumps integrated in cryogenic engine, it is necessary to model the thermal stratification for predicting stratified layer temperature and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation. These inputs are required for estimating the minimum pressure to be maintained by tank pressurization system. This paper describes configuration of cryogenic stage for ground qualification test, stage hot test sequence, a thermal model and its results for a foam insulated LH2 tank subjected to heat leak and pressurization with hydrogen gas at 200 K during liquid outflow at 38 lps for engine operation. The above model considers buoyancy flow in free convection boundary layer caused by heat flux from tank wall and energy transfer from warm pressurant gas etc. to predict temperature of liquid stratum and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation in stage qualification tests carried out in ISRO facility.

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section 179.400-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer...

  2. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  3. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-09

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118.

  4. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105.

  5. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-14

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104.

  6. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel.

  7. 外电场作用下柔性模型水的分子动力学模拟%Effect of an external electric field on liquid water using molecular dynamics simulation with a flexible potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炜; 陈中; 黄素逸

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water were performed at 258 K and density of 1.0 g/cm3 under different strengths of an external electric field, ranging from 0 to 8.0 × 109 V/m, to investigate the influence of an external field on structural and dynamic properties of water.The flexible simple point charge model is used for water molecules.An enhancement of the water hydrogen bond structure with increasing strength of the electric field has been deduced from the radial distribution functions and the analysis of hydrogen bond structure.With increasing field strength, water system has a more perfect structure, which is similar to ice structure.However, the electrofreezing phenomenon of liquid water has not been detected because of a too large self-diffusion coefficient.The self-diffusion coefficient decreases remarkably with increasing strength of electric field, and the self-diffusion coefficient is anisotropic.

  8. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  9. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters.

  10. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters.

  11. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  12. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  13. 侧进式搅拌釜内气液两相流的数值模拟%Gas-liquid flow dynamics simulation in side-entering stirred tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 肖文德

    2013-01-01

    采用计算流体力学(CFD)技术对φ1.5 m×1.2 m侧进式气液搅拌釜内气液两相流场进行数值模拟,检验了3种气液分界面边界条件和两种相间曳力模型.通过UDF程序将上述模型分别与欧拉双流体模型和dispersed k-ε两相湍流模型进行耦合计算,得到搅拌功率准数、总体气含率和气相分布,并与冷模实验结果进行对比,得到能准确预测的CFD模型.研究结果表明,3种气液界面边界条件下采用标准S-N模型计算所得的功率准数和气体分布误差均较大,而Brucato Tsuchiya模型的预测结果更接近实验结果;气液界面边界条件对总体气含率的预测影响较大,采用速度进口或脱气边界和Brucato-Tsuchiya模型耦合计算所得的结果误差比压力出口边界明显要小.%Gas-liquid turbulent flow in a side-entering stirred tank with φ1.5 m× 1.2 m was simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Three interface boundary conditions (pressure-outlet,velocity-inlet and degassing boundary) and two drag force models (standard S-N model and Brucato-Tsuchiya model) were presented and respectively coupled with the Euler-Euler model and dispersed two-phase k-ε turbulence model by using user define function (UDF).The impeller power number,total gas holdup and gas phase distribution in the tank were calculated and compared with the measurements of the cold model experiments to investigate the effect of boundary condition of gas-liquid interface and drag force model on prediction accuracy.The results indicated that the predicted results calculated with the CFD model coupled with the Brucato-Tsuchiya model and adopting the velocity-inlet or degassing boundary condition,were in agreement with the experimental results,much better than the pressure-outlet boundary condition.

  14. In-tank shutoff valve is provided with maximum blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, C. F.

    1966-01-01

    In-tank shutoff valve is installed with the valve poppet and actuator inside the tank to provide maximum blast protection during rocket engine test operation. This valve design is applicable wherever explosive fuels are used and is currently being used in lox and liquid hydrogen tanks at a rocket engine test site.

  15. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  16. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  17. 液体火箭贮箱增压排液过程三种气枕模型的数值对比%Numerical comparison of three ullage models for the tank pressurization process of liquid rocket during outflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 厉彦忠; 李翠; 赵志翔

    2011-01-01

    针对液氧贮箱氦气增压排液过程,分别建立了零维整体模型、一维分层模型及二维计算流体力学(CFD)模型对气枕物理场的变化规律进行数值研究.零维及一维模型采用经验公式求解气枕与壁面间的换热量,而二维CFD模型通过低雷诺数k-ε模型确定流体与固壁间的耦合换热作用.计算时氦气采用理想气体模型.利用三种模型分别预测了贮箱内气枕压力、气枕平均温度及温度分布规律.计算结果表明:三组结果分布合理,不同模型的结果之间能够互相印证;对于气枕及与气枕接触壁面沿轴向的温度分布,在气枕主体区一维模型与二维模型预测结果基本吻合,而在靠近消能器的气枕上端,两种模型预测值存在偏差;当增压气体入口速度较大时,气枕上端径向温度分层明显,需采用二维CFD模型才能展示气枕物理场分布.%In view of the process of helium pressurization in a liquid oxygen tank during outflow,the numerical methods of zero-dimensional integrated model,one-dimensional stratification model and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) model were adopted to study the variation law of ullage physical field,respectively.An empirical formula was set up to solve the heat transfer rate between ullage and tank wall in the zero-dimensional model and in the one-dimension model,while the low Reynolds number k-ε model was selected to calculate the coupled heat transfer rate between fluid and tank wall in the two-dimensional CFD model.The helium density was calculated by the ideal-gas model.The ullage pressure,ullage average temperature and temperature distribution were forecasted by these three models,respectively.The computational results show that the forecasted ullage pressure and ullage average temperature of three models show reasonable distribution,and the results of different models can be confirmed one another.In addition,the calculated axial temperature

  18. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied...... in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how...

  19. Development of a 3D CFD model for velocity and concentration field of a jet flow in CANDU-6 moderator tank induced by high velocity injection of liquid neutron poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo Wook; Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hye Jeong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This report describes the development and validation work of developing a 3D CFD model for analyzing the liquid poison jet velocity and concentration which is necessary for the performance test of SDS2 of CANDU-6 among the forseeable problems expected in the CANDU-6 loaded with DUPIC fuel. As a boundary condition the liquid poison injection rate through each injection hole was given and the 3D CFD model for analyzing the downstream flow and concentration field is developed and validated. The injection rate is calculated by the ALITRIG code developed by AECL. As the ratio of the calandria tank and the injection hole drilled at the injection nozzle is as big as 2000, the grid generation for the calandria is very difficult as the number of the grid can easily exceed the computational load limit of the available work station. Thus to overcome this difficulty the inlet jet flow has been modeled as a source term of the mass, momentum and concentration at the grid near the real inlet. This modeling method enabled the analysis of the jet velocity and concentration possible within the computation limit of the available work station. And as the experimental data available for validating this model has only video taped pictures, and the jet height growth rate is estimated by the observer's subjective judgement, it was most difficult to convert the location of the jet front to the corresponding concentration value. Utilizing the experiment data from Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the jet growth rate was validated and the result was very much encouraging. Based on the results the 3D CFD model developed in this report shows physically reasonable results and will be used for the analysis of SDS2 performance test along with the reactor physics codes.

  20. 基于云模型的水箱液位控制系统的设计与实现%Design and Realization of a Tank Liquid Lever Control System Based on the Cloud Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李众; 李军; 王海波

    2012-01-01

    A tank liquid lever control system based on cloud model is designed and implemented. The site part of the A3000 process control systerm as the hardware platform, hybrid programming of VB and Matlab achieving the software, the Kingview collecting and displaying date, DDE transforming date are used. In the absence of establish the precise mathematical model of the case, the effect and the robustness of the cloud model controller to are veri-fyed. The experimental results on cloud model theory research as well as industrial control field has certain reference significance.%设计并实现了水箱水位的云模型控制系统.以A3000过程控制系统的现场部分为硬件平台,软件采用VB与Matlab的混合编程,组态采集数据及数据显示.数据传输方式采用DDE通讯技术.验证了云模型控制器在没有建立精确数学模型的情况下的控制效果.验证了云模型控制器的鲁棒性.实验结果对云模型的理论研究以及工业控制现场具有一定的参考意义.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  2. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  3. Chemical Equilibrium of Aluminate in Hanford Tank Waste Originating from Tanks 241-AN-105 and 241-AP-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, Gary A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The purposes of the study described in this document follow; Determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of gibbsite in contact with two real tank waste supernatant liquids through both dissolution of gibbsite (bottom-up approach) and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids (top-down approach); determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of a mixture of gibbsite and real tank waste saltcake in contact with real tank waste supernatant liquid through both dissolution of gibbsite and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids; and characterize the solids present after equilibrium and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids.

  4. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slop tanks in tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number....

  5. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M{sup 3} (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  6. Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275.

  7. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  8. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  9. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  10. Analysis of multiple tank car releases in train accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liu, Chang; Hong, Yili

    2017-10-01

    There are annually over two million carloads of hazardous materials transported by rail in the United States. The American railroads use large blocks of tank cars to transport petroleum crude oil and other flammable liquids from production to consumption sites. Being different from roadway transport of hazardous materials, a train accident can potentially result in the derailment and release of multiple tank cars, which may result in significant consequences. The prior literature predominantly assumes that the occurrence of multiple tank car releases in a train accident is a series of independent Bernoulli processes, and thus uses the binomial distribution to estimate the total number of tank car releases given the number of tank cars derailing or damaged. This paper shows that the traditional binomial model can incorrectly estimate multiple tank car release probability by magnitudes in certain circumstances, thereby significantly affecting railroad safety and risk analysis. To bridge this knowledge gap, this paper proposes a novel, alternative Correlated Binomial (CB) model that accounts for the possible correlations of multiple tank car releases in the same train. We test three distinct correlation structures in the CB model, and find that they all outperform the conventional binomial model based on empirical tank car accident data. The analysis shows that considering tank car release correlations would result in a significantly improved fit of the empirical data than otherwise. Consequently, it is prudent to consider alternative modeling techniques when analyzing the probability of multiple tank car releases in railroad accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulation of Liquid Ammonia Storage Tank Leakage Diffusion Based on Gaussian Model%基于高斯模型的液氨储罐泄漏扩散仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪德; 莫朝霞

    2012-01-01

    For analysis and forecast of ammonia leakage diffusion distance and its sphere of influence, in order to control and reduce the accident consequences effectively, taking the liquid ammonia tank of chemical industrial park in Dalian as an example, the liquid ammonia leakage diffusion law were simulated. Firstly, according to the simulation analysis of Gauss smoke plume model, the liquid ammonia diffusion contour curve is plotted. Secondly, basing on the influences analysis of different wind speeds, ground roughness, atmosphere stability and leakage velocity on liquid ammonia diffusion, the relationships of ammonia diffusion distances with these influence factors are constructed. Thirdly, the effects of the typical environments, such as difference season, day and night, on liquid ammonia diffusion are analyzed, and the prediction suggestions are put forward. Finally, the real monitoring and control suggestion for liquid ammonia area, and the emergency evacuation measurements in hazard are provided. Results show that the diffusion distance and range of ammonia present first increased and then decreased tendency with the wind speed increase; the diffusion distance decreases with surface roughness increase; the more stable the atmosphere , the greater the diffusion distance and range of ammonia along with the ground surface; the diffusion distance and diffusion range are far larger in night then in day.%为分析和预测氨气泄漏的扩散距离及其影响范围,有效控制和降低事故的后果,以大连某化工园区液氨储罐泄漏为背景,对液氨泄漏的扩散规律进行数值仿真研究.首先,基于高斯烟羽模型仿真分析,绘制液氨扩散等值曲线;其次,分析风速、地表粗糙度、大气稳定度、泄漏速率等因素对液氨扩散影响,构建各因素与扩散距离之间的数值关系;第三,分析不同季节、白昼和夜间等典型环境因素对液氨扩散影响以及防范建议;最后,基于数值仿真结

  12. DECOUPLER DESIGN FOR AN INTERACTING TANKS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model forthe two interacting tanks system was derived and the dynamic behavior of thissystem was studied by introducing a step change in inlet flow rate. In thispaper, the analysis of the interaction loops between the controlled variable(liquid level and manipulated variable (inlet flow rate was carried out usingthe relative gain array. Also decoupling technique is applied to eliminate theeffect this interaction by design suitable decouplers for the system. Theresults show that the gain of each loop is cut in half when the opposite loopis closed and the gain of other loop changes sign when the opposite loop isclosed. The decoupling method show that the liquid level of tank one isconstant when the second inlet flow changes and to keep the liquid level oftank two constant the first inlet flow must be changed.

  13. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  14. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  15. Modeling of gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor agitated by a Rushton turbine or a new pitched blade impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelves, Ricardo; Dietrich, A; Takors, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance model (PBM) approach has been applied to simulate hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a 0.18 m(3) gas-liquid stirred bioreactor agitated by (1) a Rushton turbine, and (2) a new pitched blade geometry with rotating cartridges. The operating conditions chosen were motivated by typical settings used for culturing mammalian cells. The effects of turbulence, rotating flow, bubbles breakage and coalescence were simulated using the k-ε, multiple reference frame (MRF), Sliding mesh (SM) and PBM approaches, respectively. Considering the new pitched blade geometry with rotating aeration microspargers, [Formula: see text] mass transfer was estimated to be 34 times higher than the conventional Rushton turbine set-up. Notably, the impeller power consumption was modeled to be about 50 % lower. Independent [Formula: see text] measurements applying the same operational conditions confirmed this finding. Motivated by these simulated and experimental results, the new aeration and stirring device is qualified as a very promising tool especially useful for cell culture applications which are characterized by the challenging problem of achieving relatively high mass transfer conditions while inserting only low stirrer energy.

  16. Development of deep drawn aluminum piston tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.C.; Bronder, R.L.; Kilgard, L.W.; Evans, M.C.; Ormsby, A.E.; Spears, H.R.; Wilson, J.D.

    1990-06-08

    An aluminum piston tank has been developed for applications requiring lightweight, low cost, low pressure, positive-expulsion liquid storage. The 3 liter (183 in{sup 3}) vessel is made primarily from aluminum sheet, using production forming and joining operations. The development process relied mainly on pressurizing prototype parts and assemblies to failure, as the primary source of decision making information for driving the tank design toward its optimum minimum-mass configuration. Critical issues addressed by development testing included piston operation, strength of thin-walled formed shells, alloy choice, and joining the end cap to the seamless deep drawn can. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  17. 低温丙烯储罐的自动控制%Automatic Control for Cryogenic Propylene Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 方留安

    2013-01-01

    Large cryogenic tank pressure is close to atmospheric pressure.The change of external environment easily causes change of tank pressure,and influences the safe operation of storage tank negatively.The storage tank is equipped with a set of DCS and a set of ESD.DCS and ESD are fully independent.Precision servo liquid level meter and tuning fork liquid level switch are used for tank level measurement,control and interlock.Flow balance method is used to detect leakage of propylene conveying pipeline.Temperature detection is uniformly distributed on the ceiling inner surface of tank,bottom inner surface and inner surface.Three pressure transmitters are used for tank pressure measurement,control and interlock.The results show the safe and reliable control and interlock system can not only guarantee safe operation of storage tank,but also can achieve good economie benefit.%大型低温储罐压力接近常压,环境变化极易引起储罐压力的变化,造成安全隐患.储罐装置控制系统和联锁系统采用独立的DCS和紧急停车系统(ESD);精度伺服液位计和音叉式液位开关用于储罐液位的测量、控制和联锁;采用流量平衡法检测丙烯输送管线的泄漏,温度检测均匀分布在储罐吊顶内表面、罐底内表面、罐壁内表面;采用3台压力变送器对储罐的压力进行测量、控制和联锁.应用表明:安全可靠的控制系统和联锁系统,既保障了储罐的安全运行又取得了良好的经济效益.

  18. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  19. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  20. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  1. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  2. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Sloshing in Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaas, F.

    1995-12-31

    For oil cargo ship tanks and liquid natural gas carriers, the dimensions of the tanks are often such that the highest resonant sloshing periods and the ship motions are in the same period range, which may cause violent resonant sloshing of the liquid. In this doctoral thesis, linear and non-linear analytical potential theory solutions of the sloshing problem are studied for a two-dimensional rectangular tank and a vertical circular cylindrical tank, using perturbation technique for the non-linear case. The tank is forced to oscillate harmonically with small amplitudes of sway with frequency in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequency of the fluid inside the tank. The method is extended to other tank shapes using a combined analytical and numerical method. A boundary element numerical method is used to determine the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the problem. These are used in the non-linear analytical free surface conditions, and the velocity potential and free surface elevation for each boundary value problem in the perturbation scheme are determined by the boundary element method. Both the analytical method and the combined analytical and numerical method are restricted to tanks with vertical walls in the free surface. The suitability of a commercial programme, FLOW-3D, to estimate sloshing is studied. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. The free surface as function of time is traced using the fractional volume of fluid method. 59 refs., 54 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. 基于BP神经网络PID算法的水箱液位控制系统设计%Design of liquid level control system of water tank based on BP network PID algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀忠

    2012-01-01

    针对水箱液位这样一个多干扰、大惯性、高度非线性系统控制性能优化较困难,传统的控制策略在控制精度、灵敏度以及系统稳定性均存在缺陷,充分利用神经网络具有非线性函数逼近能力,构造神经网络PID自整定控制器,在解决高度非线性和严重不确定系统方面具有较好控制能力.解决了传统PID控制算法难以保证系统在任何工况条件下始终具有最佳控制性能的难题.仿真结果表明,该控制能使系统达到较好的控制效果.%For the problem of controlling the liquid level of water tank with multi- interference, large inertia and highly nonlinear, the traditional control strategy has disadvantages in control precision, sensitivity and system stability. BP neural network control makes full use of neural network approximation capability to construct neural network self-tuning PID controller, having better control in resolving the highly nonlinear seriously uncertain systems. It overcomes the shortcoming of traditional PID controller which can not assure optimal control performance for system in any working condition. Simulated result indicates this control is able to make system reach satisfied control effect.

  4. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  5. Production of Validamycins from Crude Substrates by Streptomyces hygroscopicus in an External-loop Airlift Bioreactor with a Low Height-to-Diameter Ratio%低高径比外循环气升式生物反应器带渣发酵生产有效霉素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 陈小龙; 汪钊; 沈寅初

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation experiments to produce validamycins from crude substrates by Streptomyces hygroscopicus were carried out in an external-loop airlift bioreactor (0.0115 m3 ) with a low ratio of height to diameter of the riser of 2.9 and a ratio of riser to downcomer diameter of 6.6. The influences of gas flow rate and liquid volume on fermentation of validamycins were investigated. Comparisons of validamycin fermentation were made among the external-loop airlift bioreactor, a mechanically stirred tank bioreactor (0.010m3 ) and shaking flasks. Under the same operation conditions including fermentation medium composition, inoculum ratio and culture temperature,the fermentation time in the external-loop airlift bioreactor (45 h) was shorter than that in the shaking flasks (100 h)and the same as that in the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. After a total fermentation time of 45 h under optimized operation conditions, average validamycin concentration obtained in the external-loop airlift bioreactor was close to 19630μg.m1-1 validamycin concentration in the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It was demonstrated that the external-loop airlift bioreactor could substitute for the mechanically stirred tank bioreactor in production of validamycins from crude substrates with dregs by Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

  6. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  7. 固体颗粒对搅拌罐中气液传质的影响%Influence of Solid Particles on Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in a Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙作良; 韩冰; Louhi-Kultanen Marjatta

    2015-01-01

    在带有Rushton搅拌桨的搅拌罐中,研究了恒定温度和恒定气体流量条件下不同粒径的固体颗粒和搅拌速率对气液传质速率的影响.结果表明:固体体积分数小于0.08%,时,石英砂(41.1,µm和640,µm)对气液体积传质系数kLa没有影响;而对于碳酸钙颗粒(5.07,µm),当其体积分数大于0.4%,时,kLa 随着固体含量的增加而增大.通过对实验数据的拟合,得到一个含有功率输入、浆液有效黏度、颗粒粒径和固含量的半经验公式,该公式能够很好地表达颗粒对气液传质的影响.%Gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank was studied with a Rushton impeller. Mass transfer rate was investigated using various concentration of different-sized solid particles,as well as different rotation speed at a constant temperature and gas flow rate. When the solid volume fraction was less than 0.08%,no effect of quartz sands(41.1,µm and 640,µm)on the volumetric mass transfer kLa was observed. However,kLa was increased when the solid volume fraction of calcium carbonate particles(5.07,µm)was above 0.4%,. A semi-empirical equation of specific power input,effective viscosity of slurry,particle size,and solid loading was obtained by fitting the experimental data. This equation can successfully describe the effect of particles on gas-liquid mass transfer.

  8. Turbulência induzida por jatos bifásicos do tipo gás-líquido em tanques de aeração Turbulence induced by two-phase gas-liquid jets in aeration tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Eduardo Lima Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatos bifásicos do tipo gás-líquido são bastante usados nas engenharias sanitária e ambiental para fins de aeração artificial e mistura turbulenta. O presente trabalho investiga a turbulência gerada por meio desses jatos em um tanque de água, utilizando velocimetria por imagem de partículas. As condições experimentais incluíram jatos bifásicos com frações volumétricas de ar de até 70% e números de Reynolds variando entre 10.600 e 17.700. Os resultados dos ensaios indicaram que a fração volumétrica de ar afeta consideravelmente as propriedades turbulentas da fase líquida, enquanto o número de Reynolds apresenta efeito secundário. Correlações adimensionais foram então obtidas para expressar a energia cinética turbulenta e a taxa de dissipação de energia em função desses dois parâmetros. Finalmente, são apresentadas possíveis aplicações dos resultados deste trabalho.Two-phase gas-liquid jets are widely used in the sanitary and environmental engineering field for artificial aeration and turbulent mixing. The present work investigates the turbulence generated by these jets in a water tank, using particle image velocimetry. The experimental conditions included two-phase jets with gas volume fractions of up to 70% and Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,600 to 17,700. The results indicated that the gas volume fraction affects significantly the turbulent properties of the liquid phase, while the Reynolds number presents a secondary effect. Dimensionless correlations were then obtained to express the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate as a function of these two parameters. Finally, possible applications of the results obtained in this work are presented.

  9. Rainwater tank drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2008-11-01

    Drowning remains a significant cause of accidental death in young children. The site of drowning varies among communities and is influenced by cultural and geographic factors, including the availability of particular water sources. The drowning deaths of a twin two-year-old brother and sister in a rainwater tank are reported to demonstrate specific issues that may arise. Ladders, vegetation and trellises may provide access to tanks and should be removed. Secure child-proof access points should also be installed, particularly on in-ground tanks (given the ready accessibility of the latter). As there has been a recent trend in Australia to install more domestic rainwater tanks, the number of childhood rainwater tank drownings and near-drownings will need to be monitored by forensic pathologists and child death review committees to ensure that this has not led to the introduction of a new hazard into the home environment.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing in Rectangular Storage Tank Using Coupled FEM-BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Saghi; Mohammad Javad Ketabdari

    2012-01-01

    Sloshing of liquid can increase the dynamic pressure on the storage sidewalls and bottom in tanker ships and LNG careers.Different geometric shapes were suggested for storage tank to minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter.In this research,a numerical code was developed to model liquid sloshing in a rectangular partially filled tank.Assuming the fluid to be inviscid,Laplace equation and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled FEM-BEM.The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data.To minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter,rectangular tanks with specific volumes and different aspect ratios were investigated and the best aspect ratios were suggested.The results showed that the rectangular tank with suggested aspect ratios,not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume,but also reduces the sloshing pressure efficiently.

  11. Levitated liquid hydrogen cryotank for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Baecker, M.; Brommer, G. [Aventis Research and Technologies, Huerth (DE)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    A critical component for the application of hydrogen technology in automobiles is the storage of liquid hydrogen. Conventional tanks show intolerable evaporation losses. An innovative tank concept based on a superconducting suspension of an inner tank in an outer tank was realized in a functional model. The model shows an evaporation rate lowered by 50% compared to a conventional reference tank. In addition the design of a more compact prototype tank was worked out with a rotational symmetric arrangement. First components for this suspension concept were tested successfully. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic models for bounding pressurant mass requirements of cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, Neil T.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic models have been formulated to predict lower and upper bounds for the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize a cryogenic tank and then expel liquid from the tank. Limiting conditions are based on either thermal equilibrium or zero energy exchange between the pressurant gas and initial tank contents. The models are independent of gravity level and allow specification of autogenous or non-condensible pressurants. Partial liquid fill levels may be specified for initial and final conditions. Model predictions are shown to successfully bound results from limited normal-gravity tests with condensable and non-condensable pressurant gases. Representative maximum collapse factor maps are presented for liquid hydrogen to show the effects of initial and final fill level on the range of pressurant gas requirements. Maximum collapse factors occur for partial expulsions with large final liquid fill fractions.

  13. Functional Design and Qualification of Surface Tension Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figus, C.; Haddad, D.; Ounougha, L.; Autric, J.

    2004-10-01

    During two decades, EADS Astrium has designed and qualified the surface tension device used in the propellant tanks equipping the Eurostar telecommunication satellites platforms. Recent re- orbiting phases of Eurostar E2000 satellites, have allowed to validate those designs and to graveyard the spacecraft with less than 1 kg of propellant left per tank. Moreover, with the emergence of new powerful satellites with full chemical or mixed chemical-plasma propulsion subsystems, EADS Astrium has designed a new larger and improved surface tension propellant tank. Such challenging performances require analyses, and tests in order to assess and confirm the predicted performances. The present article shows the recent development of a new enlarged Eurostar E3000 propellant tanks for Eurostar 3000 satellites and presents the main functional analyses and neutral buoyancy tests results obtained for this new propellant tank These last two years, have contributed to improve this background with the successful graveyard of the first Eurostar spacecraft with less than 1 kg of liquid propellant per tank at the end of the manoeuvre. Moreover, a new enlarged E3000 propellant tank has been designed and qualified in order to cope with the future 12 kW telecom spacecraft applications. This tank designed by EADS-ASTRIUM, is manufactured by EADS-Space transportation. This paper presents the performances and tests results obtained on this new propellant tank.

  14. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  15. Tank 241-C-204 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-204.

  16. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  17. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  18. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  19. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, David J.

    2009-01-01

    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  20. Liquid radioactive waste subsystem design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    The Liquid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides a reliable system to safely control liquid waste radiation and to collect, process, and dispose of all radioactive liquid waste without impairing plant operation. Liquid waste is stored in radwaste receiver tanks and is processed through demineralizers and temporarily stored in test tanks prior to sampling and discharge. Radwastes unsuitable for discharge are transferred to the Solid Radwaste System.

  1. 解读TANKED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    品牌为重、创造为先,Tanked racing用不走“寻常路”给国内众多同行们生动地上了一课。通过持续近四年的高速成长,Tanked racingE成为中国头盔业翘楚,然而Tanked racing并不局限于此,因为未来的舞台还很大。

  2. Degradation of fipronil (Termidor) in aqueous solution stored in polyethylene tanks exposed to sunlight or shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, T J; Spomer, N A; Kamble, S T

    2009-05-01

    Pest Management Professionals commonly use polyethylene or fiberglass tanks for mixing and applying termiticides. We investigated the stability of fipronil (Termidor SC) (0.06%, 0.09% and 0.125% active ingredient) in aqueous solutions stored in polyethylene tanks under sun and shade for 2 week. Chemical analysis of tank-mixed solutions sampled at 0, 24, 48, 72, 168 and 336 h indicated that fipronil remained stable. Our data indicated that polyethylene tanks prevent fipronil from photodegradation and these tanks can be safely used for short term storage (up to 2 week) of liquid termiticides.

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  5. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  6. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    grown in size over a period of decades. 2. The radionuclides were apparently either in the form of soluble compounds, like cesium, or micrometer sized particles of actinide oxides or hydroxides. 3. After the initial tank retrieval the tank contained cobble which is not conducive to elutriation. Only after the tank contents were treated with thousands of gallons of 50 wt% caustic, were the solids converted to sand which is compatible with elutriation. Discussions between SRNL and PNNL resulted in plans to test elutriation in two phases; in Phase 1 particles would be separated by differences in settling velocity in an existing scaled tank with its associated hardware and in Phase 2 additional hardware, such as a hydrocyclone, would be added downstream to separate slow settling partciels from liquid. Phase 1 of in-tank elutriation was tested for Proof of Principle in theEngineering Development Laboratory of SRNL in a 41" diameter, 87 gallon tank. The tank had been previously used as a 1/22 scale model of Hanford Waste Tank AY-102. The objective of the testing was to determine which tank operating parameters achieved the best separation between fast- and slow-settling particles. For Phase 1 testing a simulated waste tank supernatant, slow-settling particles and fast-settling particles were loaded to the scaled tank. Because this was a Proof of Principle test, readily available solids particles were used that represented fast-settling and slow-settling particles. The tank contents were agitated using rotating mixer jet pumps (MJP) which suspended solids while liquids and solids were drawn out of the tank with a suction tube. The goal was to determine the optimum hydraulic operating conditions to achieve clean separation in which the residual solids in the tank were nearly all fast-settling particles and the solids transferred out of the tank were nearly all slow-settling particles. Tests were conducted at different pump jet velocities, suction tube diameters and suction tube

  7. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  8. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  9. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  10. Tank waste characterization basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1996-08-09

    This document describes the issues requiring characterization information, the process of determining high priority tanks to obtain information, and the outcome of the prioritization process. In addition, this document provides the reasoning for establishing and revising priorities and plans.

  11. Numerical analysis of vortex core phenomenon during draining from cylinder tank for various initial swirling speeds and various tank and drain port sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SOHN Chang Hyun; SON Jong Hyeon; PARK Il Seouk

    2013-01-01

    A dimple appears on a free surface while rotating a cylinder tank filled with liquid.The dimple starts to concentrically deeper to a drain port at the bottom center of the tank.Over time,the dimple penetrates the drain port,a free surface forms a long and slender string shape in the tank,and a so-called vortexing (air core) phenomenon occurs.The generation of a vortex core depends on the size of the tank and drain port,and on the properties of the liquid in the tank.In this study,the liquid level and the time at which the vortex core is initially generated are numerically investigated using different values of tank diameter,drain port diameter,and initial tank rotational speeds.Instead of a full three-dimensional analysis,a two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation is conducted.The momentum conservation equation in the circumferential direction is additionally solved in the two-dimensional mesh system.Several non-dimensional variables are created:the ratio of the air core generation distance and tank diameter,the diameter ratio of the tank and drain port,the rotational Reynolds number,the rotational Froude number,and the rotational Weber number.Finally,the nondimensional air core generation distance is correlated with the other non-dimensional parameters.

  12. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  13. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  14. Effects of boundaries on structure formation in low-dimensional colloid model systems near the liquid-solid-transition in equilibrium and in external fields and under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschländer, S.; Franzrahe, K.; Heinze, B.; Henseler, P.; Keim, P.; Schwierz, N.; Siems, U.; Virnau, P.; Wilms, D.; Binder, K.; Maret, G.; Nielaba, P.

    2013-11-01

    A brief review focusing on low-dimensional colloidal model systems is given describing both simulation studies and complementary experiments, elucidating the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures, and transport phenomena. These studies address the response of these very soft colloidal systems to perturbations such as uniform or uniaxial compression, laser fields, randomly quenched disorder, and shear deformation caused by moving boundaries. Binary hard-disk mixtures are studied by Monte Carlo simulation, to investigate ordering on surfaces or in monolayers, modeling the effect of a substrate by an external potential. By weak external laser fields the miscibility of the mixture can be controlled, and the underlying mechanism (laser-induced demixing) is clarified. The stability of various space-filling structures is discussed only for the case where no laser fields are present.Hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction confined in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions are investigated by Brownian Dynamics simulation. With respect to the structural behavior, it is found that layers or planes throughout the microchannel are formed. The arrangement of the particles is disturbed by diffusion, and can also be modified by an external driving force causing a density gradient along the channel. Then the number of layers or planes gets reduced, adjusting to the density gradient, and this self-organized change of order also shows up in the particle velocities. The experimental work that is reviewed here addresses dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate on which a set of pinning sites has been randomly distributed. The dynamics of the system is studied by tracking the trajectories of individual particles, and it is found that the mean square displacements of particles that are nearest neighbors of pinned particles are strongly affected by these defects. The influence of the pinning sites on the order

  15. Internal filtration in liquid fuel synthesis stirred tank slurry reactor%液体燃料合成浆态反应器内部过滤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 钱炜鑫; 李涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2012-01-01

    The internal filter made of sintered metal plate as filter media was installed to achieve solid-liquid separation in the stirred tank slurry reactor. The influences of pressure drop, temperature, rotational speed, solid content,filter media pore size, and particle diameter on filtration rate were investigated. The results show that clarified and stable filtrate is gained through internal filtration in the slurry reactor, and the cake thickness reaches dynamic balance and the filtration rate tends to stabilize with the operation carrying out. The filtration rate increases with the increase of pressure drop, temperature , filter media pore diameter, particle diameter and the decrease of rotational speed, solid content. The present investigation is useful to practical production. Filtration model is established through dimensional analysis, and values of parameter are gained by using Michael Marquardt algorithm. The statistical test and the comparison between calculated data and experimental data reveal that the model is reliable.%在液体燃料合成浆态搅拌反应器中设置了以金属烧结板为过滤介质的内过滤器,实现固液分离.研究了压降、温度、搅拌转速、固含率、过滤介质孔径及颗粒粒径对过滤速率的影响.实验结果表明:在浆态反应器中进行内过滤可以得到澄清稳定的滤液;随着操作进行,滤饼厚度达到动态平衡,过滤速率最终趋于稳定;过滤速率随着压降、温度、过滤介质孔径、颗粒粒径的增大及搅拌转速、固含率的减小而增大.应用因次分析法建立过滤模型,通过麦夸特算法对实验数据进行最优拟合得到模型的参数值,统计检验以及模型计算值与实验值的比较表明该模型可靠.

  16. 双层半圆管盘式涡轮桨搅拌槽气液分散特性的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of gas-liquid flow in a dual CD-6 impeller stirred tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪雯; 李志鹏; 高正明

    2011-01-01

    The gas dispersion characteristics in a dual CD-6 impeller stirred tank have been numerically simulated using the population balance model (PBM) combined with the multiple size group (MUSIG) model, which is based on the principle of bubble coalescence and breakup. The effects of varying the gas flow rate and rotation speed on the fluid field, local void fraction distribution and bubble size distribution have been investigated. The results show that the liquid flow adopts a dual loop flow pattern under gas dispersion operating conditions. The local void fraction distributions simulated using the PBM-MUSIG model are in good agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Bubble size decreases as the rotation speed increases, and increases as the gas flow rate increases. The bubble size is smaller in the impeller discharge region, and larger in the near-wall and circulation regions.%采用基于气泡聚并和破碎机理的群体平衡(PBM-MUSIG)模型,对双层半圆管盘式涡轮桨搅拌槽内的气液分散特性进行了数值模拟;考察了不同通气量和操作转速下气液搅拌槽内流体流动,局部气含率和气泡尺寸的分布规律.模拟结果表明:通气工况下搅拌槽内的液相流场具有双循环流动形式;采用PBM-MUSIG模型预测的局部气含率分布与文献实验数据吻合较好;搅拌槽内气泡尺寸随转速增加而减小,随气量增加而增大;桨叶排出流区域内气泡尺寸较小,近壁区和循环区内气泡尺寸较大.

  17. 搅拌槽内液-固两相体系的数值研究(Ⅱ)临界搅拌转速的预测%Numerical Study of Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Stirred Tanks with Rushton Impeller(Ⅱ) Prediction of Critical Impeller Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 毛在砂; 沈湘黔

    2004-01-01

    The critical impeller speed, NJs, for complete suspension of solid particles in the agitated solid-liquid two-phase system in baffled stirred tanks with a standard Rushton impeller is predicted using the computational procedure proposed in Part I. Three different numerical criteria are tested for determining the critical solid suspension. The predicted NJS is compared with those obtained from several empirical correlations. It is suggested the most reasonable criterion for determining the complete suspension of solid particles is the positive sign of simulated axial velocity of solid phase at the location where the solid particles are most difficult to be suspended.

  18. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code.

  19. Development and Testing of a Novel Green Propellant Piston Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, C. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Higdon, K.; Abrams, J.; Duchek, M. E.; Mader, H.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates (AMA), in cooperation with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Branch, developed and tested a novel propellant tank design that employs an internal piston pressurized with an inert gas to expel propellant to thrusters. During the course of this activity, AMA designed, oversaw fabrication, and delivered to MSFC for testing, a piston propellant tank sized for 3U or larger CubeSats. MSFC conducted liquid expulsion testing using ethylene glycol as a referee fluid to map the tank's performance at different pressures and piston positions. Following the expulsion test campaign, the tank is planned to be integrated into a propulsion system test bed for hot fire tests with a 100mN monopropellant thruster to evaluate the tank's influence on thruster performance when operated in a flight like manner. Described in this paper is a comprehensive summary of how the tanks were designed, built, and tested. The fundamental knowledge gained through the fabrication and testing of these tanks gives evidence that the piston tank design may be scalable to meet the requirements and constraints of other small satellites.

  20. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-27

    The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP's for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

  1. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical framework utilizing multi-element unstructured CFD and rigorous real fluid property routines has been developed to carry out analyses of propellant tank and delivery systems at NASA SSC. Traditionally CFD modeling of pressurization and mixing in cryogenic tanks has been difficult primarily because the fluids in the tank co-exist in different sub-critical and supercritical states with largely varying properties that have to be accurately accounted for in order to predict the correct mixing and phase change between the ullage and the propellant. For example, during tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. In our modeling framework, we incorporated two different approaches to real fluids modeling: (a) the first approach is based on the HBMS model developed by Hirschfelder, Beuler, McGee and Sutton and (b) the second approach is based on a cubic equation of state developed by Soave, Redlich and Kwong (SRK). Both approaches cover fluid properties and property variation spanning sub-critical gas and liquid states as well as the supercritical states. Both models were rigorously tested and properties for common fluids such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen etc were compared against NIST data in both the sub-critical as well as supercritical regimes.

  2. 46 CFR 32.55-30 - Venting of cargo tanks of tank vessels constructed between November 10, 1936, and July 1, 1951-TB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to a reasonable height above the weather deck and be fitted with a flame arrester or pressure-vacuum... arrester or a pressure-vacuum relief valve. (d) Grade D or E liquids. Cargo tanks in which Grade D or...

  3. An uncertainty analysis of the PVT gauging method applied to sub-critical cryogenic propellant tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dresar, Neil T. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2004-08-01

    The PVT (pressure, volume, temperature) method of liquid quantity gauging in low-gravity is based on gas law calculations assuming conservation of pressurant gas within the propellant tank and the pressurant supply bottle. There is interest in applying this method to cryogenic propellant tanks since the method requires minimal additional hardware or instrumentation. To use PVT with cryogenic fluids, a non-condensable pressurant gas (helium) is required. With cryogens, there will be a significant amount of propellant vapor mixed with the pressurant gas in the tank ullage. This condition, along with the high sensitivity of propellant vapor pressure to temperature, makes the PVT method susceptible to substantially greater measurement uncertainty than is the case with less volatile propellants. A conventional uncertainty analysis is applied to example cases of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. It appears that the PVT method may be feasible for liquid oxygen. Acceptable accuracy will be more difficult to obtain with liquid hydrogen. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR 270.305 - What tank information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., bypass systems, and pressure controls (e.g., vents). (d) A diagram of piping, instrumentation, and process flow for each tank system. (e) A description of materials and equipment used to provide external...

  5. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  6. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  7. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  8. Second Order Sliding Mode Control of the Coupled Tanks System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayiz Abu Khadra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four classes of second order sliding mode controllers (2-SMC have been successfully applied to regulate the liquid level in the second tank of a coupled tanks system. The robustness of these classes of 2-SMC is investigated and their performances are compared with a first order controller to show the merits of these controllers. The effectiveness of these controllers is verified through computer simulations. Comparison between the controllers is based on the time domain performance measures such as rise time, settling time, and the integral absolute error. Results showed that controllers are able to regulate the liquid level with small differences in their performance.

  9. Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Gauging of an Isothermal Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurized with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging of a liquid oxygen/liquid nitrogen tank pressurized with gaseous helium that was supplied by a high-pressure cryogenic tank simulating a cold helium supply bottle on a spacecraft. The fluid inside the test tank was kept isothermal by frequent operation of a liquid circulation pump and spray system, and the propellant tank was suspended from load cells to obtain a high-accuracy reference standard for the gauging measurements. Liquid quantity gauging errors of less than 2 percent of the tank volume were obtained when quasi-steady-state conditions existed in the propellant and helium supply tanks. Accurate gauging required careful attention to, and corrections for, second-order effects of helium solubility in the liquid propellant plus differences in the propellant/helium composition and temperature in the various plumbing lines attached to the tanks. On the basis of results from a helium solubility test, a model was developed to predict the amount of helium dissolved in the liquid as a function of cumulative pump operation time. Use of this model allowed correction of the basic PVT gauging calculations and attainment of the reported gauging accuracy. This helium solubility model is system specific, but it may be adaptable to other hardware systems.

  10. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  11. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  12. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  13. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - 9310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-01-12

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground carbon steel storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The underground tanks will be closed by removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations, and severing/sealing external penetrations. The life of the carbon steel materials of construction in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to grouted conditions. A stochastic approach was followed to estimate the distributions of failures based upon mechanisms of corrosion accounting for variances in each of the independent variables. The methodology and results used for one-type of tank is presented.

  14. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  15. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  16. An Aluminum Salvage Station for the External Tank (ASSET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    cutter A-8 requires regular cleaning of the beam exit window and the optical components. This is important because the LB efficiency is greatly reduced...7142.8 Batteries 4 640 2560.0 BCDU 4 168 672.0 * DCSU 2 182 364.0 DDCU 167 167.0 PVCU 2 147 294.0 PV Cable Set 231 231.0 OIPU 185 185.0 * SUT 225...299 1196.0 Fluid Junction Box 2 93 186.0 Radiator 842.2 842.2 EPS 6390.2 Batteries 4 640 2560.0 BCDU 4 168 672.0 DCSU 2 182 364.0 DDCU 167 167.0 PVCU 2

  17. 康复新液治疗急性弥漫性外耳道炎的效疗观察%Clinical Analysis of Acute Diffuse External Otitis with Kangfuxin Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段中宁; 张书嘉; 关瑞; 李利; 韩加辉; 邹经纬

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨康复新液治疗急性弥漫性外耳道炎的临床效疗。方法选取2014年1月~2016年1月于我科门诊就诊并诊断为急性弥漫性外耳道炎的286例患者为研究对象,按初诊顺序将患者随机分成两组,治疗组146例,用康复新液治疗,对照组140例,用硼酸酒精治疗。治疗1 w后,统计分析两组患者治疗效果。结果治疗组总有效率为86.3%,而对照组为67.9%,两组的总有效率具有统计学差异(<0.05)。结论康复新液治疗急性弥漫性外耳道炎的临床疗效显著。%Objective The study of Kangfuxin Liquid in treatment of acute diffuse external otitis clinical curative effect.Methods January 2014 to 2016 January in our outpatient clinic and diagnosis for acute diffuse otitis externa 286 cases of patients as the research object,according to the order of newly diagnosed,the patients were randomly divided into 2 groups,146 cases of the treatment group,with Kangfuxin Liquid in treatment,140 cases in the control group,with boric acid alcohol treatment.After 1 week of treatment,statistical analysis of two groups of patients with curative effect.Results In the treatment group total effective rate was 86.3%,while the control group was 67.9%,two groups of the total efficiency and the difference is statistically significant(<5).Conclusion The clinical curative effect of Kangfuxin Liquid in treatment of acute diffuse external otitis is significant.

  18. Ventless pressure control of two-phase propellant tanks in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Panzarella, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    This work studies pressurization and pressure control of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. A finite element model is developed that couples a lumped thermodynamic formulation for the vapor region with a complete solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for the flow and temperature fields in the liquid. Numerical results show that buoyancy effects are strong, even in microgravity, and can reposition a vapor bubble that is initially at the center of the tank to a region near the tank wall in a relatively short time. Long-term tank pressurization with the vapor bubble at the tank wall shows that after an initial transient lasting about a week, the final rate of pressure increase agrees with a purely thermodynamic analysis of the entire tank. However, the final pressure levels are quite different from thermodynamic predictions. Numerical results also show that there is significant thermal stratification in the liquid due to the effects of natural convection. A subcooled jet is used to provide simultaneous cooling and mixing in order to bring the tank pressure back down to its initial value. Three different jet speeds are examined. Although the lowest jet speed is ineffective at controlling the pressure because of insufficient penetration into the liquid region, the highest jet speed is shown to be quite effective at disrupting thermal stratification and reducing the tank pressure in reasonable time.

  19. ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT MIXING JETS IN LARGE SCALE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; Robert Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

    2007-03-28

    Flow evolution models were developed to evaluate the performance of the new advanced design mixer pump for sludge mixing and removal operations with high-velocity liquid jets in one of the large-scale Savannah River Site waste tanks, Tank 18. This paper describes the computational model, the flow measurements used to provide validation data in the region far from the jet nozzle, the extension of the computational results to real tank conditions through the use of existing sludge suspension data, and finally, the sludge removal results from actual Tank 18 operations. A computational fluid dynamics approach was used to simulate the sludge removal operations. The models employed a three-dimensional representation of the tank with a two-equation turbulence model. Both the computational approach and the models were validated with onsite test data reported here and literature data. The model was then extended to actual conditions in Tank 18 through a velocity criterion to predict the ability of the new pump design to suspend settled sludge. A qualitative comparison with sludge removal operations in Tank 18 showed a reasonably good comparison with final results subject to significant uncertainties in actual sludge properties.

  20. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Figure 5.2.4 – Teen / Twenty Berm Bays from Tank 11 Corner Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 63 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical...5.3.9 Pump Discharge Pressure Measurement Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 76 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report...chamber pressure Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 173 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report Seaman Corporation could not be

  1. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-04-28

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  2. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  3. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  4. 喷射火灾环境下 LPG 储罐热响应规律模拟研究%Numerical Simulation Study of Thermal Response Rules of LPG Tank under the Jet Fire Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志祥; 杨乃军; 赵垒

    2015-01-01

    The thermal response model of LPG tank under the environment of jet fire is established based on the fluid soft-ware CFD to research the influence made by heat flux and heating position two main external factors on the thermal response of LPG horizontal tank and meanwhile ,the valid of simulation model is verified according to the scene of the experiments made by Birk and others .The results show that tank pressure rise is proportional to the heat flux value .Under the condition of high heat flux ,heat flux changes has a relatively little effect on the tank liquid temperature ,the maximum temperature difference is 22 K ,but greatly affects the temperature of the tank wall and vapor zone .When the high heat flux invades the tank ,vaporization of the liquid medium plays a dominant role on the pressure rise ,conversely ,a small effect on pressure by heating position .The influence made by different heating position on LPG tank thermal response from large to small is in turn:gas-liquid heated simultaneously ,head parts heated and the bottom of tank heated .%为研究喷射火灾环境下,热流密度和受热位置两个主要外界因素对LPG卧式储罐热响应规律的影响,利用CFD软件建立喷射火灾环境下LPG卧式储罐热响应模型,以Birk等人的现场火灾实验来验证模拟模型的有效性。结果表明:储罐压力上升与热流密度成正比;在高热流密度情况下,热流密度的变化对罐内液相温度影响较小,最高温差为22 K ,然而对罐壁温度和气相温度影响较大。高热流密度侵袭储罐时,加热位置对罐内压力影响较小,液相介质的汽化作用对压力上升起主导作用;不同加热位置对储罐热响应影响程度从大到小依次是:气液两相同时受热,封头部位受热,储罐底部受热。

  5. Tank System Integrated Model: A Cryogenic Tank Performance Prediction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Schnell, A. R.; Moder, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the thermodynamic state of the cryogenic propellants, pressurization rate, and performance of pressure control techniques in cryogenic tanks are required for development of cryogenic fluid long-duration storage technology and planning for future space exploration missions. This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the analytical tool, Tank System Integrated Model (TankSIM), which can be used for modeling pressure control and predicting the behavior of cryogenic propellant for long-term storage for future space missions. Utilizing TankSIM, the following processes can be modeled: tank self-pressurization, boiloff, ullage venting, mixing, and condensation on the tank wall. This TM also includes comparisons of TankSIM program predictions with the test data andexamples of multiphase mission calculations.

  6. CFD simulation of particle suspension in a stirred tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Qi; Hu Zhang; Kai Zhang; Gang Xu; Yongping Yang

    2013-01-01

    Particle suspension characteristics are predicted computationally in a stirred tank driven by a Smith turbine.In order to verify the hydrodynamic model and numerical method,the predicted power number and flow pattern are compared with designed values and simulated results from the literature,respectively.The effects of particle density,particle diameter,liquid viscosity and initial solid loading on particle suspension behavior are investigated by using the Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model and the standard k-ε turbulence model.The results indicate that solid concentration distribution depends on the flow field in the stirred tank.Higher particle density or larger particle size results in less homogenous distribution of solid particles in the tank.Increasing initial solid loading has an adverse impact on the homogeneous suspension of solid particles in a low-viscosity liquid,whilst more uniform particle distribution is found in a high-viscositv liauid.

  7. Parametric Weight Study of Cryogenic Metallic Tanks for the ``Bimodal'' NTR Mars Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosareo, Daniel N.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of large cryogenic metallic tanks was conducted using the design optimization capabilities in the ANSYS ® finite element analysis code. This analysis was performed to support the sizing of a ``bimodal'' nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars vehicle concept developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The tank design study was driven by two load conditions: an in-line, ``Shuttle-derived'' heavy-lift launch with the tanks filled and pressurized, and a burst-test pressure. The main tank structural arrangement is a state-of-the art metallic construction which uses an aluminum-lithium alloy stiffened internally with a ring and stringer framework. The tanks must carry liquid hydrogen in separate launches to orbit where all vehicle components will dock and mate. All tank designs stayed within the available mass and payload volume limits of both the in-line heavy lift and Shuttle derived launch vehicles. Weight trends were developed over a range of tank lengths with varying stiffener cross-sections and tank wall thicknesses. The object of this parametric study was to verify that the proper mass was allocated for the tanks in the overall vehicle sizing model. This paper summarizes the tank weights over a range of tank lengths.

  8. Characterization of the ORNL MVST Waste Tanks After Transfer of Sludge from BVEST, GAAT, and OHF Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.

    2001-03-23

    Over the last several years most of the sludge and liquid from the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL has been transferred and consolidated in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The contents of the MVST tanks at the time the sludge samples were collected for this report included the original inventory in the MVSTs along with the sludge and liquid from the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Old Hydrofracture (OHF) tanks, and most of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). During the spring and summer of 2000 the MVST composite sludge was sampled and characterized to validate the radiochemical content and to ensure regulatory compliance. This report only discusses the analytical characterization of the sludge from the MVST waste tanks (except for W-29 and W-30). The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were ''denatured'' as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the MVST sludge was found to be hazardous by RCRA characteristics based on total analysis of chromium, mercury, and lead. Also, the alpha activity due to transuranic isotopes was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  9. North Tank Farm data report for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, V.A. [XL Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burks, B.L. [Providence Group, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hoesen, S.D. van [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program, has developed and demonstrated the first full-scale remotely operated system for cleaning radioactive liquid and waste from large underground storage tanks. The remotely operated waste retrieval system developed and demonstrated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is designed to accomplish both retrieval of bulk waste, including liquids, thick sludge, and scarified concrete, and final tank cleaning. This report provides a summary of the North Tank Farm (NTF) operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations. The organization of this report is as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction to the report. Section 2 describes the NTF tank structures (W-3 and W-4 only) and the contents of the tanks. Section 3 outlines the objectives of the NTF testing and explains how these objectives were met. Section 4 provides a description of the various operating systems used in the NTF operations. Sections 5 and 6 present a summary of the data collected during NTF operations. Section 7 summarizes the maintenance activities performed and Section 8 summarizes the on-the-job training performed in the NTF. Section 9 summarizes the capital cost for the waste retrieval and characterization equipment and operating costs for performing the NTF work. Section 10 provides observations and lessons learned, and Section 11 provides a summary and conclusions.

  10. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...... performance and for the excellent utilization of the solar radiation is the high hot-water consumption and the good system design making use of external heat exchangers and stratification inlet pipes....

  11. Surface scanning through a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid for clinical microwave breast imaging exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Microwave tomographic image quality can be improved significantly with prior knowledge of the breast surface geometry. The authors have developed a novel laser scanning system capable of accurately recovering surface renderings of breast-shaped phantoms immersed within a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid which resides completely external to the tank (and the aqueous environment) and overcomes the challenges associated with the optical distortions caused by refraction from the air, tank wall, and liquid bath interfaces. Methods: The scanner utilizes two laser line generators and a small CCD camera mounted concentrically on a rotating gantry about the microwave imaging tank. Various calibration methods were considered for optimizing the accuracy of the scanner in the presence of the optical distortions including traditional ray tracing and image registration approaches. In this paper, the authors describe the construction and operation of the laser scanner, compare the efficacy of several calibration methods-including analytical ray tracing and piecewise linear, polynomial, locally weighted mean, and thin-plate-spline (TPS) image registrations-and report outcomes from preliminary phantom experiments. Results: The results show that errors in calibrating camera angles and position prevented analytical ray tracing from achieving submillimeter accuracy in the surface renderings obtained from our scanner configuration. Conversely, calibration by image registration reliably attained mean surface errors of less than 0.5 mm depending on the geometric complexity of the object scanned. While each of the image registration approaches outperformed the ray tracing strategy, the authors found global polynomial methods produced the best compromise between average surface error and scanner robustness. Conclusions: The laser scanning system provides a fast and accurate method of three dimensional surface capture in the aqueous environment commonly found in microwave breast

  12. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  14. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  15. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  16. Theoretical calculation and cause analysis of the cracking of concrete foundation ring wall of liquid tanks%液罐基础环墙砼开裂的理论计算及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗平; 徐金俊; 梁红飞; 陈宇良

    2012-01-01

    Industrial tanks are widely used in various petrochemical industries. Located in an indus-trial area in Nanning, Guangxi, the foundation ring walls of twelve newly built huge alcohol fermen-tation tanks were cracked massively when a trial operation began. There were many vertical cracks, together with a large angle warping between the steel tank and the ring wall, which had a negative impact on the production of the factory. In order to explore the cause of such accidents, the perform-ance indicators, such as concrete strength, state of cracks, steel condition and its cover thickness, tank verticality, concrete surface defects and so on, were tested on site. The No. 1 fermentation tank was analyzed as a typical example. Computer simulation and traditional theoretical approaches were applied to calculate the bearing capacity of different cases. It is concluded that the ring walls above the ground elevation faced lateral pressure induced by the internal sand may lead to the crack. Or it is most likely that the internal sand is not dense and when the water was injected into the steel tank, the tank was warped. This may result in the bottom steel slab to become deformed and to push the sand, leading to too much larger tensile stress in the ring walls to crack.%工业储罐广泛应用于各类石油化工行业.位于广西南宁市某工业区的12个巨型酒精发酵罐在试运营阶段曾发生了基础环墙的群体性开裂,产生大量的竖向裂缝,同时钢液罐与环墙发生较大角度的翘曲,影响了企业的后续生产.为了探究此类工程事故的内在原因,通过现场检测获取发酵罐与基础环墙的各项性能指标,分析了各罐的环墙混凝土强度、裂缝状况、钢筋保护层厚度及罐体垂直度等宏观特性;并以具有代表性的1号发酵罐为例,运用计算机数值模拟以及传统理论方法进行不同工况组合下的承载力验算.分析结果表明:事故由两个方面原因所致,其一是

  17. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.145 Tanks, vehicles, and... mark each tank, tank car, tank truck, tank ship, barge, or deep tank of a vessel in accordance...

  18. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...... different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used....... Findings - Based on the calculations it is concluded that low flow solar combisystems based on bikini tanks are promising for low energy buildings, while solar combisystems based on tank-in-tank stores are attractive for the houses with medium heating demand and old houses with high heating demand...

  19. 某立式可燃液体储罐区消防灭火及冷却用水系统的设计%The Design Specification of Extinguishing System and Cooling Water System for Vertical Flammable Liquid Storage Tank Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    According to relative code and owner requirements, the flammable liquid storage tank farm including fixed type fire fighting cooling water system and low expansion foam extinguishing system, foam pressure proportioning tank parameter of design is based on actual market equipment parameter. Contrast circle ring cooling water pipe layout proposal to reduce fire fighting water consumption, avoid use design parameter result in fire fighting water storage volume less than actual fire fighting water consumption.%根据相关规范和业主要求,某立式可燃液体罐区采用固定式消防冷却水系统和低倍数泡沫灭火系统相结合的灭火系统。本设计通过对市场上实际灭火设备参数的选取,确定了泡沫比例混合装置的参数:并通过对罐区环状消防冷却水管分区布管的比较,选择最优的布管方式,该布管方式不仅避免了因设计取值较小造成消防储水量的不足而且减少了消防用水量。

  20. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  1. Mathematical model of the Savannah River Site waste tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1991-07-15

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate operation of the waste tank farm and the associated evaporator systems at the Savannah River Site. The model solves material balance equations to predict the volumes of liquid waste, salt, and sludge for all of the tanks within each of the evaporator systems. Additional logic is included to model the behavior of waste tanks not directly associated with the evaporators. Input parameters include the Material Management Plan forecast of canyon operations, specification of other waste sources for the evaporator systems, evaporator operating characteristics, and salt and sludge removal schedules. The model determines how the evaporators will operate, when waste transfers can be made, and waste accumulation rates. Output from the model includes waste tank contents, summaries of systems operations, and reports of space gain and the remaining capacity to store waste materials within the tank farm. Model simulations can be made to predict waste tank capacities on a daily basis for up to 20 years. The model is coded as a set of three computer programs designed to run on either IBM compatible or Apple Macintosh II personal computers.

  2. Research of Liquid Level Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Beištaras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents liquid level control system model and analysis of dynamic characteristics. The system consists of scalar controlled induction motor drive, fuzzy logic controller, water tank and centrifugal pump. Simulink models of water tank, pump and controller are presented. The simulation of the system shows that the use of fuzzy logic controller reduces valve opening time and reservoir filling time.

  3. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  4. Analysis Method of Transient Temperature Field for Fuel Tank of High-Altitude Large UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ai; Liang Chen; Xiaojing Xu; Shiyu Liu; Zhenwen Hu; Xinlin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of factors affecting transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank and coupled heat transfer mechanism, a mathematical model of transient coupled heat transfer, including the dynamic change of fuel quality, the internal heat transfer, the external aerodynamic convection and the radiation heat transfer, is established. Taking the aerodynamic convection and radiation heat transfer outside the tank as the third kinds of thermal boundary conditions for the thermal analysis of the fuel tank, calculation of internal and external coupling heat of fuel tank is decoupled. Thermal network method combined with hierarchical dynamic grid is used to deal with the fuel consumption, and carry on the heat transfer analysis of the fuel tank. The numerical method for the transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank is established. Through the simulation calculation, the transient temperature distribution of the fuel tank under different flight conditions is obtained, and the influence of the fuel mass and the external thermal environment on the temperature field is analyzed.

  5. Experimental study and numerical simulation of the sludge concentration in a sedimentation tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Ming-jun; MA Lu-ming; ZHU Wei; WANG Hong-wu

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation tanks and clarifiers play a significant role in an active sludge system, and the efficiency of the whole system is closely related with the design and operation of the sedimentation tanks. This paper focuses on the sludge concentration in each cross-section of the sedimentation tank. We measured the sludge concentration to explore its distribution inside the tank, carried in-situ tests to research the fluid pattern and real operational rules of the sedimentation tank. We also used the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, PHOENICS 3.5, to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase fluid inside the tank and describe the sludge concentration distribution. The numerical results indicate obviously a sludge-water interface and a compression interface inside the sedimentation tank, a stratified sedimentary region with uniform concentration and a compression region with high concentration at the bottom of the tank. Although the simulated concentrations deviated slightly from those of in-situ tests, they were still acceptable for identifying the sludge interfaces and fluid pattern inside a sedimentation tank, which are important parameters for optimizing the tank size and improving the settling efficiency.

  6. Numerical modeling of the flow in a cryogenic fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Donald Steven

    Developing reusable flight weight cryogenic fuel tanks is one of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft. As an aid in the design of these aircraft, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. The model simulates the transient, two dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. The interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface to enable the calculation of slosh wave dynamics. The drain rate of the liquid fuel is specified as a boundary condition to the model. The ullage gas enters the model to replace the volume of drained liquid. The rate of ullage gas entering the model is calculated from boundary conditions of constant pressure and temperature for the ullage gas. The model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations with the exception that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. The method of solution is an explicit finite difference technique in two dimensional generalized coordinates approximated to second order accuracy in both space and time. The stiffness due to the low Mach number is handled by the method of artificial compressibility. Model comparisons are made to experimental data for free convection to a vertical plate and to free convection inside a horizontal cylinder. Slosh wave dynamics are compared to potential flow calculations for waves inside a square tank. Sample calculations are also performed on a rectangular tank and an eight sided polygon tank to demonstrate the capability of the model.

  7. Experimental study of heat transfer in a HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on the heat transfer characteristics in a HVMLI cryogenic tank has been researched experimentally in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. Some important phenomena and heat transfer characteristics in a vacuum-lost LN2 HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The effects of the insulation layer numbers and the initial liquid level on venting rate and heat flux leaking into the cryogenic liquid as well as the temperatures of wall and liquid have been analyzed and discussed for a LN2 HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV in this paper.

  8. Tank Characterization Report for Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-03-23

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  9. 多层液体分析仪在氢氧化铝行业沉降槽的使用%Multilayer Liquid Analyzers in the Use of Aluminium Hydroxide Sedimentation Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉军

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-layer liquid hydrogen analyzer alumina industry settler use. The multilayered liquid analyzer for analysis by Liquid Smart special software by collecting settler layers of liquid ultrasonic velocity, energy and other parameters, and to detect the height of the liquid stratification and the total height of a liquid intelligent automation solution height analyzer.%本文主要介绍了多层液体分析仪在氢氧化铝行业沉降槽的使用。多层液体分析仪是通过采集沉降槽中各层液位的超声波声速、能量等参数,并用Liquid Smart专用软件做分析,检测出液体总高度和液体的分层高度的一款自动化智能液层高度分析仪。

  10. Experimental study on the storage performance of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    High-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is one kind of dangerous pressure vessels. One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on storage performance for a HVMLI cryogenic tank is experimentally studied in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. The cryogenic tank was tested in the conditions of various combinations with different initial liquid level and number of insulation layers. Some important conclusions for storage performance with a vacuum-lost HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The experimental results show that the numbers of insulation layers and the initial liquid level have obvious effect on the storage performance after SCLIV for cryogenic tanks.

  11. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling...

  12. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  14. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  16. SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

  17. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  18. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  19. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA.

  20. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  1. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  2. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  3. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  4. CHANGING THE SAFETY CULTURE IN HANFORD TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRIOCHOA MV; ALCALA LJ

    2009-01-06

    In 2000 the Hanford Tank Farms had one of the worst safety records in the Department of Energy Complex. By the end of FY08 the safety performance of the workforce had turned completely around, resulting in one of the best safety records in the DOE complex for operations of its kind. This paper describes the variety of programs and changes that were put in place to accomplish such a dramatic turn-around. The U.S. Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford Site in Washington State was established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project to develop nuclear materials to end the war. For the next several decades it continued to produce plutonium for the nation's defense, leaving behind vast quantities of radioactive and chemical waste. Much of this waste, 53,000,000 gallons, remains stored in 149 aging single-shell tanks and 28 newer double-shell tanks. One of the primary objectives at Hanford is to safely manage this waste until it can be prepared for disposal, but this has not always been easy. These giant underground tanks, many of which date back to the beginning of the Manhattan Project, range in size from 55,000 gallons up to 1.1 million gallons, and are buried beneath 10 feet of soil near the center of the site. Up to 67 of the older single-shell tanks have leaked as much as one million gallons into the surrounding soil. Liquids from the single-shell tanks were removed by 2003 but solids remain in the form of saltcake, sludges and a hardened heel at the bottom of some tanks. The Department of Energy's Office of River Protection was established to safely manage this waste until it could be prepared for disposal. For most of the last seven years the focus has been on safely retrieving waste from the 149 aging single-shell and moving it to the newer double-shell tanks. Removing waste from the tanks is a difficult and complex task. The tanks were made to put waste in, not take it out. Because of the toxic nature of the waste, both

  5. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ``waste`` data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment.

  6. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  7. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  8. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Grigsby, J.M. [G & P Consulting, Inc. (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  9. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  10. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed

  11. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  12. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  13. Solitons in a wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A. C.

    1984-09-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations.

  14. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  15. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  16. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  17. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  18. Water tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A water tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen water, liquid oxygen (LOX) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  19. Tank Pressure Control Experiment/thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Knoll, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)' is a reflight of the tank pressure control experiment (TPCE), flown on STS-43 in a standard Get-Away Special (GAS) container in August 1991. The TPCE obtained extensive video and digital data of the jet induced mixing process in a partially filled tank in low gravity environments. It also provided limited data on the thermal processes involved. The primary objective of the reflight of TPCE is to investigate experimentally the phenomena of liquid superheating and pool nucleate boiling at very low heat fluxes in a long duration low gravity environment. The findings of this experiment will be of direct relevance to space based subcritical cryogenic fluid system design and operation. Experiment hardware and results from the first TPCE are described in outline and graphic form.

  20. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.