WorldWideScience

Sample records for external stimuli including

  1. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P

    2005-09-01

    Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.

  2. Afferent activity to necklace glomeruli is dependent on external stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE is a complex organ containing several functionally distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. One such subpopulation is distinguished by its expression of the guanylyl cyclase GC-D. The axons of GC-D-expressing (GC-D+ neurons innervate 9–15 "necklace" glomeruli encircling the caudal main olfactory bulb (MOB. Chemosensory stimuli for GC-D+ neurons include two natriuretic peptides, uroguanylin and guanylin, and CO2. However, the biologically-relevant source of these chemostimuli is unclear: uroguanylin is both excreted in urine, a rich source of olfactory stimuli for rodents, and expressed in human nasal epithelium; CO2 is present in both inspired and expired air. Findings To determine whether the principal source of chemostimuli for GC-D+ neurons is external or internal to the nose, we assessed the consequences of removing external chemostimuli for afferent activity to the necklace glomeruli. To do so, we performed unilateral naris occlusions in Gucy2d-Mapt-lacZ +/- mice [which express a β-galactosidase (β-gal reporter specifically in GC-D+ neurons] followed by immunohistochemistry for β-gal and a glomerular marker of afferent activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. We observed a dramatic decrease in TH immunostaining, consistent with reduced or absent afferent activity, in both necklace and non-necklace glomeruli ipsilateral to the occluded naris. Conclusion Like other MOB glomeruli, necklace glomeruli exhibit a large decrease in afferent activity upon removal of external stimuli. Thus, we conclude that activity in GC-D+ neurons, which specifically innervate necklace glomeruli, is not dependent on internal stimuli. Instead, GC-D+ neurons, like other OSNs in the MOE, primarily sense the external world.

  3. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  4. External stimuli response on a novel chitosan hydrogel crosslinked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of external stimuli such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength of the swelling media on equilibrium swelling properties has been observed. Hydrogels showed a typical pH and temperature responsive behaviour such as low pH and high temperature has maximum swelling while high pH and low temperature ...

  5. Pattern transformations in periodic cellular solids under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zhao, X. W.; Duan, H. L.; Karihaloo, B. L.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    The structural patterns of periodic cellular materials play an important role in their properties. Here, we investigate how these patterns transform dramatically under external stimuli in simple periodic cellular structures that include a nanotube bundle and a millimeter-size plastic straw bundle. Under gradual hydrostatic straining up to 20%, the cross-section of the single walled carbon nanotube bundle undergoes several pattern transformations, while an amazing new hexagram pattern is triggered from the circular shape when the strain of 20% is applied suddenly in one step. Similar to the nanotube bundle, the circular plastic straw bundle is transformed into a hexagonal pattern on heating by conduction through a baseplate but into a hexagram pattern when heated by convection. Besides the well-known elastic buckling, we find other mechanisms of pattern transformation at different scales; these include the minimization of the surface energy at the macroscale or of the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale and the competition between the elastic energy of deformation and either the surface energy at the macroscale or the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale. The studies of the pattern transformations of periodic porous materials offer new insights into the fabrication of novel materials and devices with tailored properties.

  6. Characterization of functional biopolymers under various external stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Atoosa

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are large molecules composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent chemical bonds. Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms, which exhibit both biocompatible and biodegradable properties. The behavior of a biopolymer in solution is strongly dependent on the chemical and physical structure of the polymer chain, as well as external environmental conditions. To improve biopolymers in the direction of higher performance and better functionality, understanding of their physicochemical behavior and their response to external stimuli are of great importance. Rheology, rheo-small angle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation were utilized in this thesis to investigate the properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose and its hydrophobically modified analogue, as well as dextran, hyaluronan, and mucin under different conditions such as temperature, solvent, mechanical stress and strain, and radiation. Different novel hydrogels were prepared by using various chemical cross-linking agents. Specific features of these macromolecules provide them to be used as 'functional' materials, e.g., sensors, actuators, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, and controlled drug delivery systems (author)

  7. Effects of hypnagogic imagery on the event-related potential to external tone stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Nanae; Hayashi, Mitsuo; Hori, Tadao

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hypnagogic imagery on the information processes of external tone stimuli during the sleep onset period with the use of event-related potentials. Event-related potentials to tone stimuli were compared between conditions with and without the experience of hypnagogic imagery. To control the arousal level when the tone was presented, a certain criterion named the electroencephalogram stage was used. Stimuli were presented at electroencephalogram stage 4, which was characterized by the appearance of a vertex sharp wave. Data were collected in the sleep laboratory at Hiroshima University. Eleven healthy university and graduate school students participated in the study. N/A. Experiments were performed at night. Reaction times to tone stimuli were measured, and only trials with shorter reaction times than 5000 milliseconds were analyzed. Electroencephalograms were recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz, T5 and T6. There were no differences in reaction times and electroencephalogram spectra between the conditions of with and without hypnagogic imagery. These results indicated that the arousal levels were not different between the 2 conditions. On the other hand, the N550 amplitude of the event-related potentials in the imagery condition was lower than in the no-imagery condition. The decrease in the N550 amplitude in the imagery condition showed that experiences of hypnagogic imagery exert some influence on the information processes of external tone stimuli. It is possible that the processing of hypnagogic imagery interferes with the processing of external stimuli, lowering the sensitivity to external stimuli.

  8. The Effects of Task Demand and External Stimuli on Learner's Stress Perception and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yee Mei; Ayesh, Aladdin, 1972-; Stacey, Martin; Tan, Li Peng

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, research in e-learning has begun to take emotions into account, which is also known as affective learning. It advocates an education system that is sentient of learner's cognitive and affective states, as learners' performance could be affected by emotional factors. This exploratory research examines the impacts of task demand and external stimuli on learner's stress perception and job performance. Experiments are conducted on 160 undergraduate students from a higher le...

  9. Flory-type theories of polymer chains under different external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkov, Yu A.; Kiselev, M. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this Review, we present a critical analysis of various applications of the Flory-type theories to a theoretical description of the conformational behavior of single polymer chains in dilute polymer solutions under a few external stimuli. Different theoretical models of flexible polymer chains in the supercritical fluid are discussed and analysed. Different points of view on the conformational behavior of the polymer chain near the liquid-gas transition critical point of the solvent are presented. A theoretical description of the co-solvent-induced coil-globule transitions within the implicit-solvent-explicit-co-solvent models is discussed. Several explicit-solvent-explicit-co-solvent theoretical models of the coil-to-globule-to-coil transition of the polymer chain in a mixture of good solvents (co-nonsolvency) are analysed and compared with each other. Finally, a new theoretical model of the conformational behavior of the dielectric polymer chain under the external constant electric field in the dilute polymer solution with an explicit account for the many-body dipole correlations is discussed. The polymer chain collapse induced by many-body dipole correlations of monomers in the context of statistical thermodynamics of dielectric polymers is analysed.

  10. Effects of External Stimuli on Microstructure-Property Relationship at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoming

    The technical contribution of this research is a unique nanofabricated experimental setup that integrates nanoscale specimens with tools for interrogating mechanical (stress-strain, fracture, and fatigue), thermal and electrical (conductivity) properties as function of external stimuli such as strain, temperature, electrical field and radiation. It addresses the shortcomings of the state of the art characterization techniques, which are yet to perform such simultaneous and multi-domain measurements. Our technique has virtually no restriction on specimen material type and thickness, which makes the setup versatile. It is demonstrated with 100 nm thick nickel, aluminum, zirconium; 25 nm thick molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS2), 10 nm hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) specimens and 100nm carbon nanofiber, all in freestanding thin film form. The technique is compatible with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM captures microstructural features, (defects, phases, precipitates and interfaces), diffraction patterns and chemical microanalysis in real time. 'Seeing the microstructure while measuring properties' is our unique capability. It helps identifying fundamental mechanisms behind thermo-electro-mechanical coupling and degradation, so that these mechanisms can be used to (i) explain the results obtained for mesoscale specimens of the same materials and experimental conditions and (ii) develop computational models to explain and predict properties at both nano and meso scales. The uniqueness of this contribution is therefore simultaneously quantitative and qualitative probing of length-scale dependent external stimuli effects on microstructures and physical properties of nanoscale materials. The scientific contribution of this research is the experimental validation of the fundamental hypothesis that, if the nanoscale size can cause significant deviation in a certain domain, e.g., mechanical, it can also make that domain more sensitive to external stimuli when

  11. Dynamical responses to external stimuli for both cases of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization in a complex neuronal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2017-10-01

    For studying how dynamical responses to external stimuli depend on the synaptic-coupling type, we consider two types of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization (i.e., synchronization via synaptic excitation and inhibition) in complex small-world networks of excitatory regular spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons and inhibitory fast spiking (FS) interneurons. For both cases of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization, effects of synaptic couplings on dynamical responses to external time-periodic stimuli S ( t ) (applied to a fraction of neurons) are investigated by varying the driving amplitude A of S ( t ). Stimulated neurons are phase-locked to external stimuli for both cases of excitatory and inhibitory couplings. On the other hand, the stimulation effect on non-stimulated neurons depends on the type of synaptic coupling. The external stimulus S ( t ) makes a constructive effect on excitatory non-stimulated RS neurons (i.e., it causes external phase lockings in the non-stimulated sub-population), while S ( t ) makes a destructive effect on inhibitory non-stimulated FS interneurons (i.e., it breaks up original inhibitory synchronization in the non-stimulated sub-population). As results of these different effects of S ( t ), the type and degree of dynamical response (e.g., synchronization enhancement or suppression), characterized by the dynamical response factor [Formula: see text] (given by the ratio of synchronization degree in the presence and absence of stimulus), are found to vary in a distinctly different way, depending on the synaptic-coupling type. Furthermore, we also measure the matching degree between the dynamics of the two sub-populations of stimulated and non-stimulated neurons in terms of a "cross-correlation" measure [Formula: see text]. With increasing A , based on [Formula: see text], we discuss the cross-correlations between the two sub-populations, affecting the dynamical responses to S ( t ).

  12. Conformation and structural changes of diblock copolymers with octopus-like micelle formation in the presence of external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammertz, K.; Saier, A. M.; Marti, O.; Amirkhani, M.

    2014-04-01

    External stimuli such as vapours and electric fields can be used to manipulate the formation of AB-diblock copolymers on surfaces. We study the conformational variation of PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate)), PS and PMMA adsorbed on mica and their response to saturated water or chloroform atmospheres. Using specimens with only partial polymer coverage, new unanticipated effects were observed. Water vapour, a non-solvent for all three polymers, was found to cause high surface mobility. In contrast, chloroform vapour (a solvent for all three polymers) proved to be less efficient. Furthermore, the influence of an additional applied electric field was investigated. A dc field oriented parallel to the sample surface induces the formation of polymer islands which assemble into wormlike chains. Moreover, PS-b-PMMA forms octopus-like micelles (OLMs) on mica. Under the external stimuli mentioned above, the wormlike formations of OLMs are able to align in the direction of the external electric field. In the absence of an electric field, the OLMs disaggregate and exhibit phase separated structures under chloroform vapour.

  13. Conformation and structural changes of diblock copolymers with octopus-like micelle formation in the presence of external stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammertz, K; Saier, A M; Marti, O; Amirkhani, M

    2014-01-01

    External stimuli such as vapours and electric fields can be used to manipulate the formation of AB-diblock copolymers on surfaces. We study the conformational variation of PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate)), PS and PMMA adsorbed on mica and their response to saturated water or chloroform atmospheres. Using specimens with only partial polymer coverage, new unanticipated effects were observed. Water vapour, a non-solvent for all three polymers, was found to cause high surface mobility. In contrast, chloroform vapour (a solvent for all three polymers) proved to be less efficient. Furthermore, the influence of an additional applied electric field was investigated. A dc field oriented parallel to the sample surface induces the formation of polymer islands which assemble into wormlike chains. Moreover, PS-b-PMMA forms octopus-like micelles (OLMs) on mica. Under the external stimuli mentioned above, the wormlike formations of OLMs are able to align in the direction of the external electric field. In the absence of an electric field, the OLMs disaggregate and exhibit phase separated structures under chloroform vapour. (paper)

  14. The working memory stroop effect: when internal representations clash with external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Working memory (WM) has recently been described as internally directed attention, which implies that WM content should affect behavior exactly like an externally perceived and attended stimulus. We tested whether holding a color word in WM, rather than attending to it in the external environment, can produce interference in a color-discrimination task, which would mimic the classic Stroop effect. Over three experiments, the WM Stroop effect recapitulated core properties of the classic attentional Stroop effect, displaying equivalent congruency effects, additive contributions from stimulus- and response-level congruency, and susceptibility to modulation by the percentage of congruent and incongruent trials. Moreover, WM maintenance was inversely related to attentional demands during the WM delay between stimulus presentation and recall, with poorer memory performance following incongruent than congruent trials. Together, these results suggest that WM and attention rely on the same resources and operate over the same representations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Enhancement of conductance of GaAs sub-microwires under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xianlin; Deng, Qingsong; Zheng, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductors with one dimension on the micro-nanometer scale have many unique physical properties that are remarkably different from those of their bulk counterparts. Moreover, changes in the external field will further modulate the properties of the semiconductor micro-nanomaterials. In this study, we used focused ion beam technology to prepare freestanding ⟨111⟩-oriented GaAs sub-microwires from a GaAs substrate. The effects of laser irradiation and bending or buckling deformation induced by compression on the electrical transport properties of an individual GaAs sub-microwire were studied. The experimental results indicate that both laser irradiation and bending deformation can enhance their electrical transport properties, the laser irradiation resulted in a conductance enhancement of ˜30% compared to the result with no irradiation, and in addition, bending deformation changed the conductance by as much as ˜180% when the average strain was approximately 1%. The corresponding mechanisms are also discussed. This study provides beneficial insight into the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on GaAs micro/nano-wires.

  16. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-10-24

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state–space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical “external stimulus-induced information loss” model of biological systems.

  17. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Sakata, Katsumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okumura, Jun; Ishige, Kentaro; Suzuki, Harukazu; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state–space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical “external stimulus-induced information loss” model of biological systems.

  18. Musical Brains. A study of evoked musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. Preliminary report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goycoolea, Marcos V; Mena, Ismael; Neubauer, Sonia G; Levy, Raquel G.; Fernandez Grez, Margarita; Berger, Claudia G

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are individuals, usually musicians, who are seemingly able to evoke musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. However, to date there is no available evidence to determine if it is feasible to have musical sensations without using external sensory receptors nor if there is a biological substrate to these sensations. Study design: Two single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluations with [99mTc]-HMPAO were conducted in each of three female musicians. One was done under basal conditions (without evoking) and the other one while evoking these sensations. Results: In the NeuroSPECT studies of the musicians who were tested while evoking a musical composition, there was a significant increase in perfusion above the normal mean in the right and left hemispheres in Brodmann's areas 9 and 8 (frontal executive area) and in areas 40 on the left side (auditory center). However, under basal conditions there was no hyper perfusion of areas 9, 8, 39 and 40. In one case hyper perfusion was found under basal conditions in area 45, however it was less than when she was evoking. Conclusions: These findings are suggestive of a biological substrate to the process of evoking musical sensations (au)

  19. Extension of Gibbs-Duhem equation including influences of external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangze, Han; Jianjia, Meng

    2018-03-01

    Gibbs-Duhem equation is one of the fundamental equations in thermodynamics, which describes the relation among changes in temperature, pressure and chemical potential. Thermodynamic system can be affected by external field, and this effect should be revealed by thermodynamic equations. Based on energy postulate and the first law of thermodynamics, the differential equation of internal energy is extended to include the properties of external fields. Then, with homogeneous function theorem and a redefinition of Gibbs energy, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem equation with influences of external fields is derived. As a demonstration of the application of this generalized equation, the influences of temperature and external electric field on surface tension, surface adsorption controlled by external electric field, and the derivation of a generalized chemical potential expression are discussed, which show that the extended Gibbs-Duhem equation developed in this paper is capable to capture the influences of external fields on a thermodynamic system.

  20. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Wieselquist, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for handling external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM. • Source term can have polynomial or exponentially decaying time-dependence. • CRAM with source term and adjoint capability implemented to ORIGEN in SCALE. • The new solver is faster and more accurate than the original solver of ORIGEN. - Abstract: A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Furthermore, in most cases, the new solver is up to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one

  1. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory including the coupling to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2018-05-01

    If any violation of Lorentz symmetry exists in the hadron sector, its ultimate origins must lie at the quark level. We continue the analysis of how the theories at these two levels are connected, using chiral perturbation theory. Considering a 2-flavor quark theory, with dimension-4 operators that break Lorentz symmetry, we derive a low-energy theory of pions and nucleons that is invariant under local chiral transformations and includes the coupling to external fields. The pure meson and baryon sectors, as well as the couplings between them and the couplings to external electromagnetic and weak gauge fields, contain forms of Lorentz violation which depend on linear combinations of quark-level coefficients. In particular, at leading order the electromagnetic couplings depend on the very same combinations as appear in the free particle propagators. This means that observations of electromagnetic processes involving hadrons—such as vacuum Cerenkov radiation, which may be allowed in Lorentz-violating theories—can only reliably constrain certain particular combinations of quark coefficients.

  2. Emergence of ultrafast sparsely synchronized rhythms and their responses to external stimuli in an inhomogeneous small-world complex neuronal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2017-09-01

    We consider an inhomogeneous small-world network (SWN) composed of inhibitory short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) interneurons, and investigate the effect of network architecture on emergence of synchronized brain rhythms by varying the fraction of LR interneurons p long . The betweenness centralities of the LR and SR interneurons (characterizing the potentiality in controlling communication between other interneurons) are distinctly different. Hence, in view of the betweenness, SWNs we consider are inhomogeneous, unlike the "canonical" Watts-Strogatz SWN with nearly the same betweenness centralities. For small p long , the load of communication traffic is much concentrated on a few LR interneurons. However, as p long is increased, the number of LR connections (coming from LR interneurons) increases, and then the load of communication traffic is less concentrated on LR interneurons, which leads to better efficiency of global communication between interneurons. Sparsely synchronized rhythms are thus found to emerge when passing a small critical value p long (c) (≃0.16). The population frequency of the sparsely synchronized rhythm is ultrafast (higher than 100 Hz), while the mean firing rate of individual interneurons is much lower (∼30 Hz) due to stochastic and intermittent neural discharges. These dynamical behaviors in the inhomogeneous SWN are also compared with those in the homogeneous Watts-Strogatz SWN, in connection with their network topologies. Particularly, we note that the main difference between the two types of SWNs lies in the distribution of betweenness centralities. Unlike the case of the Watts-Strogatz SWN, dynamical responses to external stimuli vary depending on the type of stimulated interneurons in the inhomogeneous SWN. We consider two cases of external time-periodic stimuli applied to sub-populations of the LR and SR interneurons, respectively. Dynamical responses (such as synchronization suppression and enhancement) to these two cases of

  3. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Higher incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in some regions in the world confers for interplay between genetic factors and external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Das, Piyanki; Chatterjee, Koustav; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare variety of head and neck cancers. The risk factors include three major causes: genetic factors, viral infection, and environmental and dietary factors. The types of NPC show strong ethnic and geographic variations. The keratinizing and non-keratinizing types are prevalent in the lower incidence regions like North America and Europe; whereas the undifferentiated type is mostly found in the regions with higher incidences like China, North Africa, Arctic, and Nagaland of North-East India. These suggest a possible major role of the internal genetic factors for generation and promotion of this disease. Viral infections might accelerate the process of carcinogenesis by helping in cellular proliferation and loss of apoptosis. Diet and other environmental factors promote these neoplastic processes and further progression of the disease occurs.

  5. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  6. Anharmonic 1D actuator model including electrostatic and Casimir forces with fractional damping perturbed by an external force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam

    2018-06-01

    We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.

  7. Anharmonic 1D actuator model including electrostatic and Casimir forces with fractional damping perturbed by an external force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam

    2018-03-01

    We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.

  8. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    . In 1968, we all assembled in Moscow for the International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors; what a unique opportunity to meet so many Russian colleagues, including this intellectual elite from the most remarkable Joffe Institute, with Zhores Alferov a major player. In 1970, I became a founding director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research at Stuttgart, in the Southwest of Germany. There I eventually succeeded—against massive opposition—to establish a group for MBE, which became truly successful under the very capable leadership of Klaus Ploog [17], to whom was bestowed a prize of the Seibold-Foundation for Japan-Germany Science Cooperation. Klaus von Klitzing's group in our Max-Planck-Institute in Stuttgart relies on MBE to the present day for research on the quantum Hall effect [18]. Equally, my former doctoral student Horst Stormer had to utilize excellent MBE for his Nobel-Prize winning research on the fractional quantum Hall effect [18]. We fondly remember one congenial dinner party at our Stuttgart house, with Zhores Alferov and Helmut Lotsch as our valued guests; it must have been in the mid-seventies. My wife Inge had prepared a dessert in the shape of the title page of the Springer journal Applied Physics, with chocolate and orange cream. Herr Lotsch had won Alferov to become part of our board of editors, a most valuable connection to the excellence of Soviet semiconductor research! Many Japanese colleagues, especially from industrial electronics labs came to learn the tricks of MBE from us in Stuttgart; the German electronics industry, however, was reluctant and remained completely disinterested—but the French equipment maker RIBER was our staunch ally, and this company grew with the international acceptance of MBE for small, high-frequency devices. One diligent young visitor at my Stuttgart laboratories, Ozamu Kumagai from the SONY Corporation, did especially well. Back at home, he most cleverly devised novel technologies

  9. Stimuli-Regulated Smart Polymeric Systems for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuja Pulickal Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of the human body is a composite of different environments, each with its own parameters that may differ under normal, as well as diseased conditions. These environmental conditions include factors, such as pH, temperature and enzymes that are specific to a type of cell, tissue or organ or a pathological state, such as inflammation, cancer or infection. These conditions can act as specific triggers or stimuli for the efficient release of therapeutics at their destination by overcoming many physiological and biological barriers. The efficacy of conventional treatment modalities can be enhanced, side effects decreased and patient compliance improved by using stimuli-responsive material that respond to these triggers at the target site. These stimuli or triggers can be physical, chemical or biological and can be internal or external in nature. Many smart/intelligent stimuli-responsive therapeutic gene carriers have been developed that can respond to either internal stimuli, which may be normally present, overexpressed or present in decreased levels, owing to a disease, or to stimuli that are applied externally, such as magnetic fields. This review focuses on the effects of various internal stimuli, such as temperature, pH, redox potential, enzymes, osmotic activity and other biomolecules that are present in the body, on modulating gene expression by using stimuli-regulated smart polymeric carriers.

  10. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  11. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  12. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kae; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Shuster, Jonathan J; Philip, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points ( p  < 0.001). When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45-60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  13. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  14. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Bell, Andrew M; Marin, Alina; Taylor, Rebecca; Boyle, Kieran A; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ∼14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of lamina II. Over 80% of the PPTA-positive cells lack the transcription factor Pax2 (which determines an inhibitory phenotype), and these account for ∼15% of the excitatory neurons in this region. They are different from the neurotensin, neurokinin B, or gastrin-releasing peptide neurons, although many of them contain somatostatin, which is widely expressed among superficial dorsal horn excitatory interneurons. We show that many of these cells respond to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli and to intradermal injection of pruritogens. Finally, we demonstrate that these cells can also be identified in a knock-in Cre mouse line (Tac1), although our findings suggest that there is an additional population of neurons that transiently express PPTA. This population of substance P-expressing excitatory neurons is likely to play an important role in the transmission of signals that are perceived as pain and itch.

  15. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage...

  16. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed method FMS to several model membrane systems as well as to living cells, we showed that we can reliably detect the differences in lipid phases and membrane domains upon changes of temperature or biochemical composition. A 1--3 nm spectral shift of probes NBD and Laurdan due to different local polarity was sufficient to clearly distinguish individual vesicles in gel, liquid ordered, or liquid disordered lipid phase that had been prepared from different lipid mixtures. The results were corroborated by observations of phase transition of individual liposomes from gel to liquid disordered phase upon controlled heating of the sample by a heating slide or by a focused infrared laser beam of optical tweezers. The spectral and spatial resolution of FMS were preserved also when observing more complex biological samples, such as mixtures of liposomes and cells, showing that our results were not affected by signals of autofluorescence and growth medium, which often obstruct other fluorescence measurements. The robustness of the method allowed us to identify the delivery mechanism of a cancerostatic drug into human breast cancer cells by lipid nanoparticles. Small spectral shifts of an environment-sensitive dye revealed that the membranes of drug-carrying liposomes fuse with the membranes of cancer cells, delivering the therapeutic substance into the target. Our findings pave the way towards new biomedical approaches for more efficient treatment of the gravest maladies of our time. Furthermore, we upgraded FMS by analyzing the polarization of emitted fluorescence, which is related to the orientational order of dyes' dipoles in the membrane and therefore also to molecular conformations of the probes. The combination of spectral and polarized detection enabled us to provide the first direct experimental evidence that some of the most widely used environment-sensitive membrane probes -- NBD-labelled phospholipids -- undertake various conformations that coexist at distances below optical spatial resolution. Developing a mathematical model, we additionally characterized these conformations and determined their relative portions. We found that they are greatly affected by high concentration of cholesterol, which forces the probes into a different conformation due to its rigid planar chemical structure that favors tight packing of neighboring molecules. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Under pressure: adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, L.; Stewart, J.L.; May, A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Davenport, P.W.; Paulus, M.P.; Tapert, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit hyposensitivity to pleasant internally generated (interoceptive) stimuli and hypersensitivity to external rewarding stimuli. It is unclear whether similar patterns exist for aversive interoceptive stimuli. We compared activation in the

  18. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2014-11-28

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a significant role in treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. The efficacy of protein therapeutics, however, is limited by their instability, immunogenicity and short half-life. In order to overcome these barriers, tremendous efforts have recently been made in developing controlled protein delivery systems. Stimuli-triggered release is an appealing and promising approach for protein delivery and has made protein delivery with both spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manners possible. This review surveys recent advances in controlled protein delivery of proteins or peptides using stimuli-responsive nanomaterials. Strategies utilizing both physiological and external stimuli are introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  20. Food-related attentional bias. Word versus pictorial stimuli and the importance of stimuli calorific value in the dot probe task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijy, Tanya; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to extend previous research on food-related attentional biases by examining biases towards pictorial versus word stimuli, and foods of high versus low calorific value. It was expected that participants would demonstrate greater biases to pictures over words, and to high-calorie over low-calorie foods. A secondary aim was to examine associations between BMI, dietary restraint, external eating and attentional biases. It was expected that high scores on these individual difference variables would be associated with a bias towards high-calorie stimuli. Undergraduates (N = 99) completed a dot probe task including matched word and pictorial food stimuli in a controlled setting. Questionnaires assessing eating behaviour were administered, and height and weight were measured. Contrary to predictions, there were no main effects for stimuli type (pictures vs words) or calorific value (high vs low). There was, however, a significant interaction effect suggesting a bias towards high-calorie pictures, but away from high-calorie words; and a bias towards low-calorie words, but away from low-calorie pictures. No associations between attentional bias and any of the individual difference variables were found. The presence of a stimulus type by calorific value interaction demonstrates the importance of stimuli type in the dot probe task, and may help to explain inconsistencies in prior research. Further research is needed to clarify associations between attentional bias and BMI, restraint, and external eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado Castillo, R.; Aguilar Pacheco, R.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the results obtained in the upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  2. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...

  3. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  5. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  6. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  7. External stimuli response on a novel chitosan hydrogel crosslinked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ceutics, tissue engineering, chromatography, metal chela- tion etc. This has prompted ... lower limit) up to thousands of time of water or biological fluid than their dry ... 2000), and other industrial as well as biomedical applica- tions. A number of ...

  8. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  9. Intimate stimuli result in fronto-parietal activation changes in anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zutphen, L; Maier, S; Siep, N; Jacob, G A; Tüscher, O; van Elst, L Tebartz; Zeeck, A; Arntz, A; O'Connor, M-F; Stamm, H; Hudek, M; Joos, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimacy is a key psychological problem in anorexia nervosa (AN). Empirical evidence, including neurobiological underpinnings, is however, scarce. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated various emotional stimuli including intimate stimuli experienced in patients with AN and non-patients,

  10. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  11. Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy

    OpenAIRE

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scrip...

  12. [The P300-based brain-computer interface: presentation of the complex "flash + movement" stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, I P; Kaplan, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    The P300 based brain-computer interface requires the detection of P300 wave of brain event-related potentials. Most of its users learn the BCI control in several minutes and after the short classifier training they can type a text on the computer screen or assemble an image of separate fragments in simple BCI-based video games. Nevertheless, insufficient attractiveness for users and conservative stimuli organization in this BCI may restrict its integration into real information processes control. At the same time initial movement of object (motion-onset stimuli) may be an independent factor that induces P300 wave. In current work we checked the hypothesis that complex "flash + movement" stimuli together with drastic and compact stimuli organization on the computer screen may be much more attractive for user while operating in P300 BCI. In 20 subjects research we showed the effectiveness of our interface. Both accuracy and P300 amplitude were higher for flashing stimuli and complex "flash + movement" stimuli compared to motion-onset stimuli. N200 amplitude was maximal for flashing stimuli, while for "flash + movement" stimuli and motion-onset stimuli it was only a half of it. Similar BCI with complex stimuli may be embedded into compact control systems requiring high level of user attention under impact of negative external effects obstructing the BCI control.

  13. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli. (paper)

  14. Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W

    2008-01-01

    PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  15. Generating stimuli for neuroscience using PsychoPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Peirce

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.. The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  16. When goals conflict with values: counterproductive attentional and oculomotor capture by reward-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, Mike E; Pearson, Daniel; Griffiths, Oren; Beesley, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Attention provides the gateway to cognition, by selecting certain stimuli for further analysis. Recent research demonstrates that whether a stimulus captures attention is not determined solely by its physical properties, but is malleable, being influenced by our previous experience of rewards obtained by attending to that stimulus. Here we show that this influence of reward learning on attention extends to task-irrelevant stimuli. In a visual search task, certain stimuli signaled the magnitude of available reward, but reward delivery was not contingent on responding to those stimuli. Indeed, any attentional capture by these critical distractor stimuli led to a reduction in the reward obtained. Nevertheless, distractors signaling large reward produced greater attentional and oculomotor capture than those signaling small reward. This counterproductive capture by task-irrelevant stimuli is important because it demonstrates how external reward structures can produce patterns of behavior that conflict with task demands, and similar processes may underlie problematic behavior directed toward real-world rewards.

  17. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  18. Neural Processing of Emotional Musical and Nonmusical Stimuli in Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lepping

    Full Text Available Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression.Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning.ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum.These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments.

  19. Perceiving, imaging, and preferring physiognomic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M S

    1986-01-01

    Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.

  20. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  1. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  2. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  3. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  4. Externalizing proneness and brain response during pre-cuing and viewing of emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foell, Jens; Brislin, Sarah J; Strickland, Casey M; Seo, Dongju; Sabatinelli, Dean; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Externalizing proneness, or trait disinhibition, is a concept relevant to multiple high-impact disorders involving impulsive-aggressive behavior. Its mechanisms remain disputed: major models posit hyperresponsive reward circuitry or heightened threat-system reactivity as sources of disinhibitory tendencies. This study evaluated alternative possibilities by examining relations between trait disinhibition and brain reactivity during preparation for and processing of visual affective stimuli. Forty females participated in a functional neuroimaging procedure with stimuli presented in blocks containing either pleasurable or aversive pictures interspersed with neutral, with each picture preceded by a preparation signal. Preparing to view elicited activation in regions including nucleus accumbens, whereas visual regions and bilateral amygdala were activated during viewing of emotional pictures. High disinhibition predicted reduced nucleus accumbens activation during preparation within pleasant/neutral picture blocks, along with enhanced amygdala reactivity during viewing of pleasant and aversive pictures. Follow-up analyses revealed that the augmented amygdala response was related to reduced preparatory activation. Findings indicate that participants high in disinhibition are less able to process implicit cues and mentally prepare for upcoming stimuli, leading to limbic hyperreactivity during processing of actual stimuli. This outcome is helpful for integrating findings from studies suggesting reward-system hyperreactivity and others suggesting threat-system hyperreactivity as mechanisms for externalizing proneness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Swimming micro-robot powered by stimuli-sensitive gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we design a simple maneuverable micro-swimmer that can self-propel and navigate in highly viscous (low Reynolds-number) environments. Our simple swimmer consists of a cubic gel body which periodically changes volume in response to external stimuli, two rigid rectangular flaps attached to the opposite sides of the gel body, and a flexible steering flap at the front end of the swimmer. The stimuli-sensitive body undergoes periodic expansions (swelling) and contractions (deswelling) leading to a time-irreversible beating motion of the propulsive flaps that propel the micro-swimmer. Thus, the responsive gel body acts as an ``engine'' actuating the motion of the swimmer. We examine how the swimming speed depends on the gel and flap properties. We also probe how the swimmer trajectory can be changed using a responsive steering flap whose curvature is controlled by an external stimulus. We show that the turning occurs due to steering flap bending and periodic beating. Furthermore, our simulations reveal that the turning direction can be regulated by changing the intensity of external stimulus.

  6. Network evolution induced by asynchronous stimuli through spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jie Yuan

    Full Text Available In sensory neural system, external asynchronous stimuli play an important role in perceptual learning, associative memory and map development. However, the organization of structure and dynamics of neural networks induced by external asynchronous stimuli are not well understood. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP is a typical synaptic plasticity that has been extensively found in the sensory systems and that has received much theoretical attention. This synaptic plasticity is highly sensitive to correlations between pre- and postsynaptic firings. Thus, STDP is expected to play an important role in response to external asynchronous stimuli, which can induce segregative pre- and postsynaptic firings. In this paper, we study the impact of external asynchronous stimuli on the organization of structure and dynamics of neural networks through STDP. We construct a two-dimensional spatial neural network model with local connectivity and sparseness, and use external currents to stimulate alternately on different spatial layers. The adopted external currents imposed alternately on spatial layers can be here regarded as external asynchronous stimuli. Through extensive numerical simulations, we focus on the effects of stimulus number and inter-stimulus timing on synaptic connecting weights and the property of propagation dynamics in the resulting network structure. Interestingly, the resulting feedforward structure induced by stimulus-dependent asynchronous firings and its propagation dynamics reflect both the underlying property of STDP. The results imply a possible important role of STDP in generating feedforward structure and collective propagation activity required for experience-dependent map plasticity in developing in vivo sensory pathways and cortices. The relevance of the results to cue-triggered recall of learned temporal sequences, an important cognitive function, is briefly discussed as well. Furthermore, this finding suggests a potential

  7. Polyaniline Coated Core-Shell Typed Stimuli-Responsive Microspheres and Their Electrorheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhen Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional core-shell-structured particles have attracted considerable attention recently. This paper reviews the synthetic methods and morphologies of various electro-stimuli responsive polyaniline (PANI-coated core-shell-type microspheres, including PANI-coated Fe3O4, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, poly(methyl methacrylate, poly(glycidyl methacrylate, and polystyrene along with their electrorheological (ER characteristics when prepared by dispersing these particles in an insulating medium. In addition to the various rheological characteristics and their analysis, such as shear stress and yield stress of their ER fluids, this paper summarizes some of the mechanisms proposed for ER fluids to further understand the responses of ER fluids to an externally applied electric field.

  8. Virtual reality stimuli for force platform posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavainen, Timo; Juhola, Martti; Ilmari, Pyykö; Aalto, Heikki; Toppila, Esko

    2002-01-01

    People relying much on vision in the control of posture are known to have an elevated risk of falling. Dependence on visual control is an important parameter in the diagnosis of balance disorders. We have previously shown that virtual reality methods can be used to produce visual stimuli that affect balance, but suitable stimuli need to be found. In this study the effect of six different virtual reality stimuli on the balance of 22 healthy test subjects was evaluated using force platform posturography. According to the tests two of the stimuli have a significant effect on balance.

  9. Steady-state VEP responses to uncomfortable stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise

    2017-02-01

    Periodic stimuli, such as op-art, can evoke a range of aversive sensations included in the term visual discomfort. Illusory motion effects are elicited by fixational eye movements, but the cortex might also contribute to effects of discomfort. To investigate this possibility, steady-state visually evoked responses (SSVEPs) to contrast-matched op-art-based stimuli were measured at the same time as discomfort judgements. On average, discomfort reduced with increasing spatial frequency of the pattern. In contrast, the peak amplitude of the SSVEP response was around the midrange spatial frequencies. Like the discomfort judgements, SSVEP responses to the highest spatial frequencies were lowest amplitude, but the relationship breaks down between discomfort and SSVEP for the lower spatial frequency stimuli. This was not explicable by gross eye movements as measured using the facial electrodes. There was a weak relationship between the peak SSVEP responses and discomfort judgements for some stimuli, suggesting that discomfort can be explained in part by electrophysiological responses measured at the level of the cortex. However, there is a breakdown of this relationship in the case of lower spatial frequency stimuli, which remains unexplained. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stimuli-Triggered Sol-Gel Transitions of Polypeptides Derived from α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydride (NCA) Polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Fan, Jingwei; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-02-18

    The past decade has witnessed significantly increased interest in the development of smart polypeptide-based organo- and hydrogel systems with stimuli responsiveness, especially those that exhibit sol-gel phase-transition properties, with an anticipation of their utility in the construction of adaptive materials, sensor designs, and controlled release systems, among other applications. Such developments have been facilitated by dramatic progress in controlled polymerizations of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs), together with advanced orthogonal functionalization techniques, which have enabled economical and practical syntheses of well-defined polypeptides and peptide hybrid polymeric materials. One-dimensional stacking of polypeptides or peptide aggregations in the forms of certain ordered conformations, such as α helices and β sheets, in combination with further physical or chemical cross-linking, result in the construction of three-dimensional matrices of polypeptide gel systems. The macroscopic sol-gel transitions, resulting from the construction or deconstruction of gel networks and the conformational changes between secondary structures, can be triggered by external stimuli, including environmental factors, electromagnetic fields, and (bio)chemical species. Herein, the most recent advances in polypeptide gel systems are described, covering synthetic strategies, gelation mechanisms, and stimuli-triggered sol-gel transitions, with the aim of demonstrating the relationships between chemical compositions, supramolecular structures, and responsive properties of polypeptide-based organo- and hydrogels. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Potential of Stimuli-Responsive Nanogels in Drug and Active Molecule Delivery for Targeted Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicario-de-la-Torre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanogels (NGs are currently under extensive investigation due to their unique properties, such as small particle size, high encapsulation efficiency and protection of active agents from degradation, which make them ideal candidates as drug delivery systems (DDS. Stimuli-responsive NGs are cross-linked nanoparticles (NPs, composed of polymers, natural, synthetic, or a combination thereof that can swell by absorption (uptake of large amounts of solvent, but not dissolve due to the constituent structure of the polymeric network. NGs can undergo change from a polymeric solution (swell form to a hard particle (collapsed form in response to (i physical stimuli such as temperature, ionic strength, magnetic or electric fields; (ii chemical stimuli such as pH, ions, specific molecules or (iii biochemical stimuli such as enzymatic substrates or affinity ligands. The interest in NGs comes from their multi-stimuli nature involving reversible phase transitions in response to changes in the external media in a faster way than macroscopic gels or hydrogels due to their nanometric size. NGs have a porous structure able to encapsulate small molecules such as drugs and genes, then releasing them by changing their volume when external stimuli are applied.

  12. External stimulation strength controls actin response dynamics in Dictyostelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Self-sustained oscillation and the resonance frequency of the cytoskeletal actin polymerization/depolymerization have recently been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report that the resonance frequency is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and depolymerization time at different levels of external stimulation. We found that polymerization time is independent of external stimuli but the depolymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation increases. These observations can be successfully reproduced in the frame work of our time delayed differential equation model.

  13. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  14. Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deltomme, Berre; Mertens, G.; Tibboel, Helen; Braem, Senne

    We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli.

  15. Exposure to Virtual Social Stimuli Modulates Subjective Pain Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Vigil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects.

  16. Music influences ratings of the affect of visual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanser, W.E.; Mark, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of recent studies that have examined how music influences the judgment of emotional stimuli, including affective pictures and film clips. The relevant findings are incorporated within a broader theory of music and emotion, and suggestions for future research are

  17. Does the amygdala response correlate with the personality trait 'harm avoidance' while evaluating emotional stimuli explicitly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Luypaert, Robert; De Raedt, Rudi; De Mey, Johan

    2014-05-07

    The affective personality trait 'harm avoidance' (HA) from Cloninger's psychobiological personality model determines how an individual deals with emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli are processed by a neural network that include the left and right amygdalae as important key nodes. Explicit, implicit and passive processing of affective stimuli are known to activate the amygdalae differently reflecting differences in attention, level of detailed analysis of the stimuli and the cognitive control needed to perform the required task. Previous studies revealed that implicit processing or passive viewing of affective stimuli, induce a left amygdala response that correlates with HA. In this new study we have tried to extend these findings to the situation in which the subjects were required to explicitly process emotional stimuli. A group of healthy female participants was asked to rate the valence of positive and negative stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Afterwards the neural responses of the participants to the positive and to the negative stimuli were separately correlated to their HA scores and compared between the low and high HA participants. Both analyses revealed increased neural activity in the left laterobasal (LB) amygdala of the high HA participants while they were rating the positive and the negative stimuli. Our results indicate that the left amygdala response to explicit processing of affective stimuli does correlate with HA.

  18. Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Puga, Ana M; Concheiro, Angel

    2013-08-01

    Polysaccharides are gaining increasing attention as components of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, particularly since they can be obtained in a well characterized and reproducible way from the natural sources. Ionic polysaccharides can be readily crosslinked to render hydrogel networks sensitive to a variety of internal and external variables, and thus suitable for switching drug release on-off through diverse mechanisms. Hybrids, composites and grafted polymers can reinforce the responsiveness and widen the range of stimuli to which polysaccharide-based systems can respond. This review analyzes the state of the art of crosslinked ionic polysaccharides as components of delivery systems that can regulate drug release as a function of changes in pH, ion nature and concentration, electric and magnetic field intensity, light wavelength, temperature, redox potential, and certain molecules (enzymes, illness markers, and so on). Examples of specific applications are provided. The information compiled demonstrates that crosslinked networks of ionic polysaccharides are suitable building blocks for developing advanced externally activated and feed-back modulated drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  20. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  1. Multi-Functional Stimuli-Responsive Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supramolecular polymers based on non-covalent interactions can display a wide array of stimuli-responsive attributes. They can be tailored to change shape, actuate...

  2. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  3. Generalized Habituation of Concept Stimuli in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)

  4. Selective processing of linguistic and pictorial food stimuli in females with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, Kjell Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated subjects with eating disorders' selective attention to linguistic and pictorial representations of food stimuli in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. If subjects with eating disorders' attention really are biased by food stimuli, one would expect equally delayed color-naming latencies to food pictures as previous studies have found to food words. Twenty females with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or a combination of both) and 24 female controls identified the color of Stroop versions of linguistic and pictorial representations of color, food, emotional, and neutral stimuli. The eating disorder group was slower than the controls in identifying the color of all words (including the food words) and the pictures depicting food stimuli (but not any of the other pictures). The eating disorder group was also slower in identifying the color of both food and emotional than neutral stimuli, both for the linguistic and pictorial stimuli. These findings indicate that females with bulimia and anorexia nervosa's biased attention to food stimuli are not restricted to linguistic representations. The delayed responses to the emotional words and pictures suggest that processing of negative emotional stimuli, in addition to dysfunctional concerns about stimuli related to food and eating, is important in the maintenance of eating disorders.

  5. The mere exposure effect with scene stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    八木 , 善彦

    2016-01-01

     The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increasesubsequent affective preference for those stimuli. It has been indicated that with specific stimulus-category(i.e., paintings, matrices, and photographs of scene), repeated exposure has little or oppositeeffect on affective ratings. In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to explore theeffect of stimulus-category on the mere exposure effects. Photographs of young woman’s(Experiment1)a...

  6. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  7. Generalization of the disruptive effects of alternative stimuli when combined with target stimuli in extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila; Jonas Chan, C K; Bland, Vikki J; Bai, John Y H

    2017-09-01

    Differential-reinforcement treatments reduce target problem behavior in the short term but at the expense of making it more persistent long term. Basic and translational research based on behavioral momentum theory suggests that combining features of stimuli governing an alternative response with the stimuli governing target responding could make target responding less persistent. However, changes to the alternative stimulus context when combining alternative and target stimuli could diminish the effectiveness of the alternative stimulus in reducing target responding. In an animal model with pigeons, the present study reinforced responding in the presence of target and alternative stimuli. When combining the alternative and target stimuli during extinction, we altered the alternative stimulus through changes in line orientation. We found that (1) combining alternative and target stimuli in extinction more effectively decreased target responding than presenting the target stimulus on its own; (2) combining these stimuli was more effective in decreasing target responding trained with lower reinforcement rates; and (3) changing the alternative stimulus reduced its effectiveness when it was combined with the target stimulus. Therefore, changing alternative stimuli (e.g., therapist, clinical setting) during behavioral treatments that combine alternative and target stimuli could reduce the effectiveness of those treatments in disrupting problem behavior. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Cortical responses from adults and infants to complex visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Galambos, C; Galambos, R

    1978-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the onset of visual stimuli were extracted from the EEG of normal adult (N = 16) and infant (N = 23) subjects. Subjects were not required to make any response. Stimuli delivered to the adults were 150 msec exposures of 2 sets of colored slides projected in 4 blocks, 2 in focus and 2 out of focus. Infants received 2-sec exposures of slides showing people, colored drawings or scenes from Disneyland, as well as 2-sec illuminations of the experimenter as she played a game or of a TV screen the baby was watching. The adult ERPs showed 6 waves (N1 through P4) in the 140--600-msec range; this included a positive wave at around 350 msec that was large when the stimuli were focused and smaller when they were not. The waves in the 150--200-msec range, by contrast, steadily dropped in amplitude as the experiment progressed. The infant ERPs differed greatly from the adult ones in morphology, usually showing a positive (latency about 200 msec)--negative(5--600msec)--positive(1000msec) sequence. This ERP appeared in all the stimulus conditions; its presence or absence, furthermore, was correlated with whether or not the baby seemed interested in the stimuli. Four infants failed to produce these ERPs; an independent measure of attention to the stimuli, heart rate deceleration, was demonstrated in two of them. An electrode placed beneath the eye to monitor eye movements yielded ERPs closely resembling those derived from the scalp in most subjects; reasons are given for assigning this response to activity in the brain, probably at the frontal pole. This study appears to be one of the first to search for cognitive 'late waves' in a no-task situation. The results suggest that further work with such task-free paradigms may yield additional useful techniques for studying the ERP.

  9. Effects of auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane on audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Li, Qi; Ochi, Tatsuya; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160-200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360-400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides.

  10. Presentation of Aural Stimuli to Newborns and Premature Infants: An Audiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.

  11. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  12. Heterogeneity reduces sensitivity of cell death for TNF-Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliemann Monica

    2011-12-01

    ensemble modeling of a heterogeneous cell population including a global sensitivity analysis presented here allowed us to illuminate the role of the different elements and parameters on apoptotic signaling. The receptors serve to transmit the external stimulus; procaspases and their inhibitors control the switching from life to death, while NF-κB enhances the heterogeneity of the cell population. The global sensitivity analysis of the cell population model further revealed an unexpected impact of heterogeneity, i.e. the reduction of parametric sensitivity.

  13. Stimuli-Directed Helical Chirality Inversion and Bio-Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical structure is a sophisticated ubiquitous motif found in nature, in artificial polymers, and in supramolecular assemblies from microscopic to macroscopic points of view. Significant progress has been made in the synthesis and structural elucidation of helical polymers, nevertheless, a new direction for helical polymeric materials, is how to design smart systems with controllable helical chirality, and further use them to develop chiral functional materials and promote their applications in biology, biochemistry, medicine, and nanotechnology fields. This review summarizes the recent progress in the development of high-performance systems with tunable helical chirality on receiving external stimuli and discusses advances in their applications as drug delivery vesicles, sensors, molecular switches, and liquid crystals. Challenges and opportunities in this emerging area are also presented in the conclusion.

  14. Stimuli-responsive Smart Liposomes in Cancer Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Jain, Sanjay K

    2018-02-08

    Liposomes are vesicular carriers which possess aqueous core entrapped within the lipid bilayer. These are carriers of choice because of biocompatible and biodegradable features in addition to flexibility of surface modifications at surface and lipid compositions of lipid bilayers. Liposomes have been reported well for cancer treatment using both passive and active targeting approaches however tumor microenvironment is still the biggest hurdle for safe and effective delivery of anticancer agents. To overcome this problem, stimuli-responsive smart liposomes have emerged as promising cargoes pioneered to anomalous tumor milieu in response to pH, temperature, and enzymes etc. as internal triggers, and magnetic field, ultrasound, and redox potential as external guides for enhancement of drug delivery to tumors. This review focuses on all such stimuli-responsive approaches using fabrication potentiality of liposomes in combination to various ligands, linkers, and PEGylation etc. Scientists engaged in cancer targeting approaches can get benefited greatly with this knowledgeable assemblage of advances in liposomal nanovectors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C.Y.; Applegate, Marissa C.; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the “fading embers” of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. PMID:28132858

  16. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O'Hare

    Full Text Available Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  18. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise; Clarke, Alasdair D F; Pollux, Petra M J

    2015-01-01

    Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  19. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  20. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  1. The Role of Inhibition in Avoiding Distraction by Salient Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have long debated whether salient stimuli can involuntarily 'capture' visual attention. We review here evidence for a recently discovered inhibitory mechanism that may help to resolve this debate. This evidence suggests that salient stimuli naturally attempt to capture attention, but capture can be avoided if the salient stimulus is suppressed before it captures attention. Importantly, the suppression process can be more or less effective as a result of changing task demands or lapses in cognitive control. Converging evidence for the existence of this suppression mechanism comes from multiple sources, including psychophysics, eye-tracking, and event-related potentials (ERPs). We conclude that the evidence for suppression is strong, but future research will need to explore the nature and limits of this mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Hashmi, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials which respond to triggers from the environment by changing their properties are one of the focal points in materials science. For precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals

  3. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  5. Bio-inspired fabrication of stimuli-responsive photonic crystals with hierarchical structures and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Tao; Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are stimuli-responsive, the resultant PCs exhibit optical properties that can be tuned by the stimuli. This can be exploited for promising applications in colour displays, biological and chemical sensors, inks and paints, and many optically active components. However, the preparation of the required photonic structures is the first issue to be solved. In the past two decades, approaches such as microfabrication and self-assembly have been developed to incorporate stimuli-responsive materials into existing periodic structures for the fabrication of PCs, either as the initial building blocks or as the surrounding matrix. Generally, the materials that respond to thermal, pH, chemical, optical, electrical, or magnetic stimuli are either soft or aggregate, which is why the manufacture of three-dimensional hierarchical photonic structures with responsive properties is a great challenge. Recently, inspired by biological PCs in nature which exhibit both flexible and responsive properties, researchers have developed various methods to synthesize metals and metal oxides with hierarchical structures by using a biological PC as the template. This review will focus on the recent developments in this field. In particular, PCs with biological hierarchical structures that can be tuned by external stimuli have recently been successfully fabricated. These findings offer innovative insights into the design of responsive PCs and should be of great importance for future applications of these materials. (topical review)

  6. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  7. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Stimuli-responsive magnetic particles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S F; Santos, A M; Fessi, H; Elaissari, A

    2011-01-17

    In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles have been studied due to their potential applications as magnetic carriers in biomedical area. These materials have been increasingly exploited as efficient delivery vectors, leading to opportunities of use as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, mediators of hyperthermia cancer treatment and in targeted therapies. Much attention has been also focused on "smart" polymers, which are able to respond to environmental changes, such as changes in the temperature and pH. In this context, this article reviews the state-of-the art in stimuli-responsive magnetic systems for biomedical applications. The paper describes different types of stimuli-sensitive systems, mainly temperature- and pH sensitive polymers, the combination of this characteristic with magnetic properties and, finally, it gives an account of their preparation methods. The article also discusses the main in vivo biomedical applications of such materials. A survey of the recent literature on various stimuli-responsive magnetic gels in biomedical applications is also included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men.

  10. Modeling Behavioral Experiment Interaction and Environmental Stimuli for a Synthetic C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoni Mujika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on the simulation of the neural network of the Caenorhabditis elegans living organism, and more specifically in the modeling of the stimuli applied within behavioral experiments and the stimuli that is generated in the interaction of the C. elegans with the environment. To the best of our knowledge, all efforts regarding stimuli modeling for the C. elegansare focused on a single type of stimulus, which is usually tested with a limited subnetwork of the C. elegansneural system. In this paper, we follow a different approach where we model a wide-range of different stimuli, with more flexible neural network configurations and simulations in mind. Moreover, we focus on the stimuli sensation by different types of sensory organs or various sensory principles of the neurons. As part of this work, most common stimuli involved in behavioral assays have been modeled. It includes models for mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical and light stimuli, and for proprioception-related self-sensed information exchange with the neural network. The developed models have been implemented and tested with the hardware-based Si elegans simulation platform.

  11. Dissociating object-based from egocentric transformations in mental body rotation: effect of stimuli size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Moreau, David; Jarraya, Mohamed; Lejeune-Poutrain, Laure; Molinaro, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The effect of stimuli size on the mental rotation of abstract objects has been extensively investigated, yet its effect on the mental rotation of bodily stimuli remains largely unexplored. Depending on the experimental design, mentally rotating bodily stimuli can elicit object-based transformations, relying mainly on visual processes, or egocentric transformations, which typically involve embodied motor processes. The present study included two mental body rotation tasks requiring either a same-different or a laterality judgment, designed to elicit object-based or egocentric transformations, respectively. Our findings revealed shorter response times for large-sized stimuli than for small-sized stimuli only for greater angular disparities, suggesting that the more unfamiliar the orientations of the bodily stimuli, the more stimuli size affected mental processing. Importantly, when comparing size transformation times, results revealed different patterns of size transformation times as a function of angular disparity between object-based and egocentric transformations. This indicates that mental size transformation and mental rotation proceed differently depending on the mental rotation strategy used. These findings are discussed with respect to the different spatial manipulations involved during object-based and egocentric transformations.

  12. Neural evidence for reduced apprehensiveness of familiarized stimuli in a mere exposure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Zhang, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Mere familiarization with a stimulus increases liking for it or similar stimuli ("mere exposure" effects) as well as perceptual fluency, indexed by the speed and accuracy of categorizing it or similar stimuli ("priming" effects). Candidate mechanisms proposed to explain mere exposure effects include both increased positive affect associated with greater perceptual fluency, and reduced negative affect associated with diminished apprehensiveness of novel stimuli. Although these two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, it is difficult for behavioral measures to disentangle them, since increased liking or other indices of greater positive affect toward exposed stimuli could result from increases in positive feelings or decreases in negative feelings or both. The present study sought to clarify this issue by building on research showing a dissociation at the neural level in which the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) is activated more by negatively valenced than by neutral or positively valenced stimuli, with the reverse effect for medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC). Supporting the reduced apprehensiveness hypothesis, we found lower LOFC activation to familiarized faces and objects (repetition suppression). We did not find evidence to support the positive affect hypothesis in increased activation to familiarized stimuli in MOFC or in other parts of the reward circuit that respond more to positively valenced stimuli (repetition enhancement), although enhancement effects were shown in some regions.

  13. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  14. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  15. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  16. Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems & solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, L; Schor, C

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality environments can introduce multiple and sometimes conflicting accommodative stimuli. For instance, with the high-powered lenses commonly used in head-mounted displays, small discrepancies in screen lens placement, caused by manufacturer error or user adjustment focus error, can change the focal depths of the image by a couple of diopters. This can introduce a binocular accommodative stimulus or, if the displacement between the two screens is unequal, an unequal (anisometropic) accommodative stimulus for the two eyes. Systems that allow simultaneous viewing of virtual and real images can also introduce a conflict in accommodative stimuli: When real and virtual images are at different focal planes, both cannot be in focus at the same time, though they may appear to be in similar locations in space. In this paper four unique designs are described that minimize the range of accommodative stimuli and maximize the visual system's ability to cope efficiently with the focus conflicts that remain: pinhole optics, monocular lens addition combined with aniso-accommodation, chromatic bifocal, and bifocal lens system. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are described and recommendation for design choice is given after consideration of the end use of the virtual reality system (e.g., low or high end, entertainment, technical, or medical use). The appropriate design modifications should allow greater user comfort and better performance.

  17. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  18. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  19. Development of degradable renewable polymers and stimuli-responsive nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyiler, Ersan

    The overall goal of this research was to explore new living radical polymerization methods and the blending of renewable polymers. Towards this latter goal, polylactic acid (PLA) was blended with a new renewable polymer, poly(trimethylene-malonate) (PTM), with the aim of improving mechanical properties, imparting faster degradation, and examining the relationship between degradation and mechanical properties. Blend films of PLA and PTM with various ratios (5, 10, and 20 wt %) were cast from chloroform. Partially miscible blends exhibited Young's modulus and elongation-to-break values that significantly extend PLA's usefulness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) data showed that incorporation of 10 wt% PTM into PLA matrix exhibited a Young's modulus of 4.61 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of neat PLA (1.69 GPa). The second part of the bioplastics study involved a one-week hydrolytic degradation study of PTM and another new bioplastic, poly(trimethylene itaconate) (PTI) using DI water (pH 5.4) at room temperature, and the effects of degradation on crystallinity and mechanical properties of these films were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and AFM. PTI showed an increase in crystallinity with degradation, which was attributed to predominately degradation of free amorphous regions. Depending on the crystallinity, the elastic modulus increased at first, and decreased slightly. Both bulk and surface-tethered stimuli-responsive polymers were studied on amine functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Stimuli-responsive polymers studied, including poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA), were grafted via surface-initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopies showed the progression of the grafting. The change in particle size as a

  20. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  1. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  2. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  3. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  4. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  5. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities......, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical...

  6. Encoding of natural and artificial stimuli in the auditory midbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwa, Dominika

    How complex acoustic stimuli are encoded in the main center of convergence in the auditory midbrain is not clear. Here, the representation of neural spiking responses to natural and artificial sounds across this subcortical structure is investigated based on neurophysiological recordings from the mammalian midbrain. Neural and stimulus correlations of neuronal pairs are analyzed with respect to the neurons' distance, and responses to different natural communication sounds are discriminated. A model which includes linear and nonlinear neural response properties of this nucleus is presented and employed to predict temporal spiking responses to new sounds. Supported by BMBF Grant 01GQ0811.

  7. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  10. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  11. 4D bioprinting: the next-generation technology for biofabrication enabled by stimuli-responsive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Akpek, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-12-02

    Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting, encompassing a wide range of disciplines including bioengineering, materials science, chemistry, and computer sciences, is emerging as the next-generation biofabrication technology. By utilizing stimuli-responsive materials and advanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies, 4D bioprinting aims to create dynamic 3D patterned biological structures that can transform their shapes or behavior under various stimuli. In this review, we highlight the potential use of various stimuli-responsive materials for 4D printing and their extension into biofabrication. We first discuss the state of the art and limitations associated with current 3D printing modalities and their transition into the inclusion of the additional time dimension. We then suggest the potential use of different stimuli-responsive biomaterials as the bioink that may achieve 4D bioprinting where transformation of fabricated biological constructs can be realized. We finally conclude with future perspectives.

  12. Phenotypic variations in chondrocyte subpopulations and their response to in vitro culture and external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Emily E; Fisher, John P

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage defects have limited capacity to self-repair, and cost society up to 60 billion dollars annually in both medical treatments and loss of working days. Recent developments in cartilage tissue engineering have resulted in many new products coming to market or entering clinical trials. However, there is a distinct lack of treatments which aim to recreate the complex zonal organization of articular cartilage. Cartilage tissue withstands repetitive strains throughout an individual's lifetime and provides frictionless movement between joints. The structure and composition of its intricately organized extracellular matrix varies with tissue depth to provide optimal resistance to loading, ensure ease of movement, and integrate with the subchondral bone. Each tissue zone is specially designed to resist the load it experiences, and maximize the tissue properties needed for its location. It is unlikely that a homogenous solution to tissue repair will be able to optimally restore the function of such a heterogeneous tissue. For zonal engineering of articular cartilage to become practical, maintenance of phenotypically stable zonal cell populations must be achieved. The chondrocyte phenotype varies considerably by zone, and it is the activity of these cells that help achieve the structural organization of the tissue. This review provides an examination of literature which has studied variations in cellular phenotype between cartilage zones. By doing so, we have identified critical differences between cell populations and highlighted areas of research which show potential in the field. Current research has made the morphological and metabolic variations between these cell populations clear, but an ideal way of maintaining these differences in vitro culture is yet to be established. Combinations of delivered growth factors, mechanical loading, and layered three-dimensional culture systems all show potential for achieving this goal. Furthermore, differentiation of progenitor cell populations into chondrocyte subpopulations may also hold promise for achieving large numbers of zonal chondrocytes. Success of the field lies in establishing methods of retaining phenotypically stable cell populations for in vitro culture.

  13. Effect of biocompatible polymers on the structural integrity of lipid bilayers under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Kausik, Ravinath; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Han, Song-I.; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee

    2010-03-01

    Cell membrane dysfunction due to loss of structural integrity is the pathology of tissue death in trauma and common diseases. It is now established that certain biocompatible polymers, such as Poloxamer 188, Poloxamine 1107 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), are effective in sealing of injured cell membranes, and able to prevent acute necrosis. Despite these broad applications of these polymers for human health, the fundamental mechanisms by which these polymers interact with cell membranes are still under debate. Here, the effects of a group of biocompatible polymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic and oxidative stress were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles as model cell membranes. Our results suggest that the adsorption of the polymers on the membrane surface is responsible for the cell membrane resealing process due to its capability of slowing down the surface hydration dynamics.

  14. Transient rheology of stimuli responsive hydrogels: Integrating microrheology and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have diverse potential applications in the field of drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, cosmetics, gene therapy, and as sensors and actuators due to their unique responsiveness to external signals, such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Understanding the responsiveness of hydrogel structure and rheology to these stimuli is essential for designing materials with desirable performance. However, no instrumentation and well-defined methodology are available to characterize the structural and rheological responses to rapid solvent changes. In this thesis, a new microrheology set-up is described, which allows us to quantitatively measure the transient rheological properties and microstructure of a variety of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The device was constructed by integrating particle tracking microrheology and microfluidics and offers unique experimental capabilities for performing solvent-reponse measurements on soft fragile materials without applying external shear forces. Transient analysis methods to quantitatively obtain rheological properties were also constructed, and guidelines for the trade-off between statistical validity and temporal resolution were developed to accurately capture physical transitions. Employing the new device and methodology, we successfully quantified the transient rheological and microstructural responses during gel formation and break-up, and viscosity changes of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The analysis method was expanded for heterogeneous samples, incorporating methods to quantify the microrheology of samples with broad distributions of individual particle dynamics. Transient microrheology measurements of fragile, heterogeneous, self-assembled block copolypeptide hydrogels revealed that solvent exchange via convective mixing and dialysis can lead to significantly different gel properties and that commonly applied sample preparation protocols for the characterization of soft

  15. Effect of Size Change and Brightness Change of Visual Stimuli on Loudness Perception and Pitch Perception of Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syouya Tanabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.

  16. Gene expression analysis in response to osmotic stimuli in the intervertebral disc with DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Li, Xu; Shang, Xifu; Zhao, Qichun; Hu, Yefeng; Xu, Xiang; He, Rui; Duan, Liqun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-12-27

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells experience a broad range of physicochemical stimuli under physiologic conditions, including alterations in their osmotic environment. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying osmotic regulation in IVD cells are poorly understood. This study aims to screen genes affected by changes in osmotic pressure in cells of subjects aged 29 to 63 years old, with top-scoring pair (TSP) method. Gene expression data set GSE1648 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including four hyper-osmotic stimuli samples, four iso-osmotic stimuli samples, and three hypo-osmotic stimuli samples. A novel, simple method, referred to as the TSP, was used in this study. Through this method, there was no need to perform data normalization and transformation before data analysis. A total of five pairs of genes ((CYP2A6, FNTB), (PRPF8, TARDBP), (RPS5, OAZ1), (SLC25A3, NPM1) and (CBX3, SRSF9)) were selected based on the TSP method. We inferred that all these genes might play important roles in response to osmotic stimuli and age in IVD cells. Additionally, hyper-osmotic and iso-osmotic stimuli conditions were adverse factors for IVD cells. We anticipate that our results will provide new thoughts and methods for the study of IVD disease.

  17. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  18. Promoting the use of personally relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Fabien; Castro, Maïté; Tillmann, Barbara; Luauté, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC) following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally relevant stimuli (i.e., with emotional, autobiographical, or self-related characteristics) are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music's capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  19. Promoting the use of personally-relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien ePerrin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally-relevant stimuli (i.e. with emotional, autobiographical or self-related characteristics are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally-relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music’s capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Block Copolymer-Based Assemblies for Cargo Delivery and Theranostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of tactics towards the fabrication and biomedical exploration of stimuli-responsive polymeric assemblies being responsive and adaptive to various factors have appeared, the controlled preparation of assemblies with well-defined physicochemical properties and tailor-made functions are still challenges. These responsive polymeric assemblies, which are triggered by stimuli, always exhibited reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures and physical properties. However, simple drug/polymer nanocomplexes cannot deliver or release drugs into the diseased sites and cells on-demand due to the inevitable biological barriers. Hence, utilizing therapeutic or imaging agents-loaded stimuli-responsive block copolymer assemblies that are responsive to tumor internal microenvironments (pH, redox, enzyme, and temperature, etc. or external stimuli (light and electromagnetic field, etc. have emerged to be an important solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and imaging sensitivity through rationally designing as well as self-assembling approaches. In this review, we summarize a portion of recent progress in tumor and intracellular microenvironment responsive block copolymer assemblies and their applications in anticancer drug delivery and triggered release and enhanced imaging sensitivity. The outlook on future developments is also discussed. We hope that this review can stimulate more revolutionary ideas and novel concepts and meet the significant interest to diverse readers.

  1. In Situ Cross-Linking of Stimuli-Responsive Hemicellulose Microgels during Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1–4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications. PMID:25630464

  2. In situ cross-linking of stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Odelius, Karin; Edlund, Ulrica; Zhao, Changsheng; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2015-02-25

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼ 1-4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications.

  3. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2014-06-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical brainstem assessment during the period 2006-2007. 11 children with a typical developmental pattern were used as comparison. A repeated measures design was used, and physiological data were collected from a neurophysiological brainstem assessment. The continuous dependent variables measured were Cardiac Vagal Tone (CVT), Cardiac Sensitivity to Baroreflex (CSB), Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and the Coefficient of Variation of Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP-CV). These parameters were used to categorise brainstem responses as parasympathetic (calming) response, sympathetic (activating) response, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial expressions sometimes changed after some time due to poor control functions of their brainstem, the present results are consistent with the possibility that the RTT participants' normal responses to music are intact. These findings may explain why music is so important for individuals with RTT throughout life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Audiovisual Capture with Ambiguous Audiovisual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Hupé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual capture happens when information across modalities get fused into a coherent percept. Ambiguous multi-modal stimuli have the potential to be powerful tools to observe such effects. We used such stimuli made of temporally synchronized and spatially co-localized visual flashes and auditory tones. The flashes produced bistable apparent motion and the tones produced ambiguous streaming. We measured strong interferences between perceptual decisions in each modality, a case of audiovisual capture. However, does this mean that audiovisual capture occurs before bistable decision? We argue that this is not the case, as the interference had a slow temporal dynamics and was modulated by audiovisual congruence, suggestive of high-level factors such as attention or intention. We propose a framework to integrate bistability and audiovisual capture, which distinguishes between “what” competes and “how” it competes (Hupé et al., 2008. The audiovisual interactions may be the result of contextual influences on neural representations (“what” competes, quite independent from the causal mechanisms of perceptual switches (“how” it competes. This framework predicts that audiovisual capture can bias bistability especially if modalities are congruent (Sato et al., 2007, but that is fundamentally distinct in nature from the bistable competition mechanism.

  5. Can persons with dementia be engaged with stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Regier, Natalie G; Thein, Khin

    2010-04-01

    To determine which stimuli are 1) most engaging 2) most often refused by nursing home residents with dementia, and 3) most appropriate for persons who are more difficult to engage with stimuli. Participants were 193 residents of seven Maryland nursing homes. All participants had a diagnosis of dementia. Stimulus engagement was assessed by the Observational Measure of Engagement. The most engaging stimuli were one-on-one socializing with a research assistant, a real baby, personalized stimuli based on the person's self-identity, a lifelike doll, a respite video, and envelopes to stamp. Refusal of stimuli was higher among those with higher levels of cognitive function and related to the stimulus' social appropriateness. Women showed more attention and had more positive attitudes for live social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, and artistic tasks than did men. Persons with comparatively higher levels of cognitive functioning were more likely to be engaged in manipulative and work tasks, whereas those with low levels of cognitive functioning spent relatively more time responding to social stimuli. The most effective stimuli did not differ for those most likely to be engaged and those least likely to be engaged. Nursing homes should consider both having engagement stimuli readily available to residents with dementia, and implementing a socialization schedule so that residents receive one-on-one interaction. Understanding the relationship among type of stimulus, cognitive function, and acceptance, attention, and attitude toward the stimuli can enable caregivers to maximize the desired benefit for persons with dementia.

  6. Effects of propofol anesthesia on the processing of noxious stimuli in the spinal cord and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Gregor; Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Velten, Helena; Mavrodis, Dionysios; Scheel, Michael; Blankenburg, Felix; von Dincklage, Falk

    2018-05-15

    Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression. While nociceptive reflexes and somatosensory potentials were affected only in a minor way by further increasing doses of propofol after the loss of consciousness, fMRI showed that increasing propofol concentration abolished processing of intense noxious stimuli in the insula and secondary somatosensory cortex and vastly increased processing in the frontal cortex. As the fMRI functional connectivity showed congruent changes with increasing doses of propofol - namely the temporal brain areas decreasing their connectivity with the bilateral pre-/postcentral gyri and the supplementary motor area, while connectivity of the latter with frontal areas is increased - we conclude that the changes in processing of noxious stimuli during propofol anesthesia might be related to changes in functional connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The neural correlates of internal and external comparisons: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Xiang, Yanhui; Cant, Jonathan S; Wang, Tingting; Cupchik, Gerald; Huang, Ruiwang; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested that various comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the commonalities and differences between the internal comparison based on concepts or rules and the external comparison based on perception. In the present experiment, moral beauty comparison and facial beauty comparison were selected as the representatives of internal comparison and external comparison, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record brain activity while participants compared the level of moral beauty of two scene drawings containing moral acts or the level of facial beauty of two face photos. In addition, a physical size comparison task with the same stimuli as the beauty comparison was included. We observed that both the internal moral beauty comparison and external facial beauty comparison obeyed a typical distance effect and this behavioral effect recruited a common frontoparietal network involved in comparisons of simple physical magnitudes such as size. In addition, compared to external facial beauty comparison, internal moral beauty comparison induced greater activity in more advanced and complex cortical regions, such as the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, but weaker activity in the putamen, a subcortical region. Our results provide novel neural evidence for the comparative process and suggest that different comparisons may rely on both common cognitive processes as well as distinct and specific cognitive components.

  8. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  9. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  10. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  11. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  12. Music Influences Ratings of the Affect of Visual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldie E Hanser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of recent studies that have examined how music influences the judgment of emotional stimuli, including affective pictures and film clips. The relevant findings are incorporated within a broader theory of music and emotion, and suggestions for future research are offered.Music is important in our daily lives, and one of its primary uses by listeners is the active regulation of one's mood. Despite this widespread use as a regulator of mood and its general pervasiveness in our society, the number of studies investigating the issue of whether, and how, music affects mood and emotional behaviour is limited however. Experiments investigating the effects of music have generally focused on how the emotional valence of background music impacts how affective pictures and/or film clips are evaluated. These studies have demonstrated strong effects of music on the emotional judgment of such stimuli. Most studies have reported concurrent background music to enhance the emotional valence when music and pictures are emotionally congruent. On the other hand, when music and pictures are emotionally incongruent, the ratings of the affect of the pictures will in- or decrease depending on the emotional valence of the background music. These results appear to be consistent in studies investigating the effects of (background music.

  13. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  14. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  15. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  16. Recent Advances in Stimuli-Responsive Photofunctional Materials Based on Accommodation of Chromophore into Layered Double Hydroxide Nanogallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The assembly of photofunctional molecules into host matrices has become an important strategy to achieve tunable fluorescence and to develop intelligent materials. The stimuli-responsive photofunctional materials based on chromophores-assembled layered double hydroxides (LDHs have received much attention from both academic and industry fields as a result of their advantages, such as high photo/thermal stability, easy processing, and well reversibility, which can construct new types of smart luminescent nanomaterials (e.g., ultrathin film and nanocomposite for sensor and switch applications. In this paper, external environmental stimuli have mainly involved physical (such as temperature, pressure, light, and electricity and chemical factors (such as pH and metal ion; recent progress on the LDH-based organic-inorganic stimuli-responsive materials has been summarized. Moreover, perspectives on further development of these materials are also discussed.

  17. Attribute amnesia is greatly reduced with novel stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.

  18. Perceptual load modifies processing of unattended stimuli both in the presence and absence of attended stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, J W

    2010-11-26

    This study explored effects of perceptual load on stimulus processing in the presence and absence of an attended stimulus. Participants were presented with a bilateral or unilateral display and asked to perform a discrimination task at either low or high perceptual load. Electrophysiological responses to stimuli were then compared at the P100 and N100. As in previous studies, perceptual load modified processing of attended and unattended stimuli seen at occipital scalp sites. Moreover, perceptual load modulated attention effects when the attended stimulus was presented at high perceptual load for unilateral displays. However, this was not true when the attended and unattended stimulus appeared simultaneously in bilateral displays. Instead, only a main effect of perceptual load was found. Reductions in processing contralateral to the unattended stimulus at the N100 provide support for Lavie's (1995) theory of selective attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Separating discriminative and function-altering effects of verbal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since Skinner's first discussion of rule-governed behavior, behavior analysts have continued to define rules, either explicitly or implicitly, as verbal discriminative stimuli. Consequently, it is not difficult to find, in the literature on rule-governed behavior, references to stimulus control, antecedent control, or to rules occasioning behavior. However, some verbal stimuli have effects on behavior that are not easily described as discriminative. Such stimuli don't evoke behavior as d...

  20. Multisensory stimuli improve relative localisation judgments compared to unisensory auditory or visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer; Wood, Katherine; Freeman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Observers performed a relative localisation task in which they reported whether the second of two sequentially presented signals occurred to the left or right of the first. Stimuli were detectability-matched auditory, visual, or auditory-visual signals and the goal was to compare changes in performance with eccentricity across modalities. Visual performance was superior to auditory at the midline, but inferior in the periphery, while auditory-visual performance exceeded both at all locations....

  1. The presence of a culturally similar or dissimilar social partner affects neural responses to emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Woodcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.

  2. Valuation of Go Stimuli or Devaluation of No-Go Stimuli? Evidence of an Increased Preference for Attended Go Stimuli Following a Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Sato, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Attentional inhibition that occurs during discrimination tasks leads to the negative evaluation of distractor stimuli. This phenomenon, known as the distractor devaluation effect also occurs when go/no-go tasks require response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether there are interactions between attention and response controls when the distractor devaluation effect occurs. The aims of this study were to investigate whether attention to stimuli in the go/no-go task plays a facilitative role in distractor devaluation through response inhibition, and to clarify whether this effect reflects a decreased preference for no-go stimuli. Participants evaluated the preference for pictures before and after a go/no-go task. In Experiments 1 and 2, they made a go or no-go response depending on the category of pictures displayed (gummy candies or rice crackers), whereas in Experiment 3 they did on the basis digit category, even or odd numbers, superimposed on such pictures. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the pictures presented as no-go stimuli in the preceding go/no-go task were evaluated as less positive than the pictures presented as go stimuli. This devaluation effect reflected an increased preference for the go stimuli but not a decreased preference for the no-go stimuli. Experiment 3 indicated that response inhibition did not affect the preference for the pictures that had not received attention in a preceding go/no-go task. These results suggest that although attention plays an important role in differential ratings for go and no-go stimuli, such differences, in fact, reflect the valuation of go stimuli.

  3. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  4. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  5. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  6. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  7. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Ideological reactivity: Political conservatism and brain responsivity to emotional and neutral stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M; Peterson, Jordan B; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Inzlicht, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Conservatives are often thought to have a negativity bias-responding more intensely to negative than positive information. Yet, recent research has found that greater endorsement of conservative beliefs follows from both positive and negative emotion inductions. This suggests that the role of affect in political thought may not be restricted to negative valence, and more attention should be given to how conservatives and liberals respond to a wider range of stimulation. In this vein, we examined neural responses to a full range of affective stimuli, allowing us to examine how self-reported ideology moderated these responses. Specifically, we explored the relationship between political orientation and 2 event-related potentials (1 late and 1 early) previously shown to covary with the subjective motivational salience of stimuli-in response to photographs with standardized ratings of arousal and valence. At late time points, conservatives exhibited sustained heightened reactivity, compared with liberals, specifically in response to relatively unarousing and neutral stimuli. At early time points, conservatives exhibited somewhat enhanced neural activity in response to all stimulus types compared with liberals. These results may suggest that conservatives experience a wide variety of stimuli in their environment with increased motivational salience, including positive, neutral, and low-arousal stimuli. No effects of valence were found in this investigation. Such findings have implications for the development and refinement of psychological conceptions of political orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Subliminal and supraliminal processing of reward-related stimuli in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, I; King, J A; Bernardoni, F; Geisler, D; Seidel, M; Ritschel, F; Goschke, T; Haynes, J-D; Roessner, V; Ehrlich, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the role of the brain reward and cognitive control systems in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). In an attempt to disentangle the relative contribution of these systems to the disorder, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate hemodynamic responses to reward-related stimuli presented both subliminally and supraliminally in acutely underweight AN patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC). fMRI data were collected from a total of 35 AN patients and 35 HC, while they passively viewed subliminally and supraliminally presented streams of food, positive social, and neutral stimuli. Activation patterns of the group × stimulation condition × stimulus type interaction were interrogated to investigate potential group differences in processing different stimulus types under the two stimulation conditions. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity were investigated using generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis. AN patients showed a generally increased response to supraliminally presented stimuli in the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), but no alterations within the reward system. Increased activation during supraliminal stimulation with food stimuli was observed in the AN group in visual regions including superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus/parahippocampal gyrus. No group difference was found with respect to the subliminal stimulation condition and functional connectivity. Increased IFJ activation in AN during supraliminal stimulation may indicate hyperactive cognitive control, which resonates with clinical presentation of excessive self-control in AN patients. Increased activation to food stimuli in visual regions may be interpreted in light of an attentional food bias in AN.

  11. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  12. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  13. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  14. Smart stimuli sensitive nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, S; Sarmento, Bruno; Nair, Amrita; Rejinold, N Sanoj; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-01-01

    Nanogels are nanosized hydrogel particles formed by physical or chemical cross-linked polymer networks. The advantageous properties of nanogels related to the ability of retaining considerable amount of water, the biocompatibility of the polymers used, the ability to encapsulate and protect a large quantity of payload drugs within the nanogel matrix, the high stability in aqueous media, their stimuli responsively behavior potential, and the versatility in release drugs in a controlled manner make them very attractive for use in the area of drug delivery. The materials used for the preparation of nanogels ranged from natural polymers like ovalbumin, pullulan, hyaluronic acid, methacrylated chondroitin sulfate and chitosan, to synthetic polymers like poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), poly (Nisopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid) and poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (methacrylic acid). The porous nanogels have been finding application as anti-cancer drug and imaging agent reservoirs. Smart nanogels responding to external stimuli such as temperature, pH etc can be designed for diverse therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The nanogels have also been surface functionalized with specific ligands aiding in targeted drug delivery. This review focus on stimuli-sensitive, multi-responsive, magnetic and targeted nanogels providing a brief insight on the application of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging in detail.

  15. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  16. Heightened attentional capture by visual food stimuli in Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neimeijer, Renate A.M.; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J.

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent

  17. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  18. Roll motion stimuli : sensory conflict, perceptual weighting and motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In an experiment with seventeen subjects interactions of visual roll motion stimuli and vestibular body tilt stimuli were examined in determining the subjective vertical. Interindi-vidual differences in weighting the visual information were observed, but in general visual and vestibular responses

  19. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  20. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  1. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  2. Gender differences in identifying emotions from auditory and visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2017-12-01

    The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.

  3. Attentional Capture by Emotional Stimuli Is Modulated by Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang-Ming; Baddeley, Alan; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    The attentional blink paradigm was used to examine whether emotional stimuli always capture attention. The processing requirement for emotional stimuli in a rapid sequential visual presentation stream was manipulated to investigate the circumstances under which emotional distractors capture attention, as reflected in an enhanced attentional blink…

  4. Isolating the Incentive Salience of Reward-Associated Stimuli: Value, Choice, and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Joshua S.; Chow, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sign- and goal-tracking are differentially associated with drug abuse-related behavior. Recently, it has been hypothesized that sign- and goal-tracking behavior are mediated by different neurobehavioral valuation systems, including differential incentive salience attribution. Herein, we used different conditioned stimuli to preferentially elicit…

  5. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  7. Neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in a Go/No-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D; Garvey, Katherine T

    2013-12-01

    We examined the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in healthy young adults. Event-related potential (ERP) data were collected while 48 participants completed a computerized Go/No-go task consisting of food and nonfood images. Separately, we assessed participants' self-reported levels of external, restrained, and emotional eating behaviors as well as trait impulsivity, behavioral activation/inhibition, and performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test. We found that across participants, food images elicited significantly enhanced P3(00) and slow-wave ERP components. The difference in slow-wave components elicited by food and nonfood images was correlated with Stroop interference scores. Food images also elicited significantly enhanced N2(00) components, but only in female participants. The difference between N2 components elicited by food and nonfood images was related to body mass index and scores of external eating in females. Overall, these data suggest that processing food-related stimuli recruits distinct patterns of cortical activity, that the magnitude of these effects is related to behavioral and cognitive variables, and that the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-cues may be at least partly dissociable between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  9. Dynamic bioactive stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Heather Marie

    This dissertation focuses on the design, synthesis, and development of antimicrobial and anticoagulant surfaces of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) polymers. Aliphatic polymeric surfaces of PE and PP polymers functionalized using click chemistry reactions by the attachment of --COOH groups via microwave plasma reactions followed by functionalization with alkyne moieties. Azide containing ampicillin (AMP) was synthesized and subsequently clicked into the alkyne prepared PE and PP surfaces. Compared to non-functionalized PP and PE surfaces, the AMP clicked surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To expand the biocompatibility of polymeric surface anticoagulant attributes, PE and PTFE surfaces were functionalized with pH-responsive poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polyelectrolyte tethers terminated with NH2 and COOH groups. The goal of these studies was to develop switchable stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces that interact with biological environments and display simultaneous antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties. Antimicrobial AMP was covalently attached to --COOH terminal ends of protected PAA, while anticoagulant heparin (HEP) was attached to terminal --NH2 groups of P2VP. When pH 5.5, they collapse while the PAA segments extend. Such surfaces, when exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, inhibit bacterial growth due to the presence of AMP, as well as are effective anticoagulants due to the presence of covalently attached HEP. Comparison of these "dynamic" pH responsive surfaces with "static" surfaces terminated with AMP entities show significant enhancement of longevity and surface activity against microbial film formation. The last portion of this dissertation focuses on the covalent attachment of living T1 and Φ11 bacteriophages (phages) on PE and PTFE surface. This was accomplished by carbodiimide coupling between --COOH

  10. Attentional Bias for Emotional Stimuli in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Deborah; Jacob, Gitta A; Domes, Gregor; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    In borderline personality disorder (BPD), attentional bias (AB) to emotional stimuli may be a core component in disorder pathogenesis and maintenance. 11 emotional Stroop task (EST) studies with 244 BPD patients, 255 nonpatients (NPs) and 95 clinical controls and 4 visual dot-probe task (VDPT) studies with 151 BPD patients or subjects with BPD features and 62 NPs were included. We conducted two separate meta-analyses for AB in BPD. One meta-analysis focused on the EST for generally negative and BPD-specific/personally relevant negative words. The other meta-analysis concentrated on the VDPT for negative and positive facial stimuli. There is evidence for an AB towards generally negative emotional words compared to NPs (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.311) and to other psychiatric disorders (SMD = 0.374) in the EST studies. Regarding BPD-specific/personally relevant negative words, BPD patients reveal an even stronger AB than NPs (SMD = 0.454). The VDPT studies indicate a tendency towards an AB to positive facial stimuli but not negative stimuli in BPD patients compared to NPs. The findings rather reflect an AB in BPD to generally negative and BPD-specific/personally relevant negative words rather than an AB in BPD towards facial stimuli, and/or a biased allocation of covert attentional resources to negative emotional stimuli in BPD and not a bias in focus of visual attention. Further research regarding the role of childhood traumatization and comorbid anxiety disorders may improve the understanding of these underlying processes. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  13. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  14. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  15. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  16. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  17. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  19. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  20. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  1. Data Collection and Analysis Techniques for Evaluating the Perceptual Qualities of Auditory Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonebright, T.L.; Caudell, T.P.; Goldsmith, T.E.; Miner, N.E.

    1998-11-17

    This paper describes a general methodological framework for evaluating the perceptual properties of auditory stimuli. The framework provides analysis techniques that can ensure the effective use of sound for a variety of applications including virtual reality and data sonification systems. Specifically, we discuss data collection techniques for the perceptual qualities of single auditory stimuli including identification tasks, context-based ratings, and attribute ratings. In addition, we present methods for comparing auditory stimuli, such as discrimination tasks, similarity ratings, and sorting tasks. Finally, we discuss statistical techniques that focus on the perceptual relations among stimuli, such as Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder Analysis. These methods are presented as a starting point for an organized and systematic approach for non-experts in perceptual experimental methods, rather than as a complete manual for performing the statistical techniques and data collection methods. It is our hope that this paper will help foster further interdisciplinary collaboration among perceptual researchers, designers, engineers, and others in the development of effective auditory displays.

  2. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  3. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  4. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  5. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  6. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  7. Novel stimuli are negative stimuli: evidence that negative affect is reduced in the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brent M; Elias, Lorin J

    2005-04-01

    Repeated exposure of a nonreinforced stimulus results in an increased preference for that stimulus, the mere exposure effect. The present study repeatedly presented positive, negative, and neutrally affective faces to 48 participants while they made judgments about the emotional expression. Participants then rated the likeability of novel neutrally expressive faces and some of these previously presented faces, this time in their neutral expression. Faces originally presented as happy were rated as the most likeable, followed by faces originally presented as neutral. Negative and novel faces were not rated significantly differently from each other. These findings support the notion that the increase in preference towards repeatedly presented stimuli is the result of the reduction in negative affect, consistent with the modified two-factor uncertainty-reduction model and classical conditioning model of the mere exposure effect.

  8. ANALISIS KEPUASAN PENGHUNI DAN PERANAN ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS DAN MARKETER STIMULI PADA KONDOMINIUM MEWAH DI SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoticin Kwanda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of luxurious condominiums in Surabaya keep on decreasing. There are many reasons for these problems, among others economic crisis that weakened market-buying capability (external and decreased preferences to reside (internal. The internal factor comprises of occupant’s satisfaction, environmental influences, individual consumers and marketer stimuli. The purpose of the research is to know according to the assessment of the occupants which of these four factors, is higher and more dominant. The occupants surveyed are the occupants of the luxurious condominiums in Surabaya, such as Paragon, Beverly, Puri Matahari, Regency, Graha Famili, and Puri Darmo. Samples were taken with Purposive Sampling method and collected through questioners. Anova is used to analyse the data with SPS 2000 program. The result showed that there are no significant differences of occupant’s satisfaction, environmental influences, individual consumers and marketer stimuli on the six observed condominiums. Meanwhile according to the mean, occupant’s satisfaction, individual consumers and marketer stimuli are dominant at Puri Matahari, and environmental influences are dominant at Puri Darmo. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tingkat hunian kondominium mewah di Surabaya terus menurun tajam. Hal yang menjadi penyebabnya antara lain krisis ekonomi yang memperlemah daya beli pasar (eksternal dan menurunnya minat menempati (internal. Faktor internal adalah kepuasan penghuni, environmental influences, individual consumers dan marketer stimuli. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penilaian penghuni kondominium mewah di Surabaya, yaitu Paragon, Beverly, Puri Matahari, Regency, Graha Famili, dan Puri Darmo terhadap keempat faktor ini. Ingin diketahui faktor mana yang lebih tinggi dan lebih dominan peranannya. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode Purposive Sampling dengan pengumpulan data melalui kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan Anova dengan program SPS

  9. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued

  10. Adding stimuli-responsive extensions to antifouling hairy particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Bonilla, Sandra; Herk, van A.M.; Heuts, J.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of living block copolymers as stabilisers in emulsion polymerisation allowed preparation of multilayer functional hairy particles via surface-initiated ATRP. Polymer films prepared from the obtained particles present antifouling properties along with stimuli-responsive behaviour.

  11. Perceptual multistability in figure-ground segregation using motion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Simone; Giora, Enrico; Pedersini, Riccardo

    2008-11-01

    In a series of experiments using ambiguous stimuli, we investigate the effects of displaying ordered, discrete series of images on the dynamics of figure-ground segregation. For low frame presentation speeds, the series were perceived as a sequence of discontinuous, static images, while for high speeds they were perceived as continuous. We conclude that using stimuli varying continuously along one parameter results in stronger hysteresis and reduces spontaneous switching compared to matched static stimuli with discontinuous parameter changes. The additional evidence that the size of the hysteresis effects depended on trial duration is consistent with the stochastic nature of the dynamics governing figure-ground segregation. The results showed that for continuously changing stimuli, alternative figure-ground organizations are resolved via low-level, dynamical competition. A second series of experiments confirmed these results with an ambiguous stimulus based on Petter's effect.

  12. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants' hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants' hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants.

  13. Characterization of Ferrofluid-based Stimuli-responsive Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra dePedro; Xavier Munoz-Berbel; Rosalia Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Jordi Sort; Jose Antonio Plaza; Juergen Brugger; Andreu Llobera; Victor J Cadarso

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials undergo physicochemical and/or structural changes when a specific actuation is applied. They are heterogeneous composites, consisting of a non-responsive matrix where functionality is provided by the filler. Surprisingly, the synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based stimuli-responsive elastomers (SRE) has seldomly been presented. Here, we present the structural, biological, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of several magnetic SRE (M-SRE) obtained...

  14. Analyzing the User Behavior toward Electronic Commerce Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this res...

  15. Analyzing the user behavior towards Electronic Commerce stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Lorenzo-Romero; María-del-Carmen Alarcón-del-Amo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e. navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus nonverbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this resea...

  16. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2009, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 128 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting ...

  17. Effects of Auditory Stimuli on Visual Velocity Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Shibata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. Previous studies have reported that the duration of visual events is perceived as being longer for events filled with auditory stimuli than for events not filled with auditory stimuli, ie, the so-called “filled-duration illusion.” In this study, we have shown that auditory stimuli also affect the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. In Experiment 1, a moving comparison stimulus (4.2∼5.8 deg/s was presented together with filled (or unfilled white-noise bursts or with no sound. The standard stimulus was a moving visual stimulus (5 deg/s presented before or after the comparison stimulus. The participants had to judge which stimulus was moving faster. The results showed that the perceived velocity in the auditory-filled condition was lower than that in the auditory-unfilled and no-sound conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on velocity adaptation. The results showed that the effects of velocity adaptation in the auditory-filled condition were weaker than those in the no-sound condition. These results indicate that auditory stimuli tend to decrease the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus.

  18. Parsing cognitive and emotional empathy deficits for negative and positive stimuli in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the

  19. Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS phase II: 930 new normative photos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu B Brodeur

    Full Text Available Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc., making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects.

  20. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  1. Psychophysics of Complex Auditory and Speech Stimuli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pastore, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The supported research provides a careful examination of the many different interrelated factors, processes, and constructs important to the perception by humans of complex acoustic signals, including speech and music...

  2. Dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for programmed site-specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Klok, Harm-Anton; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-05-01

    In the past decades, polymeric nanoparticles have emerged as a most promising and viable technology platform for targeted and controlled drug delivery. As vehicles, ideal nanoparticles are obliged to possess high drug loading levels, deliver drug to the specific pathological site and/or target cells without drug leakage on the way, while rapidly unload drug at the site of action. To this end, various "intelligent" polymeric nanoparticles that release drugs in response to an internal or external stimulus such as pH, redox, temperature, magnetic and light have been actively pursued. These stimuli-responsive nanoparticles have demonstrated, though to varying degrees, improved in vitro and/or in vivo drug release profiles. In an effort to further improve drug release performances, novel dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles that respond to a combination of two or more signals such as pH/temperature, pH/redox, pH/magnetic field, temperature/reduction, double pH, pH and diols, temperature/magnetic field, temperature/enzyme, temperature/pH/redox, temperature/pH/magnetic, pH/redox/magnetic, temperature/redox/guest molecules, and temperature/pH/guest molecules have recently been developed. Notably, these combined responses take place either simultaneously at the pathological site or in a sequential manner from nanoparticle preparation, nanoparticle transporting pathways, to cellular compartments. These dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles have shown unprecedented control over drug delivery and release leading to superior in vitro and/or in vivo anti-cancer efficacy. With programmed site-specific drug delivery feature, dual and multi-stimuli responsive nanoparticulate drug formulations have tremendous potential for targeted cancer therapy. In this review paper, we highlight the recent exciting developments in dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for precision drug delivery applications, with a particular focus

  3. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  4. Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rusek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents. Many infectious stimuli, including bacterial or fungal cells and their components (LPS, β-glucan, chitin as well as viruses or even parasites are considered potent inducers of innate immune memory. Epigenetic cell reprogramming occurring at the heart of the phenomenon may provide a useful basis for designing novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent and protect against multiple diseases. In this article, we present the current state of art on trained innate immunity occurring as a result of infectious agent induction. Additionally, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming and the implications for immune response stimulation/manipulation.

  5. Impaired autonomic responses to emotional stimuli in autoimmune limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSchröder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.

  6. Exogenous (automatic) attention to emotional stimuli: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretié, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the individual) would seem crucial to a comprehensive understanding of this process. This review, focusing on the visual modality, describes 55 experiments in which both emotional and neutral irrelevant distractors are presented at the same time as ongoing task targets. Qualitative and, when possible, meta-analytic descriptions of results are provided. The most conspicuous result is that, as confirmed by behavioral and/or neural indices, emotional distractors capture exogenous attention to a significantly greater extent than do neutral distractors. The modulatory effects of the nature of distractors capturing attention, of the ongoing task characteristics, and of individual differences, previously proposed as mediating factors, are also described. Additionally, studies reviewed here provide temporal and spatial information-partially absent in traditional cognitive models-on the neural basis of preattention/evaluation, reorienting, and sensory amplification, the main subprocesses involved in exogenous attention. A model integrating these different levels of information is proposed. The present review, which reveals that there are several key issues for which experimental data are surprisingly scarce, confirms the relevance of including emotional distractors in studies on exogenous attention.

  7. Vascular Adaptation to Exercise in Humans: Role of Hemodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel J.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Padilla, Jaume; Laughlin, M. Harold; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2017-01-01

    On the 400th anniversary of Harvey's Lumleian lectures, this review focuses on “hemodynamic” forces associated with the movement of blood through arteries in humans and the functional and structural adaptations that result from repeated episodic exposure to such stimuli. The late 20th century discovery that endothelial cells modify arterial tone via paracrine transduction provoked studies exploring the direct mechanical effects of blood flow and pressure on vascular function and adaptation in vivo. In this review, we address the impact of distinct hemodynamic signals that occur in response to exercise, the interrelationships between these signals, the nature of the adaptive responses that manifest under different physiological conditions, and the implications for human health. Exercise modifies blood flow, luminal shear stress, arterial pressure, and tangential wall stress, all of which can transduce changes in arterial function, diameter, and wall thickness. There are important clinical implications of the adaptation that occurs as a consequence of repeated hemodynamic stimulation associated with exercise training in humans, including impacts on atherosclerotic risk in conduit arteries, the control of blood pressure in resistance vessels, oxygen delivery and diffusion, and microvascular health. Exercise training studies have demonstrated that direct hemodynamic impacts on the health of the artery wall contribute to the well-established decrease in cardiovascular risk attributed to physical activity. PMID:28151424

  8. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  9. Visual sexual stimuli – cue or reward? A key for interpreting brain imaging studies on human sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Gola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS for human sexuality studies, including emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors. A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as extensive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned (cue and unconditioned (reward stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs reward consumption, respectively. Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as cues (conditioned stimuli or rewards (unconditioned stimuli. Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward (unconditioned stimuli, as evidenced by: 1. experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction 2. reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS, 3. a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money, and/or 4. conditioning for cues (CS predictive for. We hope that this perspective paper will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.

  10. Movement Induces the Use of External Spatial Coordinates for Tactile Localization in Congenitally Blind Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Möller, Johanna; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    To localize touch, the brain integrates spatial information coded in anatomically based and external spatial reference frames. Sighted humans, by default, use both reference frames in tactile localization. In contrast, congenitally blind individuals have been reported to rely exclusively on anatomical coordinates, suggesting a crucial role of the visual system for tactile spatial processing. We tested whether the use of external spatial information in touch can, alternatively, be induced by a movement context. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment task that indexes the use of external coordinates for tactile localization, while they executed bimanual arm movements with uncrossed and crossed start and end postures. In the sighted, start posture and planned end posture of the arm movement modulated tactile localization for stimuli presented before and during movement, indicating automatic, external recoding of touch. Contrary to previous findings, tactile localization of congenitally blind participants, too, was affected by external coordinates, though only for stimuli presented before movement start. Furthermore, only the movement's start posture, but not the planned end posture affected blind individuals' tactile performance. Thus, integration of external coordinates in touch is established without vision, though more selectively than when vision has developed normally, and possibly restricted to movement contexts. The lack of modulation by the planned posture in congenitally blind participants suggests that external coordinates in this group are not mediated by motor efference copy. Instead the task-related frequent posture changes, that is, movement consequences rather than planning, appear to have induced their use of external coordinates.

  11. The processing of infrequently-presented low-intensity stimuli during natural sleep: An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muller-Gass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs provide an exquisite means to measure the extent of processing of external stimuli during the sleep period. This study examines ERPs elicited by stimuli with physical characteristics akin to environmental noise encountered during sleep. Brief duration 40, 60 or 80 dB sound pressure level (SPL tones were presented either rapidly (on average every two seconds or slowly (on average every 10 seconds. The rates of presentation and intensity of the stimuli were similar to those observed in environmental studies of noise. ERPs were recorded from nine young adults during sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the amplitude of an early negative ERP, N1, systematically increased as intensity level increased. A later positivity, the P3a, was apparent following the loudest 80 dB stimulus regardless of the rate of stimulus presentation; it was also apparent following the 60 dB stimulus, when stimuli were presented slowly. The appearance of the N1-P3a deflections suggests that operations of the central executive controlling ongoing cognitive activity was interrupted, forcing subjects to become aware of the obtrusive task-irrelevant stimuli. The auditory stimuli elicited very different ERP patterns during sleep. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the ERP was characterized by an enhanced (relative to wakefulness early positivity, P2, followed by a very prominent negativity, the N350. Both deflections systematically varied in amplitude with stimulus intensity level; in addition, N350 was much larger when stimuli were presented at slow rates. The N350, a sleep-specific ERP, is thought to reflect the inhibition of processing of potentially sleep-disrupting stimulus input. During rapid eye movement (REM sleep, a small amplitude N1 was apparent in the ERP, but only for the loudest, 80 dB stimulus. A small (nonsignificant P3a-like deflection was also visible following the 80 dB stimulus, but only when stimuli were presented

  12. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  13. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  14. Mirrored and rotated stimuli are not the same: A neuropsychological and lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Champmartin, Cécile; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Cruypeninck, Yohann; Hannequin, Didier; Gérardin, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    Agnosia for mirrored stimuli is a rare clinical deficit. Only eight patients have been reported in the literature so far and little is known about the neural substrates of this agnosia. Using a previously developed experimental test designed to assess this agnosia, namely the Mirror and Orientation Agnosia Test (MOAT), as well as voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain-injured patients with right parietal damage would be impaired in the discrimination between the canonical view of a visual object and its mirrored and rotated images. Thirty-four consecutively recruited patients with a stroke involving the right or left parietal lobe have been included: twenty patients (59%) had a deficit on at least one of the six conditions of the MOAT, fourteen patients (41%) had a deficit on the mirror condition, twelve patients (35%) had a deficit on at least one the four rotated conditions and one had a truly selective agnosia for mirrored stimuli. A lesion analysis showed that discrimination of mirrored stimuli was correlated to the mesial part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the lateral part of the inferior parietal lobule, while discrimination of rotated stimuli was correlated to the lateral part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the mesial part of the inferior parietal lobule, with only a small overlap between the two. These data suggest that the right visual 'dorsal' pathway is essential for accurate perception of mirrored and rotated stimuli, with a selective cognitive process and anatomical network underlying our ability to discriminate between mirrored images, different from the process of discriminating between rotated images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting stress and externalizing behavior symptoms in children: the impact of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buodo, Giulia; Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the parenting stress-child externalizing behavior link is moderated by children's emotional reactivity, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCRs). Participants were 61 children aged 9-12 years and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of parenting stress and their children's externalizing symptoms; children also reported on their externalizing behavior. Children's SCRs were assessed during the viewing of standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cluster analysis on SCRs identified two groups, labeled Lower SCRs and Higher SCRs. Regression analyses indicated that among children with lower SCRs, those exposed to increased parenting stress reported more externalizing symptoms, whereas those who experienced low parenting stress reported similar rates of externalizing problems as children with higher SCRs. No effect of parenting stress emerged for children with higher SCRs. Findings suggest that higher parenting stress renders children with lower, as opposed to higher, SCRs to emotional stimuli more vulnerable to externalizing problems.

  16. N reactor external events probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An external events probabilistic risk assessment of the N Reactor has been completed. The methods used are those currently being proposed for external events analysis in NUREG-1150. Results are presented for the external hazards that survived preliminary screening. They are earthquake, fire, and external flood. Core damage frequencies for these hazards are shown to be comparable to those for commercial pressurized water reactors. Dominant fire sequences are described and related to 10 CFR 50, Appendix R design requirements. Potential remedial measures that reduce fire core damage risk are described including modifications to fire protection systems, procedure changes, and addition of new administrative controls. Dominant seismic sequences are described. The effect of non-safety support system dependencies on seismic risk is presented

  17. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  18. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  19. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorder to tact olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Tina K; Kisamore, April N; Vladescu, Jason C; Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A; Taylor-Santa, Catherine

    2018-05-28

    Research on tact acquisition by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often focused on teaching participants to tact visual stimuli. It is important to evaluate procedures for teaching tacts of nonvisual stimuli (e.g., olfactory, tactile). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on secondary target instruction and tact training by evaluating the effects of a discrete-trial instruction procedure involving (a) echoic prompts, a constant prompt delay, and error correction for primary targets; (b) inclusion of secondary target stimuli in the consequent portion of learning trials; and (c) multiple exemplar training on the acquisition of item tacts of olfactory stimuli, emergence of category tacts of olfactory stimuli, generalization of category tacts, and emergence of category matching, with three children diagnosed with ASD. Results showed that all participants learned the item and category tacts following teaching, participants demonstrated generalization across category tacts, and category matching emerged for all participants. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Absent Audiovisual Integration Elicited by Peripheral Stimuli in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanling; Wu, Fengxia; Yang, Jiajia; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Wu, Jinglong; Hirata, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    The basal ganglia, which have been shown to be a significant multisensory hub, are disordered in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was to investigate the audiovisual integration of peripheral stimuli in PD patients with/without sleep disturbances. Thirty-six age-matched normal controls (NC) and 30 PD patients were recruited for an auditory/visual discrimination experiment. The mean response times for each participant were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and race model. The results showed that the response to all stimuli was significantly delayed for PD compared to NC (all p audiovisual stimuli was significantly faster than that to unimodal stimuli in both NC and PD ( p audiovisual integration was absent in PD; however, it did occur in NC. Further analysis showed that there was no significant audiovisual integration in PD with/without cognitive impairment or in PD with/without sleep disturbances. Furthermore, audiovisual facilitation was not associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage, disease duration, or the presence of sleep disturbances (all p > 0.05). The current results showed that audiovisual multisensory integration for peripheral stimuli is absent in PD regardless of sleep disturbances and further suggested the abnormal audiovisual integration might be a potential early manifestation of PD.

  1. Protein-surface interactions on stimuli-responsive polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael C; Toomey, Ryan G; Gallant, Nathan D

    2016-03-04

    Responsive surfaces: a review of the dependence of protein adsorption on the reversible volume phase transition in stimuli-responsive polymers. Specifically addressed are a widely studied subset: thermoresponsive polymers. Findings are also generalizable to other materials which undergo a similarly reversible volume phase transition. As of 2015, over 100,000 articles have been published on stimuli-responsive polymers and many more on protein-biomaterial interactions. Significantly, fewer than 100 of these have focused specifically on protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers. These report a clear trend of increased protein adsorption in the collapsed state compared to the swollen state. This control over protein interactions makes stimuli-responsive polymers highly useful in biomedical applications such as wound repair scaffolds, on-demand drug delivery, and antifouling surfaces. Outstanding questions are whether the protein adsorption is reversible with the volume phase transition and whether there is a time-dependence. A clear understanding of protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers will advance theoretical models, experimental results, and biomedical applications.

  2. Duration Judgments for Verbal Stimuli: Effects of Emotion, Attention, and Memory Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Laura Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In six experiments, this dissertation investigated duration judgments for verbal stimuli, testing predictions of information-processing models of time perception. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 explored the effects of low-valence, high-arousal taboo words on the perception of time. The results revealed that durations of taboo words were underestimated compared to neutral words in prospective timing tasks, including the temporal bisection task in Experiment 1 and the ordinality comparison procedure ...

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Stimuli-Responsive Affinity: Progress and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Yue Ma; Jianmin Pan; Zihui Meng; Guoqing Pan; Börje Sellergren

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) have attracted considerable research interest in recent years due to the potential applications in drug delivery, biotechnology and separation sciences. This review comprehensively summarizes various SR-MIPs, including the design and applications of thermo-responsive MIPs, pH-responsive MIPs, photo-responsive MIPs, biomolecule-responsive MIPs and ion-responsive MIPs. Besides the development of current SR-MIPs, the advanta...

  4. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  5. Precise Control over the Rheological Behavior of Associating Stimuli-Responsive Block Copolymer Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Brassinne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Smart” materials have considerably evolved over the last few years for specific applications. They rely on intelligent macromolecules or (supra-molecular motifs to adapt their structure and properties in response to external triggers. Here, a supramolecular stimuli-responsive polymer gel is constructed from heterotelechelic double hydrophilic block copolymers that incorporate thermo-responsive sequences. These macromolecular building units are synthesized via a three-step controlled radical copolymerization and then hierarchically assembled to yield coordination micellar hydrogels. The dynamic mechanical properties of this particular class of materials are studied in shear flow and finely tuned via temperature changes. Notably, rheological experiments show that structurally reinforcing the micellar network nodes leads to precise tuning of the viscoelastic response and yield behavior of the material. Hence, they constitute promising candidates for specific applications, such as mechano-sensors.

  6. Brain reactivity to visual food stimuli after moderate-intensity exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; Larson, Michael J; Keller, Kathleen L; Fearnbach, S Nicole; Evans, Alyssa; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-09-19

    Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill. During the sedentary session, participants sat continuously for 30 min. Neural responses to high- and low-calorie pictures of food were determined immediately following each condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There was a significant exercise condition*stimulus-type (high- vs. low-calorie pictures) interaction in the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe (p visual food stimuli differently following an acute bout of exercise compared to a non-exercise sedentary session in 8-11 year-old children. Specifically, an acute bout of exercise results in greater activation to high-calorie and reduced activation to low-calorie pictures of food in both the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe. This study shows that response to external food cues can be altered by exercise and understanding this mechanism will inform the development of future interventions aimed at altering energy intake in children.

  7. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  8. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  9. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli and modulation of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John D; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2005-03-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of conditioning to masked stimuli on visuospatial attention. During the conditioning phase, masked snakes and spiders were paired with a burst of white noise, or paired with an innocuous tone, in the conditioned stimulus (CS)+ and CS- conditions, respectively. Attentional allocation to the CSs was then assessed with a visual probe task, in which the CSs were presented unmasked (Experiment 1) or both unmasked and masked (Experiment 2), together with fear-irrelevant control stimuli (flowers and mushrooms). In Experiment 1, participants preferentially allocated attention to CS+ relative to control stimuli. Experiment 2 suggested that this attentional bias depended on the perceived aversiveness of the unconditioned stimulus and did not require conscious recognition of the CSs during both acquisition and expression. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  12. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  13. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  14. Manipulating nanoparticle transport within blood flow through external forces: an exemplar of mechanics in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huilin; Shen, Zhiqiang; Yu, Le; Wei, Mei; Li, Ying

    2018-03-01

    A large number of nanoparticles (NPs) have been raised for diverse biomedical applications and some of them have shown great potential in treatment and imaging of diseases. Design of NPs is essential for delivery efficacy due to a number of biophysical barriers, which prevents the circulation of NPs in vascular flow and their accumulation at tumour sites. The physiochemical properties of NPs, so-called `4S' parameters, such as size, shape, stiffness and surface functionalization, play crucial roles in their life journey to be delivered to tumour sites. NPs can be modified in various ways to extend their blood circulation time and avoid their clearance by phagocytosis, and efficiently diffuse into tumour cells. However, it is difficult to overcome these barriers simultaneously by a simple combination of `4S' parameters for NPs. At this moment, external triggerings are necessary to guide the movement of NPs, which include light, ultrasound, magnetic field, electrical field and chemical interaction. The delivery system can be constructed to be sensitive to these external stimuli which can reduce the non-specific toxicity and improve the efficacy of the drug-delivery system. From a mechanics point of view, we discuss how different forces play their roles in the margination of NPs in blood flow and tumour microvasculature.

  15. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  16. Transduction of Repetitive Mechanical Stimuli by Piezo1 and Piezo2 Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H. Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations. We find that both channels function as pronounced frequency filters whose transduction efficiencies vary with stimulus frequency, waveform, and duration. We then use numerical simulations and human disease-related point mutations to demonstrate that channel inactivation is the molecular mechanism underlying frequency filtering and further show that frequency filtering is conserved in rapidly adapting mouse DRG neurons. Our results give insight into the potential contributions of Piezos in transducing repetitive mechanical stimuli.

  17. The effects of preferred natural stimuli on humans' affective states, physiological stress and mental health, and the potential implications for well-being in captive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Misha; Mason, Georgia J

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could therefore potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  19. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  20. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  1. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  2. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  3. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heightened attentional capture by visual food stimuli in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeijer, Renate A M; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent generation of craving, which might enable AN patients to maintain their strict diet. Participants were 66 restrictive AN spectrum patients and 55 healthy controls. A single-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used with food and disorder-neutral cues as critical distracter stimuli and disorder-neutral pictures as target stimuli. AN spectrum patients showed diminished task performance when visual food cues were presented in close temporal proximity of the to-be-identified target. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicate that food cues automatically capture AN spectrum patients' attention. One explanation could be that the enhanced attentional capture of food cues in AN is driven by the relatively high threat value of food items in AN. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Temporal attention for visual food stimuli in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neimeijer, Renate A. M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Roefs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although restrained eaters try to limit their food intake, they often fail and indulge in exactly those foods that they want to avoid. A possible explanation is a temporal attentional bias for food cues. It could be that for these people food stimuli are processed relatively efficiently and require

  6. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  7. Secondary hyperalgesia to heat stimuli after burn injury in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the presence of hyperalgesia to heat stimuli within the zone of secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. A burn was produced on the medial part of the non-dominant crus in 15 healthy volunteers with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min......), and assessments were made 70 min and 40 min before, and 0, 1, and 2 h after the burn injury. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes (3.75 and 12.5 cm2), and pain responses were rated with a visual analog scale (0-100). The area of secondary hyperalgesia...... to punctate stimuli was assessed with a rigid von Frey hair (462 mN). The heat pain responses to 45 degrees C in 5 s (3.75 cm2) were tested in the area just outside the burn, where the subjects developed secondary hyperalgesia, and on the lateral crus where no subject developed secondary hyperalgesia (control...

  8. Precuneus-prefrontal activity during awareness of visual verbal stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T W; Nowak, M; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt

    2001-01-01

    Awareness is a personal experience, which is only accessible to the rest of world through interpretation. We set out to identify a neural correlate of visual awareness, using brief subliminal and supraliminal verbal stimuli while measuring cerebral blood flow distribution with H(2)(15)O PET. Awar...

  9. Stress improves selective attention towards emotionally neutral left ear stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, M D; Woodruff, P W R

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the impact of psychological stress on visual selective attention has produced mixed results. The current paper describes two experiments which utilise a novel auditory oddball paradigm to test the impact of psychological stress on auditory selective attention. Participants had to report the location of emotionally-neutral auditory stimuli, while ignoring task-irrelevant changes in their content. The results of the first experiment, in which speech stimuli were presented, suggested that stress improves the ability to selectively attend to left, but not right ear stimuli. When this experiment was repeated using tonal stimuli the same result was evident, but only for female participants. Females were also found to experience greater levels of distraction in general across the two experiments. These findings support the goal-shielding theory which suggests that stress improves selective attention by reducing the attentional resources available to process task-irrelevant information. The study also demonstrates, for the first time, that this goal-shielding effect extends to auditory perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimulus intensity and the psychological refractory period II auditive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.G.; Schuur, van R.

    1970-01-01

    In experiments in which stimuli are presented closely spaced in time, subjects exhibit a limitation in the transmission of the signals. The result is either a delayed response or a less accurate response. This phenomenon has been called the psychological refractory phase (Telford, 1931). It is

  11. Reversal Negativity and Bistable Stimuli: Attention, Awareness, or Something Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaite, Monika; Koivisto, Mika; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Revonsuo, Antti

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous (or bistable) figures are visual stimuli that have two mutually exclusive perceptual interpretations that spontaneously alternate with each other. Perceptual reversals, as compared with non-reversals, typically elicit a negative difference called reversal negativity (RN), peaking around 250 ms from stimulus onset. The cognitive…

  12. Cortical oscillations modulated by congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, A T; Fujioka, T; Chau, W; Ross, B; Pantev, C; Picton, T W

    2004-11-30

    Congruent or incongruent grapheme-phoneme stimuli are easily perceived as one or two linguistic objects. The main objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cortical oscillations that reflect the processing of congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Graphemes were Japanese Hiragana characters for four different vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, and /i/). They were presented simultaneously with their corresponding phonemes (congruent) or non-corresponding phonemes (incongruent) to native-speaking Japanese participants. Participants' reaction times to the congruent audiovisual stimuli were significantly faster by 57 ms as compared to reaction times to incongruent stimuli. We recorded the brain responses for each condition using a whole-head magnetoencephalograph (MEG). A novel approach to analysing MEG data, called synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), was used to identify event-related changes in cortical oscillations involved in audiovisual processing. The SAM contrast between congruent and incongruent responses revealed greater event-related desynchonization (8-16 Hz) bilaterally in the occipital lobes and greater event-related synchronization (4-8 Hz) in the left transverse temporal gyrus. Results from this study further support the concept of interactions between the auditory and visual sensory cortices in multi-sensory processing of audiovisual objects.

  13. Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive and targeted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, Nikola [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Construction of functional supramolecular nanoassemblies has attracted great deal of attention in recent years for their wide spectrum of practical applications. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) in particular were shown to be effective scaffolds for the construction of drug carriers, sensors and catalysts. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of stimuli-responsive, controlled release MSN-based assemblies for drug delivery.

  14. Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seog-Jin; Hauser, Adam W; Hayward, Ryan C

    2017-02-21

    The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field. Of particular interest are hybrid systems containing rigid inclusions that can define both the anisotropy and spatial nonuniformity of swelling as well as nanoparticulate additives that can enhance the responsiveness and functionality of the material. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in approaches to achieve well-defined shape morphing in hydrogel hybrids. First, we provide an overview of materials and methods that facilitate fabrication of such systems and outline the geometry and mechanics behind shape morphing of thin sheets. We then discuss how patterning of stiff inclusions within soft responsive hydrogels can be used to program both bending and swelling, thereby providing access to a wide array of complex 3D forms. The use of discretely patterned stiff regions to provide an effective composite response offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and ease of fabrication compared with approaches based on smooth gradients within a single layer of responsive material. We discuss a number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Next, we outline how the inclusion of functional elements such as nanoparticles can enable unique pathways to programmable

  15. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  16. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  17. Relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, K J; Ray, P G; Day, L J; Loring, D W

    2001-04-24

    To demonstrate the effects of target stimulus intensity on extinction to double simultaneous stimuli. Attentional deficits contribute to extinction in patients with brain lesions, but extinction (i.e., masking) can also be produced in healthy subjects. The relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli remains uncertain. Brief electrical pulses were applied simultaneously to the left and right index fingers of 16 healthy volunteers (8 young and 8 elderly adults) and 4 patients with right brain stroke (RBS). The stimulus to be perceived (i.e., target stimulus) was given at the lowest perceptual threshold to perceive any single stimulus (i.e., Minimal) and at the threshold to perceive 100% of single stimuli. The mask stimulus (i.e., stimulus given to block the target) was applied to the contralateral hand at intensities just below discomfort. Extinction was less for target stimuli at 100% than Minimal threshold for healthy subjects. Extinction of left targets was greater in patients with RBS than elderly control subjects. Left targets were extinguished less than right in healthy subjects. In contrast, the majority of left targets were extinguished in patients with RBS even when right mask intensity was reduced below right 100% threshold for single stimuli. RBS patients had less extinction for right targets despite having greater left mask - threshold difference than control subjects. In patients with RBS, right "targets" at 100% threshold extinguished left "masks" (20%) almost as frequently as left masks extinguished right targets (32%). Subtle changes in target intensity affect extinction in healthy adults. Asymmetries in mask and target intensities (relative to single-stimulus perceptual thresholds) affect extinction in RBS patients less for left targets but more for right targets as compared with control subjects.

  18. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    while listeners wore both earplugs and blindfolds. Half of the listeners were then blindfolded during testing but were provided auditory awareness of the room via a controlled noise source (condition A). The other half could see the room but were shielded from room-related acoustic input and tested......Background: The externalization of virtual sounds reproduced via binaural headphone-based auralization systems has been reported to be less robust when the listening environment differs from the room in which binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were recorded. It has been debated whether.......Methods: Eighteen naïve listeners rated the externalization of virtual stimuli in terms of perceived distance, azimuthal localization, and compactness in three rooms: 1) a standard IEC listening room, 2) a small reverberant room, and 3) a large dry room. Before testing, individual BRIRs were recorded in room 1...

  19. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  20. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  1. Tracking functional brain changes in patients with depression under psychodynamic psychotherapy using individualized stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiswede

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurobiological models of depression posit limbic hyperactivity that should normalize after successful treatment. For psychotherapy, though, brain changes in patients with depression show substantial variability. Two critical issues in relevant studies concern the use of unspecific stimulation experiments and relatively short treatment protocols. Therefore changes in brain reactions to individualized stimuli were studied in patients with depression after eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. METHODS: 18 unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder were confronted with individualized and clinically derived content in a functional MRI experiment before (T1 and after eight months (T2 of psychodynamic therapy. A control group of 17 healthy subjects was also tested twice without intervention. The experimental stimuli were sentences describing each participant's dysfunctional interpersonal relationship patterns derived from clinical interviews based on Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD. RESULTS: At T1 patients showed enhanced activation compared to controls in several limbic and subcortical regions, including amygdala and basal ganglia, when confronted with OPD sentences. At T2 the differences in brain activity between patients and controls were no longer apparent. Concurrently, patients had improved significantly in depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Using ecologically valid stimuli, this study supports the model of limbic hyperactivity in depression that normalizes after treatment. Without a control group of untreated patients measured twice, though, changes in patients' brain activity could also be attributed to other factors than psychodynamic therapy.

  2. Do infants find snakes aversive? Infants' physiological responses to "fear-relevant" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Cat; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    In the current research, we sought to measure infants' physiological responses to snakes-one of the world's most widely feared stimuli-to examine whether they find snakes aversive or merely attention grabbing. Using a similar method to DeLoache and LoBue (Developmental Science, 2009, Vol. 12, pp. 201-207), 6- to 9-month-olds watched a series of multimodal (both auditory and visual) stimuli: a video of a snake (fear-relevant) or an elephant (non-fear-relevant) paired with either a fearful or happy auditory track. We measured physiological responses to the pairs of stimuli, including startle magnitude, latency to startle, and heart rate. Results suggest that snakes capture infants' attention; infants showed the fastest startle responses and lowest average heart rate to the snakes, especially when paired with a fearful voice. Unexpectedly, they also showed significantly reduced startle magnitude during this same snake video plus fearful voice combination. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives on fear acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of stimuli-sensitive hydrogel for the removal of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee-Man; Bong, Sang Bum; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment.1 Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. 2 Various surface including road, roof, house, building were contaminated with Cs-137. These coating materials have some problems and limitation such as toxic component, and lack of reusability of materials related to the cost. Thus, a more cost-effective and environmental friendly coating materials is still desired. 3 In the present study, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel were fabricated for the removal of radioactive Cs from solid surface. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these stimuli sensitive hydrogel. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium was also evaluated. The smart hydrogel coating materials showed an excellent morphology change from the liquid to film by addition of Ca ion. Therefore, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel demonstrated good potential for the treatment of contaminated surface for the removal of radioactive cesium.

  4. Fabrication of stimuli-sensitive hydrogel for the removal of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Man; Bong, Sang Bum; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment.1 Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. 2 Various surface including road, roof, house, building were contaminated with Cs-137. These coating materials have some problems and limitation such as toxic component, and lack of reusability of materials related to the cost. Thus, a more cost-effective and environmental friendly coating materials is still desired. 3 In the present study, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel were fabricated for the removal of radioactive Cs from solid surface. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these stimuli sensitive hydrogel. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium was also evaluated. The smart hydrogel coating materials showed an excellent morphology change from the liquid to film by addition of Ca ion. Therefore, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel demonstrated good potential for the treatment of contaminated surface for the removal of radioactive cesium

  5. A working memory bias for alcohol-related stimuli depends on drinking score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Klaus; Pajak, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Harkin, Ben; Jones, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We tested 44 participants with respect to their working memory (WM) performance on alcohol-related versus neutral visual stimuli. Previously an alcohol attentional bias (AAB) had been reported using these stimuli, where the attention of frequent drinkers was automatically drawn toward alcohol-related items (e.g., beer bottle). The present study set out to provide evidence for an alcohol memory bias (AMB) that would persist over longer time-scales than the AAB. The WM task we used required memorizing 4 stimuli in their correct locations and a visual interference task was administered during a 4-sec delay interval. A subsequent probe required participants to indicate whether a stimulus was shown in the correct or incorrect location. For each participant we calculated a drinking score based on 3 items derived from the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and we observed that higher scorers better remembered alcohol-related images compared with lower scorers, particularly when these were presented in their correct locations upon recall. This provides first evidence for an AMB. It is important to highlight that this effect persisted over a 4-sec delay period including a visual interference task that erased iconic memories and diverted attention away from the encoded items, thus the AMB cannot be reduced to the previously reported AAB. Our finding calls for further investigation of alcohol-related cognitive biases in WM, and we propose a preliminary model that may guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Recent Advances in Stimuli-Responsive Release Function Drug Delivery Systems for Tumor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chendi Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Benefiting from the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems (DDSs with stimuli-responsive controlled release function show great potential in clinical anti-tumor applications. By using a DDS, the harsh side effects of traditional anti-cancer drug treatments and damage to normal tissues and organs can be avoided to the greatest extent. An ideal DDS must firstly meet bio-safety standards and secondarily the efficiency-related demands of a large drug payload and controlled release function. This review highlights recent research progress on DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. The first section briefly reviews the nanoscale scaffolds of DDSs, including mesoporous nanoparticles, polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, quantum dots (QDs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The second section presents the main types of stimuli-responsive mechanisms and classifies these into two categories: intrinsic (pH, redox state, biomolecules and extrinsic (temperature, light irradiation, magnetic field and ultrasound ones. Clinical applications of DDS, future challenges and perspectives are also mentioned.

  7. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive controlled drug delivery: advances, challenges, and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanhui Song, Yihong Li, Qien Xu, Zhe Liu Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: With the development of nanotechnology, the application of nanomaterials in the field of drug delivery has attracted much attention in the past decades. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as promising drug nanocarriers have become a new area of interest in recent years due to their unique properties and capabilities to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advances on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in drug delivery. In particular, we focus on the stimuli-responsive controlled release systems that are able to respond to intracellular environmental changes, such as pH, ATP, GSH, enzyme, glucose, and H2O2. Moreover, drug delivery induced by exogenous stimuli including temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound, and electricity is also summarized. These advanced technologies demonstrate current challenges, and provide a bright future for precision diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticle, drug delivery system, controlled release, stimuli-responsive, chemotherapy

  8. Seeing music: The perception of melodic 'ups and downs' modulates the spatial processing of visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rivas, Carlos; Vera-Constán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Puigcerver, Laura; Fernández-Prieto, Irune; Navarra, Jordi

    2018-05-10

    Musical melodies have "peaks" and "valleys". Although the vertical component of pitch and music is well-known, the mechanisms underlying its mental representation still remain elusive. We show evidence regarding the importance of previous experience with melodies for crossmodal interactions to emerge. The impact of these crossmodal interactions on other perceptual and attentional processes was also studied. Melodies including two tones with different frequency (e.g., E4 and D3) were repeatedly presented during the study. These melodies could either generate strong predictions (e.g., E4-D3-E4-D3-E4-[D3]) or not (e.g., E4-D3-E4-E4-D3-[?]). After the presentation of each melody, the participants had to judge the colour of a visual stimulus that appeared in a position that was, according to the traditional vertical connotations of pitch, either congruent (e.g., high-low-high-low-[up]), incongruent (high-low-high-low-[down]) or unpredicted with respect to the melody. Behavioural and electroencephalographic responses to the visual stimuli were obtained. Congruent visual stimuli elicited faster responses at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. Additionally, incongruent visual stimuli that broke the spatial prediction generated by the melody elicited larger P3b amplitudes (reflecting 'surprise' responses). Our results suggest that the passive (but repeated) exposure to melodies elicits spatial predictions that modulate the processing of other sensory events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of external events - Nuclear Power Plant Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, Milan

    2000-01-01

    PSA of external events at level 1 covers internal events, floods, fires, other external events are not included yet. Shutdown PSA takes into account internal events, floods, fires, heavy load drop, other external events are not included yet. Final safety analysis report was conducted after 10 years of operation for all Dukovany operational units. Probabilistic approach was used for analysis of aircraft drop and external man-induced events. The risk caused by man-induced events was found to be negligible and was accepted by State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS)

  10. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Callery, P.S.; Cooper, M.

    1977-01-01

    A chelate of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The invention also includes preparative methods therefor

  11. North-American norms for name disagreement: pictorial stimuli naming discrepancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli are commonly used by scientists to explore central processes; including memory, attention, and language. Pictures that have been collected and put into sets for these purposes often contain visual ambiguities that lead to name disagreement amongst subjects. In the present work, we propose new norms which reflect these sources of name disagreement, and we apply this method to two sets of pictures: the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (S&V set and the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS. Naming responses of the presented pictures were classified within response categories based on whether they were correct, incorrect, or equivocal. To characterize the naming strategy where an alternative name was being used, responses were further divided into different sub-categories that reflected various sources of name disagreement. Naming strategies were also compared across the two sets of stimuli. Results showed that the pictures of the S&V set and the BOSS were more likely to elicit alternative specific and equivocal names, respectively. It was also found that the use of incorrect names was not significantly different across stimulus sets but that errors were more likely caused by visual ambiguity in the S&V set and by a misuse of names in the BOSS. Norms for name disagreement presented in this paper are useful for subsequent research for their categorization and elucidation of name disagreement that occurs when choosing visual stimuli from one or both stimulus sets. The sources of disagreement should be examined carefully as they help to provide an explanation of errors and inconsistencies of many concepts during picture naming tasks.

  12. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    Full Text Available Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low or no light (control. Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz, a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  13. The effect of Ramadan fasting on spatial attention through emotional stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Maziyar; Yunus, Jasmy; Utama, Nugraha P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting can influence psychological and mental states. In the current study, the effect of periodical fasting on the process of emotion through gazed facial expression as a realistic multisource of social information was investigated for the first time. The dynamic cue-target task was applied via behavior and event-related potential measurements for 40 participants to reveal the temporal and spatial brain activities – before, during, and after fasting periods. The significance of fasting included several effects. The amplitude of the N1 component decreased over the centroparietal scalp during fasting. Furthermore, the reaction time during the fasting period decreased. The self-measurement of deficit arousal as well as the mood increased during the fasting period. There was a significant contralateral alteration of P1 over occipital area for the happy facial expression stimuli. The significant effect of gazed expression and its interaction with the emotional stimuli was indicated by the amplitude of N1. Furthermore, the findings of the study approved the validity effect as a congruency between gaze and target position, as indicated by the increment of P3 amplitude over centroparietal area as well as slower reaction time from behavioral response data during incongruency or invalid condition between gaze and target position compared with those during valid condition. Results of this study proved that attention to facial expression stimuli as a kind of communicative social signal was affected by fasting. Also, fasting improved the mood of practitioners. Moreover, findings from the behavioral and event-related potential data analyses indicated that the neural dynamics of facial emotion are processed faster than that of gazing, as the participants tended to react faster and prefer to relay on the type of facial emotions than to gaze direction while doing the task. Because of happy facial expression stimuli, right hemisphere activation was more than that of the left

  14. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  15. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  16. Quantitative Electromyographic Analysis of Reaction Time to External Auditory Stimuli in Drug-Naïve Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Young Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD is still based on clinical rating scales by clinicians. Reaction time (RT is the time interval between a specific stimulus and the start of muscle response. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of RT responses in PD patients using electromyography (EMG and to elucidate the relationship between RT and clinical features of PD. The EMG activity of 31 PD patients was recorded during isometric muscle contraction. RT was defined as the time latency between an auditory beep and responsive EMG activity. PD patients demonstrated significant delays in both initiation and termination of muscle contraction compared with controls. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD were closely correlated with RT. RT was longer in more-affected side and in more-advanced PD stages. Frontal cognitive function, which is indicative of motor programming and movement regulation and perseveration, was also closely related with RT. In conclusion, greater RT is the characteristic motor features of PD and it could be used as a sensitive tool for motor function assessment in PD patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical impact of the RT on the activity of daily living of patients with PD.

  17. Externalities of the energy. The nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Perl, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    When referring to private energy cost, which reflects the market value of energy, important elements are left aside in the evaluation process. These elements or externalities have an impact on third parties. The impact can be positive or negative and nowadays it is increasingly relevant to take them into account and include them in the project evaluation, specially when we are looking for sustainable development. The environmental impact and health effects are the most visible items but not the unique which generate externalities. The supply security, prices stability, employment impact and trade balance, are also important factors, although not much improvement has been achieved in their quantitative evaluation. (author) [es

  18. Quantized fields in external field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The case of a charged scalar field is considered first. The existence of the corresponding Green's functions is proved. For weak fields, as well as pure electric or scalar external fields, the Bogoliubov S-operator is shown to be unitary, covariant, causal up-to-a-phase. These results are generalised to a class of higher spin quantized fields, 'nicely' coupled to external fields, which includes the Dirac theory, and in the case of minimal and magnetic dipole coupling, the spin one Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory. (orig.) [de

  19. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

  20. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  1. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  2. Suppression of bulboreticular unit responses to noxious stimuli by analgesic mesencephalic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, T J; Casey, K L

    1983-01-01

    The responses of 302 neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) to a variety of noxious and innocuous somatic stimuli were studied in anesthetized and awake rats. In addition, the effects of analgesic electrical stimulation in the mesencephalon (MES) on unit responses were examined. Tail shock was the most effective stimulus, exciting more than 80% of all units recorded. This stimulus was considered separately during data analysis, since it could not be classified as noxious or innocuous. Noxious somatic stimuli (including pinch, firm pressure, pin prick, and radiant heating of the tail above 45 degrees C were especially effective in eliciting discharge in a significant fraction of all cells in both awake (123/205) and anesthetized (45/97) animals. Nociceptive neurons could be classified as nociceptive specific (NS) or wide dynamic range (WDR) depending on their responses to all somatic stimuli tested. Nociceptive neurons showed no preferential anatomical distribution. Most neurons, including those responsive to noxious inputs, exhibited large, often bilateral receptive fields which frequently covered the tail, one or more limbs, and extensive areas of the body or head. Electrical stimulation within or adjacent to the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray matter depressed the spontaneous and evoked discharge of MRF neurons in both acute and chronic preparations. This inhibition showed a significant preference (p less than 0.001, chi-square statistic) for units that were excited by somatic and especially noxious stimuli. No units were facilitated by MES stimulation. In the awake rat, unit suppression closely followed the time course and level of MES-induced analgesia. Excitability data from the acute experiments suggest that this response inhibition may be the result of a direct action on MRF neurons. Anesthesia severely depressed the spontaneous discharge of MRF neurons as well as the activity evoked by innocuous somatic stimulation. Our data suggest

  3. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial...

  4. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  5. Stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles for multiple anti-HIV microbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, Namita; Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H., E-mail: leech@umkc.edu [University of Missouri at Kansas City, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This study is aimed to develop and evaluate an advanced intravaginal formulation for the delivery of multiple anti-HIV microbicides. Novel stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) which protected the encapsulated drugs from being degraded in acidic pH conditions were made of Eudragit S-100{sup ®} (ES100{sup ®}), a pH-sensitive polymer. ES100{sup ®} NPs were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and loaded with two microbicides namely Tenofovir (TNF) and Etravirine (ETV). The effects of various fabrication parameters on the formulation properties were evaluated for the optimization of ES100{sup ®} NPs. The morphology of the ES100{sup ®} NPs was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of NPs containing microbicides individually or in a combination was assessed using cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. The cellular uptake rates of the model microbicides by human vaginal epithelial cells, VK2 E6/E7 cells, were evaluated using confocal microscopy and florescence-assisted cell sorting technique. ES100{sup ®} NPs had a spherical shape, smooth surface, and uniform texture with a little aggregation. The average particle size for NPs loaded with TNF ranged from 125 to 230 nm, whereas those for ETV-loaded NPs ranged from 160 to 280 nm. ES100{sup ®} NPs had zeta potential in the range of −5 to −10 mV. In-vitro release studies displayed the potential benefits of ES100{sup ®} NPs in retaining and protecting the loaded microbicides at vaginal pH (acidic), but immediately releasing them as the pH changes to neutral or 7.4 (physiological pH). Cell viability studies demonstrated that ES100{sup ®} NPs did not exert any cytotoxicity individually or in a combination of both microbicides. TEER measurements confirmed that ES100{sup ®} NPs loaded with TNF and ETV did not cause any changes in the barrier integrity of VK2 E6/E7 cell monolayer. The cellular uptake study revealed that ES100{sup

  6. Stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles for multiple anti-HIV microbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Namita; Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H.

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop and evaluate an advanced intravaginal formulation for the delivery of multiple anti-HIV microbicides. Novel stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) which protected the encapsulated drugs from being degraded in acidic pH conditions were made of Eudragit S-100"® (ES100"®), a pH-sensitive polymer. ES100"® NPs were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and loaded with two microbicides namely Tenofovir (TNF) and Etravirine (ETV). The effects of various fabrication parameters on the formulation properties were evaluated for the optimization of ES100"® NPs. The morphology of the ES100"® NPs was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of NPs containing microbicides individually or in a combination was assessed using cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. The cellular uptake rates of the model microbicides by human vaginal epithelial cells, VK2 E6/E7 cells, were evaluated using confocal microscopy and florescence-assisted cell sorting technique. ES100"® NPs had a spherical shape, smooth surface, and uniform texture with a little aggregation. The average particle size for NPs loaded with TNF ranged from 125 to 230 nm, whereas those for ETV-loaded NPs ranged from 160 to 280 nm. ES100"® NPs had zeta potential in the range of −5 to −10 mV. In-vitro release studies displayed the potential benefits of ES100"® NPs in retaining and protecting the loaded microbicides at vaginal pH (acidic), but immediately releasing them as the pH changes to neutral or 7.4 (physiological pH). Cell viability studies demonstrated that ES100"® NPs did not exert any cytotoxicity individually or in a combination of both microbicides. TEER measurements confirmed that ES100"® NPs loaded with TNF and ETV did not cause any changes in the barrier integrity of VK2 E6/E7 cell monolayer. The cellular uptake study revealed that ES100"® NPs were taken by vaginal epithelial cells through

  7. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  8. Adaptation to Variance of Stimuli in Drosophila Larva Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Jason; Gepner, Ruben; Gershow, Marc

    In order to respond to stimuli that vary over orders of magnitude while also being capable of sensing very small changes, neural systems must be capable of rapidly adapting to the variance of stimuli. We study this adaptation in Drosophila larvae responding to varying visual signals and optogenetically induced fictitious odors using an infrared illuminated arena and custom computer vision software. Larval navigational decisions (when to turn) are modeled as the output a linear-nonlinear Poisson process. The development of the nonlinear turn rate in response to changes in variance is tracked using an adaptive point process filter determining the rate of adaptation to different stimulus profiles. Supported by NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  9. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are the three-dimensional network structures obtained from a class of synthetic or natural polymers which can absorb and retain a significant amount of water. Hydrogels are one of the most studied classes of polymer-based controlled drug release. These have attracted considerable attention in biochemical and biomedical fields because of their characteristics, such as swelling in aqueous medium, biocompatibility, pH and temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards other stimuli, which can be utilized for their controlled zero-order release. The hydrogels are expected to explore new generation of self-regulated delivery system having a wide array of desirable properties. This review highlights the exciting opportunities and challenges in the area of hydrogels. Here, we review different literatures on stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, such as role of temperature, electric potential, pH and ionic strength to control the release of drug from hydrogels.

  10. Neural activation toward erotic stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Sabine; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum, Sina; Zimmermann, Mark; Schienle, Anne; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2011-11-01

    Studies investigating sexual arousal exist, yet there are diverging findings on the underlying neural mechanisms with regard to sexual orientation. Moreover, sexual arousal effects have often been confounded with general arousal effects. Hence, it is still unclear which structures underlie the sexual arousal response in homosexual and heterosexual men. Neural activity and subjective responses were investigated in order to disentangle sexual from general arousal. Considering sexual orientation, differential and conjoint neural activations were of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study focused on the neural networks involved in the processing of sexual stimuli in 21 male participants (11 homosexual, 10 heterosexual). Both groups viewed pictures with erotic content as well as aversive and neutral stimuli. The erotic pictures were subdivided into three categories (most sexually arousing, least sexually arousing, and rest) based on the individual subjective ratings of each participant. Blood oxygen level-dependent responses measured by fMRI and subjective ratings. A conjunction analysis revealed conjoint neural activation related to sexual arousal in thalamus, hypothalamus, occipital cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Increased insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate gyrus activation could be linked to general arousal. Group differences emerged neither when viewing the most sexually arousing pictures compared with highly arousing aversive pictures nor compared with neutral pictures. Results suggest that a widespread neural network is activated by highly sexually arousing visual stimuli. A partly distinct network of structures underlies sexual and general arousal effects. The processing of preferred, highly sexually arousing stimuli recruited similar structures in homosexual and heterosexual males. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Feedback and feedforward control of frequency tuning to naturalistic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacron, Maurice J; Maler, Leonard; Bastian, Joseph

    2005-06-08

    Sensory neurons must respond to a wide variety of natural stimuli that can have very different spatiotemporal characteristics. Optimal responsiveness to subsets of these stimuli can be achieved by devoting specialized neural circuitry to different stimulus categories, or, alternatively, this circuitry can be modulated or tuned to optimize responsiveness to current stimulus conditions. This study explores the mechanisms that enable neurons within the initial processing station of the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish to shift their tuning properties based on the spatial extent of the stimulus. These neurons are tuned to low frequencies when the stimulus is restricted to a small region within the receptive field center but are tuned to higher frequencies when the stimulus impinges on large regions of the sensory epithelium. Through a combination of modeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we reveal the respective contributions of the filtering characteristics of extended dendritic structures and feedback circuitry to this shift in tuning. Our results show that low-frequency tuning can result from the cable properties of an extended dendrite that conveys receptor-afferent information to the cell body. The shift from low- to high-frequency tuning, seen in response to spatially extensive stimuli, results from increased wide-band input attributable to activation of larger populations of receptor afferents, as well as the activation of parallel fiber feedback from the cerebellum. This feedback provides a cancellation signal with low-pass characteristics that selectively attenuates low-frequency responsiveness. Thus, with spatially extensive stimuli, these cells preferentially respond to the higher-frequency components of the receptor-afferent input.

  12. Autobiographical memories of young adults elicited by positive musical stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Margarida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia Studies on autobiographical memories have shown the presence of three main components: childhood amnesia, recency effect and reminiscence bump (Rubin, 1986). Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories elicited by positive stimuli are associated with highly, specific and generally pleasant episodes (Krumhansl & Zupnick, 2013). Music has an important and highly emotional and social role in individual’s lives. The p...

  13. Exogenous (automatic) attention to emotional stimuli: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Carretié, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the in...

  14. Neural correlates of quality during perception of audiovisual stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach to examining perceived quality of audiovisual sequences. It uses electroencephalography to understand how exactly user quality judgments are formed within a test participant, and what might be the physiologically-based implications when being exposed to lower quality media. The book redefines experimental paradigms of using EEG in the area of quality assessment so that they better suit the requirements of standard subjective quality testings. Therefore, experimental protocols and stimuli are adjusted accordingly. .

  15. Psychophysiological effects of audiovisual stimuli during cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Chierotti, Priscila; Altimari, Leandro R

    2018-05-01

    Immersive environments induced by audiovisual stimuli are hypothesised to facilitate the control of movements and ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during exercise. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercises performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Twenty young adults were administered three experimental conditions in a randomised and counterbalanced order: unpleasant stimulus (US; e.g. images depicting laboured breathing); pleasant stimulus (PS; e.g. images depicting pleasant emotions); and neutral stimulus (NS; e.g. neutral facial expressions). The exercise had 10 min of duration (2 min of warm-up + 6 min of exercise + 2 min of warm-down). During all conditions, the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate variability were monitored to further understanding of the moderating influence of audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that PS ameliorated fatigue-related symptoms and reduced the physiological stress imposed by the exercise bout. Conversely, US increased the global activity of the autonomic nervous system and increased exertional responses to a greater degree when compared to PS. Accordingly, audiovisual stimuli appear to induce a psychophysiological response in which individuals visualise themselves within the story presented in the video. In such instances, individuals appear to copy the behaviour observed in the videos as if the situation was real. This mirroring mechanism has the potential to up-/down-regulate the cardiac work as if in fact the exercise intensities were different in each condition.

  16. Endogenous sequential cortical activity evoked by visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Hamm, Jordan P; Jackson, Jesse; Yuste, Rafael

    2015-06-10

    Although the functional properties of individual neurons in primary visual cortex have been studied intensely, little is known about how neuronal groups could encode changing visual stimuli using temporal activity patterns. To explore this, we used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of awake mice in the presence and absence of visual stimulation. Multidimensional analysis of the network activity allowed us to identify neuronal ensembles defined as groups of cells firing in synchrony. These synchronous groups of neurons were themselves activated in sequential temporal patterns, which repeated at much higher proportions than chance and were triggered by specific visual stimuli such as natural visual scenes. Interestingly, sequential patterns were also present in recordings of spontaneous activity without any sensory stimulation and were accompanied by precise firing sequences at the single-cell level. Moreover, intrinsic dynamics could be used to predict the occurrence of future neuronal ensembles. Our data demonstrate that visual stimuli recruit similar sequential patterns to the ones observed spontaneously, consistent with the hypothesis that already existing Hebbian cell assemblies firing in predefined temporal sequences could be the microcircuit substrate that encodes visual percepts changing in time. Copyright © 2015 Carrillo-Reid et al.

  17. Neural Conflict–Control Mechanisms Improve Memory for Target Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. PMID:24108799

  18. Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Plazas-Tuttle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation.

  19. Reward modulates oculomotor competition between differently valued stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Berno; Silvis, Jeroen D; Donk, Mieke; Theeuwes, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The present work explored the effects of reward in the well-known global effect paradigm in which two objects appear simultaneously in close spatial proximity. The experiment consisted of three phases (i) a pre-training phase that served as a baseline, (ii) a reward-training phase to associate differently colored stimuli with high, low and no reward value, and (iii) a post-training phase in which rewards were no longer delivered, to examine whether objects previously associated with higher reward value attracted the eyes more strongly than those associated with low or no reward value. Unlike previous reward studies, the differently valued objects directly competed with each other on the same trial. The results showed that initially eye movements were not biased towards any particular stimulus, while in the reward-training phase, eye movements started to land progressively closer towards stimuli that were associated with a high reward value. Even though rewards were no longer delivered, this bias remained robustly present in the post-training phase. A time course analysis showed that the effect of reward was present for the fastest saccades (around 170 ms) and increased with increasing latency. Although strategic effects for slower saccades cannot be ruled out, we suggest that fast oculomotor responses became habituated and were no longer under strategic attentional control. Together the results imply that reward affects oculomotor competition in favor of stimuli previously associated high reward, when multiple reward associated objects compete for selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  1. Neural conflict-control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung W.; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Blood, Anne J.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics. PMID:26394306

  3. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Lee

    Full Text Available Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT, but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information, and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  4. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung J; Kim, Byoung W; Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Blood, Anne J; Kuhnen, Camelia M; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  5. Vection is modulated by the semantic meaning of stimuli and experimental instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaki; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Vection strength is modulated by the semantic meanings of stimuli. In experiment 1--even though vection stimuli were of uniform size, color, and luminance--when they also had semantic meaning as falling objects, vection was inhibited. Specifically, stimuli perceived as feathers, petals, and leaves did not effectively induce vection. In experiment 2 we used the downward motion of identical dots to induce vection. Participants observed stimuli while holding either an umbrella or a wooden sword. Results showed that vection was inhibited when participants held the umbrella and the stimuli was perceived as rain or snow falling. The two experiments suggest that vection is modulated by the semantic meaning of stimuli.

  6. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  7. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  8. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  9. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  10. Visual and cross-modal cues increase the identification of overlapping visual stimuli in Balint's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Daniela; Scandola, Michele; Gobbetto, Valeria; Bulgarelli, Cristina; Salgarello, Matteo; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2017-10-01

    Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of visual and nonvisual cues on performance in tasks involving the recognition of overlapping pictures. Four modalities of sensory cues were used: visual, tactile, olfactory, and auditory. Data from neuropsychological tests showed the presence of ocular apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia. The results of the experiment indicate a positive effect of the cues on the recognition of overlapping pictures, not only in the identification of the congruent valid-cued stimulus (target) but also in the identification of the other, noncued stimuli. All the sensory modalities analyzed (except the auditory stimulus) were efficacious in terms of increasing visual recognition. Cross-modal integration improved the patient's ability to recognize overlapping figures. However, while in the visual unimodal modality both bottom-up (priming, familiarity effect, disengagement of attention) and top-down processes (mental representation and short-term memory, the endogenous orientation of attention) are involved, in the cross-modal integration it is semantic representations that mainly activate visual recognition processes. These results are potentially useful for the design of rehabilitation training for attentional and visual-perceptual deficits.

  11. Pulse and entrainment to non-isochronous auditory stimuli: the case of north Indian alap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Will

    Full Text Available Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi- isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala. The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music.

  12. Pulse and entrainment to non-isochronous auditory stimuli: the case of north Indian alap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music.

  13. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  14. Towards a Classification of Architecture Initiatives: Outlining the External Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    or bad, without including the contextual differences. The purpose of the external factors is to improve scoping and goal setting of architecture initiatives, and improve comparability between- and transferability of knowledge from architecture initiatives. The external factors are a first step towards......This paper introduced a set of external factors capturing the contextual differences that set the stage for architecture initiatives. These are derived from a systems theoretical approach recognizing the fact that architecture initiatives should respond the challenges posed by the external...

  15. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P; Leal, J; Saez, R M

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  16. The EPR-a comprehensive design concept against external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, U.; Waas, U.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of design provisions against external hazards is to ensure that the safety functions required to bring the plant to safe shutdown are not inadmissibly affected by any external hazards that might be postulated for the intended site of the plant. In the design of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) particular attention was paid to external hazards such as earthquake, airplane crash, and explosion pressure wave. The standard EPR covers a large range of possible site conditions, the design earthquake enveloping safe shutdown earthquakes (SSE) to be expected for potential sites. The loads for the design basis airplane crash and - if required - for the design extension airplane crash as well as for external Explosion Pressure Wave are defined depending on site specific requirements. Protection against other external load cases such as extreme winds and external flooding is also included in the standard design

  17. Do emotional stimuli enhance or impede recall relative to neutral stimuli? An investigation of two "false memory" tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Kemp, Richard I

    2017-09-01

    Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed. Film accuracy and misinformation susceptibility were found to be greater for those who viewed the distressing film relative to the neutral film. Accuracy responses on both tasks were related, however, susceptibility to the DRM illusion and Misinformation Effect were not. The misinformation findings support the Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis that negative stimuli will lead to remembering more accurate details but also greater likelihood of memory distortion. However, the PNE hypothesis was not supported for the DRM results. The findings also suggest that the DRM and Misinformation tasks are not equivalent and may have differences in underlying mechanisms. Future research should focus on more ecologically valid methods of assessing false memory.

  18. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2007

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2007, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 135 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting countr...

  19. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT)

  20. United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P.C.; van Wezel, R.J.A.; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception

  1. United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. C; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception

  2. Effects of acoustical stimuli delivered through hearing aids on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetow, Robert W; Sabes, Jennifer Henderson

    2010-01-01

    The use of acoustic signals to mask, mix with, or ease the distress associated with tinnitus has been clinically employed for decades. It has been proposed that expanding acoustic options for tinnitus sufferers due to personal preferences is desirable. Fractal tones incorporate many useful characteristics of music while avoiding certain features that could be distracting to some individuals. To assess the effects on relaxation, tinnitus annoyance, tinnitus handicap, and tinnitus reaction from the use of a hearing aid that incorporates combinations of amplification, fractal tones, and white noise. Participants listened to experimental hearing aids containing several acoustic options and were asked to rate the signals in terms of their effect on relaxation and tinnitus annoyance. They subsequently wore the hearing aids for 6 mo and completed tinnitus handicap and reaction scales. Fourteen hearing-impaired adults with primary complaints of subjective tinnitus. Participants were tested wearing hearing aids containing several programs including amplification only, fractal tones only, and a combination of amplification, noise, and/or fractal tones. The fractal tones (now commercially available as the "Zen" feature) were generated by the Widex Mind hearing aid. Rating procedures were conducted in the laboratory, and tinnitus reaction and handicap were assessed during and following a 6 mo field trial. Data were collected at the initial visit, one week, 1 mo, 3 mo, and 6 mo. Nonparametric statistics included Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank, chi(2), and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Thirteen of 14 participants reported that their tinnitus annoyance, as measured by the Tinnitus Annoyance Scale, was reduced for at least one of the amplified conditions (with or without fractal tones or noise), relative to the unaided condition. Nine assigned a lower tinnitus annoyance rating when listening to fractal tones alone versus the amplification-alone condition. There was a

  3. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  4. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  5. A dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiong; Liang, Ruizheng; Liu, Wendi; Yan, Dongpeng; Wei, Min

    2015-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive fluorescent switches have shown broad applications in optical devices, biological materials and intelligent responses. Herein, we describe the design and fabrication of a dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film (UTF) via a three-step layer-by-layer (LBL) technique: (i) encapsulation of spiropyran (SP) within an amphiphilic block copolymer (PTBEM) to give the (SP@PTBEM) micelle; (ii) the mixture of riboflavin (Rf) and poly(styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS) to enhance the adhesion ability of small molecules; (iii) assembly of negatively charged SP@PTBEM and Rf-PSS with cationic layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets to obtain the (Rf-PSS/LDH/SP@PTBEM)n UTFs (n: bilayer number). The assembly process of the UTFs and their luminescence properties, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), present a uniform and ordered layered structure with stepwise growth. The resulting Rf-PSS/LDH/SP@PTBEM UTF serves as a three-state switchable multicolor (green, yellow, and red) luminescent system based on stimulation from UV/Vis light and pH, with an acceptable reversibility. Therefore, this work provides a facile way to fabricate stimuli-responsive solid-state film switches with tunable-color luminescence, which have potential applications in the areas of displays, sensors, and rewritable optical memory and fluorescent logic devices.Stimuli-responsive fluorescent switches have shown broad applications in optical devices, biological materials and intelligent responses. Herein, we describe the design and fabrication of a dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film (UTF) via a three-step layer-by-layer (LBL) technique: (i) encapsulation of spiropyran (SP) within an amphiphilic block copolymer (PTBEM) to give the (SP@PTBEM) micelle; (ii) the mixture of riboflavin (Rf) and poly(styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS) to enhance the adhesion ability of small molecules; (iii) assembly of negatively charged SP

  6. Do Live versus Audio-Recorded Narrative Stimuli Influence Young Children's Narrative Comprehension and Retell Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…

  7. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  9. PENILAIAN PEDOFILIA MENGGUNAKAN RESPON HEMODINAMIK OTAK TERHADAP STIMULI SEKSUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhelan Mahendran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Menilai secara akurat orientasi seksual seseorang sangat penting dalam melakukan penanganan terhadap pelaku kekerasan seksual pada anak. Phallometry adalah metode standar untuk mengidentifikasi orientasi seksual; tetapi, metode ini telah banyak dikritik oleh karena bersifat intrusif dan reliabilitasnya terbatas. Tujuan:Untuk mengevaluasi apakah pola respon spasial terhadap stimuli seksual yang ditandai oleh adanya perubahan blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLDmemfasilitasi proses identifikasi pedofilia. Desain:Selama dilakukan pemeriksaan magnetic resonance imaging fungsional (fMRI, ditampilkan gambar anak-anak dan dewasa tanpa busana dengan jenis kelamin sama atau berbeda terhadap sampel penelitian (kelompok pedofil dan kontrol. Kami mengkalkulasi perbedaan BOLDterhadap stimuli sexual anak-anak dan dewasa pada setiap sampel. Hasil foto dengan kontras kemudian dimasukkan sesuai dengan kelompoknya untuk dianalisis perbedaan pemetaan otak antara kelompok pedofil dan kontrol. Kami mengkalkulasi nilai ekspresi yang sesuai dengan hasil kelompok bagi setiap sampel. Nilai ekspresi tersebut dibedakan menjadi 2 algoritma klasifikasi: analisis Fisher linear discriminant dan analisis -nearest neighbor. Prosedur klasifikasi tersebut telah divalidasi silang menggunakan metode leave-one-out. Lokasi:Bagian Kedokteran Seksual, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Christian Albrechts di Kiel, Jerman. Sampel:Kami merekrut 24 sampel dengan pedofil yang memiliki ketertarikan seksual terhadap anak perempuan (n=11 atau laki-laki (n=13 pre pubertas dan 32 kontrol laki-laki sehat yang memiliki ketertarikan seksual terhadap wanita (n=18 atau pria (n=14 dewasa. Pengukuran luaran utama:Angka sensitivitasdan spesifisitas dari kedua algoritme klasifikasi. Hasil:Akurasi klasifikasi tertinggi dicapai dengan analisis diskriminan linear Fisher, yang menunjukkan akurasi rata-rata 95% (100% spesifisitas, 88% sensitivitas. Simpulan:Pola respon otak fungsional terhadap

  10. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  11. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  12. [Responses of bat cochlear nucleus neurons to ultrasonic stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A G; Grigor'eva, T I

    1977-01-01

    The responses of cochlear nuclei single units in Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae were studied by means of ultrasound stimuli of different frequencies. Most neurons were found to have one or two complementary response areas with best frequencies equal to 1/2 and 1/3 of the highest one (which we regard as the basic best frequency). In Vespertilionidae which emit frequency-modulated signals some neurons have complementary areas with upper thresholds. The latency of responses do not correlate with the stimulus frequency. This suggests that there is no correlative reception of echosignals at this level of auditory system in bats.

  13. Stimuli-Responsive Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites under Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shang Hao; Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-01-01

    This short Feature Article reviews electric stimuli-responsive polymer/clay nanocomposites with respect to their fabrication, physical characteristics and electrorheological (ER) behaviors under applied electric fields when dispersed in oil. Their structural characteristics, morphological features and thermal degradation behavior were examined by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Particular focus is given to the electro-responsive ER characteristics of the polymer/clay nanocomposites in terms of the yield stress and viscoelastic properties along with their applications. PMID:28787852

  14. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gluckman, Maxie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet inf...

  15. Recent developments in the external hazard risk assessment in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Ukrainian legislation prescribes safety analysis reports for all operating and future NPPs. Apart from main report they must include: safety analysis supplement; design basis accident analysis; beyond design basis accident analysis; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); technical; substantiation of safety. Regulatory requirements to PSA contents cover the criteria for core damage frequency and large radioactive release frequency. Initiating events taken into account are internal events; internal hazards and external hazards. External hazards to be considered are seismic events, external fires, external floods, extreme ambient temperatures, aircraft crashes, etc. Current status of PSA development is related to operating WWER-440 and WWER-1000 NPPs and NPPs under construction. This presentation describes in detail the external hazard risk assessment for South Ukraine including methodology applied and expected future activities

  16. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  17. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  18. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  19. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  20. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  1. Avoidance of Bereavement-Related Stimuli in Chinese Individuals Experiencing Prolonged Grief: Evidence from a Dot-Probe Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attentional bias refers to a preference for (e.g., vigilance or a shifting away (e.g., avoidance of one’s focus with respect to specific stimuli. Accumulating evidence suggests that an attentional bias toward death/threat-related stimuli exists in bereaved individuals experiencing prolonged grief (PG. Measuring for different processing may reflect different cognitive characteristics. Therefore, this study sought to compare information-processing biases in Chinese individuals with high versus low levels of PG symptomatology at supraliminal and subliminal levels, respectively.Method: A 2 (grief level × 2 (consciousness level × 2 (word type three-factor mixed design with supraliminal and subliminal tasks was utilized in the current study. Based on their Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13 (PG-13 scores, 38 participants were included in the low-PG group, and 34 individuals were included in the high-PG group. All the participants completed a dot-probe task in which they were primed with death-related and life-related words paired with neutral stimuli.Results: High-PG individuals were slower in reacting to the death-related information in both supraliminal and subliminal tasks. After controlling for other symptoms in the backward deletion regression, PG-13 scores significantly predicted the avoidance tendency to death-related words in the supraliminal task, while anxiety was the best predictor of turning one’s vision away from death-related stimuli in the subliminal trials.Conclusion: The results suggested that high PG is associated with a tendency to avoid death-related words. Future research is needed to explore interventions that address the avoidance of death-related stimuli among individuals with elevated, or diagnosable, levels of PG.

  2. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  3. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles

  4. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Minming; Hu Shaohua; Xu Lijuan; Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Wei Erqing; Yan Leqin; Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli; Xu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  5. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hu Shaohua [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Lijuan [National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang Qidong [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xu Xiaojun [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wei Erqing [College of Pharmacology, Zhejiang University (China); Yan Leqin [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Virginia Harris Cockrell Cancer Research Center, University of Texas, Austin (United States); Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Yi, E-mail: xuyi61@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  6. Integrating Dimensional and Discrete Theories of Emotions: A New Set of Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Simona; Rancoita, Paola M V; Martoni, Riccardo M; Omero, Micol; Ogliari, Anna; Brombin, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The selection of appropriate stimuli for inducing specific emotional states has become one of the most challenging topics in psychological research. In the literature there is a lack of affective picture database specifically suited to investigate emotional response in children. Here the authors present the methodology that led us to create a new database (called Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children) of affective stimuli inducing experiences of 3 target emotions (neutral, anger, and fear) to use in experimental session involving children. A total of 84 children were asked to (a) indicate the perceived emotion and its intensity and (b) rate the three affective dimensions of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Based on concordance between labeled and expected target emotion, the authors decided to select 15 stimuli to be included in Multivariate modeling techniques were applied to evaluate the association between expected target emotion and SAM ratings. The authors found that the hit rate for the neutral pictures was good (greater than 81%), for fear-eliciting pictures it was greater than 64%, and for anger-eliciting pictures it was moderate (between 45% and 56%). The study results reveal also an age effect only in the arousal scale. However, the authors did not find significant gender-related differences in SAM ratings.

  7. Polymer-Block-Polypeptides and Polymer-Conjugated Hybrid Materials as Stimuli-Responsive Nanocarriers for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Johnson V; Johnson, Renjith P; Heo, Min Seon; Moon, Byeong Kyu; Byeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Il

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers are a class of soft materials that includes natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and polypeptides. Recently, modern synthesis tools such as atom transfer radical polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization, ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, and various "click" chemistry strategies were simultaneously employed for the design and synthesis of nanosized drug delivery vehicles. Importantly, the research focused on the improvement of the nanocarrier targetability and the site-specific, triggered release of therapeutics with high drug loading efficiency and minimal drug leakage during the delivery to specific targets. In this context, nanocarriers responsive to common stimuli such as pH, temperature, redox potential, light, etc. have been widely used for the controlled delivery of therapeutics to pathological sites. Currently, different synthesis and self-assembly strategies improved the drug loading efficacy and targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the desired site. In particular, polypeptide-containing hybrid materials have been developed for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Therefore, stimuli-sensitive synthetic polypeptide-based materials have been extensively investigated in recent years. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of polymer-block-polypeptides and polymer-conjugated hybrid materials that have been designed and evaluated for various stimuli-responsive drug and gene delivery applications.

  8. Gender differences in brain activity toward unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Okada, Go; Ueda, Kazutaka; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-10-01

    Women are more vulnerable to psychosocial stressors such as interpersonal conflicts than men, and are more susceptible to some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that there are differences in the brain activity of men and women while perceiving unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships, and that they underlie the different sensitivity toward these stressful stimuli. We carried out a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on 13 young female adults and 13 young male adults who performed an emotional decision task including sets of unpleasant words concerning interpersonal relationships and sets of neutral words. In the women, the unpleasant words more significantly activated the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen than the neutral words. However, among the men, there was no difference in the level of activation of any brain area induced by the unpleasant or neutral word stimuli. Upon performing the task, there was a significant gender difference in brain activation. Moreover, among the female subjects, the activation in the bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus was negatively correlated with the average rating of pleasantness of the words concerning interpersonal conflicts by the subject. These results demonstrate gender differences in brain activity in processing unpleasant linguistic stimuli related to interpersonal conflicts. Our data suggest that the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen play an important role in the perception of words concerning interpersonal conflicts in women. The bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus may regulate a woman's sensitivity to unpleasant information about interpersonal difficulties.

  9. External costs of electricity production: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, D.

    1995-01-01

    The external costs of energy use, or the environmental effects not included in the market pricing system, must at some point be borne by society. This paper argues that the true cost of energy, including the remedying or prevention of its environmetnal consequences, should be included in the price paid by the consumer as this is the only effective method of minimizing the burden of environmental damage. The difficulties of quantifying the value of such damage and internalising it within power prices is described with reference to work in a number of countries. (UK)

  10. Feature-based attention and conflict monitoring in criminal offenders: interactive relations of psychopathy with anxiety and externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Newman, Joseph P

    2013-08-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study, male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Stippekohl

    Full Text Available An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users whereas others are discontent (dissonant users. Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant

  12. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus H; Walter, Bertram; Kagerer, Sabine; Mucha, Ronald F; Pauli, Paul; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers

  13. Adaptation to Environmental Stimuli within the Host: Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994

  14. Reduced modulation of thalamocortical connectivity during exposure to sensory stimuli in ASD.

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    Green, Shulamite A; Hernandez, Leanna; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration. This study aimed to examine the role of pulvinar connectivity in ASD during mildly aversive sensory input. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine connectivity with the pulvinar during exposure to mildly aversive auditory and tactile stimuli in 38 youth (age 9-17; 19 ASD, 19 IQ-matched typically developing (TD)). Parents rated children's SOR severity on two standard scales. Compared to TD, ASD participants displayed aberrant modulation of connectivity between pulvinar and cortex (including sensory-motor and prefrontal regions) during sensory stimulation. In ASD participants, pulvinar-amygdala connectivity was correlated with severity of SOR symptoms. Deficits in modulation of thalamocortical connectivity in youth with ASD may reflect reduced thalamo-cortical inhibition in response to sensory stimulation, which could lead to difficulty filtering out and/or integrating sensory information. An increase in amygdala connectivity with the pulvinar might be partially responsible for deficits in selective attention as the amygdala signals the brain to attend to distracting sensory stimuli. Autism Res 2017, 10: 801-809. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

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    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  16. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  17. Misremembering emotion: Inductive category effects for complex emotional stimuli.

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    Corbin, Jonathan C; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Vavra, Dylan T

    2017-07-01

    Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category. Until now, studies examining the central tendency bias have focused on simple stimuli. We extend this work to socially relevant, complex, emotional facial expressions. We morphed facial expressions on a continuum from sad to happy. Different ranges of emotion were used in four experiments in which participants viewed individual expressions and, after a variable delay, reproduced each face by adjusting a morph to match it. Estimates were biased toward the center of the presented stimulus range, and the bias increased at longer memory delays, consistent with the Bayesian prediction that as trace memory loses precision, category knowledge is given more weight. The central tendency effect persisted within and across emotion categories (sad, neutral, and happy). This article expands the scope of work on inductive category effects to memory for complex, emotional stimuli.

  18. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

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    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  19. Temporal attention for visual food stimuli in restrained eaters.

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    Neimeijer, Renate A M; de Jong, Peter J; Roefs, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Although restrained eaters try to limit their food intake, they often fail and indulge in exactly those foods that they want to avoid. A possible explanation is a temporal attentional bias for food cues. It could be that for these people food stimuli are processed relatively efficiently and require less attentional resources to enter awareness. Once a food stimulus has captured attention, it may be preferentially processed and granted prioritized access to limited cognitive resources. This might help explain why restrained eaters often fail in their attempts to restrict their food intake. A Rapid Serial Visual Presentation task consisting of dual and single target trials with food and neutral pictures as targets and/or distractors was administered to restrained (n=40) and unrestrained (n=40) eaters to study temporal attentional bias. Results indicated that (1) food cues did not diminish the attentional blink in restrained eaters when presented as second target; (2) specifically restrained eaters showed an interference effect of identifying food targets on the identification of preceding neutral targets; (3) for both restrained and unrestrained eaters, food cues enhanced the attentional blink; (4) specifically in restrained eaters, food distractors elicited an attention blink in the single target trials. In restrained eaters, food cues get prioritized access to limited cognitive resources, even if this processing priority interferes with their current goals. This temporal attentional bias for food stimuli might help explain why restrained eaters typically have difficulties maintaining their diet rules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic Stimuli And Active Processing In Human Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Ralph N.

    1990-03-01

    Theories of visual perception traditionally have considered a static retinal image to be the starting point for processing; and has considered processing both to be passive and a literal translation of that frozen, two dimensional, pictorial image. This paper considers five problem areas in the analysis of human visually guided locomotion, in which the traditional approach is contrasted to newer ones that utilize dynamic definitions of stimulation, and an active perceiver: (1) differentiation between object motion and self motion, and among the various kinds of self motion (e.g., eyes only, head only, whole body, and their combinations); (2) the sources and contents of visual information that guide movement; (3) the acquisition and performance of perceptual motor skills; (4) the nature of spatial representations, percepts, and the perceived layout of space; and (5) and why the retinal image is a poor starting point for perceptual processing. These newer approaches argue that stimuli must be considered as dynamic: humans process the systematic changes in patterned light when objects move and when they themselves move. Furthermore, the processing of visual stimuli must be active and interactive, so that perceivers can construct panoramic and stable percepts from an interaction of stimulus information and expectancies of what is contained in the visual environment. These developments all suggest a very different approach to the computational analyses of object location and identification, and of the visual guidance of locomotion.

  1. Medial temporal lobe damage impairs representation of simple stimuli

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    David E Warren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items more similar to the target. In the simultaneous condition, patients and comparisons exhibited an equivalent effect of similarity on fixation durations. However, imposing a delay modulated the effect differently for the two groups: in comparisons, fixation duration to similar items was exaggerated; in patients, the original effect was diminished. These findings indicate that medial temporal lobe lesions subtly impair short-term maintenance of even simple stimuli, with performance reflecting not the complete loss of the maintained representation but rather a degradation or progressive drift of the representation over time.

  2. Emotional stimuli exert parallel effects on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Ziegler, Marilyne; Hawksworth, Jade; Lalani, Safina; Herman, C Peter; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Because emotional and neutral stimuli typically differ on non-emotional dimensions, it has been difficult to determine conclusively which factors underlie the ability of emotional stimuli to enhance immediate long-term memory. Here we induced arousal by varying participants' goals, a method that removes many potential confounds between emotional and non-emotional items. Hungry and sated participants encoded food and clothing images under divided attention conditions. Sated participants attended to and recalled food and clothing images equivalently. Hungry participants performed worse on the concurrent tone-discrimination task when they viewed food relative to clothing images, suggesting enhanced attention to food images, and they recalled more food than clothing images. A follow-up regression analysis of the factors predicting memory for individual pictures revealed that food images had parallel effects on attention and memory in hungry participants, so that enhanced attention to food images did not predict their enhanced memory. We suggest that immediate long-term memory for food is enhanced in the hungry state because hunger leads to more distinctive processing of food images rendering them more accessible during retrieval.

  3. Representation of dynamical stimuli in populations of threshold neurons.

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    Tatjana Tchumatchenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many sensory or cognitive events are associated with dynamic current modulations in cortical neurons. This raises an urgent demand for tractable model approaches addressing the merits and limits of potential encoding strategies. Yet, current theoretical approaches addressing the response to mean- and variance-encoded stimuli rarely provide complete response functions for both modes of encoding in the presence of correlated noise. Here, we investigate the neuronal population response to dynamical modifications of the mean or variance of the synaptic bombardment using an alternative threshold model framework. In the variance and mean channel, we provide explicit expressions for the linear and non-linear frequency response functions in the presence of correlated noise and use them to derive population rate response to step-like stimuli. For mean-encoded signals, we find that the complete response function depends only on the temporal width of the input correlation function, but not on other functional specifics. Furthermore, we show that both mean- and variance-encoded signals can relay high-frequency inputs, and in both schemes step-like changes can be detected instantaneously. Finally, we obtain the pairwise spike correlation function and the spike triggered average from the linear mean-evoked response function. These results provide a maximally tractable limiting case that complements and extends previous results obtained in the integrate and fire framework.

  4. Auditory stimuli elicit hippocampal neuronal responses during sleep

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    Ekaterina eVinnik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how hippocampal neurons code behaviorally salient stimuli, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they learned to associate the presence of sound with water reward. Rats learned to alternate between two reward ports at which, in 50 percent of the trials, sound stimuli were presented followed by water reward after a 3-second delay. Sound at the water port predicted subsequent reward delivery in 100 percent of the trials and the absence of sound predicted reward omission. During this task, 40% of recorded neurons fired differently according to which of the 2 reward ports the rat was visiting. A smaller fraction of neurons demonstrated onset response to sound/nosepoke (19% and reward delivery (24%. When the sounds were played during passive wakefulness, 8% of neurons responded with short latency onset responses; 25% of neurons responded to sounds when they were played during sleep. Based on the current findings and the results of previous experiments we propose the existence of two types of hippocampal neuronal responses to sounds: sound-onset responses with very short latency and longer-lasting sound-specific responses that are likely to be present when the animal is actively engaged in the task. During sleep the short-latency responses in hippocampus are intermingled with sustained activity which in the current experiment was detected for 1-2 seconds.

  5. Effect of task demands on dual coding of pictorial stimuli.

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    Babbitt, B C

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that verbal labeling of a picture does not occur automatically. Although several experiments using paired-associate tasks produced little evidence indicating the use of a verbal code with picture stimuli, the tasks were probably not sensitive to whether the codes were activated initially. It is possible that verbal labels were activated at input, but not used later in performing the tasks. The present experiment used a color-naming interference task in order to assess, with a more sensitive measure, the amount of verbal coding occurring in response to word or picture input. Subjects named the color of ink in which words were printed following either word or picture input. If verbal labeling of the input occurs, then latency of color naming should increase when the input item and color-naming word are related. The results provided substantial evidence of such verbal activation when the input items were words. However, the presence of verbal activation with picture input was a function of task demands. Activation occurred when a recall memory test was used, but not when a recognition memory test was used. The results support the conclusion that name information (labels) need not be activated during presentation of visual stimuli.

  6. Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres

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    Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

  7. Startle Auditory Stimuli Enhance the Performance of Fast Dynamic Contractions

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    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Acero, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD) are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS); a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS); and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS). Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training. PMID:24489967

  8. Startle auditory stimuli enhance the performance of fast dynamic contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernandez-Del-Olmo

    Full Text Available Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS; a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS; and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS. Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training.

  9. Analyzing the User Behavior toward Electronic Commerce Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies -which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website- on shopping human behavior (i.e., users' internal states -affective, cognitive, and satisfaction- and behavioral responses - approach responses, and real shopping outcomes-) within the retail online store created by computer, taking into account some mediator variables (i.e., involvement, atmospheric responsiveness, and perceived risk). A 2 ("free" versus "hierarchical" navigational structure) × 2 ("on" versus "off" music) × 2 ("moving" versus "static" images) between-subjects computer experimental design is used to test empirically this research. In addition, an integrated methodology was developed allowing the simulation, tracking and recording of virtual user behavior within an online shopping environment. As main conclusion, this study suggests that the positive responses of online consumers might increase when they are allowed to freely navigate the online stores and their experience is enriched by animate gifts and music background. The effect caused by mediator variables modifies relatively the final shopping human behavior.

  10. Analyzing the user behavior towards Electronic Commerce stimuli

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    Carlota Lorenzo-Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e. navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus versus nonverbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli. Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies –which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website– on shopping human bebaviour (i.e. users’ internal states -affective, cognitive, and satisfaction- and behavioral responses - approach responses, and real shopping outcomes- within the retail online store created by computer, taking into account some mediator variables (i.e. involvement, atmospheric responsiveness, and perceived risk. A 2(free versus hierarchical navigational structure x2(on versus off music x2(moving versus static images between-subjects computer experimental design is used to test empirically this research. In addition, an integrated methodology was developed allowing the simulation, tracking and recording of virtual user behavior within an online shopping environment. As main conclusion, this study suggests that the positive responses of online consumers might increase when they are allowed to freely navigate the online stores and their experience is enriched by animate gifts and music background. The effect caused by mediator variables modifies relatively the final shopping human behavior.

  11. Moving Stimuli Facilitate Synchronization But Not Temporal Perception.

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    Silva, Susana; Castro, São Luís

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a moving visual stimulus (e.g., a bouncing ball) facilitates synchronization compared to a static stimulus (e.g., a flashing light), and that it can even be as effective as an auditory beep. We asked a group of participants to perform different tasks with four stimulus types: beeps, siren-like sounds, visual flashes (static) and bouncing balls. First, participants performed synchronization with isochronous sequences (stimulus-guided synchronization), followed by a continuation phase in which the stimulus was internally generated (imagery-guided synchronization). Then they performed a perception task, in which they judged whether the final part of a temporal sequence was compatible with the previous beat structure (stimulus-guided perception). Similar to synchronization, an imagery-guided variant was added, in which sequences contained a gap in between (imagery-guided perception). Balls outperformed flashes and matched beeps (powerful ball effect) in stimulus-guided synchronization but not in perception (stimulus- or imagery-guided). In imagery-guided synchronization, performance accuracy decreased for beeps and balls, but not for flashes and sirens. Our findings suggest that the advantages of moving visual stimuli over static ones are grounded in action rather than perception, and they support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor coupling mechanisms for auditory (beeps) and moving visual stimuli (bouncing balls) overlap.

  12. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

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    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  13. Evolutionizing Grief: Viewing Photographs of the Deceased Predicts the Misattribution of Ambiguous Stimuli by the Bereaved

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    Claire White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cognitive-evolutionary model of grief where the function of grief is to reunite a person with an absent partner where this is possible, and where it is not, to disengage and reorientate the individual from the lost agent. The present study investigates the potential factors that affect reunion-promoting symptoms by focusing on the misattribution of external stimuli to the deceased by the bereaved - which we term ‘false recognitions’. We propose three factors that relate to false recognitions: First, we propose that strong attachment to the deceased predisposes one to false recognitions; second, we predict that viewing photographs of the deceased (that were taken when the individual was alive perpetuates false recognitions; and third, we propose that time elapsing since the death diminishes the frequency of false recognitions. In a survey of 164 recently bereaved (<25 months pet owners in the U.S. and U.K., predictions concerning the association of the predictor and outcome variables were confirmed. The strongest predictor was the frequency of viewing photographic images of the deceased, a pattern consonant with our premise that, being evolutionarily novel, realistic photographs are treated as reliable cues that the agent remains a viable relationship partner. This research demonstrates the potential of evolutionary theory to inform mainstream bereavement research.

  14. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  15. The effect of Ramadan fasting on spatial attention through emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molavi M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maziyar Molavi, Jasmy Yunus, Nugraha P Utama Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering (FBME, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, Johor Bahru, Johor, MalaysiaAbstract: Fasting can influence psychological and mental states. In the current study, the effect of periodical fasting on the process of emotion through gazed facial expression as a realistic multisource of social information was investigated for the first time. The dynamic cue-target task was applied via behavior and event-related potential measurements for 40 participants to reveal the temporal and spatial brain activities – before, during, and after fasting periods. The significance of fasting included several effects. The amplitude of the N1 component decreased over the centroparietal scalp during fasting. Furthermore, the reaction time during the fasting period decreased. The self-measurement of deficit arousal as well as the mood increased during the fasting period. There was a significant contralateral alteration of P1 over occipital area for the happy facial expression stimuli. The significant effect of gazed expression and its interaction with the emotional stimuli was indicated by the amplitude of N1. Furthermore, the findings of the study approved the validity effect as a congruency between gaze and target position, as indicated by the increment of P3 amplitude over centroparietal area as well as slower reaction time from behavioral response data during incongruency or invalid condition between gaze and target position compared with those during valid condition. Results of this study proved that attention to facial expression stimuli as a kind of communicative social signal was affected by fasting. Also, fasting improved the mood of practitioners. Moreover, findings from the behavioral and event-related potential data analyses indicated that the neural dynamics of facial emotion are processed faster than that of gazing, as the participants

  16. Effect of expectation on pain assessment of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Valentina; Ivanec, Dragutin; Modić Stanke, Koraljka

    2017-01-01

    Pain modulation via expectation is a well-documented phenomenon. So far it has been shown that expectations about effectiveness of a certain treatment enhance the effectiveness of different analgesics and of drug-free pain treatments. Also, studies demonstrate that people assess same-intensity stimuli differently, depending on the experimentally induced expectations regarding the characteristics of the stimuli. Prolonged effect of expectation on pain perception and possible symmetry in conditions of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli is yet to be studied. Aim of this study is to determine the effect of expectation on the perception of pain experimentally induced by the series of higher- and lower-intensity stimuli. 192 healthy participants were assigned to four experimental groups differing by expectations regarding the intensity of painful stimuli series. Expectations of two groups were congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected and received lower-intensity stimuli and the other expected and received higher-intensity stimuli. Expectations of the remaining two groups were not congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected higher-intensity stimuli, but actually received lower-intensity stimuli while the other group expected lower-intensity stimuli, but in fact received higher-intensity ones. Each group received a series of 24 varied-intensity electrical stimuli rated by the participants on a 30° intensity scale. Expectation manipulation had statistically significant effect on pain intensity assessment. When expecting lower-intensity stimuli, the participants underestimated pain intensity and when expecting higher-intensity stimuli, they overestimated pain intensity. The effect size of expectations upon pain intensity assessment was equal for both lower- and higher-intensity stimuli. The obtained results imply that expectation manipulation can achieve the desired effect of decreasing or increasing both slight and more severe pain for a longer period of

  17. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  18. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid “burst” release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)–doxorubicin (PEG–DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG–DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG–DOX prodrug were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The PEG–DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG–DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. - Highlights: • A novel stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs is synthesized. • PEGylated prodrugs can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles (140 nm

  20. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  1. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  2. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  3. Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eBilleke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.

  4. Stimuli-responsive transformation in carbon nanotube/expanding microsphere–polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, James; Xu Peng; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Our work introduces a class of stimuli-responsive expanding polymer composites with the ability to unidirectionally transform their physical dimensions, elastic modulus, density, and electrical resistance. Carbon nanotubes and core–shell acrylic microspheres were dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane, resulting in composites that exhibit a binary set of material properties. Upon thermal or infrared stimuli, the liquid cores encapsulated within the microspheres vaporize, expanding the surrounding shells and stretching the matrix. The microsphere expansion results in visible dimensional changes, regions of reduced polymeric chain mobility, nanotube tensioning, and overall elastic to plastic-like transformation of the composite. Here, we show composite transformations including macroscopic volume expansion (>500%), density reduction (>80%), and elastic modulus increase (>675%). Additionally, conductive nanotubes allow for remote expansion monitoring and exhibit distinct loading-dependent electrical responses. With the ability to pattern regions of tailorable expansion, strength, and electrical resistance into a single polymer skin, these composites present opportunities as structural and electrical building blocks in smart systems. (paper)

  5. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Behavioural responses of the yellow emitting annelid Tomopteris helgolandica to photic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveneaux, Anaïd; Gielen, Marie-Charlotte; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    In contrast to most mesopelagic bioluminescent organisms specialised in the emission and reception of blue light, the planktonic annelid Tomopteris helgolandica produces yellow light. This unusual feature has long been suggested to serve for intraspecific communication. Yet, this virtually admitted hypothesis has never been tested. In this behavioural study of spectral colour sensitivity, we first present an illustrated repertoire of the postures and action patterns described by captive specimens. Then video tracking and motion analysis are used to quantify the behavioural responses of singled out worms to photic stimuli imitating intraspecific (yellow) or interspecific (blue) bioluminescent signals. We show the ability of T. helgolandica to react and to contrast its responses to bioluminescent-like blue and yellow light signals. In particular, the attractive effect of yellow light and the variation of angular velocity observed according to the pattern of yellow stimuli (flashes versus glows) support the intraspecific communication hypothesis. However, given the behavioural patterns of T. helgolandica, including mechanically induced light emission, the possibility that bioluminescence may be part of escape/defence responses to predation, should remain an open question. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  8. Stress Effects on Working Memory, Explicit Memory, and Implicit Memory for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Luethi, Mathias; Meier, Beat; Sandi, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials), as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli). A total of 35 young adult...

  9. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Perceiving imitatible stimuli: consequences of isomorphism between input and output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M

    2001-07-01

    For more than a century, psychologists have been intrigued by the idea that mental representations of perceived human actions are closely connected with mental representations of performing those same actions. In this article, connections between input and output representations are considered in terms of the potential for imitation. A broad range of evidence suggests that, for imitatible stimuli, input and output representations are isomorphic to one another, allowing mutual influence between perception and motoric planning that is rapid, effortless, and possibly obligatory. Thus, the cognitive consequences of imitatibility may underlie such diverse phenomena as phoneme perception; imitation in neonates; echoic memory; stimulus-response compatibility; conduction aphasia; maintenance rehearsal; and a variety of developmental and social activities such as language acquisition, social learning, empathy, and monitoring one's own behavior.

  11. Preattentive processing, poststimulus elaboration, and memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Mai; Otani, Hajime; Libkuman, Terry M; Sheffert, Sonya M

    2011-01-01

    Christianson (1992) proposed two mechanisms to explain emotionally enhanced memory: preattentive processing and poststimulus elaboration. Experiment 1 examined these processes by instructing participants to perform (1) a concurrent distractor task, (2) a continuous distractor task, or (3) both while viewing the negatively arousing, positively arousing, and neutral pictures. Recall of negatively arousing pictures showed a small decline in one of the distractor conditions, indicating that elaboration plays a minor role in remembering these pictures. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1 with an intentional learning instruction to investigate whether participants in Experiment 1 were anticipating a recall test. For all three picture types, recall declined in the continuous distractor task condition, indicating that elaboration played a role, even when the pictures were negatively arousing. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that remembering negatively valenced stimuli is largely based on preattentive processing with a minor role played by poststimulus elaboration.

  12. Comparisons of memory for nonverbal auditory and visual sequential stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, D J; Cacace, A T

    1995-01-01

    Properties of auditory and visual sensory memory were compared by examining subjects' recognition performance of randomly generated binary auditory sequential frequency patterns and binary visual sequential color patterns within a forced-choice paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated serial-position effects in auditory and visual modalities consisting of both primacy and recency effects. Experiment 2 found that retention of auditory and visual information was remarkably similar when assessed across a 10s interval. Experiments 3 and 4, taken together, showed that the recency effect in sensory memory is affected more by the type of response required (recognition vs. reproduction) than by the sensory modality employed. These studies suggest that auditory and visual sensory memory stores for nonverbal stimuli share similar properties with respect to serial-position effects and persistence over time.

  13. Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Louis; van den Berg, Ronald; Cavanagh, Patrick; Sergent, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases the frequency of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly determined by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target's location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

  14. Stimuli Responsive Ionogels for Sensing Applications—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kavanagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This overview aims to summarize the existing potential of “Ionogels” as a platform to develop stimuli responsive materials. Ionogels are a class of materials that contain an Ionic Liquid (IL confined within a polymer matrix. Recently defined as “a solid interconnected network spreading throughout a liquid phase”, the ionogel therefore combines the properties of both its solid and liquid components. ILs are low melting salts that exist as liquids composed entirely of cations and anions at or around 100 °C. Important physical properties of these liquids such as viscosity, density, melting point and conductivity can be altered to suit a purpose by choice of the cation/anion. Here we provide an overview to highlight the literature thus far, detailing the encapsulation of IL and responsive materials within these polymeric structures. Exciting applications in the areas of optical and electrochemical sensing, solid state electrolytes and actuating materials shall be discussed.

  15. Plasma catecholamine responses to physiologic stimuli in normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, W M; Mujais, S K; Zinaman, M; Bravo, E L; Lindheimer, M D

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic response of the sympathoadrenal system was evaluated during and after pregnancy in 13 healthy women with a protocol that compared cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine levels during the basal state, after postural maneuvers, and following isometric exercise. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were similar during and after gestation when the women rested on their sides, but heart rate was greater in pregnancy. Ten minutes of supine recumbency produced minimal changes, but attenuation of the anticipated increases in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels during standing and isometric exercise were observed during pregnancy. In contrast, alterations in plasma epinephrine appeared unaffected by gestation. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were, as expected, greater during pregnancy; however, increments in response to upright posture were similar in pregnant and postpartum women. To the extent that circulating catecholamines may be considered indices of sympathoadrenal function, these data suggest that normal pregnancy alters cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system responses to physiologic stimuli.

  16. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  17. Disentangling the role of floral sensory stimuli in pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsa, Aphrodite; Raguso, Robert A.; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2018-01-01

    Despite progress in understanding pollination network structure, the functional roles of floral sensory stimuli (visual, olfactory) have never been addressed comprehensively in a community context, even though such traits are known to mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we use...... a comprehensive dataset of floral traits and a novel dynamic data-pooling methodology to explore the impacts of floral sensory diversity on the structure of a pollination network in a Mediterranean scrubland. Our approach tracks transitions in the network behaviour of each plant species throughout its flowering...... period and, despite dynamism in visitor composition, reveals significant links to floral scent, and/or colour as perceived by pollinators. Having accounted for floral phenology, abundance and phylogeny, the persistent association between floral sensory traits and visitor guilds supports a deeper role...

  18. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    . This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive......The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content...... an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model...

  19. Olfactory stimuli as context cues in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, A; Ross, D A

    1989-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli were used as context cues in a recognition memory paradigm. Male college students were exposed to 50 slides of the faces of college females while in the presence of a pleasant or an unpleasant odor. During the acquisition phase, ratings of physical attractiveness of the slides were collected. After a 48-hr delay, a recognition test was given using the original 50 slides and 50 new slides. The recognition test was conducted with either the original odor or the alternative odor present. A no-odor control group did not receive olfactory cues. The attractiveness ratings indicated that the odor variations had no effect on these social judgments. Analyses of d' scores, hits, and false alarms for the recognition performance indicated support for the predicted interaction in which presence of the same odor at both sessions led to better overall performance.

  20. Pupillary response to direct and consensual chromatic light stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Brondsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Medical, Copenhagen), which is capable of both direct and consensual pupillometry measurements. The device uses a pair of dual monochromatic narrow bandwidth LED light sources, red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm). Pupil light responses were recorded with infrared video cameras and analysed using custom-made circuitry...... and software. Subjects were randomized to receive light stimuli at either the right or left eye after 5 min of dark adaptation. Pupil light responses were recorded in both eyes for 10 seconds before illumination, during illumination and 50 seconds after illumination with red and blue light. Three variables...... were defined for the recorded pupil responses: the maximal constriction amplitude (CAmax ), the pupil response during illumination and postillumination pupil response (PIPR). RESULTS: No difference was found in the pupil response to blue light. With red light, the pupil response during illumination...

  1. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account.

  3. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels: A novel ophthalmic drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids on stimulation, such as pH, temperature and ionic change. Aim: To develop hydrogels that are sensitive to stimuli, i.e. pH, in the cul-de-sac of the eye for providing a prolonged effect and increased bioavailability with reduction in frequency of administration. Materials and Methods: Hydrogels were formulated by using timolol maleate as the model drug, polyacrylic acid as the gelling agents, hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as the viscolizer and sodium chloride as the isotonic agent. Stirring of ingredients in pH 4 phosphate buffer at high speed was carried out. The dynamic dialysis technique was used for drug release studies. In vivo study for reduction in intraocular pressure was carried out by using albino rabbits. Statistical Analysis: Drug release studies data were used for statistical analysis in first-order plots, Higuchi plots and Peppas exponential plots. Student t-test was performed for in vivo study. Results: Viscosity of the hydrogel increases from 3.84 cps to 9.54 cps due to change in pH 4 to pH 7.4. The slope value of the Peppas equation was found to be 0.3081, 0.3743 and 0.2964. Up to 80% of drug was released in an 8 h drug release study. Sterile hydrogels with no ocular irritation were obtained. Conclusions: Hydrogels show increase in viscosity due to change in pH. Hydrogels were therapeutically effacious, stable, non-irritant and showed Fickian diffusion. In vivo results clearly show a prolonged reduction in intraocular pressure, which was helpful for reduction in the frequency of administration.

  5. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenacher, Peter; Mohr, Christine; Haker, Helene; Brugger, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is suggested to improve perceptual and cognitive decisions by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Somewhat paradoxically, a hyperdopaminergia (arguably more accentuated in the right hemisphere) has also been implied in the genesis of unusual experiences such as hallucinations and paranormal thought. To test these opposing assumptions, we used two lateralized decision tasks, one with lexical (tapping left-hemisphere functions), the other with facial stimuli (tapping right-hemisphere functions). Participants were 40 healthy right-handed men, of whom 20 reported unusual, "paranormal" experiences and beliefs ("believers"), whereas the remaining participants were unexperienced and critical ("skeptics"). In a between-subject design, levodopa (200 mg) or placebo administration was balanced between belief groups (double-blind procedure). For each task and visual field, we calculated sensitivity (d') and response tendency (criterion) derived from signal detection theory. Results showed the typical right visual field advantage for the lexical decision task and a higher d' for verbal than facial stimuli. For the skeptics, d' was lower in the levodopa than in the placebo group. Criterion analyses revealed that believers favored false alarms over misses, whereas skeptics displayed the opposite preference. Unexpectedly, under levodopa, these decision preferences were lower in both groups. We thus infer that levodopa (1) decreases sensitivity in perceptual-cognitive decisions, but only in skeptics, and (2) makes skeptics less and believers slightly more conservative. These results stand at odd to the common view that DA generally improves signal-to-noise ratios. Paranormal ideation seems an important personality dimension and should be assessed in investigations on the detection of signals in noise.

  6. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Starc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences (towards or away from the position of the distractor. Participants (n = 25, 8 men, 19–31 years old were asked to remember the exact position of a target scrambled image and recall it with a joystick after a delay. In some trials an additional distracting image (scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. We measured the spread of responses (standard deviation of angular error and shifts of the average response towards the prototype angles (45° or towards the position of distractors. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership (quadrants and information about the position of the distractor. The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use.

  7. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  8. Pupillary response to direct and consensual chromatic light stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traustason, Sindri; Brondsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether the direct and consensual postillumination (ipRGC-driven) pupil light responses to chromatic light stimuli are equal in healthy subjects. Pupil responses in healthy volunteers were recorded using a prototype binocular chromatic pupillometer (IdeaMedical, Copenhagen), which is capable of both direct and consensual pupillometry measurements. The device uses a pair of dual monochromatic narrow bandwidth LED light sources, red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm). Pupil light responses were recorded with infrared video cameras and analysed using custom-made circuitry and software. Subjects were randomized to receive light stimuli at either the right or left eye after 5 min of dark adaptation. Pupil light responses were recorded in both eyes for 10 seconds before illumination, during illumination and 50 seconds after illumination with red and blue light. Three variables were defined for the recorded pupil responses: the maximal constriction amplitude (CAmax ), the pupil response during illumination and postillumination pupil response (PIPR). No difference was found in the pupil response to blue light. With red light, the pupil response during illumination was slightly larger during consensual illumination compared to direct illumination (0.54 and 0.52, respectively, p = 0.027, paired Wilcoxon's test, n = 12), while no differences were found for CAmax or the PIPR. No difference was found between direct and consensual pupil response to either red or blue light in the postillumination period. Direct and consensual responses can readily be compared when examining the postillumination pupil response to blue light as estimation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cell activation. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  10. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blois-Heulin Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously to familiar objects (known but never manipulated to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously. At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their

  11. Analyzing the User Behavior toward Electronic Commerce Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies –which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website– on shopping human behavior (i.e., users’ internal states -affective, cognitive, and satisfaction- and behavioral responses – approach responses, and real shopping outcomes-) within the retail online store created by computer, taking into account some mediator variables (i.e., involvement, atmospheric responsiveness, and perceived risk). A 2 (“free” versus “hierarchical” navigational structure) × 2 (“on” versus “off” music) × 2 (“moving” versus “static” images) between-subjects computer experimental design is used to test empirically this research. In addition, an integrated methodology was developed allowing the simulation, tracking and recording of virtual user behavior within an online shopping environment. As main conclusion, this study suggests that the positive responses of online consumers might increase when they are allowed to freely navigate the online stores and their experience is enriched by animate gifts and music background. The effect caused by mediator variables modifies relatively the final shopping human behavior. PMID:27965549

  12. Self-Assembly Behavior and pH-Stimuli-Responsive Property of POSS-Based Amphiphilic Block Copolymers in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli-responsive polymeric systems containing special responsive moieties can undergo alteration of chemical structures and physical properties in response to external stimulus. We synthesized a hybrid amphiphilic block copolymer containing methoxy polyethylene glycol (MePEG, methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS and 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate (DPA named MePEG-b-P(MAPOSS-co-DPA via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Spherical micelles with a core-shell structure were obtained by a self-assembly process based on MePEG-b-P(MAPOSS-co-DPA, which showed a pH-responsive property. The influence of hydrophobic chain length on the self-assembly behavior was also studied. The pyrene release properties of micelles and their ability of antifouling were further studied.

  13. External cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, F.; Sanusi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines state that all uncomplicated breech Presentation should be offered external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version before undertaking the procedure. To ascertain the acceptability of external cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech Presentation by pregnant ladies and see whether they were adequately informed about the risks and benefits. The clinical audit was registered with the audit department at Watford general hospital and written Consent for the access of medical records was obtained. A retrospective view of 86 accessible medical records out of Total 110 elective breech caesarean sections was done over a period of one year. This retrospective study was conducted at the gynaecology and obstetrics department at Watford general hospital, Watford United Kingdom. Written consent for the access of medical records was obtained. All women who under went elective caesarean section due to breech presentation were included in the study. Out of a total of 110 elective breech caesarean sections performed, the data on 86 cases was selected for the final analysis. The information gathered included patient's profile, whether patient was informed of risks and benefits of external cephalic version, recognition of obstetric risk factors, external cephalic version performed and its success. Out of total 86 caesarean sections 46 were suitable for external cephalic version of whom 37 cases were offered external cephalic version. Among 37 patients who were offered external cephalic version only 15 patients accepted (22 declined) the procedure. Moreover, it was found that the documentation of risk/benefit explanation of the procedure was inadequate. External cephalic version was not successful in any of the patient. Causes for

  14. The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internally and Externally Guided Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M.; Banich, Marie T.

    2013-01-01

    While some prior work suggests that medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) regions mediate freely chosen actions, other work suggests that the lateral frontal pole (LFP) is responsible for control of abstract, internal goals. The present study uses fMRI to determine whether the voluntary selection of a task in pursuit of an overall goal relies on MFC regions or the LFP. To do so, we used a modified voluntary task switching (VTS) paradigm, in which participants choose an individual task to perform on each trial (i.e., a subgoal), under instructions to perform the tasks equally often and in a random order (i.e. the overall goal). In conjunction, we examined patterns of activation in the face of irrelevant, but task-related external stimuli that might nonetheless influence task selection. While there was some evidence that the MFC was involved in voluntary task selection, we found that the LFP and anterior insula (AI) were crucial to task selection in the pursuit of an overall goal. In addition, activation of the LFP and AI increased in the face of environmental stimuli that might serve as an interfering or conflicting external bias on voluntary task choice. These findings suggest that the LFP supports task selection according to abstract, internal goals, and leaves open the possibility that MFC may guide action selection in situations lacking in such top-down biases. As such, the current study represents a critical step towards understanding the neural underpinnings of how tasks are selected voluntarily to enable an overarching goal. PMID:23994316

  15. Visual and auditory stimuli associated with swallowing. An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Abe, Shinichi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Callan, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    We focused on brain areas activated by audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motions. In this study, three kinds of stimuli related to human swallowing movement (auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, or audiovisual stimuli) were presented to the subjects, and activated brain areas were measured using functional MRI (fMRI) and analyzed. When auditory stimuli alone were presented, the supplementary motor area was activated. When visual stimuli alone were presented, the premotor and primary motor areas of the left and right hemispheres and prefrontal area of the left hemisphere were activated. When audiovisual stimuli were presented, the prefrontal and premotor areas of the left and right hemispheres were activated. Activation of Broca's area, which would have been characteristic of mirror neuron system activation on presentation of motion images, was not observed; however, activation of brain areas related to swallowing motion programming and performance was verified for auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion. These results suggest that audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion could be applied to the treatment of patients with dysphagia. (author)

  16. Perceived duration of visual and tactile stimuli depends on perceived speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eTomassini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the perceived duration of visual stimuli is strongly influenced by speed: faster moving stimuli appear to last longer. To test whether this is a general property of sensory systems we asked participants to reproduce the duration of visual and tactile gratings, and visuo-tactile gratings moving at a variable speed (3.5 – 15 cm/s for three different durations (400, 600 and 800 ms. For both modalities, the apparent duration of the stimulus increased strongly with stimulus speed, more so for tactile than for visual stimuli. In addition, visual stimuli were perceived to last approximately 200 ms longer than tactile stimuli. The apparent duration of visuo-tactile stimuli lay between the unimodal estimates, as the Bayesian account predicts, but the bimodal precision of the reproduction did not show the theoretical improvement. A cross-modal speed-matching task revealed that visual stimuli were perceived to move faster than tactile stimuli. To test whether the large difference in the perceived duration of visual and tactile stimuli resulted from the difference in their perceived speed, we repeated the time reproduction task with visual and tactile stimuli matched in apparent speed. This reduced, but did not completely eliminate the difference in apparent duration. These results show that for both vision and touch, perceived duration depends on speed, pointing to common strategies of time perception.

  17. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  18. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  19. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  20. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  1. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  2. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  3. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  4. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  5. Environmental externalities and alternative energy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will introduce and explain the economic concept of an open-quotes externalityclose quotes and how it applies to environmental issues. The theory was developed by economists more than a half century ago. Much of the current interest in the idea is aimed at its application to environmental issues in the regulated electric and gas utility industries. A good deal of this current interest began with the publication of the Pace University report on the Environmental Costs of Electricity. The report is widely cited but, unfortunately, seriously flawed. Two important examples of this will be shown later in this paper. The widespread interest in the application of the environmental externality concept apparently arose out of the desire of regulators and others to open-quotes level the playing fieldclose quotes for Demand Side Management (DSM) activities and renewables. The rapid growth of DSM over the past 10 to 15 years has occurred without any boost from externalities. By including the complete private and social costs of traditional electric generating technologies, it is thought that DSM and renewables will get an additional boost. Although current activity aims at the application of the environmental externality concept to the regulated utilities sector, it clearly has potential for much wider application. This issue will also be examined. The current status of various regulatory actions at the state level will be reviewed

  6. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadhel, Ehab

    2015-08-20

    Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy.

  7. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  8. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalization assays: cell viability and radioligand integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sosabowski, Jane K; Nagra, Saeed Ahamad; Ishfaq, Malik M; Mather, Stephen J; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalization assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalized peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalized peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  10. Opposing Subjective Temporal Experiences in Response to Unpredictable and Predictable Fear-Relevant Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the durations of fear-relevant stimuli were overestimated compared to those of neutral stimuli, even when the fear-relevant stimuli were only anticipated. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the predictability of fear-relevant stimuli on sub-second temporal estimations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, a randomized design was employed to render the emotional valence of each trial unpredictable. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we incorporated a block design and a cueing paradigm, respectively, to render the emotional stimuli predictable. Compared with the neutral condition, the estimated blank interval was judged as being shorter under the unpredictable fear-relevant condition, while it was judged as being longer under the predictable fear-relevant condition. In other words, the unpredictable and predictable fear-relevant stimuli led to opposing temporal distortions. These results demonstrated that emotions modulate interval perception during different time processing stages.

  11. Testing the race model inequality in redundant stimuli with variable onset asynchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    distributions of response times for the single-modality stimuli. It has been derived for synchronous stimuli and for stimuli with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In most experiments with asynchronous stimuli, discrete SOA values are chosen and the race model inequality is separately tested for each SOA. Due...... to SOAs at which the violation of the race model prediction is expected to be large. In addition, the method enables data analysis for experiments in which stimuli are presented with SOA from a continuous distribution rather than in discrete steps.......In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the signals is tested by the race model inequality. This inequality states that given a race of two signals, the cumulative distribution of response times for redundant stimuli never exceeds the sum of the cumulative...

  12. Introducing external cephalic version in a Malaysian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Stephen P Y

    2007-02-01

    To assess the outcome of external cephalic version for routine management of malpresenting foetuses at term. Prospective observational study. Tertiary teaching hospital, Malaysia. From September 2003 to June 2004, a study involving 41 pregnant women with malpresentation at term was undertaken. An external cephalic version protocol was implemented. Data were collected for identifying characteristics associated with success or failure of external cephalic version. Maternal and foetal outcome measures including success rate of external cephalic version, maternal and foetal complications, and characteristics associated with success or failure; engagement of presenting part, placental location, direction of version, attempts at version, use of intravenous tocolytic agent, eventual mode of delivery, Apgar scores, birth weights, and maternal satisfaction with the procedure. Data were available for 38 women. External cephalic version was successful in 63% of patients; the majority (75%) of whom achieved a vaginal delivery. Multiparity (odds ratio=34.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1730) and high amniotic fluid index (4.9; 1.3-18.2) were associated with successful external cephalic version. Engagement of presenting part (odds ratio=0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 0.00001-0.001) and a need to resort to backward somersault (0.02; 0.00001-0.916) were associated with poor success rates. Emergency caesarean section rate for foetal distress directly resulting from external cephalic version was 8%, but there was no perinatal or maternal adverse outcome. The majority (74%) of women were satisfied with external cephalic version. External cephalic version has acceptable success rates. Multiparity, liquor volume, engagement of presenting part, and the need for backward somersault were strong predictors of outcome. External cephalic version is relatively safe, simple to learn and perform, and associated with maternal satisfaction. Modern obstetric units should routinely offer the

  13. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are crucial in the regulation of cell morphology and function. At the cellular level, these forces influence myoblast differentiation and fusion. In this study we applied mechanical stimuli to embryonic muscle cells using magnetic microbeads, a method shown to apply stress...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  14. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.; Cole, Louise (Researcher in Psychology); Cox, Angeline

    2014-01-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or...

  15. Immediate effect of subliminal priming with positive reward stimuli on standing balance in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Sugi, Yasuyuki; Kawakami, Akinobu; Fujii, Miki; Kiso, Kanae; Kono, Ryota; Takebayashi, Takashi; Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Information received subconsciously can influence exercise performance; however, it remains unclear whether subliminal or supraliminal reward is more effective in improving standing balance ability when priming stimuli are subconsciously delivered. The present study aimed to compare the effects of subliminal priming-plus-subliminal reward stimuli (experimental) with subliminal priming-plus-supraliminal reward stimuli (control) on standing balance ability. Methods: This wa...

  16. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, N.; Mather, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for bio...

  17. Effects of inter- and intramodal selective attention to non-spatial visual stimuli: An event-related potential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Kok, A.; van der Schoot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to trains of rapidly presented auditory and visual stimuli. ERPs in conditions in which Ss attended to different features of visual stimuli were compared with ERPs to the same type of stimuli when Ss attended to different features of auditory stimuli,

  18. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  19. Parallel search for conjunctions with stimuli in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, C; Ganis, G

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether apparent motion tends to follow the similarity rule (i.e. is attribute-specific) and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Stimulus duration thresholds were measured during a two-alternative forced-choice task in which observers detected either the location or the motion direction of target groups defined by the conjunction of size and orientation. Target element positions were randomly chosen within a nominally defined rectangular subregion of the display (target region). The target region was presented either statically (followed by a 250 ms duration mask) or dynamically, displaced by a small distance (18 min of arc) from frame to frame. In the motion display, the position of both target and background elements was changed randomly from frame to frame within the respective areas to abolish spatial correspondence over time. Stimulus duration thresholds were lower in the motion than in the static task, indicating that target detection in the dynamic condition does not rely on the explicit identification of target elements in each static frame. Increasing the distractor-to-target ratio was found to reduce detectability in the static, but not in the motion task. This indicates that the perceptual segregation of the target is effortless and parallel with motion but not with static displays. The pattern of results holds regardless of the task or search paradigm employed. The detectability in the motion condition can be improved by increasing the number of frames and/or by reducing the width of the target area. Furthermore, parallel search in the dynamic condition can be conducted with both short-range and long-range motion stimuli. Finally, apparent motion of conjunctions is insufficient on its own to support location decision and is disrupted by random visual noise. Overall, these findings show that (i) the mechanism underlying apparent motion is attribute-specific; (ii) the motion system mediates temporal

  20. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J Leehr

    Full Text Available Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated.We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+ with an overweight sample without BED (BED- and with normal weight controls (NWC regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography valuation of food versus non-food stimuli.Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive and indirect (negative valuation of food stimuli.BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions.

  1. Interpretative bias in spider phobia: Perception and information processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the interpretative bias in spider phobia with respect to rapid visuomotor processing. We compared perception, evaluation, and visuomotor processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli between spider-fearful and control participants. Stimuli were produced by gradually morphing schematic flowers into spiders. Participants rated these stimuli related to their perceptual appearance and to their feelings of valence, disgust, and arousal. Also, they responded to the same stimuli within a response priming paradigm that measures rapid motor activation. Spider-fearful individuals showed an interpretative bias (i.e., ambiguous stimuli were perceived as more similar to spiders) and rated spider-like stimuli as more unpleasant, disgusting, and arousing. However, we observed no differences between spider-fearful and control participants in priming effects for ambiguous stimuli. For non-ambiguous stimuli, we observed a similar enhancement for phobic pictures as has been reported previously for natural images. We discuss our findings with respect to the visual representation of morphed stimuli and to perceptual learning processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  3. External momentum expansion in NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei; Zhao Weiqin; Zhuang Pengfei

    1999-01-01

    In the large N c expansion beyond mean-field approximation, the authors develop a general scheme of SU(2) NJL model including current quark mass explicitly. In the scheme, the constituent quark's propagator is expanded in pions external momentum k, and all the Feynman diagrams are naturally expanded to k 2 term in a unified way. The numerical results show that in the mean field approximation, the effect of current quark mass is invisible, however, the effect of current quark mass can be seen explicitly beyond mean-field approximation for reasonable choices of the parameters in NJL model

  4. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan; Lin, Chichuan; George, Roger R.; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E S D

    2013-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional neuroimaging studies in addiction: multisensory drug stimuli and neural cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2012-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies on cue reactivity have substantially contributed to the understanding of addiction. In the majority of studies drug cues were presented in the visual modality. However, exposure to conditioned cues in real life occurs often simultaneously in more than one sensory modality. Therefore, multisensory cues should elicit cue reactivity more consistently than unisensory stimuli and increase the ecological validity and the reliability of brain activation measurements. This review includes the data from 44 whole-brain functional neuroimaging studies with a total of 1168 subjects (812 patients and 356 controls). Correlations between neural cue reactivity and clinical covariates such as craving have been reported significantly more often for multisensory than unisensory cues in the motor cortex, insula and posterior cingulate cortex. Thus, multisensory drug cues are particularly effective in revealing brain-behavior relationships in neurocircuits of addiction responsible for motivation, craving awareness and self-related processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of stimuli-responsive polymers for smart textile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinlian; Meng, Harper; Li, Guoqiang; Ibekwe, Samuel I

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) are smart materials which can show noticeable changes in their properties with environmental stimulus variations. Novel functionalities can be delivered to textiles by integrating smart SRPs into them. SRPs inclusive of thermal-responsive polymers, moisture-responsive polymers, thermal-responsive hydrogels, pH-responsive hydrogels, and light-responsive polymers have been applied in textiles to improve or achieve textile smart functionalities. The functionalities include aesthetic appeal, comfort, textile soft display, smart controlled drug release, fantasy design with color changing, wound monitoring, smart wetting properties and protection against extreme variations in environmental conditions. In this review, the applications of SRPs in the textile and clothing sector are elucidated; the associated constraints in fabrication processes for textiles and their potential applications in the near future are discussed. (topical review)

  8. Application of a brain-computer interface for person authentication using EEG responses to photo stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhendong; Yin, Jinhai; Hu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a person authentication system that can effectively identify individuals by generating unique electroencephalogram signal features in response to self-face and non-self-face photos is presented. In order to achieve a good stability performance, the sequence of self-face photo including first-occurrence position and non-first-occurrence position are taken into account in the serial occurrence of visual stimuli. In addition, a Fisher linear classification method and event-related potential technique for feature analysis is adapted to yield remarkably better outcomes than that by most of the existing methods in the field. The results have shown that the EEG-based person authentications via brain-computer interface can be considered as a suitable approach for biometric authentication system.

  9. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    matter underlying these regions continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, as indicated by in an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), possibly reflecting ongoing myelination, and/or increase in axon diameter and density7,8. Here we used an emotional Go/Nogo task to test the hypothesis......The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli....... Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...

  10. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  11. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  12. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    , it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  13. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  14. Predictive Physiological Anticipation Preceding Seemingly Unpredictable Stimuli:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMossbridge

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 26 reports published between 1978 and 2010 tests an unusal hypothesis: for stimuli of two or more types that are presented in an order designed to be unpredictable and that produce different post-stimulus physiological activity, the direction of pre-stimulus physiological activity reflects the direction of post-stimulus physiological activity, resulting in an unexplained anticipatory effect. The reports we examined used one of two paradigms: 1 randomly presented arousing vs. neutral stimuli, or 2 guessing tasks with feedback (correct vs. incorrect. Dependent variables included: electrodermal activity, heart rate, blood volume, pupil dilation, electroencephalographic activity (EEG, and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activity. To avoid including data hand-picked from multiple different analyses, no post-hoc experiments are considered. The results reveal a significant overall effect with a small effect size (random effects: overall [weighted] ES=0.21, 95%CI=0.13-0.29, z=5.3, p<5.7x10-8; fixed effects: overall ES=0.21, 95%CI=0.15-0.27, z=6.9, p<2.7x10-12. Higher quality experiments produce a quantitately larger effect size and a greater level of significance than lower quality studies. The number of contrary unpublished reports that would be necessary to reduce the level of significance to chance (p>0.05 was conservatively calculated to be 87 reports. We explore alternative explanations and examine the potential linkage between this unexplained anticipatory activity and other results demonstrating meaningful pre-stimulus activity preceding behaviourally relevant events. Multiple replications arising from different laboratories using the same methods are necessary to further examine this currently unexplained anticipatory activity. The cause of this anticipatory activity, which undoubtedly lies within the realm of natural physical processes (as opposed to supernatural or paranormal ones, remains to be determined.

  15. Impaired Working Memory Updating for Emotional Stimuli in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Xie, Hui; He, Zhenhong; Wei, Zhaoguo; Gu, Ruolei

    2018-01-01

    Although two previous studies have demonstrated that depressed individuals showed deficits in working memory (WM) updating of both negative and positive contents, the effects were confounded by shifting dysfunctions and the detailed neural mechanism associated with the failure in N-back task is not clear. Using a 2-back task, the current study examined the WM updating of positive, negative and neutral contents in depressed patients. It is found that depressed patients performed poorer than healthy controls only when updating positive material. Using event-related potential (ERP) technique, the current study also investigated the neural correlates of updating deficits in depression. According to previous studies, the n-back task was divided into three sub-processes, i.e., encoding, matching and maintaining. Our ERP results showed that depressed patients had smaller occipital P1 for positive material compared to healthy controls, indicating their insensitivity to positive items on early encoding stage. Besides, depressed patients had larger frontal P2 and parietal late positive potential (LPP) than healthy controls irrespective of the valence of the words, reflecting that patients are inefficient during matching (P2) and maintaining (LPP) processes. These two mechanisms (insufficient attention to positive stimuli and low efficiency in matching and maintaining) together lead to the deficits of WM updating in depression.

  16. The effects of anxiety upon attention allocation to affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Nitz, Ashley B; Craske, Michelle G; Johnson, Chris

    2007-04-01

    Pictures of emotionally aversive, neutral, and pleasant scenes were presented for 500 ms, followed by a probe presented in the same location (valid trials) or an alternate location (invalid trials) as the picture. Response-times to the probes were recorded in low (N=20) and high (N=27) trait anxious participants. Results revealed an overall negative cue validity effect of shorter reaction times (RTs) on invalid than valid trials, suggestive of an inhibition of return effect. Moreover, high trait anxious females showed a reduced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures in comparison with neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of selective interference by the unpleasant material. By contrast, low trait anxious females showed an enhanced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures relative to neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of attentional avoidance of the aversive content. The emotional content of picture cues did not significantly affect RTs in males, regardless of anxiety status. The results suggest that biased attention processes for aversive stimuli may contribute to the greater female propensity for anxiety disorders.

  17. Time of day affects implicit memory for unattended stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2016-11-01

    We investigated whether circadian arousal affects perceptual priming as a function of whether stimuli were attended or ignored during learning. We tested 160 participants on- and off-peak with regards to their circadian arousal. In the study phase, they were presented with two superimposed pictures in different colours. They had to name the pictures of one colour while ignoring the others. In the test phase, they were presented with the same and randomly intermixed new pictures. Each picture was presented in black colour in a fragment completion task. Priming was measured as the difference in fragmentation level at which the pictures from the study phase were named compared to the new pictures. Priming was stronger for attended than ignored pictures. Time of day affected priming only for ignored pictures, with stronger priming effects off-peak than on-peak. Thus, circadian arousal seems to favour the encoding of unattended materials specifically at off-peak. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The neural response to maternal stimuli: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wu

    Full Text Available Mothers are important to all humans. Research has established that maternal information affects individuals' cognition, emotion, and behavior. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs to examine attentional and evaluative processing of maternal stimuli while participants completed a Go/No-go Association Task that paired mother or others words with good or bad evaluative words. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to mother words paired with good than the mother words paired with bad but showed no difference in response to these others across conditions, reflecting a positive evaluation of mother. ERPs showed larger P200 and N200 in response to mother than in response to others, suggesting that mother attracted more attention than others. In the subsequent time window, mother in the mother + bad condition elicited a later and larger late positive potential (LPP than it did in the mother + good condition, but this was not true for others, also suggesting a positive evaluation of mother. These results suggest that people differentiate mother from others during initial attentional stage, and evaluative mother positively during later stage.

  19. Stimuli-Responsive Liposomes for Controlled Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wengang

    2014-09-01

    Liposomes are promising drug delivery vesicles due to their biodegradibility, large volume and biocompatibility towards both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. They suffer, however, from poor stability which limits their use in controlled delivery applications. Herein, a novel method was devised for modification of liposomes with small molecules, polymers or nanoparticles to afford stimuli responsive systems that release on demand and stay relatively stable in the absence of the trigger.. This dissertation discusses thermosensitive, pH sensitive, light sensitive and magnetically triggered liposomes that have been prepared for controlled drug delivery application. RAFT polymerization was utilized for the preparation of thermosensitive liposomes (Cholesterol-PNIPAm) and acid-labile liposomes (DOPE-PAA). With low Mw Cholesterol-PNIPAm, the thermosensitive liposomes proved to be effective for controlled release and decreased the cytotoxicity of PNIPAm by eliciting the polymer doses. By crosslinking the DOPE-PAA on liposome surface with acid-labile diamine linkers, DOPE-PAA liposomes were verified to be sensitive at low pH. The effects of polymer structures (linear or hyperbranched) have also been studied for the stability and release properties of liposomes. Finally, a dual-responsive Au@SPIO embedded liposome hybrid (ALHs) was prepared with light-induced “on-and-off” function by photo-thermal process (visible light) and instant release properties triggered by alternating magnetic field, respectively. The ALH system would be further applied into the cellular imaging field as MRI contrast agent.

  20. Sensory sensitivity and identification and hedonic assessment ofolfactory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Ruszpel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducted research had an exploratory character. It was focused on connections between temperament and olfactory functioning – in particular, identification and affective assessment of olfactory stimuli. Main research question dealt with potential correlations between sensory sensitivity (dimension of temperamental questionnaire FCZ‑KT with declarative and objective ability to identify presented odours and their assessment. Fifty four schoolgirls from one of the Warsaw sec‑ ondary schools participated in the research and they were asked for filling in the FCZ‑KT questionnaire and evaluating each of 16 smell samples. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between declared familiarity and accurate odours’ identification (odours that were subjectively known were recognized more accurately than unknown and a posi‑ tive correlation between declared familiarity and affective assessment (odours that were known were assessed as more pleasant than unknown. Sensory sensitivity was not correlated neither with declarative nor real ability to identify smells, however sensory sensitivity was positively correlated with affective assessment (the higher scores on sensory sensitivity dimension, the more pleasantly assessed odours in general. Analyses revealed a number of connections between other dimensions of FCZ‑KT questionnaire (perseverance, liveliness, stamina and the ability (both objective and subjective to correctly identify odours which were most difficult to recognize. Completed project might be perceived as a starting point for further research concerning relationships between temperament, olfactory functioning, and food preferences among patients diagnosed with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity.

  1. Pressurized transient otoacoustic emissions measured using click and chirp stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Patrick Feeney, M; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Sanford, Chris A

    2018-01-01

    Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses were measured in normal-hearing adult ears over frequencies from 0.7 to 8 kHz, and analyzed with reflectance/admittance data to measure absorbed sound power and the tympanometric peak pressure (TPP). The mean TPP was close to ambient. TEOAEs were measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure, TPP, and fixed air pressures from 150 to -200 daPa. Both click and chirp stimuli were used to elicit TEOAEs, in which the incident sound pressure level was constant across frequency. TEOAE levels were similar at ambient and TPP, and for frequencies from 0.7 to 2.8 kHz decreased with increasing positive and negative pressures. At 4-8 kHz, TEOAE levels were larger at positive pressures. This asymmetry is possibly related to changes in mechanical transmission through the ossicular chain. The mean TEOAE group delay did not change with pressure, although small changes were observed in the mean instantaneous frequency and group spread. Chirp TEOAEs measured in an adult ear with Eustachian tube dysfunction and TPP of -165 daPa were more robust at TPP than at ambient. Overall, results demonstrate the feasibility and clinical potential of measuring TEOAEs at fixed pressures in the ear canal, which provide additional information relative to TEOAEs measured at ambient pressure.

  2. Investigating the influence of haemodynamic stimuli on intracranial aneurysm inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyu; Selimovic, Alisa; Thompson, Harry; Chiarini, Alessandro; Penrose, Justin; Ventikos, Yiannis; Watton, Paul N

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel method to reconstruct the hypothetical geometry of the healthy vasculature prior to intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation: a Frenet frame is calculated along the skeletonization of the arterial geometry; upstream and downstream boundaries of the aneurysmal segment are expressed in terms of the local Frenet frame basis vectors; the hypothetical healthy geometry is then reconstructed by propagating a closed curve along the skeleton using the local Frenet frames so that the upstream boundary is smoothly morphed into the downstream boundary. This methodology takes into account the tortuosity of the arterial vasculature and requires minimal user subjectivity. The method is applied to 22 clinical cases depicting IAs. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of the vasculature without IA are performed and the haemodynamic stimuli in the location of IA formation are examined. We observe that locally elevated wall shear stress (WSS) and gradient oscillatory number (GON) are highly correlated (20/22 for WSS and 19/22 for GON) with regions susceptible to sidewall IA formation whilst haemodynamic indices associated with the oscillation of the WSS vectors have much lower correlations.

  3. The Hv1 proton channel responds to mechanical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Medha M; Tran, Truc; Hong, Liang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Tombola, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is expressed in tissues throughout the body and plays important roles in pH homeostasis and regulation of NADPH oxidase. Hv1 operates in membrane compartments that experience strong mechanical forces under physiological or pathological conditions. In microglia, for example, Hv1 activity is potentiated by cell swelling and causes an increase in brain damage after stroke. The channel complex consists of two proton-permeable voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) linked by a cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain. Here, we report that these VSDs directly respond to mechanical stimuli. We find that membrane stretch facilitates Hv1 channel opening by increasing the rate of activation and shifting the steady-state activation curve to less depolarized potentials. In the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient, membrane stretch alone opens the channel without the need for strong depolarizations. The effect of membrane stretch persists for several minutes after the mechanical stimulus is turned off, suggesting that the channel switches to a "facilitated" mode in which opening occurs more readily and then slowly reverts to the normal mode observed in the absence of membrane stretch. Conductance simulations with a six-state model recapitulate all the features of the channel's response to mechanical stimulation. Hv1 mechanosensitivity thus provides a mechanistic link between channel activation in microglia and brain damage after stroke. © 2016 Pathak et al.

  4. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  5. Differences in cortical response to acupressure and electroacupuncture stimuli

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    Vangel Mark G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FMRI studies focus on sub-cortical effects of acupuncture stimuli. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in primary somatosensory (S1 activity over the course of different types of acupuncture stimulation. We used whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG to map S1 brain response during 15 minutes of electroacupuncture (EA and acupressure (AP. We further assessed how brain response changed during the course of stimulation. Results Evoked brain response to EA differed from AP in its temporal dynamics by showing clear contralateral M20/M30 peaks while the latter demonstrated temporal dispersion. Both EA and AP demonstrated significantly decreased response amplitudes following five minutes of stimulation. However, the latency of these decreases were earlier in EA (~30 ms post-stimulus than AP (> 100 ms. Time-frequency responses demonstrated early onset, event related synchronization (ERS, within the gamma band at ~70-130 ms and the theta band at ~50-200 ms post-stimulus. A prolonged event related desynchronization (ERD of alpha and beta power occurred at ~100-300 ms post-stimulus. There was decreased beta ERD at ~100-300 ms over the course of EA, but not AP. Conclusion Both EA and AP demonstrated conditioning of SI response. In conjunction with their subcortical effects on endogenous pain regulation, these therapies show potential for affecting S1 processing and possibly altering maladaptive neuroplasticity. Thus, further investigation in neuropathic populations is needed.

  6. Aboveground mechanical stimuli affect belowground plant-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ali; Markovic, Dimitrije; Broberg, Anders; Anten, Niels P R; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2018-01-01

    Plants can detect the presence of their neighbours and modify their growth behaviour accordingly. But the extent to which this neighbour detection is mediated by abiotic stressors is not well known. In this study we tested the acclimation response of Zea mays L. seedlings through belowground interactions to the presence of their siblings exposed to brief mechano stimuli. Maize seedling simultaneously shared the growth solution of touched plants or they were transferred to the growth solution of previously touched plants. We tested the growth preferences of newly germinated seedlings toward the growth solution of touched (T_solution) or untouched plants (C_solution). The primary root of the newly germinated seedlings grew significantly less towards T_solution than to C_solution. Plants transferred to T_solution allocated more biomass to shoots and less to roots. While plants that simultaneously shared their growth solution with the touched plants produced more biomass. Results show that plant responses to neighbours can be modified by aboveground abiotic stress to those neighbours and suggest that these modifications are mediated by belowground interactions.

  7. Aboveground mechanical stimuli affect belowground plant-plant communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Elhakeem

    Full Text Available Plants can detect the presence of their neighbours and modify their growth behaviour accordingly. But the extent to which this neighbour detection is mediated by abiotic stressors is not well known. In this study we tested the acclimation response of Zea mays L. seedlings through belowground interactions to the presence of their siblings exposed to brief mechano stimuli. Maize seedling simultaneously shared the growth solution of touched plants or they were transferred to the growth solution of previously touched plants. We tested the growth preferences of newly germinated seedlings toward the growth solution of touched (T_solution or untouched plants (C_solution. The primary root of the newly germinated seedlings grew significantly less towards T_solution than to C_solution. Plants transferred to T_solution allocated more biomass to shoots and less to roots. While plants that simultaneously shared their growth solution with the touched plants produced more biomass. Results show that plant responses to neighbours can be modified by aboveground abiotic stress to those neighbours and suggest that these modifications are mediated by belowground interactions.

  8. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  9. Learning quadratic receptive fields from neural responses to natural stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Marre, Olivier; Tkačik, Gašper

    2013-07-01

    Models of neural responses to stimuli with complex spatiotemporal correlation structure often assume that neurons are selective for only a small number of linear projections of a potentially high-dimensional input. In this review, we explore recent modeling approaches where the neural response depends on the quadratic form of the input rather than on its linear projection, that is, the neuron is sensitive to the local covariance structure of the signal preceding the spike. To infer this quadratic dependence in the presence of arbitrary (e.g., naturalistic) stimulus distribution, we review several inference methods, focusing in particular on two information theory-based approaches (maximization of stimulus energy and of noise entropy) and two likelihood-based approaches (Bayesian spike-triggered covariance and extensions of generalized linear models). We analyze the formal relationship between the likelihood-based and information-based approaches to demonstrate how they lead to consistent inference. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of these procedures by using model neurons responding to a flickering variance stimulus.

  10. Evolution of external genitalia: insights from reptilian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Marissa L; Larkins, Christine E; Leal, Francisca; Lewis, A Kelsey; Herrera, Ana M; Perriton, Claire L; Sanger, Thomas J; Cohn, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    External genitalia are found in each of the major clades of amniotes. The phallus is an intromittent organ that functions to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract for internal fertilization. The cellular and molecular genetic mechanisms of external genital development have begun to be elucidated from studies of the mouse genital tubercle, an embryonic appendage adjacent to the cloaca that is the precursor of the penis and clitoris. Progress in this area has improved our understanding of genitourinary malformations, which are among the most common birth defects in humans, and created new opportunities for comparative studies of other taxa. External genitalia evolve rapidly, which has led to a striking diversity of anatomical forms. Within the past year, studies of external genital development in non-mammalian amniotes, including birds, lizards, snakes, alligators, and turtles, have begun to shed light on the molecular and morphogenetic mechanisms underlying the diversification of phallus morphology. Here, we review recent progress in the comparative developmental biology of external genitalia and discuss the implications of this work for understanding external genital evolution. We address the question of the deep homology (shared common ancestry) of genital structures and of developmental mechanisms, and identify new areas of investigation that can be pursued by taking a comparative approach to studying development of the external genitalia. We propose an evolutionary interpretation of hypospadias, a congenital malformation of the urethra, and discuss how investigations of non-mammalian species can provide novel perspectives on human pathologies.

  11. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  12. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (perotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (perotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  13. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong; Hyun, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  14. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong [Department of Chemical Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jinho, E-mail: jhyun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea. (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  15. Effects of testosterone on attention and memory for emotional stimuli in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Meyer, Jerrold S; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2012-03-01

    Increasing evidence in humans and other animals suggests that testosterone (T) plays an important role in modulating emotion. We previously reported that T treatment in rhesus monkeys undergoing chemically induced hypogonadism results in increased watching time of videos depicting fights between unfamiliar conspecifics (Lacreuse et al., 2010). In the current study, we aimed to further investigate the effect of T manipulations on attention and memory for emotional stimuli in male rhesus monkeys. Six males (7 years old) were administered Depot Lupron to suppress endogenous T levels and treated with either testosterone enanthate (TE, 5 mg/kg) or oil, before crossing over to the alternate treatment. Animals were tested for 16 weeks on two computerized touchscreen tasks with both social and nonsocial emotional and neutral stimuli. The Dot-Probe task was used to measure attention, and the Delayed-Non-Matching-to-Sample task with a 1s delay (DNMS) was used to measure recognition memory for these stimuli. Performance on the two tasks was examined during each of four month-long phases: Baseline, Lupron alone, Lupron+TE and Lupron+oil. It was predicted that T administration would lead to increased attention to negative social stimuli (i.e., negative facial expressions of unfamiliar conspecifics) and would improve memory for such stimuli. We found no evidence to support these predictions. In the Dot-Probe task, an attentional bias towards negative social stimuli was observed at baseline, but T treatment did not enhance this bias. Instead, monkeys had faster response times when treated with T compared to oil, independently of the emotional valence or social relevance of stimuli, perhaps reflecting an enhancing effect of T on reward sensitivity or general arousal. In the DNMS, animals had better memory for nonsocial compared to social stimuli and showed the poorest performance in the recognition of positive facial expressions. However, T did not affect performance on the task

  16. Switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: The base sequence in DNA dictates structural and reactivity features of the biopolymer. These properties are implemented to use DNA as a unique material for developing the area of DNA nanotechnology. The design of DNA machines represents a rapidly developing research field in the area of DNA nanotechnology. The present Account discusses the switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines, and it highlights potential applications and future perspectives of the area. Programmed switchable DNA machines driven by various fuels and antifuels, such as pH, Hg(2+) ions/cysteine, or nucleic acid strands/antistrands, are described. These include the assembly of DNA tweezers, walkers, a rotor, a pendulum, and more. Using a pH-oscillatory system, the oscillatory mechanical operation of a DNA pendulum is presented. Specifically, the synthesis and "mechanical" properties of interlocked DNA rings are described. This is exemplified with the preparation of interlocked DNA catenanes and a DNA rotaxane. The dynamic fuel-driven reconfiguration of the catenane/rotaxane structures is followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of DNA machines as functional scaffolds to reconfigurate Au nanoparticle assemblies and to switch the fluorescence features within fluorophore/Au nanoparticle conjugates between quenching and surface-enhanced fluorescence states are addressed. Specifically, the fluorescence features of the different DNA machines are characterized as a function of the spatial separation between the fluorophore and Au nanoparticles. The experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations. The future development of reconfigurable stimuli-responsive DNA machines involves fundamental challenges, such as the synthesis of molecular devices exhibiting enhanced complexities, the introduction of new fuels and antifuels, and the integration of new payloads being reconfigured by the molecular devices, such as enzymes or

  17. Effects of test method and participant musical training on preference ratings of stimuli with different reverberation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Martin S; Vigeant, Michelle C

    2017-10-01

    Selecting an appropriate listening test design for concert hall research depends on several factors, including listening test method and participant critical-listening experience. Although expert listeners afford more reliable data, their perceptions may not be broadly representative. The present paper contains two studies that examined the validity and reliability of the data obtained from two listening test methods, a successive and a comparative method, and two types of participants, musicians and non-musicians. Participants rated their overall preference of auralizations generated from eight concert hall conditions with a range of reverberation times (0.0-7.2 s). Study 1, with 34 participants, assessed the two methods. The comparative method yielded similar results and reliability as the successive method. Additionally, the comparative method was rated as less difficult and more preferable. For study 2, an additional 37 participants rated the stimuli using the comparative method only. An analysis of variance of the responses from both studies revealed that musicians are better than non-musicians at discerning their preferences across stimuli. This result was confirmed with a k-means clustering analysis on the entire dataset that revealed five preference groups. Four groups exhibited clear preferences to the stimuli, while the fifth group, predominantly comprising non-musicians, demonstrated no clear preference.

  18. Behavioural and Autonomic Regulation of Response to Sensory Stimuli among Children: A Systematic Review of Relationship and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan Neil; Lai, Cynthia Y Y; Morato-Espino, Paulin Grace; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Tsang, Hector W H

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.

  19. Behavioural and Autonomic Regulation of Response to Sensory Stimuli among Children: A Systematic Review of Relationship and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Neil Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Methods. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Results. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. Conclusion. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.

  20. Increasing the Role of the Internet Service Center in Distric to Stimuli the Society towards Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarsono Soemardjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of internet was expanding, reaching various lines of human life, including ecotourism development sector. However, internet as a tool as well as an enabler, occasionally are less contributing to better accomplish human activity since various determinants which underestimated. Related to that, the government has made programs to expand internet access to rural areas in order to introduce innovation and creating opportunities through the construction of the District Internet Service Centre (PLIK. The research question is how the role of the District Internet Service Centre (PLIK as stimuli for the rural community to develop a tourism village. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of PLIK to stimuli the rural community to develop the tourism village. This research reveals how the internet could represent as a stimuli for the rural community to develop a tourism village. In addition, the approach of the research is qualitative. Data gathering through in-depth interview with purposive chosen key informants. The result indicates that the role of the internet can be increased to develop a tourism village through various activities of information dissemination and giving encouragement and transformation value of “sapta pesona” to the local rural community.