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Sample records for external sodium concentration

  1. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  5. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  6. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  7. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  8. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  9. Correlation for predicting aerosol concentration in sodium spray fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, K.

    2001-01-01

    Aerosol behaviour computer codes are reported for the study of time-dependent airborne aerosol concentration in a containment. The use of available computer codes requires a thorough knowledge of the various rate processes employed to describe the aerosol behaviour. The present work describes a simple empirical equation to calculate sodium fire aerosol concentration with respect to time in a containment and is applicable to sodium spray fire conditions. Sodium spray fire aerosol concentration values obtained using this simplified approach agree reasonably well with experimental results. The empirical equation described in the present work is incorporated in the spray fire code NACOM and the code calculated values of aerosol concentration agreement with the sodium spray fire experimental results is reasonably good. (author)

  10. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  11. Monitoring and measurement of oxygen concentrations in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels of interest for LMFBR applications is reviewed. Additional data are presented to support the validity of the vanadium-equilibration method as a reference for determination of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels equal to or less than 15 ppM. Operating experience with electrochemical oxygen meters that have a thoria-yttria electrolyte and a Na--Na 2 O reference electrode is described. Meter lifetimes in excess of one year have generally been achieved for operating temperatures of 352 and 402 0 C, and fairly stable emfs have been observed for periods of several months. 7 fig, 21 references

  12. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-11-06

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Water leak detection in sodium heated steam generators through measurement of hydrogen concentration in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Martin, P.; Viala, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report includes a description of apparatus for measuring hydrogen concentration in the secondary sodium system of the PHENIX reactor. The calibration method and results obtained since the commissioning of the reactor are also described. Mention is made of improvements to be built into SUPER PHENIX [fr

  14. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  15. Sodium fire test at broad ranges of temperature and oxygen concentration. 4. Low temperature sodium spray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-08-01

    Sodium spray fire tests at the initial sodium temperature of 250degC were conducted under the atmospheric conditions of air and 3% oxygen containing nitrogen to determine the sodium burning rate and the aerosol release fraction and compare them with the test results at the initial sodium temperature of 500degC in air atmosphere. In the tests, sodium was supplied using a commercial spray nozzle into a stainless steel vessel of 100 m 3 volume (SOLFA-2). The sodium burning rate was calculated from two independent methods: the consumption rate of oxygen in the vessel and the enthalpy change of vessel components during the test. The aerosol release fraction was determined from the comparison between the measured aerosol concentrations and the calculated ones by the ABC-INTG code. The main conclusions were as follows, (1) In air atmosphere, a) sodium droplets ignited instantaneously and the spray fire was observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 440 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was about 70%. (2) In 3% oxygen containing nitrogen, a) ignition of sodium droplets was not observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 44 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was less than 10%. (author)

  16. [Preoperatively administered flomoxef sodium concentration in aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mariko; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2007-04-01

    We intravenously administered flomoxef sodium (FMOX) 0.5-3.5 hours before cataract surgery and measured the concentration of the agent in the aqueous humor to investigate its penetration into the aqueous humor and its efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. 56 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. They received 1 g FMOX via a 20-minute intravenous drip beginning 0.5-3.5 hours before the operation. Aqueous humor was aspirated from the anterior chamber and assayed for FMOX concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean intraoperative FMOX concentrations in the patients' aqueous humor were 0.79 +/- 0.24 microg/ml (administered 3.5 hours before surgery)--1.47 0.79 microg/ml (administered 1.5 hours before surgery). These concentrations administered 0.5-3.0 hours before surgery sufficiently exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 values against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes, but did not achieve the MIC90 values against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The FMOX concentrations in the aqueous humor sampling were adequate to kill bacteria in vitro. This drug may be efficacious in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  17. Flomoxef sodium and levofloxacin concentrations in aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Miyamoto, Mariko; Iijima, Yasuhito; Takiyama, Naoaki; Ito, Yoshiki; Ito, Norihiko; Nishida, Tomomi; Iwata, Shinko; Endo, Yoko; Ito, Daizo

    2005-01-01

    We intravenously administered flomoxef sodium (FMOX) 120 minutes before cataract surgery, topically administered levofloxacin (LVFX) into the eyes four times at 30-minute intervals before surgery, and measured the aqueous humor concentrations of these agents to investigate their penetration into the aqueous humor and their efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. Sixty-eight patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, or its affiliate, Kanazawa Hospital, Yokohama, were enrolled in this study. They received one or both of the following: 1.0 g FMOX via a 20-minute intravenous drip and LVFX ophthalmic solution applied four times at 30-minute intervals, both beginning two hours before the operation. Aqueous humor was aspirated from the anterior chamber and assayed for FMOX and LVFX concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean intraoperative FMOX and LVFX concentrations in the patients' aqueous humor were 1.21 +/- 0.63 microg/ml and 0.69 +/- 0.47 microg/ml, respectively. These concentrations sufficiently exceeded the MIC90 values against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Propionibacterium acnes. The FMOX and LVFX concentrations in the aqueous humor sampling were adequate to kill bacteria in vitro. These drugs may have efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  18. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  2. Impact of sodium caseinate concentration and location on magnesium release from multiple W/O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-06-15

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared and the rate of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external aqueous phase was followed. Sodium caseinate was used not only as a hydrophilic surface-active species but also as a chelating agent able to bind magnesium ions. The release occurred without film rupturing (no coalescence). The kinetics of the release process depended on the location (in only one or in both aqueous compartments) and on the concentration of sodium caseinate. The rate of release increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate in the external phase and decreased when sodium caseinate was present in the inner droplets. The experiments were interpreted within the frame of a mean-field model based on diffusion, integrating the effect of ion binding. The data could be adequately fitted by considering a time-dependent permeation coefficient of the magnesium ions across the oil phase. Our results suggested that ion permeability was influenced by the state of the protein interfacial layers which itself depended on the extent of magnesium binding.

  3. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher ( p soccer (43.2 ± 12.0 mmol·L -1 ) or rugby (44.0 ± 12.1 mmol·L -1 ), but with no differences among the N.American or British sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football ( r s = 0.962, p soccer ( r s = 0.748, p strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  4. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

    1996-03-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

  5. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  6. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the util...

  7. Characterization of reaction products in sodium-oxygen batteries : An electrolyte concentration study

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the discharge products formed at the cathode and the performance and cell chemistry of sodium-oxygen batteries have been studied. This was carried out using different NaOTf salt concentrations. The influence of different salt concentrations on sodium-oxygen batteries was investigated since it has been shown that increasing the salt concentration beyond conventional concentrations could result in advantages such as increased stability of the electrolytes towards decomposition, ...

  8. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  9. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  10. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  11. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  12. Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on larvae and pupae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aedes aegypti is one of the commonest mosquitoes in the tropics and sub topics, feeding on human blood when exposed and is responsible for the transmission of urban yellow fever in Africa and out side Africa, it transmits dengue fever. Aedes aegypti are basically freshwater mosquito. The effect of different concentrations ...

  13. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... techniques (Instrumentation Laboratory Model IL 243). In order to examine ... mmol. Potassium and sugar concentrations were very poorly ... cations that the error in calculating its energy content would be .... mellifica adults (subspecies not named). .... consumption, and thoracic temperature during flight in a.

  14. Methodology for estimating sodium aerosol concentrations during breeder reactor fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released at building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. We have used this methodology to make calculations that suggest, for one air-cooled breeder reactor design, cooling will not be compromised by severe liquid-metal fires

  15. Fission product concentration evolution in sodium pool following a fuel subassembly failure in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.; Bhoje, S.

    2003-01-01

    During a fuel element failure in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor, the fission products originating from the failed pins mix into the sodium pool. Delayed Neutron Detectors (DND) are provided in the sodium pool to detect such failures by way of detection of delayed neutrons emitted by the fission products. The transient evolution of fission product concentration is governed by the sodium flow distribution in the pool. Transient hydraulic analysis has been carried out using the CFD code PHOENICS to estimate fission product concentration evolution in hot pool. k- ε turbulence model and zero laminar diffusivity for the fission product concentration have been considered in the analysis. Times at which the failures of various fuel subassemblies (SA) are detected by the DND are obtained. It has been found that in order to effectively detect the failure of every fuel SA, a minimum of 8 DND in hot pool are essential

  16. 3D-printed concentrator arrays for external light trapping on thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Lourens; Marcus, E.A.P.; Oostra, A.J.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Vece, Di M.

    2015-01-01

    After our recent demonstration of a 3D-printed external light trap on a small solar cell, we now consider its potential for large solar panels. An external light trap consists of a parabolic concentrator and a spacer that redirects the photons that are reflected by the solar cell back towards the

  17. 3D-printed concentrator arrays for external light trapping on thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Lourens; Marcus, E. A. Pepijn; Oostra, A. Jolt; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Di Vece, Marcel

    After our recent demonstration of a 3D-printed external light trap on a small solar cell, we now consider its potential for large solar panels. An external light trap consists of a parabolic concentrator and a spacer that redirects the photons that are reflected by the solar cell back towards the

  18. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  19. New Silica Magnetite Sorbent: The Influence of Variations of Sodium Silicate Concentrations on Silica Magnetite Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmiyawati, C.; Pratiwi, P. I.; Darmawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption capacity of an adsorbent is determined by the adsorbent and the adsorbate properties. The character of the adsorbent will play a major role in its ability to adsorb the corresponding adsorbate. Therefore, in this study we looked at the effects of variations of sodium silicate concentrations on the resulting magnetite silica adsorbent properties. The application of silica coating on the magnetite was carried out through a sol-gel process with sodium silicate and HCl precursors. Based on the characterization data obtained, it was found that the silica coating on magnetite can increase the resistance to acid leaching, increase the particle size, but decrease the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Based on Gas Sorption Analyzer (GSA) and X-ray Difraction (XRD) data it can successively be determined that increase in concentration of sodium silicate will increase the surface area and amorphous structure of the Silica Magnetie.

  20. Concentrated Aqueous Sodium Tosylate as Green Medium for Alkene Oxidation and Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Tal; Lin, Xiaoxi; Vigalok, Arkadi

    2017-11-03

    A hydrotropic solution of highly concentrated sodium tosylate (NaOTs) can be used as a recyclable medium for the environmentally benign oxidation of conjugated alkenes with H 2 O 2 . Both uncatalyzed and metal-catalyzed reactions provided the corresponding oxidation products in higher yields than in pure water or many common organic solvents.

  1. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  2. Changes in sodium and uric acid concentrations in plasma during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Stewart, P M; Gebski, V; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Abraham, S F

    1984-03-01

    Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are well documented, but many other biochemical variables have not been studied. We find that in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle the concentrations of sodium and uric acid are significantly lower. The changes may be of significance for the determination of the normal reference interval.

  3. Current-voltage curve of sodium channels and concentration dependence of sodium permeability in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, W; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Lindemann, B

    1977-01-01

    1. The inward facing membranes of in vitro frog skin epithelium were depolarized with solutions of high K concentration. The electrical properties of the epithelium are then expected to be governed by the outward facing, Na-selective membrane.2. In this state, the transepithelial voltage (V...... was recorded. This procedure was repeated after blocking the Na channels with amiloride to obtain the current-voltage curve of transmembrane and paracellular shunt pathways. The current-voltage curve of the Na channels was computed by subtracting the shunt current from the total current.4. The instantaneous I...... of the inward facing membranes but reflects the true behaviour of P(Na).6. The steady-state P(Na) at a given (Na)(o) is smaller than the transient P(Na) observed right after a stepwise increase of (Na)(o) to this value. The time constant of P(Na)-relaxation is in the order of seconds.7. In conclusion, Na...

  4. Analysis of stress concentration in the Dutton groove regions of the Super Lightweight External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.

    1995-05-01

    Because the 2195 aluminum-lithium material of the super lightweight external tank (SLWT ET) has a lower toughness than the 2219 aluminum used in previous ET's, careful attention must be paid to stress concentrations. This report details the analysis performed on some of the stress concentrations in the orthogrid panels of the liquid hydrogen tank.

  5. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  6. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  7. Comparative Effects Of Training In External And Internal Concentration On Two Counseling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A training procedure that appears to facilitate both empathic understanding and selective response to client statements is one built around the training of Zen Buddhist monks. Subjects trained in Zen techniques of external and internal concentration were found to increase their ability in these two counseling behaviors. (Author/LA)

  8. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  9. Efficacy of systemic diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Naderi, Mostafa; Jadidi, Khosrow; Hoseini, Hadise; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as an alternative, are replacing corticosteroids in ocular inflammatory diseases. Diclofenac has been used mainly topically, and recent focus has been on intravitreal delivery. Both of these methods have been shown to have complications in long-term application. To assess the efficacy of slow release oral diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration in experimental model of chemically injured eyes. In an experimental double-masked clinical trial, right eyes of 24 albino rabbits were chemically injured by 1 N NaOH. One hour after chemical injury, 10 cc suspension gavage containing 100 mg slow release diclofenac sodium was administered in all cases. 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 h after gavage, vitreous samples were obtained in all cases. Intravitreal concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Intravitreal diclofenac levels by oral intake were enhanced by the inflammation in all the measurements. In inflamed eyes, diclofenac concentration was ten times more than control eye (2.658 ± 0.344 vs. 0.242 ± 0.0279 and 1.617 ± 0.527 vs. 0.148 ± 0.095; in 2 and 4 h, respectively). After 6 h, diclofenac concentration was statistically different, although it reduced below 1 μg/ml. Diclofenac is delivered to the inflamed eye more than healthy eye. It seems that by oral diclofenac consumption, it is possible to make a significant intravitreal concentration.

  10. Effect of different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate on the ocular surface change of dry eye in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Yong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effect of different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate on ocular surface change of dry eye. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits with dry eye was prepared and treated with 0.1% and 0.3% sodium hyaluronate drops fluid respectively, which were regarded as low concentration treatment group(group Band high concentration treatment group(group Crespectively. However, the rabbits treated with saline were regarded as control group(group A. And then, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, conjunctival goblet cells, mucin expression and histological changes were observed.RESULTS: On D7 and D14 after treatment, corneal fluorescein staining scores were lower in group B and group C than that in group A(PP PCONCLUSION: The sodium hyaluronate can improve ocular surface damage of dry eye in New Zealand rabbits. The high concentration of sodium hyaluronate has better effect than low concentration.

  11. On the Sodium Concentration Diffusion with Three-Dimensional Extracellular Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Consiglieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the transmembrane sodium diffusion in a nerve. We study a mathematical model of a nerve fibre in response to an imposed extracellular stimulus. The presented model is constituted by a diffusion-drift vectorial equation in a bidomain, that is, two parabolic equations defined in each of the intra- and extra-regions. This system of partial differential equations can be understood as a reduced three-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck model of the sodium concentration. The representation of the membrane includes a jump boundary condition describing the mechanisms involved in the excitation-contraction couple. Our first novelty comes from this general dynamical boundary condition. The second one is the three-dimensional behaviour of the extracellular stimulus. An analytical solution to the mathematical model is proposed depending on the morphology of the excitation.

  12. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of A 516 steel using corrosive environments with varying concentrations of sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, F.; Arif, M.; Reza, I.; Akram, M.; Hussain, N.; Ali, L.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of A 516 steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique. Environment used for these tests was sodium chloride (5%), acetic acid (0.5%) and sodium thiosulphate with varying concentration from 0.001 M to 1 M. Surface study was also carried out using optical microscope. The potentiodynamic polarization results revealed the formation of large number of pits in the sample, which was tested in the solution containing NaCl. Pitting corrosion study of alloy A516 G-70 was also conducted to see the effect of different concentrations of thiosulfate with or without addition of NaCl and acetic acid at room temperature. It was observed that different thiosulfate concentrations did not produce any difference in the polarization behavior of the alloys, when added in 5% NaCl and 0.5% acetic acid solution. However, in the absence of NaCl and acetic acid, thiosulfate concentration 0.001 mol/l or higher did produce general corrosion and pitting in the alloy at room temperature is shown.(Orig./A.B.)

  13. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting

  14. Non-linear spectral splitting of Rydberg sodium in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wei; Yang Hai-Feng; Cheng Hong; Zhang Shan-Shan; Liu Hong-Ping; Liu Dan-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have studied highly excited sodium in various electric fields, parallel electric and magnetic fields, with one σ and π photon irradiation, and even in a magnetic field with a complex laser polarization configuration. The σ spectra shows a simple linear Stark effect with the applied electric field, while the π spectra exhibits a strong non-linear dependence on the electric field. The π transitions in parallel fields show a similar behavior to that in a pure electric field but the spectra get more smooth due to the magnetic field. The diamagnetic spectrum with laser polarization angles between 0 and π/2 proves that it can be reproduced by simple linear combination of π and σ components, indicating there is no interference between the π and σ channels. A full quantum calculation considering the quantum defects accounts for all the observations. The quantum defects, especially for the channel np, play an important role in the spectral profile. (paper)

  15. Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, D.E.; El Hazek, N.M.T.; Palmer, G.R.; Nichols, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

  16. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  17. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  18. Glu-311 in External Loop 4 of the Sodium/Proline Transporter PutP Is Crucial for External Gate Closure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Susanne; Guérin, Kamila; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Dittmer, Sophie; Frey, Sabine; Böhm, Maret; Jung, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The available structural information on LeuT and structurally related transporters suggests that external loop 4 (eL4) and the outer end of transmembrane domain (TM) 10′ participate in the reversible occlusion of the outer pathway to the solute binding sites. Here, the functional significance of eL4 and the outer region of TM10′ are explored using the sodium/proline symporter PutP as a model. Glu-311 at the tip of eL4, and various amino acids around the outer end of TM10′ are identified as particularly crucial for function. Substitutions at these sites inhibit the transport cycle, and affect in part ligand binding. In addition, changes at selected sites induce a global structural alteration in the direction of an outward-open conformation. It is suggested that interactions between the tip of eL4 and the peptide backbone at the end of TM10′ participate in coordinating conformational alterations underlying the alternating access mechanism of transport. Together with the structural information on LeuT-like transporters, the results further specify the idea that common design and functional principles are maintained across different transport families. PMID:26728461

  19. Glu-311 in External Loop 4 of the Sodium/Proline Transporter PutP Is Crucial for External Gate Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Susanne; Guérin, Kamila; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Dittmer, Sophie; Frey, Sabine; Böhm, Maret; Jung, Heinrich

    2016-03-04

    The available structural information on LeuT and structurally related transporters suggests that external loop 4 (eL4) and the outer end of transmembrane domain (TM) 10' participate in the reversible occlusion of the outer pathway to the solute binding sites. Here, the functional significance of eL4 and the outer region of TM10' are explored using the sodium/proline symporter PutP as a model. Glu-311 at the tip of eL4, and various amino acids around the outer end of TM10' are identified as particularly crucial for function. Substitutions at these sites inhibit the transport cycle, and affect in part ligand binding. In addition, changes at selected sites induce a global structural alteration in the direction of an outward-open conformation. It is suggested that interactions between the tip of eL4 and the peptide backbone at the end of TM10' participate in coordinating conformational alterations underlying the alternating access mechanism of transport. Together with the structural information on LeuT-like transporters, the results further specify the idea that common design and functional principles are maintained across different transport families. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Structural study of concentrated micelle-solutions of sodium octanoate by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayoun, Marc

    1982-05-01

    Structural investigation of sodium octanoate (CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 6 -COONa) by light scattering has been made to study properties of concentrated aqueous micelle-solutions. From static light scattering data, the micellar weight and shape have been determined. The monomer aggregation number and the apparent micellar charge have been confirmed. Quasi-elastic light scattering, has been used to measure the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the volume fraction. Extrapolation to the c.m.c. give the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles. At low micelle-concentration, strong exchange reaction between monomers and micelles affects the Brownian motion and resulting is an increase in the diffusion coefficient. The experimental data show a strong hydrodynamic contribution to S(q) (factor structure) and D(q) (effective diffusion coefficient) arising from hard spheres interactions with a large repulsive potential. (author) [fr

  1. Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylock, C.; Debaste, F.; Haut, B. [Transfers, Interfaces and Processes - Chemical Engineering Unit, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Gutierrez, V.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P. [Chemicals and Materials Department, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Cartage, T. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and the experimental results allow identifying that a mixing property correlated with the measurements of the secondary nucleation rate in the stirred tank crystallizer appears to be the turbulent dissipation rate on the edge of the impeller. Its influence and the influence of the solid concentration in the suspension on the secondary nucleation rate are estimated by the evaluation of their exponents in a kinetic law. The obtained exponent values are then discussed qualitatively. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko [Department of Veterinary Radiology and Radiation Biology, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizuka, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, Shoji [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC), Takizuka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  3. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko; Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  4. Interfacial composition and stability of emulsions made with mixtures of commercial sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian

    2008-10-15

    The interfacial composition and the stability of oil-in-water emulsion droplets (30% soya oil, pH 7.0) made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1:1 by protein weight) at various total protein concentrations were examined. The average volume-surface diameter (d32) and the total surface protein concentration of emulsion droplets were similar to those of emulsions made with both sodium caseinate alone and WPC alone. Whey proteins were adsorbed in preference to caseins at low protein concentrations (caseins were adsorbed in preference to whey proteins at high protein concentrations. The creaming stability of the emulsions decreased markedly as the total protein concentration of the system was increased above 2% (sodium caseinate >1%). This was attributed to depletion flocculation caused by the sodium caseinate in these emulsions. Whey proteins did not retard this instability in the emulsions made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and WPC. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  6. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  7. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  8. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  9. Measurements of hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium by using an inert gas carrier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Nihei, I.; Yuhara, S.; Nakasuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed to measure the hydrogen level in liquid sodium using an inert gas carrier method. Hydrogen was extracted into an inert gas from sodium through a thin nickel membrane in the form of a helically wound tube. The amount of hydrogen in the inert gas was analyzed by gas chromatography. The present method is unique in that it can be used over the wide range of sodium temperatures (150 to 700 0 C) and has no problems associated with vacuum systems. The partial pressure of hydrogen in sodium was determined as a function of cold-trap temperature (T/sub c/). Sieverts' constant (K/sub s/) was determined as a function of sodium temperature (T). From Sieverts' constant, the solubility of hydrogen in sodium is calculated. It was found that other impurities in sodium, such as (O) and (OH), have little effect on the hydrogen pressure in the sodium loop

  10. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  11. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Aytekin; Makaraci, Murat; Usta, Metin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R a ) and critical load (L c ) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 μm, and 4.4 to 6.58 μm, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  12. Effect of Sodium Carbonate Concentrations on the Formation and Mechanism of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degumming is the first process for the preparation of all silk-based products. In this paper, effect of sodium carbonate concentrations for silk degumming on the formation of electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers was investigated and the reason for the silk electrospinning process was explained for the first time by differences from the microstructure of regenerated silk fibroin. With increasing the sodium carbonate concentration, microstructure both in the aqueous solutions and in the electrospinning solutions transformed from nanofibrils to nanoparticles, leading to obvious changes on rheological property; electrospinning solutions with nanofibrils behaved like the native silk dope and owned remarkably higher viscosity than the solutions with nanoparticles showing very low viscosity. More interestingly, nanofibrils favored the formation of silk nanofibers with ease, and even nanofibers could be electrospun at concentration 2%. However, nanoparticles were completely unable to generate nanofibers at high spinning concentration 8%. Importance of sodium carbonate concentrations is heavily emphasized for impacting the microstructure types and further influencing the electrospinning performance of regenerated silk. Hence, sodium carbonate concentrations provide a controllable choice for the preparation of silk-based electrospun biomaterials with desired properties.

  13. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  14. Concentration of a sodium nitrate-based waste with a wiped film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, L.L.; Boring, M.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) currently has an inventory of 500,000 gallons of sodium nitrate-based radioactive liquid waste which is currently stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). This waste needs to be treated and one option being considered is concentration of the wastes using evaporation. Testing is underway to determine whether a Wiped Film Evaporator (WFE) can be used to concentrate these wastes in an economical and reliable manner. The capability of the evaporator to process a non-radioactive simulant of the MVST wastes over a range of operating conditions is being studied. The equipment has to be checked for reliability, potential corrosion problems, and the effects of the waste on the efficiency of heat transfer due to scaling. Physical and chemical characteristics of the product and distillate are being investigated. Heat transfer coefficients and volume reductions are being determined under different operating conditions. Decontamination factors are being calculated to determine the necessity for further treatment of the distillate and off-gas

  15. [The relationship between PMI and concentration of potassium ion and sodium ion in swine aqueous humor after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ju; Yu, Guang-biao; Dong, Ye-qiang; Fang, Chao; Jing, Hua-lan; Luo, Si-min

    2010-04-01

    To explored the relationship between the concentration of potassium ion as well as sodium ion in the aqueous humor and post-mortem interval (PMI). The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in the aqueous humor of swine within 48 h after death at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C were detected using Z-500 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs within 48 h after death when the environmental temperature was 4 degrees C were significantly related to PMI. The relationship between PMI and the concentration of potassium ion was PMI = -0.178[K+]2 + 49.978 (R2 = 0.995). The relationship between PMI and the rate of sodium ion and potassium ion was PMI = 120.987/[Na+/K+]-28.834 (R2 = 0.905). The concentration of potassium in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs may be one of the reference indicators to estimate PMI of the corpses at lower temperatures.

  16. External dose rates from gamma rays and activity concentrations in foodstuffs and herbage in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dodd, N.J.; Bradley, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial scarcity of reliable information in eastern European countries, coupled with the proximity of the Chernobyl installation, resulted in understandable concern among British nationals living in these areas or visiting them on a short-term basis. Accordingly, arrangements were made by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for the appropriate Embassies to send samples of milk, drinking water, grass and available fruit and vegetables to the Board's laboratories at Chilton for analysis. In addition, simple monitoring equipment was supplied to the Embassies for measurements of external dose rates from gamma rays out of doors. The first set of samples was collected in Moscow on May 3rd 1986. Most consignments arrived at Chilton within 24 hours of collection. Speed was important, not only because of the need for information but because vegetation needed to be sufficiently fresh to permit meaningful measurement. By the end of June 1986, the results of systematic monitoring programmes in eastern Europe were being disseminated more freely, so that frequent sampling by the Embassies was no longer considered necessary. Since that time samples have been received only occasionally from those Embassies where concern still persists. This report summarises the results of measurements and samples taken by June 30th 1986. Data for γ-ray emitting radionuclides in foodstuffs were issued to the FCO in a series of Measurement Reports. Here they are presented together with data for actinide element concentrations in a limited number of samples. Measurements of outdoor external dose rates made by the Embassies are also included

  17. Calculating concentration of inhaled radiolabeled particles from external gamma counting: External counting efficiency and attenuation coefficient of thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenback, E.G.; Foster, W.M.; Bergofsky, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    We determined the overall external counting efficiency of radiolabeled particles deposited in the sheep lung. This efficiency permits the noninvasive calculation of the number of particles and microcuries from gamma-scintillation lung images of the live sheep. Additionally, we have calculated the attenuation of gamma radiation (120 keV) by the posterior chest wall and the gamma-scintillation camera collection efficiency of radiation emitted from the lung. Four methods were employed in our experiments: (1) by light microscopic counting of discrete carbonized polystyrene particles with a count median diameter (CMD) of 2.85 microns and tagged with cobalt-57, we delineated a linear relationship between the number of particles and the emitted counts per minute (cpm) detected by well scintillation counting; (2) from this conversion relationship we determined the number of particles inhaled and deposited in the lungs by scintillation counting fragments of dissected lung at autopsy; (3) we defined a linear association between the number of particles or microcuries contained in the lung and the emitted radiation as cpm detected by a gamma scintillation camera in the live sheep prior to autopsy; and (4) we compared the emitted radiation from the lungs of the live sheep to that of whole excised lungs in order to calculate the attenuation coefficient (ac) of the chest wall. The mean external counting efficiency was 4.00 X 10(4) particles/cpm (5.1 X 10(-3) microCi/cpm), the camera collection efficiency was 1 cpm/10(4) disintegrations per minute (dpm), and the ac had a mean of 0.178/cm. The external counting efficiency remained relatively constant over a range of particles and microcuries, permitting a more general use of this ratio to estimate number of particles or microcuries depositing after inhalation in a large mammalian lung if a similarly collimated gamma camera system is used

  18. Short-term molecular acclimation processes of legume nodules to increased external oxygen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAvenhaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the oxygen diffusion barrier is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30 % oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about two minutes of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about eight minutes later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency towards upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 minutes, corresponding to approximately 90 % of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050 showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased

  19. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  20. Effect of Different Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide [NaOH] on Kenaf Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M.; Halim, Z.; Othman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich panels are structures that made of three layers, low-density core inserted in between thin skin layers. This structures allow the achievement of excellent mechanical performance with low weight, thus this characteristic fulfil requirement to be use in aircraft application. In recent time, sandwich structures have been studied due to it has multifunction properties and lightweight. The aim of this study is to fabricate a composite sandwich structures with biodegradable material for face sheet [skin] where the fibre being treat with different concentration of sodium hydroxide [NaOH] with 10 and 20 hours of soaking time. Kenaf fibre [treated] reinforced epoxy will be used as skins and Nomex honeycomb is chosen to perform as core for this sandwich composite structure. The mechanical properties that are evaluated such as flexural strength and impact energy of kenaf fibre-reinforced epoxy sandwich structures. For flexural test, the optimum flexural strength is 13.4 MPa and impact strength is 18.3 J.

  1. Impact of stirring speed, glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations on photoprotective nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Granemann e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New technologies that improve the physical as the sensory properties of sunscreens can help to increase its continued use and impact on health. The use of nanoemulsions in the development of photoprotective vehicles is an advantage, since nanostructured components may have superior properties regarding their performance when compared to conventional products. The advantages of using nanobiotechnology in manufacture of cosmetic and dermatological formulations arise from the protection of compounds from chemical or enzymatic degradation, from the control of their release, and also to the prolonged retention time of cosmetic ingredients in the stratum corneum. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of stirring speed and of glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations in the development and effectiveness of a nanoemulsion containing ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3. The results of statistical analyses regarding the impact of the variables in the process of nanoemulsion development showed that these parameters affect the phase inversion temperature (PIT. However, this did not affect the particle size and the photoprotective efficacy in vitro.

  2. Correlations between ANP concentrations in atria, plasma and cerebral structures and sodium chloride preference in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the ANPergic cerebral regions involved in regulation of sodium intake and excretion and pituitary gland correlated with differences in sodium preference among 40 Wistar male rats (180-220 g. Sodium preference was measured as mean spontaneous ingestion of 1.5% NaCl solution during a test period of 12 days. The relevant tissues included the olfactory bulb (OB, the posterior and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland (PP and AP, respectively, the median eminence (ME, the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH, and the region anteroventral to the third ventricle (AV3V. We also measured ANP content in the right (RA and left atrium (LA and plasma. The concentrations of ANP in the OB and the AP were correlated with sodium ingestion during the preceding 24 h, since an increase of ANP in these structures was associated with a reduced ingestion and vice-versa (OB: r = -0.3649, P<0.05; AP: r = -0.3291, P<0.05. Moreover, the AP exhibited a correlation between ANP concentration and mean NaCl intake (r = -0.4165, P<0.05, but this was not the case for the OB (r = 0.2422. This suggests that differences in sodium preference among individual male rats can be related to variations of AP ANP level. Earlier studies indicated that the OB is involved in the control of NaCl ingestion. Our data suggest that the OB ANP level may play a role mainly in day-to-day variations of sodium ingestion in the individual rat

  3. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  4. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  5. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavassim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group. After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. RESULTS: Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning.

  6. Intracellular sodium concentration and transport in red cells in essential hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy and hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gless, K H; Sütterlin, U; Schaz, K; Schütz, V; Hunstein, W

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular sodium content ([Nai]), ouabain-sensitive ('Na-K ATPase') and ouabain-insensitive ('passive permeability') sodium efflux, Na-K cotransport and Na-Li ('Na-Na') countertransport were estimated in erythrocytes in 39 control subjects, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 14 patients with hypokalemia of renal or unknown etiology, 13 hyperthyroid patients and 19 pregnant women. In normokalemic essential hypertension there was only a moderate, but significant elevation of the activity of the Na-Li countertransport system. In the group of patients with hypokalemia, there was a significant increase of [Nai], ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux and Na-Li countertransport. In hyperthyroidism, a marked decrease of Na-Li countertransport was associated with a marked elevation of [Nai], in pregnancy an elevation of the Na-Li countertransport with a [Nai] 43% lower than the control values. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux was elevated in hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia, in which [Nai] was increased. In the control subjects there was a positive linear correlation between ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and [Nai]. The sodium component of the Na-K cotransport was decreased to about one third of the unchanged furosemide-sensitive potassium component during pregnancy. The changes of cellular sodium metabolism in essential hypertension are of minor degree as compared to those in the other conditions studied. Cellular sodium metabolism in blood cells is influenced by thyroid hormones and metabolic disorders. Na-Li countertransport, i.e. Na-Na countertransport, seems to be involved in the regulation of [Nai]: an increase of its activity diminishes [Nai] (pregnancy); a decrease elevates [Nai] (hyperthyroidism). Ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, i.e. 'Na-K ATPase', is mainly regulated by its substrate, [Nai].

  7. Lack of Effect of Sodium Benzoate at Reported Clinical Therapeutic Concentration on d-Alanine Metabolism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek, Michael; Tierney, Brendan; Steyn, Stefanus J; DeVivo, Michael

    2018-06-19

    Cognitive decline and psychosis have been hypothesized to be mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic treatment with d-alanine, a coagonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR, leads to an improvement of positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. d-alanine is oxidized by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO); thus, an inhibitor of DAAO would be expected to enhance d-alanine levels and likewise lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Sodium benzoate, on the basis of d-amino acid inhibition, was observed to display beneficial clinical effects in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients. However, in the clinical pilot studies using sodium benzoate, d-amino acids were not quantified to verify that sodium benzoate's efficacy was mediated through DAAO inhibition. In this study, d-alanine content was monitored in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of dogs treated with daily injections of d-alanine (30 mg/kg) alone and in combination with sodium benzoate (30 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. We reasoned that the cerebral spinal fluid d-alanine quantity is reflective of the brain d-alanine levels and it would increase as a consequence of DAAO inhibition with sodium benzoate. We found that d-alanine treatment lead to maximal concentration of 7.51 μM CSF d-alanine level; however, coadministration of sodium benzoate and d-alanine did not change CSF d-alanine level beyond that of d-alanine treatment alone. As a consequence, we conclude that clinical efficacy associated with chronic administration of sodium benzoate in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients is likely not mediated through inhibition of DAAO.

  8. Erythrocyte sodium concentration and 86Rb uptake in weanling Dahl rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, C.P.; Hennessy, J.F.; Rauch, A.L.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Alterations in Na, K ATPase pump activity as well as erythrocyte (RBC) intracellular sodium concentration (Nai) have been demonstrated in humans and rats with established hypertension. The contribution of hypertension itself to these changes is unclear. Accordingly, we investigated RBC ion transport and plasma ouabain-like factor (OLF) in four- to five-week old normotensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats on low salt diet. Although both strains were normotensive, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of DS (123 ± 2 mm Hg) was higher than that of DR (116 ± 1 mm Hg). No interstrain difference was evident in RBC pump activity measured as ouabain-sensitive 86rubidium ( 86 Rb) uptake (DS = 0.277 ± .030 and DR = 0.271 ± .029 mumol/10(9)RBC/h) even though RBC Nai was greater in DS than DR (14.9 ± 2.0 v 10.7 ± 1.0 mEq/L; P less than 0.05). Plasma OLF was higher in DS than DR (28.9 ± 4.7 v 16.5 ± 2.3 pmol/mL; P less than 0.05), but did not correlate with RBC pump activity in either strain. RBC Nai was directly correlated with pump activity in DS (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) and demonstrated a trend to correlate in DR (r = 0.71, P = 0.07). RBC Nai was also directly correlated with SBP in DR (r = 0.73, P less than 0.05) and DS (r = 0.70, P = 0.05). We conclude that RBC Nai is genetically determined in Dahl rats and is elevated in normotensive DS who are at risk for hypertension development

  9. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  10. Modeling the Combined Effects of Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride and Sodium Lactate Concentrations on the Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, microorganisms with probiotic or antimicrobial properties are receiving major attention as alternative resources for food preservation. Lactic acid bacteria are able to synthetize compounds with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage flora. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 has exhibited this capacity, and further studies reveal that the microorganism is able to produce bacteriocins. An assessment of the growth of L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at different conditions becomes crucial to predict its development in foods. A response surface model of the growth rate of L. plantarum was built in this study as a function of temperature (4, 7, 10, 13, and 16°C, pH (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5, and sodium chloride (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% and sodium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% concentrations. All the factors were statistically significant at a confidence level of 90%  (p<0.10. When temperature and pH increased, there was a corresponding increase in the growth rate, while a negative relationship was observed between NaCl and Na-lactate concentrations and the growth parameter. A mathematical validation was carried out with additional conditions, demonstrating an excellent performance of the model. The developed model could be useful for designing foods with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 added as a probiotic.

  11. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  12. Effect of tri-sodium citrate concentration on structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited tin sulfide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, F., E-mail: ftmgode@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15030 Burdur (Turkey); Guneri, E. [Department of Primary Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Baglayan, O. [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SnS thin films grown by CBD in different concentration of tri-sodium citrate. • Grain size increases, while surface roughness decreases, with concentration. • Optical band gap decreases from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV with increasing concentration. • Electrical conductivity improves with increasing concentration. - Abstract: Tin sulfide thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The effects of molar concentration of the complexing agent, tri-sodium citrate, on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Polycrystalline film structure in orthorhombic phase was determined. Flower-like spherical grains are observed on the surface. While their average size increased from 345 nm to 750 nm when the tri-sodium citrate concentration was increased from 6.4 × 10{sup −3} M to 8.0 × 10{sup −3} M, the surface roughness varied in an opposite manner from approximately 120.18 nm to 29.36 nm. For these concentrations, optical band gap of the films decreased from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV, whereas the Hall conductivity, mobility and carrier concentration of the films increased slightly from 5.91 × 10{sup −5} to 8.78 × 10{sup −5} (Ω cm){sup −1}, from 148 to 228 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and from 1.73 × 10{sup 12} to 3.59 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  13. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The performance of passive flow monitors and phosphate accumulating passive samplers when exposed to pulses in external water flow rate and/or external phosphate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Dominique; Hawker, Darryl; Shaw, Melanie; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2011-01-01

    Passive samplers are typically calibrated under constant flow and concentration conditions. This study assessed whether concentration and/or flow pulses could be integrated using a phosphate passive sampler (P-sampler). Assessment involved three 21-day experiments featuring a pulse in flow rate, a pulse of filterable reactive phosphate (FRP) concentration and a simultaneous concentration and flow pulse. FRP concentrations were also determined by parallel grab sampling and the P-sampler calibrated with passive flow monitors (PFMs) and direct measurement of flow rates. The mass lost from the PFM over the deployment periods predicted water velocity to within 5.1, 0.48 and 7.1% when exposed to a flow rate pulse (7.5-50 cm s -1 ), concentration pulse (5-100 μg P L -1 ), or both simultaneously. For the P-sampler, good agreement was observed between the grab and passive measurements of FRP concentration when exposed to a pulse in flow (6% overestimation) or concentration (2% underestimation). - Highlights: → We assess the performance of the passive flow monitor and a phosphate passive sampler when exposed to changing environmental conditions. → The PFM responded quickly and accurately to a pulse in flow rate but showed little response to an external FRP pulse. → The ability of the sampler to provide an integrated measure of the average phosphate concentrations has been demonstrated. → The results presented demonstrate under which conditions the greatest accuracy is achieved when employing passive samplers. - The performance of an integrative phosphate passive sampler has been assessed when exposed to pulses in flow rate and concentration, both individually and simultaneously.

  15. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (Psodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  17. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations and the outcome of calciphylaxis treatment with sodium thiosulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlušička, J.; Veisová, E.; Ullrych, M.; Kubeček, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Zakharov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 435-440 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Calciphylaxis * Sodium thiosulfate * Serum calcium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  18. pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate in cancer patients: correlation with seric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Alvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira

    2008-07-01

    To determine the correlation between pH and bicarbonate of soda in blood and saliva in child and adolescent patients during the administration of 3 g/m2 of methotrexate. A controlled clinical test was performed on 23 patients diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Ages ranged from 4 to 18. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient was used to interpret the data. No significant correlation was found between pH levels and seric and salivary sodium bicarbonate. However, there was a significant correlation between the levels of sodium bicarbonate in the body fluids evaluated (rs 0.2576, p=0.0354). Changes modifying the microenvironment of the oral cavity probably do not allow saliva to be used to determine blood pH and seric bicarbonate.

  19. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  20. Zinc sorption in two vertisol and one aridisol series as affected by electrolyte concentration and sodium adsorption ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. A.; Elamin, E. A.; El Mahi, Y. E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration (C) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on zinc sorption was studied. Top soil samples (0-30 cm) were taken from soils representing three arid-zon smectitc sites in the Gezira Scheme (Sudan). The orders of these soils are vertisol (El-Hosh (now Wad El Ataya) and El-Suleimi) and aridisol (El-Laota). These soils had no previous history of zinc application, and were previously equilibrated with mixed NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions to render different levels of SAR and salt concentration. Zinc retention decreased as electrolyte concentration increased, where maximum sorption occurred at low electrolyte concentration soils having high pH and high negative charge. Sodium adsorption ratio had little effect on Zn sorption as precipitation prevailed at high pH. It was also found that the sorption capacity of three soils were similar despite the variation in CaCO 3 and clay contents, hence cation exchange capacity and surface area. The results indicated that Zn was more soluble in the saline phases of Gezira soils, whereas sodicity had little effect.(Author)

  1. Steam generators of Phenix: Measurement of the hydrogen concentration in sodium for detecting water leaks in the steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Langlois, J.; Viala, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Phenix secondary circuits are provided with measurement systems of hydrogen concentration in sodium, that allow for the detection of possible water leaks in steam generators and the location of a faulty module. A measurement device consists of : a detector with nickel membranes of 0, 3 mm wall thickness, an ion pump with a 200 l/s flow rate, a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a calibrated hydrogen leak. The temperature correction is made automatically. The main tests carried out on the leak detection systems are reported. Since the first system operation (October 24, 1973), the measurements allowed us to obtain the hydrogen diffusion rates through the steam generator tube walls. (author)

  2. Accuracy of noninvasive quantification of brain NAA concentrations using PRESS sequence: verification in a swine model with external standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R H; Lin, R; Li, H; Xiao, Z W; Rao, H B; Luo, W H; Guo, G; Huang, K; Zhang, X G; Lang, Z J

    2005-01-01

    The metabolite ratios had been employed in the field of MR spectroscopy (MRS) for a long period. The main drawback of metabolite ratio is that ratio results are not comparable with absolute metabolite concentration in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of noninvasive quantification of brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations using previously reported MR external standard method. Eight swine were scanned on a GE 1.5 T scanner with a standard head coil. The external standard method was utilized with a sphere filled with NAA, GABA, glutamine, glutamate, creatine, choline chloride, and myo-inositol. The position resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence was used with TE=135 msec, TR=1500 msec, and 128 scan averages. The analysis of MRS was done with SAGE/IDL program. In vivo NAA concentration was obtained using the equation S=N * e(-TE/T2) * [1-e(-TR/T1). In vitro NAA concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the MRS group, the mean concentration of NAA was 10.03 plusmn 0.74 mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the mean concentration of NAA was 9.22 plusmn 0.55 mmol/kg. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.46). However, slightly higher value was observed in the MRS group (7/8 swine), compared with HPLC group. The range of differences was between 0.02~2.05 mmol/kg. MRS external reference method could be more accurate than internal reference method. 1H MRS does not distinguish between N-acetyl resonance frequencies and other N-acetylated amino acids.

  3. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell subjected to variation in pH, COD concentration and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Hua, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and external resistance on denitrifying microbial fuel cell were evaluated in terms of electricity generation characteristics and pollutant removal performance. The results showed that anodic influent with weakly alkaline or neutral pH and cathodic influent with weakly acidic pH favored pollutant removal and electricity generation. The suitable influent pH of the anode and cathode were found to be 7.5-8.0 and 6.0-6.5, respectively. In the presence of sufficient nitrate in the cathode, higher influent COD concentration led to more electricity generation and greater pollutant removal rates. With an anodic influent pH of 8.0 and a cathodic influent pH of 6.0, an influent COD concentration of 400 mg/L was deemed to be appropriate. Low external resistance favored nitrate and COD removal. The results suggest that operation of denitrifying microbial fuel cell at a lower external resistance would be desirable for pollutant removal but not electricity generation.

  4. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali, E-mail: abdullah2803@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University, Dhamar 87246 (Yemen); Talib, Zainal Abidin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  5. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  6. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin

    2018-06-01

    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  7. Accurate determination of brain metabolite concentrations using ERETIC as external reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoelch, Niklaus; Hock, Andreas; Heinzer-Schweizer, Susanne; Avdievitch, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) can provide in vivo metabolite concentrations in standard concentration units if a reliable reference signal is available. For 1 H MRS in the human brain, typically the signal from the tissue water is used as the (internal) reference signal. However, a concentration determination based on the tissue water signal most often requires a reliable estimate of the water concentration present in the investigated tissue. Especially in clinically interesting cases, this estimation might be difficult. To avoid assumptions about the water in the investigated tissue, the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method has been proposed. In this approach, the metabolite signal is compared with a reference signal acquired in a phantom and potential coil-loading differences are corrected using a synthetic reference signal. The aim of this study, conducted with a transceiver quadrature head coil, was to increase the accuracy of the ERETIC method by correcting the influence of spatial B 1 inhomogeneities and to simplify the quantification with ERETIC by incorporating an automatic phase correction for the ERETIC signal. Transmit field ( B1+) differences are minimized with a volume-selective power optimization, whereas reception sensitivity changes are corrected using contrast-minimized images of the brain and by adapting the voxel location in the phantom measurement closely to the position measured in vivo. By applying the proposed B 1 correction scheme, the mean metabolite concentrations determined with ERETIC in 21 healthy subjects at three different positions agree with concentrations derived with the tissue water signal as reference. In addition, brain water concentrations determined with ERETIC were in agreement with estimations derived using tissue segmentation and literature values for relative water densities. Based on the results, the ERETIC method presented here is a valid tool to derive in vivo metabolite

  8. Assurance of sodium concentration measurement on line in water supply to the secondary system in Atucha I and II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormando, Miguel-Angel; Galarza, Guillermo-Dario

    2012-09-01

    Sodium measurement is used for quality control in high purity water application, to monitor break-through of mixed bed ion exchanger, condenser leaks and also to prevent caustic corrosion in turbines. The measurement principle is based on a selective electrode that responds to Nernst equation. The samples were measured in Swan's Trace Sodium/Conductivity Analyzer, Model 2114 July 1993. The aim of this work was to present a method in order to assure sodium concentration measurement on line using the ion selective method for water supply to the secondary system. Conductivity, less sensitive but more reliable than sodium analysis, is an overall quality parameter of water. It is traditionally used to back-up sodium analyzer and is sensitive to any ionic impurities. (authors)

  9. Relationship between maternal sodium intake and blood lead concentration during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo A; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-03-14

    Pb is released from bone stores during pregnancy, which constitutes a period of increased bone resorption. A high Na intake has been found to be negatively associated with Ca and adversely associated with bone metabolism. It is possible that a high Na intake during pregnancy increases the blood Pb concentration; however, no previous study has reported on the relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentration. We thus have investigated this relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentrations, and examined whether this relationship differs with Ca intake in pregnant Korean women. Blood Pb concentrations were analysed in 1090 pregnant women at mid-pregnancy. Dietary intakes during mid-pregnancy were estimated by a 24 h recall method covering the use of dietary supplements. Blood Pb concentrations in whole-blood samples were analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Multiple regression analysis performed after adjustment for covariates revealed that maternal Na intake was positively associated with blood Pb concentration during pregnancy, but only when Ca intake was below the estimated average requirement for pregnant Korean women (P= 0·001). The findings of the present study suggest that blood Pb concentration during pregnancy could be minimised by dietary recommendations that include decreased Na and increased Ca intakes.

  10. In vivo sodium, potassium, and sperm concentrations in the rat epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T T; Hartmann, P K; Howards, S S

    1977-02-01

    In vivo samples of epididymal fluids were obtained through the use of micropuncture techniques. Microsamples from four areas of the rat epididymis were analyzed for Na+ and K+ concentrations and for sperm density. Na+ values declined significantly from caput to corpus epididymidis (P less than 0.01), while K+ and sperm concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.01). A large water loss from the epididymal lumen was calculated, as well as net losses of both cations. Water losses may be explained on the basis of an active Na+ pump; however, the effect of the absolute values of epididymal Na+ and K+ concentrations on sperm motility and fertility remains unresolved.

  11. Effects of Soil Salinization and Waterlogging on the Concentrations of Some Macronutrients and Sodium in Corn Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and waterlogging are two abiotic stresses decrease plants yield. In this research, the effects of soil salinization and waterlogging having concentrations of calcium (Ca, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na and K:Na ratio in corn (Zea mays cv. single cross 704 root were studied under greenhouse conditions. A factorial experiment with two factors on the basis of completely randomized design with three replications was performed. The factors under study were: waterlogging duration in five levels (0, 2, 4, 8, 20 days and soil saturate extract salinity in four levels (0.11, 2, 4, 8 dS/m. A loamy sand soil for plant growth substrate and NaCl salt for establishing the levels of salinity was used. The salinity and waterlogging factors were imposed simultaneously to the plants from the five-leaf stage of plant growth period. The plants were harvested 60 days after sowing and the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Na in corn root were determined by dry ashi method. The results showed that by increasing the level of NaCl salinity in the soil, the K concentration and K:Na ratio of corn root were decreased significantly but concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na in corn root were increased significantly. The Mg and Na concentrations of root in waterlogged conditions were significantly lower than that of non-waterlogged conditions but the K and Ca concentrations of root in waterlogged conditions were significantly greater than non-waterlogged conditions. However, the effects of soil waterlogging duration on the Ca, K, Mg and Na concentrations and Na:K ratio of root were dependent on the level of NaCl salinity in the soil. The results demonstrated that even short periods of soil waterlogging had considerable long-term effects on the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Na and K:Na ratio in corn root under saline and non-saline conditions.

  12. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  13. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  14. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  16. Radon concentration in air and external gamma dose rate. Is there a correlation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Umisedo, N.K.; Marcos Rizzotto; Hugo Velasco; Valladares, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    We checked the existence of correlations between experimentally determined radon concentration in indoor air and gamma dose rate, in different environments: residences, workplaces in subway stations and radiotherapies, and a gold mine. Except for the mine environment, where a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.86) was obtained with statistical significance, we found no correlations between those quantities. Both radiation sources are originated from natural radionuclides, nonetheless the observation of correlations depends on various conditions, as we discuss here. (author)

  17. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  18. Nontoxic concentration of ceftazidime and flomoxef sodium for intravitreal use--evaluated by in-vitro ERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, J; Kitano, K; Suzuki, T; Okayama, Y; Mochizuki, K; Kawasaki, K

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ceftazidime (CAZ) and flomoxef sodium (FMOX) on the in-vitro electroretinogram (ERG) of albino rabbits were studied. The a-wave, the b-wave and the oscillatory potential (OP) were unchanged by 0.3mM (0.19mg/ml) CAZ-containing solution. The OP was suppressed by 0.5mM (0.32mg/ml) CAZ. The a-wave, the b-wave and the OP were unchanged by 0.5mM (0.26mg/ml) FMOX. The OP was suppressed and its peak latency was delayed by 2mM (0.52mg/ml) FMOX. The concentration of 0.3mM (0.19mg/ml) CAZ was higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Propionibacterium acnes. The concentration of 0.5mM (0.26mg/ml) FMOX was higher than its MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens and Propionibacterium acnes.

  19. The hydrolysis of C12 primary alkyl sulfates in concentrated aqueous solutions. Part 2. Influence of alkyl structure on hydrolytic reactivity in concentrated aqueous mixtures of sodium primary alkyl sulfates : 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole as a probe o

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethell, Donald; Fessey, Roger E.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Roberts, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of three sodium C12-alkyl sulfates (SXS), sodium 2-methylundecyl sulfate (SMS), sodium cycloundecylmethyl sulfate (SCS) and sodium 2-pentylheptyl sulfate (SPS), has been investigated at concentrations up to 70% and compared with the behaviour of

  20. The Effects of Voltage and Concentration of Sodium Bicarbonate on Electrochemical Synthesis of Ethanol from Carbon Dioxide Using Brass as Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Septian; Fariduddin, Sholah; Rizki Aminudin, Afianti; Kurnia Hayatri, Antisa; Riyanto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As the cathode was used brass, while as the anode carbon was utilized. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol are voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate are 3 volts and 0.4 M with ethanol concentration of 1.33%.

  1. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  2. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells......BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...

  3. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of {gamma}-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process (<1 h post irradiation), and the generation of micronuclei (MN), a sensitive marker for relative long process of RIBE. Our results showed that in the absence of irradiation, NaCl at elevated concentration such as 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 g/L did not significantly increase the frequency of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of foci per positive cell comparing with that NaCl at a normal concentration (6.8 g/L). However, with 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of induced {gamma}-H2AX foci per positive cell were significantly increased in both irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions. Similarly, the induction of MN by 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation also increased with the elevated NaCl concentrations. With N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose {alpha}-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process.

  4. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Fins coloration of perch in relation to external activity concentration of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegoreichenkov, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Techa River is significantly polluted by radionuclides. This time the content of {sup 90}Sr varies from 5 Bq/l in water of lower Techa to 40 Bq/l in higher Techa, and the concentration of {sup 137}Cs fluctuates from background content to 0,5 Bq/l, and tritium from 100 Bq/l to 450 Bq/l. Miass River are not polluted in the same extent. The perch in these rivers are suitable for examine the potential effect of environmental perturbation on carotenoid based coloration. As vertebrates could not produce carotenoids themselves, and would use more carotenoids due to oxidative stress when exposed radiation, we hypothesized that fish caught in upper part of Techa River will be more pale than fish from lower part and the control river Miass. We used a cost effective method to estimate coloration by photographing the fins in standardized setting. The measuring of fish fins as performed under standardized condition by Adobe Photoshop software in color spaces CIE 1976 L*a*b* and sRGB IEC61966-2.1 was used. In sRGB color space the values of Red, Green, Blue channels were measured and an average wave length was calculated as a function of three elementary light streams of different intensity, appeared as reflection from a fin. In L*a*b color space the values of *a and *b channels shows the position of a color in a color space. To evaluate the red color of a perch fin the most usable channel is the *a channel which shows the position of the color on the red-green axis. Due to low sample size we pooled males and females in our analysis. We used three different station in the Techa: RT-1 in the higher Techa, RT-2 in the middle Techa, and RT-3 in lower Techa. As a control group was taken the fish from Miass river (RM station). Our results shows that perch from RT-3 (570.7 nm) significantly differ in coloration from the perch from RT-2 and RT-1 (p=0.00001 and p=0.0014 respectively, hereinafter used Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test with Nemenyi-Damico-Wolfe-Dunn test as post

  6. Controlling thermal properties of dense gas fluidized beds for concentrated solar power by internal and external solids circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Paola; Bareschino, Piero; Chirone, Riccardo; Salatino, Piero; Solimene, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Fluidization technology displays a long record of success stories, mostly related to applications to thermal and thermochemical processes, which are fostering extension to novel and relatively unexplored fields. Application of fluidized beds to collection and thermal storage of solar radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising, a field which poses challenging issues and great opportunities to fluidization scientists and technologists. The potential of this growing field calls for reconsideration of some of the typical design and operation guidelines and criteria, with the goal of exploiting the inherently good thermal performances of gas-fluidized beds at their best. "Creative" and non-conventional design and operation of fluidized beds, like those based on internal and external solids circulation, may be beneficial to the enhancement of thermal diffusivity and surface-to-bed heat transfer, improving the potential for application in the very demanding context of CSP with thermal energy storage. This paper investigated: i) a fluidized bed configuration with an uneven distribution of the fluidizing gas to promote vortices in the scale of bed height (internal solids circulation); ii) a dual fluidized bed configuration characterized by an external solids circulation achieved by the operation of a riser and a bubbling fluidized bed. CFD simulations showed the hydrodynamics conditions under which the internal solids circulation was established. The hydrodynamic characterization of the external solids circulation was achieved by an experimental study carried out with different cold models. The dual fluidized bed system was optimized in terms of operating conditions and geometrical features of the connections between two fluidized beds.

  7. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An exploratory study of using external fluid loading on a vibrating tube for measuring suspended sediment concentration in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y-S; Hwang, Y-F; Huang, J H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of using external fluid loading on a vibrating tube for measuring the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in bodies of water such as rivers and reservoirs. This new measuring concept provides an opportunity for an automated on-site monitoring of the conditions in a body of water by taking the fluid sample instantaneously in the area surrounding the vibrating tube. The physical properties of the fluid sample are those of the fluid that naturally flows around the tube, and are more representative of those of the water with SSC to be measured. The theoretical analysis presented in this paper shows that the resonance frequencies of an immersed vibrating tube change significantly with mass density variations that normally occur in bodies of water with suspended sediment. These changes are sensitive enough to have a possible 1% resolution of the measured fluid density. The signal processing issues are discussed, and a schematic of a conceptual measuring setup is proposed. Based on the theoretical analyses and other measurement issues presented in the paper, using the loading by external fluid on a vibrating tube is feasible for measuring the SSC in water bodies

  9. Study of Z > 18 elements concentration in tree rings from surroundings forests of the Mexico Valley using external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calva-Vazquez, G.; Razo-Angel, G.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years

  10. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  11. Engineering of a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain with a respiratory phenotype at high external glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricsson, C; de Jesus Ferreira, M C; Hedfalk, K; Elbing, K; Larsson, C; Bill, R M; Norbeck, J; Hohmann, S; Gustafsson, L

    2005-10-01

    The recently described respiratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae KOY.TM6*P is, to our knowledge, the only reported strain of S. cerevisiae which completely redirects the flux of glucose from ethanol fermentation to respiration, even at high external glucose concentrations (27). In the KOY.TM6*P strain, portions of the genes encoding the predominant hexose transporter proteins, Hxt1 and Hxt7, were fused within the regions encoding transmembrane (TM) domain 6. The resulting chimeric gene, TM6*, encoded a chimera composed of the amino-terminal half of Hxt1 and the carboxy-terminal half of Hxt7. It was subsequently integrated into the genome of an hxt null strain. In this study, we have demonstrated the transferability of this respiratory phenotype to the V5 hxt1-7Delta strain, a derivative of a strain used in enology. We also show by using this mutant that it is not necessary to transform a complete hxt null strain with the TM6* construct to obtain a non-ethanol-producing phenotype. The resulting V5.TM6*P strain, obtained by transformation of the V5 hxt1-7Delta strain with the TM6* chimeric gene, produced only minor amounts of ethanol when cultured on external glucose concentrations as high as 5%. Despite the fact that glucose flux was reduced to 30% in the V5.TM6*P strain compared with that of its parental strain, the V5.TM6*P strain produced biomass at a specific rate as high as 85% that of the V5 wild-type strain. Even more relevant for the potential use of such a strain for the production of heterologous proteins and also of low-alcohol beverages is the observation that the biomass yield increased 50% with the mutant compared to its parental strain.

  12. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a preliminary optical assessment of the external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC) component in three concentrating solar thermal units. Each solar thermal unit consists an optical element (the non-imaging concentrating reflector) and a thermal element (the evacuated glass tube solar absorber). The three concentrating solar thermal units discussed in this work are DEWAR 58, a direct flow all-glass dewar, DEWAR 47 an indirect flow ...

  13. Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ► Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ► Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ► Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

  14. Urinary arsenic speciation profiles in mice subchronically exposed to low concentrations of sodium arsenate in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a proven human carcinogen. Although the mechanism of its carcinogenicity is still largely unknown, methylation is thought to have an important role to play in arsenic toxicity. In this study, urinary methylation profiles were investigated in female C57BL/6J black mice given drinking water containing 500 μg arsenate (AsV/L, 250 μg AsV/L, or 100 μg AsV/L as sodium arsenate for 2 months. The concentrations of arsenic chosen reflected those in the drinking water often encountered in arsenic-endemic areas. Urine samples were collected from the mice at the end of the exposure period, and the arsenic species were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All detectable arsenic species showed strong linear correlation with the administered dosage. The methylation patterns were similar in all three groups with a slight decrease of dimethylarsinic acid/AsV ratio in the 500-μg/L group, which corresponded to the significantly higher arsenic retention in the tissue. The results indicate that urinary arsenic could be used as a good biomarker for internal dose and potential biological effects. Different doses of arsenic exposure could result in different degrees of methylation, excretion, and tissue retention, and this may contribute to the understanding of arsenic carcinogenicity.

  15. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recommended oral sodium bicarbonate administration for urine alkalinization did not affect the concentration of mitomycin-C in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Kyung; Kim, Sung Han; Ahn, Kyung-Ohk; Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sohee; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Do Hoon; Joung, Jae Young; Chung, Jinsoo; Joo, Jungnam; Jeong, Kyung-Chae

    2017-11-10

    Sodium bicarbonate has been reported to maximize the efficacy of intravesical instillation of mitomycin-C (IVI-MMC) therapy by urine alkalinization in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This study aimed to analyze the changes in MMC concentration according to urinary pH and evaluate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate to maintain the concentration of active form of MMC during IVI-MMC. We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with NMIBC after transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Patients with very high-risk and low-risk NMIBC were excluded. Urinary creatinine, volume, pH, and concentrations of MMC and its degraded form were measured immediately before and after IVI-MMC. The patients were administered 1.5 g of oral sodium bicarbonate during the preceding evening, in the morning, and immediately before the fourth cycle of the six-cycle IVI-MMC. The correlation between MMC concentration and urinary pH changes was explored with or without oral bicarbonate therapy. Recurrence without progression to muscle-invasive disease was noted in 4 of 26 patients in a 23.7-month follow-up. The mean urinary pH before and after the therapy increased from 6.03 to 6.50, and 6.46 to 7.24, without or with oral SB therapy, respectively. Despite this increase, the concentration of active form of MMC did not change significantly. No correlation was found between urinary pH and MMC concentration. Urine alkalinization by SB administration did not maintain the high concentration of urinary MMC. Urine alkalinization by sodium bicarbonate administration for IVI-MMC did not maintain the high concentration of active urinary MMC in NMIBC.

  17. Effect of Sol Concentration, Aging and Drying Process on Cerium Stabilization Zirconium Gel Produced by External Gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarsono, R.; Rachmawati, M.; Susilowati, S. R.; Husnurrofiq, D.; Nurwidyaningrum, K.; Dewi, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Cerium Stabilized Zirconium gel has been prepared using external gelation process. As the raw materials was used ZrO(NO3)2 and Ce(NO3)4 nitrate salt which was dissolved with water into Zr-Ce nitrate mixture. The concentration of the nitrate salt mixture in the sol solution was varied by varying the concentration of zirconium and cerium nitrate in the sol solution and the addition of PVA and THFA to produce a sol with a viscosity of 40-60 cP. The viscosity range of 40-60cP is the viscosity of the sol solution that was easy to produce a good gel in the gelation apparatus. Sol solution was casted in a gelation column equipped with following tools: a 1 mm diameter drip nozzle which was vibrated to adjust the best frequency and amplitude of vibration, a flow meter to measure the flow rate of sol, flowing of NH3 gas to presolidification process. Gelation column was contained NH4OH solution as gelation medium and gel container to collect gel product. Gel obtained from the gelation process than processed with ageing, washing, drying and calcinations to get round gel and not broken at calcinations up to 500°C. The parameters observed in this research are variation of Zr nitrate concentration, Ce nitrate concentration, ratio of Zr and Ce in the sol and ageing and drying process method which was appropriate to get a good gel. From the gelation processes that has been done, it can be seen that with the presolidification process can be obtained a round gel and without presolidification process, produce not round gel. In the process of ageing to get not broken gel, ageing was done on the rotary flask so that during the ageing, gels rotate in gelation media. Gels, then be washed by dilute ammonium nitrate, demireralized water and iso prophyl alcohol. The washed gel was then dried by vacuum drying to form pores on the gel which become the path for the gases resulting from decomposition of the gel to exit the gel. Vacuum drying can prevent cracking because the pores allow the gel

  18. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  19. Bilateral {sup 23}Na MR imaging of the breast and quantification of sodium concentration; Bilaterale {sup 23}Na-MR-Bildgebung der Mamma und Quantifizierung der Natriumkonzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisch, Meike; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin; Wetterling, Friedrich [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-03-01

    A novel setup for {sup 23}Na MRI, which allows bilateral imaging of the breast, is presented. For this purpose a figure-eight receive-only {sup 23}Na surface coil was developed. For our experiments on three samples with NaCl solutions of different sodium concentrations and two female subjects we used an asymmetric birdcage coil in transmit mode and the developed surface coil for receiving the signal at 3 T. Imaging of the samples showed the applicability of the employed normalization method for measuring the distribution of sodium concentration. In a sample of concentration [Na{sup +}] = 51 mM we achieved SNR = 70 at a nominal isotropic resolution of 2,5 mm (T{sub R} = 66 ms, T{sub E} = 0,6 ms, T{sub A} = 20 min). Furthermore we showed that by means of this setup it is possible to quantify the sodium concentration in breast tissue (TSC) of a female subject with an accuracy of 23% (T{sub R} = 150 ms, T{sub E} = 0,5 ms, T{sub A} = 45 min). (orig.)

  20. Combined effect of glycation and sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration on IgG binding, IgE binding and conformation of ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-juan; Gao, Jin-yan; Chen, Hong-bing

    2013-10-01

    Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major allergen in hen egg. During thermal processing, reducing sugars contained in the hen egg white might easily undergo glycation with OVA, but few studies have been conducted on its corresponding immunoreactivity changes. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of the antigenicity, potential allergenicity and conformation of OVA after glycation in a wet-thermal processing system under different concentrations of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. IgE binding of the glycated OVA was increased after glycation, and the higher the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration, the higher the IgE binding capacity. The increase in IgE binding of OVA corresponded well with the disruption of the disulfide bond, which exposed the epitopes initially buried. Antigenicity of the glycated OVA was increased, and the amount of the increase varied among samples treated under different buffer concentrations. Glycation increased the allergenic potential for OVA, with the amount of increase varying with different sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentrations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  2. Development of risk assessment methodology of decay heat removal function against external hazards for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (3) Numerical simulations of forest fire spread and smoke transport as an external hazard assessment methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a development of the risk assessment methodologies against external hazards, a new methodology to assess forest fire hazards is being developed. Frequency and consequence of the forest fire are analyzed to obtain the hazard intensity curve and then Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment is performed to obtain the conditional core damage probability due to the challenges by the forest fire. 'Heat', 'flame', 'smoke' and 'flying object' are the challenges to a nuclear power plant. For a sodium-cooled fast reactor, a decay heat removal under accident conditions is operated with an ultimate heat sink of air, then, the challenge by 'smoke' will potentially be on the air filter of the system. In this paper, numerical simulations of forest fire propagation and smoke transport were performed with sensibility studies to weather conditions, and the effect by the smoke on the air filter was quantitatively evaluated. Forest fire propagation simulations were performed using FARSITE code. A temporal increase of a forest fire spread area and a position of the frontal fireline are obtained by the simulation, and 'reaction intensity' and 'frontal fireline intensity' as the indexes of 'heat' are obtained as well. The boundary of the fire spread area is shaped like an ellipse on the terrain, and the boundary length is increased with time and fire spread. The sensibility analyses on weather conditions of wind, temperature, and humidity were performed, and it was summarized that 'forest fire spread rate' and 'frontal fireline intensity' depend much on wind speed and humidity. Smoke transport simulations were performed by ALOFT-FT code where three-dimensional spatial distribution of smoke density, especially of particle matters of PM2.5 and PM10, are evaluated. The snapshot outputs, namely 'reaction intensity' and 'position of frontal fireline', from the sensibility studies of the FARSITE were directly utilized as the input data for ALOFT-FT, whereas it is assumed that the

  3. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  4. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and validation of beckman coulter AU680 analyzers for measuring total carbon dioxide (TCO2) concentrations in horse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, Levent; Waller, Pamela; Waguespack, Mona Landry; Andrews, Frank Michael; Keowen, Michael Layne; Gaunt, Stephen David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the usage of Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzers for measurement of TCO 2 in horse serum, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate administrations on serum TCO 2 levels in resting horses. Treatment of horses with sodium bicarbonate did not result in any adverse events. Mean TCO 2 concentration was significantly higher from 1 to 8 h in the sodium bicarbonate-treated horses compared to the untreated controls. Within an hour, administration of sodium bicarbonate increased the TCO 2 level from 31.5 ± -2.5 (SD) to 34.0 ± 2.65 (SD) mmol/L and at 2-8 h post-administration, the TCO 2 level was above the 36 mmol/L cut-off level. In all quality control analysis of Australian standard by Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer, the instrument slightly over estimated the TCO 2 level but the values were in close agreement with mean TCO 2 level being 38.03 with ± 0.87 mmol/L (SD). Expanded uncertainty was calculated using different levels of confidence interval. Based on 99.5% confidence interval using 0.805% expanded uncertainty using mean measured concentration of 38.05 mmol/L, it was estimated that any race samples TCO 2 level higher than 38.5 mmol/L will be indicative of sodium bicarbonate administration using Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer in Louisiana.

  5. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of safety and plasma concentrations of diclofenac in healthy neonatal foals after repeated topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Susan E; Sellon, Debra C; Hines, Melissa T; Seino, Kathy K; Knych, Heather K

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics and safety of 1% diclofenac sodium cream applied topically to neonatal foals every 12 hours for 7 days. ANIMALS Twelve 2- to 14-day old healthy Arabian and Arabian-pony cross neonatal foals. PROCEDURES A 1.27-cm strip of cream containing 7.3 mg of diclofenac sodium (n = 6 foals) or an equivalent amount of placebo cream (6 foals) was applied topically to a 5-cm square of shaved skin over the anterolateral aspect of the left tarsometatarsal region every 12 hours for 7 days. Physical examination, CBC, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, gastric endoscopy, and ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys and right dorsal colon were performed before and after cream application. Venous blood samples were collected at predefined intervals following application of the diclofenac cream, and plasma diclofenac concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS No foal developed any adverse effects attributed to diclofenac application, and no significant differences in values of evaluated variables were identified between treatment groups. Plasma diclofenac concentrations peaked rapidly following application of the diclofenac cream, reaching a maximum of diclofenac sodium cream to foals as described appeared safe, and low plasma concentrations of diclofenac suggested minimal systemic absorption. Practitioners may consider use of this medication to treat focal areas of pain and inflammation in neonatal foals.

  6. Desorption of Reactive Red 198 from activated carbon prepared from walnut shells: effects of temperature, sodium carbonate concentration and organic solvent dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Alimohamadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of temperature, different concentrations of sodium carbonate,and the dose of organic solvent on the desorption of Reactive Red 198 dye from dye-saturated activated carbon using batch and continuous systems. The results of the batch desorption test showed 60% acetone in water as the optimum amount. However, when the concentration of sodium carbonate was raised, the dye desorption percentage increased from 26% to 42% due to economic considerations; 15 mg/L of sodium carbonate was selected to continue the processof desorption. Increasing the desorption temperature can improve the dye desorption efficiency.According to the column test results, dye desorption concentration decreased gradually with the passing of time. The column test results showed that desorption efficiency and the percentage of dye adsorbed decreased; however, it seemed to stabilize after three repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The repeated adsorption–desorption column tests (3 cycles showed that the activated carbon which was prepared from walnut shell was a suitable and economical adsorbent for dye removal.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material C Appendix C to Part 835 Energy... Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...-infinite cloud of airborne radioactive material. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow...

  8. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Pardi, D.; Aziz, N.A.; Frolich, M.; Roelfsema, F.; Overeem, S.; Pijl, H.; Lammers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium

  9. Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Production of Low-Concentrated Sodium Hypochlorite by Direct Electrolysis of Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, L. N.; Pchelnikov, I. V.; Fedotov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study presents the economic efficiency of direct electrolysis of natural waters in comparison with the waters artificially prepared by electrolysis of the 3% sodium salt solution. The study used sea water (Black sea water); mineral water (underground water of the Melikhovskaya station, “Ognennaya” hole); brackish water (underground water from the Grushevskaya station of the Aksai district); 3% solution of sodium salt. As a result, the dependences characterizing the direct electrolysis of natural waters with different mineralization, economic, and energy parties are shown. The rational area of the electrolysis for each of the investigated solution is determined. The cost of a kilogram of active chlorine obtained by the direct water electrolysis: Black sea from 17.2 to 18.3 RUB/kg; the Melikhovskaya station “Ognennaya” hole - 14.3 to 15.0 Rubles/kg; 3% solution of NaCl - 30 Rubles./kg; Grushevskogo St. - 63,0-73,0 Rubles/kg.

  10. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  11. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowicz, Michelle; Garcia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia) for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologi...

  12. Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p pregnancy (r = -0.590, p pregnancy BMI was significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p sodium (r = 0.254, p = 0.070) levels. Multiple linear regression indicated that mid-trimester AF uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p pregnancy BMI is significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  15. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1964-01-01

    The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures. Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur in slow type striated muscle fibers: (a) a calcium deprivation type which develops maximally at full physiological concentration of external sodium, shows a flow rate dependency for the calcium-depriving fluid, and is lessened when the sodium concentration is decreased by replacement with sucrose; (b) a sodium deprivation type which occurs maximally without external sodium, is lessened by increasing the sodium concentration, and has no flow rate dependency for ion deprivation. Both types of contracture are largely prevented by the presence of sufficient calcium. There thus seem to be calcium- and sodium-linked processes at work in the ionic contracture coupling of slow striated muscle. PMID:14127603

  16. Effect of sucrose ester concentration on the interfacial characteristics and physical properties of sodium caseinate-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiangzhong; Liu, Daolin; Long, Zhao; Yang, Bao; Fang, Min; Kuang, Wanmei; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-05-15

    The effect of sucrose ester (SE) concentration on interfacial tension and surface dilatational modulus of SE and sodium caseinate (NaCas)-SE solutions were investigated. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SE was presumed to be 0.05% by measuring interfacial tension of SE solution. The interfacial tension of NaCas-SE solution decreased with increased SE concentration. A sharp increase in surface dilatational modulus of NaCas solution was observed when 0.01% SE was added and a decline was occurred at higher SE level. The influence of SE concentration on droplet size and confocal micrograph, surface protein concentration, ζ-potential and rheological properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with 1% NaCas was also examined. The results showed that addition of SE reduced droplet size and surface protein concentration of the O/W emulsions. The ζ-potential of the O/W emulsions increased initially and decreased afterward with increased SE concentration. All the O/W emulsions exhibited a shear-thinning behaviour and the data were well-fitted into the Herschel-Bulkley model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    MULLER, Ludo; Craciun, A. R.; RUYTINX, Joske; LAMBAERTS, Marc; Verbruggen, N.; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; COLPAERT, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in ...

  18. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  19. Interpretation of the measurement of ions fluxes through a biological membrane with a cellular compartment: example of the movements of sodium through the skin of frogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1959-01-01

    Two-way ion fluxes which can be measured in vitro through a living epithelial membrane (such as frog skin) by the indicator method take place across the cells which behave like an intermediate ionic 'compartment'. Two membranes and four fluxes have thus to be considered. Measurements in vitro of the total sodium fluxes as a function of the sodium concentration in the medium in contact with the external face of the skin have been interpreted in this spirit. Making use of certain hypotheses, the permeability coefficients for sodium of the two cellular membranes, the four sodium fluxes, the intracellular sodium concentration and the membrane potentials have been calculated for each value of the sodium concentration in the external medium. (author) [fr

  20. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  1. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Senturk Parreidt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w, plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w, surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w, and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications.

  2. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Michael; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-01-01

    Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w), plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w), surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w), and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w) were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index) and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications. PMID:29509669

  3. Effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide on the carbohydrate metabolism of the Indian Major Carp Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N. Dube

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were designed to study in-vivo effects of sodium cyanide on biochemical endpoints in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (0.106 and 0.064mg/L for a period of 15 days. Levels of glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and the enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (AcP were assessed in different tissues (liver, muscle and gills. Result indicated a steady decrease in glycogen, pyruvate, SDH, ALP and AcP activity with a concomitant increase in the lactate, phosphorylase, LDH and G6PD activity in all selected tissues. The alterations in all the above biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 time and dose dependent. In all the above parameters, liver pointing out the intensity of cyanide intoxication compare to muscle and gills. Study revealed change in the metabolic energy by means of altered metabolic profile of the fish. Further, these observations indicated that even sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide might not be fully devoid of deleterious influence on metabolism in L. rohita.

  4. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  5. The variation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate concentration, pH and conductivity in groundwater of Karachi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Ali, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater in Karachi is influenced mainly by the evaporation / crystallization process as expressed by the Na/(Na+Ca) weight concentration ratio. The high coefficient of determined between conductivity and total dissolved ions concentration in meq/sup -1/ revealed that major ions affect the conductivity of groundwater. It was also found that groundwater quality with respect to cations is not significantly influenced by geology, particularly in the Urban are of the city, where the 90% of the population resides. The relationship between conductivity and bicarbonate concentration shows that supersaturation of groundwater with carbon dioxide is responsible for general depression of pH. (author)

  6. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  7. Interpretation of the measurement of ions fluxes through a biological membrane with a cellular compartment: example of the movements of sodium through the skin of frogs; Interpretation de la mesure des flux d'ions a travers une membrane biologique comportant un ''compartiment'' cellulaire; exemple des mouvements de sodium a travers la peau de grenouille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Two-way ion fluxes which can be measured in vitro through a living epithelial membrane (such as frog skin) by the indicator method take place across the cells which behave like an intermediate ionic 'compartment'. Two membranes and four fluxes have thus to be considered. Measurements in vitro of the total sodium fluxes as a function of the sodium concentration in the medium in contact with the external face of the skin have been interpreted in this spirit. Making use of certain hypotheses, the permeability coefficients for sodium of the two cellular membranes, the four sodium fluxes, the intracellular sodium concentration and the membrane potentials have been calculated for each value of the sodium concentration in the external medium. (author) [French] Les flux ioniques bidirectionnels que l'on peut mesurer in vitro a travers une membrane epitheliale vivante (comme la peau de grenouille) a l'aide de la methode des indicateurs, s'effectuent a travers les cellules qui se comportent comme un 'compartiment' ionique intermediaire. On doit donc considerer deux membranes et quatre flux. Des mesures in vitro des flux totaux de sodium en fonction de la concentration du sodium dans le milieu baignant la face externe de la peau ont ete interpretees dans cette perspective. Moyennant certaines hypotheses, les coefficients de permeabilite pour le sodium des deux membranes cellulaires, les quatre flux de sodium ainsi que la concentration du sodium intracellulaire et les potentiels de membrane ont pu etre calcules pour chaque valeur de la concentration du sodium dans le milieu externe. (auteur)

  8. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  9. Changes in cardiac glycoside receptor sites /sup 86/ rubidium uptake and intracellular sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of patients receiving digoxin during the early phases of treatment of cardiac failure in regular rhythm and of atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, A R; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G; Carver, J G [Medical Research Council, Oxford (UK)

    1979-08-01

    Measurements of the binding of 12-..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)-digoxin to the membranes of intact erythrocytes, erythrocytic /sup 86/Rb uptake and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations have been made in the red cells of patients receiving digoxin in the short-term for atrial fibrillation or cardiac failure in regular rhythm. During the first few days of treatment (/sup 3/H)-digoxin binding and /sup 86/Rb uptake fall and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations rise. Subsequently parallel fluctuations occur in (/sup 3/H)-digoxin binding and /sup 86/Rb uptake but not in intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations and the significance of the fluctuations is discussed. The values of all three measurements correlate significantly with the response of the heart in sinus rhythm as measured by QS/sub 2/I. Plasma digoxin concentrations do not correlate with QS/sub 2/I.

  10. Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator. Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system. Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  13. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  14. Evaluation of 222Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-01-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas 222 Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 W , used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of 222 Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the 238 U and 226 Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m 3 (action level) and 600 Bq. m 3 (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  15. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of molybdenum (Mo), a co-factor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, f...

  16. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  17. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A method for the separation of sodium and iron from plutonium and other impurities in concentrated plutonium solution and their subsequent measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Brown, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    Sodium and iron are separated from plutonium and other impurities by solvent extraction. Sodium is determined by flame photometry and iron by spectrophotometric measurement of the orthophenanthroline complex. (author)

  19. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of structural and textural grain characteristics on leaching of sulphide minerals from a polymetallic concentrate by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of structural and textural characteristics of sulfide minerals on their leaching from a polymetallic concentrate by sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate solution is presented. The starting material was Pb–Zn–Cu sulphide polymetallic concentrate enriched during the flotation of a polymetallic ore in the "Rudnik" flotation plant (Rudnik – Serbia. Leaching experiments were carried out in a closed glass reactor, which provides stable hermetic conditions and allows heating at constant temperature. Chemical, XRD, qualitative and quantitative microscopic and SEM/EDX analyses were used to characterizes samples of the polymetallic concentrate and leach residue. It was determined that chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and quartz were present in the polymetallic concentrate. The content of sulphide minerals was 69.5%, of which 60.9% occurred as liberated grains: 88.3% of chalcopyrite, 59.3% of sphalerite, 25.1% of galena and 51.6% of pirrhotite. The rest of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pirrhotite grains were in the forms of inclusions, impregnations, and simple and complex intergrowths. During the leaching process by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution, it was shown previously that the leaching rate of sulphide minerals decreased with time while a part of the sulphide minerals remained in the leach residue. After leaching at 80°C for 120 min, the yields were 69.8, 82.7 and 67.1% for Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively. Lead, in the form of insoluble anglesite, remained in the leach residue. In addition to the anglesite, unleached sulfide minerals and quartz, elemental sulfur was found in the solid residue. The content of sulphide minerals was 35% of which 33.7% minerals occur independently. In specific, 54.7% of chalcopyrite, 31.9% of sphalerite, 8.2% of galena and 37.6% of pyrrhotite appear as separate grains with highly corroded surfaces. Therefore, the structural assembly of sulphide grains in the

  1. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in

  2. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  3. Study of the transport characteristics of uranyl chloride in a highly concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murso, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the transport processes of uranyl chloride at various temperatures, in order to be able to estimate the danger potential of the intrusion of water during storage in salt form. For this the concentration dependency of the approximated principal diffusion coefficients of uranyl chloride in a table salt solution, which with a c(NaCl) = 5.2 mol/l is almost at the saturation point, was studied at 25, 40 and 50degC. The measurements were successful in the ternarian system UO 2 Cl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O with absorption optics. An unexpected temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficients was found, which reached its minimum at 40degC with UO 2 Cl 2 concentrations of less than 2x10 -2 mol/l. For comparison the diffusion coefficients were measured in the binary system UO 2 Cl 2 -H 2 O and compared with theoretical calculations. The cause for the poor correlation found here is thought to be the hydrolysis products, whose formation is strongly influenced by the foreign-electrolyte concentration (NaCl). For clarification, viscosity measurements and molar mass determinations (ultracentrifuge) will be done. Some pH-dependent hydrolysis equilibriums are being postulated and the equilibrium constants of uranyl hydroxo complexes are being determined by sedimentation analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Low concentration of sodium bicarbonate improves the bioactive compound levels and antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peiyou; Wei, Aichun; Zhao, Degang; Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Dun, Baoqing; Ren, Guixing

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on the accumulation of flavonoids, total phenolics and d-chiro-inositol (DCI), as well as the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, in tartary buckwheat sprouts. Treatment with low concentrations of NaHCO 3 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%) resulted in an increase in flavonoids, total phenolic compounds and DCI concentrations, and improved DPPH radical-scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibition activities compared with the control (0%). The highest levels of total flavonoids (26.69mg/g DW), individual flavonoids (rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol), total phenolic compounds (29.31mg/g DW), DCI (12.56mg/g DW), as well as antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, were observed in tartary buckwheat sprouts treated with 0.05% NaHCO 3 for 96h. These results indicated that appropriate treatment with NaHCO 3 could improve the healthy benefits of tartary buckwheat sprouts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  6. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  7. Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and simulated gastrointestinal fluids on release profile of paracetamol from chitosan microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Andrie; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem to overcome in oral drug administration is the significant pH changes present in the human digestive system. In this study, ionotropic gelation method employing 2-8% (w/v) tripolyphosphate solutions were used to crosslink chitosan microspheres for a controlled release of paracetamol as a model drug. The release profiles of paracetamol from chitosan microspheres were determined using simulated gastrointestinal fluids having pH values of 1.2, 6.8, and 7.4. The results showed that the paracetamol loading and the encapsulation efficiency values increased with increasing concentration of tripolyphosphate solutions used in the preparation step. Paracetamol released at pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions was significantly higher than that at pH 7.4; also, more paracetamol was released in the presence of α-amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes. The release profiles showed zero-order release behaviour up to 8 hours where the highest drug release was 39% of the paracetamol loaded in the chitosan microspheres, indicating a strong crosslinking between chitosan and TPP anions. The relatively low accumulated drug release could be compensated by employing suitable enzymes, lower TPP solution concentration, and addition of other biodegradable polymer to reduce the TPP crosslink.

  8. Steam generators of Phenix: Measurement of the hydrogen concentration in sodium for detecting water leaks in the steam generator tubes; Generateurs de vapeur de Phenix-mesure de la concentration d'hydrogene du sodium pour la surveillance de l'etancheite des tubes d'eau-vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E; Lacroix, A; Langlois, J; Viala, J

    1975-07-01

    The Phenix secondary circuits are provided with measurement systems of hydrogen concentration in sodium, that allow for the detection of possible water leaks in steam generators and the location of a faulty module. A measurement device consists of : a detector with nickel membranes of 0, 3 mm wall thickness, an ion pump with a 200 l/s flow rate, a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a calibrated hydrogen leak. The temperature correction is made automatically. The main tests carried out on the leak detection systems are reported. Since the first system operation (October 24, 1973), the measurements allowed us to obtain the hydrogen diffusion rates through the steam generator tube walls. (author)

  9. Molecular Insight into Human Lysozyme and Its Ability to Form Amyloid Fibrils in High Concentrations of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A View from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafari

    Full Text Available Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at two ambient temperatures. To achieve comparative results, we also performed two 500000 ps human lysozyme MD simulations in pure water as controls. The aim of this study was to provide further molecular insight into all interactions in the lysozyme-SDS complexes and to provide a perspective on the ability of human lysozyme to form amyloid fibrils in the presence of SDS surfactant molecules. SDS, which is an anionic detergent, contains a hydrophobic tail with 12 carbon atoms and a negatively charged head group. The SDS surfactant is known to be a stabilizer for helical structures above the critical micelle concentration (CMC [1]. During the 500000 ps MD simulations, the helical structures were maintained by the SDS surfactant above its CMC at 300 K, while at 370 K, human lysozyme lost most of its helices and gained β-sheets. Therefore, we suggest that future studies investigate the β-amyloid formation of human lysozyme at SDS concentrations above the CMC and at high temperatures.

  10. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  11. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  12. The Slow Dynamics of Intracellular Sodium Concentration Increase the Time Window of Neuronal Integration: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i are rarely taken into account when neuronal activity is examined. As opposed to Ca2+, [Na+]i dynamics are strongly affected by longitudinal diffusion, and therefore they are governed by the morphological structure of the neurons, in addition to the localization of influx and efflux mechanisms. Here, we examined [Na+]i dynamics and their effects on neuronal computation in three multi-compartmental neuronal models, representing three distinct cell types: accessory olfactory bulb (AOB mitral cells, cortical layer V pyramidal cells, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. We added [Na+]i as a state variable to these models, and allowed it to modulate the Na+ Nernst potential, the Na+-K+ pump current, and the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger rate. Our results indicate that in most cases [Na+]i dynamics are significantly slower than [Ca2+]i dynamics, and thus may exert a prolonged influence on neuronal computation in a neuronal type specific manner. We show that [Na+]i dynamics affect neuronal activity via three main processes: reduction of EPSP amplitude in repeatedly active synapses due to reduction of the Na+ Nernst potential; activity-dependent hyperpolarization due to increased activity of the Na+-K+ pump; specific tagging of active synapses by extended Ca2+ elevation, intensified by concurrent back-propagating action potentials or complex spikes. Thus, we conclude that [Na+]i dynamics should be considered whenever synaptic plasticity, extensive synaptic input, or bursting activity are examined.

  13. Concentration of remote-handled, transuranic, sodium nitrate-based sludge using agitated thin-film evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B.; Pen, Ben-Li

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to prepared transuranic waste for final disposal. Once operational, this facility will process, package, and certify remote-handled transuranic waste for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. One of the wastes that will be handled at WHIPP is the transuranic sludge currently stored at ORNL in eight 50,000-gal underground tanks. The use of an Agitated Thin-Film Evaporator (ATFE) for concentration of this waste is being investigated. Tests have shown that the ATFE can be used to produce a thick slurry, a powder, or a fused salt. A computer model developed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to simulate the operation of ATFE's on their waste is being modified for use on the ORNL transuranic sludge. This paper summarizes the results of the test with the ATFEs to date, discusses the changes in the SRP model necessary to use this model with the ORNL waste, and compares the results of the model with the actual data taken from the operation of ATFEs at vendors' test facilities. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Polymorphisms in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes and plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus ascorbate concentrations in an ascorbate depleted setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumari, Srinivasan; Talwar, Badri; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Jayanthi, Ramamurthy; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Saravanan, Charu; Young, Ian S; Dangour, Alan D; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2014-07-01

    We have previously reported low concentrations of plasma ascorbate and low dietary vitamin C intake in the older Indian population and a strong inverse association of these with cataract. Little is known about ascorbate levels in aqueous humor and lens in populations habitually depleted of ascorbate and no studies in any setting have investigated whether genetic polymorphisms influence ascorbate levels in ocular tissues. Our objectives were to investigate relationships between ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens and whether these relationships are influenced by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2). We enrolled sixty patients (equal numbers of men and women, mean age 63 years) undergoing small incision cataract surgery in southern India. We measured ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus using high performance liquid chromatography. SLC23A1 SNPs (rs4257763, rs6596473) and SLC23A2 SNPs (rs1279683 and rs12479919) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. Patients were interviewed for lifestyle factors which might influence ascorbate. Plasma vitamin C was normalized by a log10 transformation. Statistical analysis used linear regression with the slope of the within-subject associations estimated using beta (β) coefficients. The ascorbate concentrations (μmol/L) were: plasma ascorbate, median and inter-quartile range (IQR), 15.2 (7.8, 34.5), mean (SD) of aqueous humor ascorbate, 1074 (545) and lens nucleus ascorbate, 0.42 (0.16) (μmol/g lens nucleus wet weight). Minimum allele frequencies were: rs1279683 (0.28), rs12479919 (0.30), rs659647 (0.48). Decreasing concentrations of ocular ascorbate from the common to the rare genotype were observed for rs6596473 and rs12479919. The per allele difference in aqueous humor ascorbate for rs6596473 was -217 μmol/L, p humor ascorbate were higher for the GG genotype of rs6596473: GG, β = 1460 compared to

  15. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and varying concentrations of sodium nitrite from traditional and vegetable-based sources on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin; Cannon, Jerry; Montoya, Damian; Dickson, James; Lonergan, Steven; Sebranek, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect the source of added nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) had on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Use of 600MPa HHP for 3min resulted in an immediate 3.9-4.3log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers, while use of 400MPa HHP (3min) provided less than 1log CFU/g reduction. With the 600MPa HHP treatment, sliced ham with a conventional concentration of sodium nitrite (200ppm) was not different in L. monocytogenes growth from use with 50 or 100ppm of sodium nitrite in pre-converted celery powder. Instrumental color values as well as residual nitrite and residual nitrate concentrations for cured (sodium nitrite and nitrite from celery powder) and uncured ham formulations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  17. External electric field effect on the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity in InGaAsP/InP concentric double quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wang, Hailong; Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass envelope-function theory, the ground state binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity is calculated in the InGaAsP/InP concentric double quantum rings (CDQRs) using the plane wave method. The effects of geometry, impurity position, external electric field and alloy composition on binding energy are considered. It is shown that the peak value of the binding energy appears in two rings with large gap as the donor impurity moves along the radial direction. The binding energy reaches the peak value at the center of ring height when the donor impurity moves along the axial direction. The binding energy shows nonlinear variation with the increase of ring height. With the external electric field applied along the z-axis, the binding energy of the donor impurity located at zi ≥ 0 decreases while that located at zi < 0 increases. In addition, the binding energy decreases with increasing Ga composition, but increases with the increasing As composition.

  18. On the concept of resting potential--pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, the resting potential is established by the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions and the different permeabilities of the cell membrane to them. The large concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions are maintained by the Na⁺/K⁺ pump. Under physiological conditions, the pump transports three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell per ATP hydrolyzed. However, unlike other primary or secondary active transporters, the Na⁺/K⁺ pump does not work at the equilibrium state, so the pumping ratio is not a thermodynamic property of the pump. In this article, I propose a dipole-charging model of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump to prove that the three Na⁺ to two K⁺ pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump is determined by the ratio of the ionic mobilities of potassium to sodium ions, which is to ensure the time constant τ and the τ-dependent processes, such as the normal working state of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the propagation of an action potential. Further, the concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell are 0.3027 and 0.9788, respectively, and the sum of the potassium and sodium equilibrium potentials is -30.3 mV. A comparative study on these constants is made for some marine, freshwater and terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that the pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the ion concentration ratios play a role in the evolution of animal cells.

  19. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  20. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  1. Gewichtsverlies, serumnatriumconcentratie en restverschijnselen bij patiëntjes met hypertone dehydratie door onvoldoende borstvoeding [Weight loss, serum sodium concentration and residual symptoms in patients with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between serum sodium concentration and weight loss as well as residual symptoms in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding; and to determine the sensitivity of the following rule of thumb 'if weight loss is less than 10%,

  2. Influence of the reagent concentration of the colorimetric copper determination with sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (abbreviated: D.D.C.) and its importance for the determination of copper in the presence of large amounts of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, P.; Rademaker, S.C.; Walraven, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    From a research about the influence of the reagent concentration on the copper determination with sodium di-ethyl-di-thio-carbamate in the presence of large amounts of iron some insight was gained into factors which had never been examined so far and which were found to have great influence on the

  3. WE-G-BRE-06: New Potential for Enhancing External Beam Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Using FDA-Approved Concentrations of Cisplatin Or Carboplatin Nanoparticles Administered Via Inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y; Altundal, Y; Sajo, E; Detappe, A; Makrigiorgos, G; Berbeco, R; Ngwa, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates, for the first time, the dose enhancement to lung tumors due to cisplatin nanoparticles (CNPs) and carboplatin nanoparticles (CBNPs) administered via inhalation route (IR) during external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Using Monte Carlo generated 6 MV energy fluence spectra, a previously employed analytic method was used to estimate dose enhancement to lung tumor due to radiation-induced photoelectrons from CNPs administered via IR in comparison to intravenous (IV) administration. Previous studies have indicated about 5% of FDA-approved cisplatin concentrations reach the lung tumor via IV. Meanwhile recent experimental studies indicate that 3.5–14.6 times higher concentrations of CNPs can reach the lung tumors by IR compared to IV. Taking these into account, the dose enhancement factor (DEF) defined as the ratio of the dose with and without CNPs was calculated for field size of 10 cm × 10 cm (sweeping gap), for a range of tumor depths and tumor sizes. Similar calculations were done for CBNPs. Results: For IR with 3.5 times higher concentrations than IV, and 2 cm diameter tumor, clinically significant DEF values of 1.19–1.30 were obtained for CNPs at 3–10 cm depth, respectively, in comparison to 1.06–1.09 for IV. For CBNPs, DEF values of 1.26–1.41 were obtained in comparison to 1.07–1.12 for IV. For IR with 14.6 times higher concentrations, higher DEF values were obtained e.g. 1.81–2.27 for CNPs. DEF increased with increasing field size or decreasing tumor size. Conclusions: Our preliminary results indicate that major dose enhancement to lung tumors can be achieved using CNPs/CBNPs administered via IR, in contrast to IV administration during external beam radiotherapy. These findings highlight a potential new approach for radiation boosting to lung tumors using CNPs/CBNPs administered via IR. This would, especially, be applicable during concomitant chemoradiotherapy, potentially allowing for dose enhancement while

  4. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  5. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P 336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  6. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  7. LD/sub 50/ and selenium concentration in organs of rabbit following oral application of sodium selenite and toxicity verification of Ursoselevit-Praemix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berschneider, F.; Hess, M.; Neuffer, K.; Willer, S.

    1976-07-01

    LC/sub 50/24 hr/ was established in the first of a series of experiments on 72 rabbits for orally applied sodium selenite. The dosage was 8.62 mg/kg live weight, the confidence interval being (1 - ..cap alpha.. = 0.95) +/- 0.13 mg/kg. The value was four times as high following intravenous application. Complete lethality was recorded from 15 mg Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3//kg live weight within 21 hours. Thirty-six animals were involved in the second experiment of the series. They had 50 or 100 percent Ursoselevit-Praemix (30 ppm Se) in their rations. Body mass development of the test animals was superior to that recorded from the controls in the first 50 days, after which limit the former declined strongly in a few days. Their general condition worsened. Postmortem finding, following slaughter, included catarrhal enteritis, toxic liver dystrophy, scattered pulpous tumors in the spleen, and interstitial nephritis. In the third experiment (50 percent Ursoselevit-Praemix with 60 ppm Se in the rations), the test animals developed better than the controls during the first two months, after which point they exhibited the same clinical symptoms as those observed in the second experiment, stopped putting on weight, and eventually turned cachectic. The pathomorphological findings were identical with those obtained from the second experiment. The selenium concentrations in the organs of the test animals all were much higher than those of the controls. Their amounts in excess to base values were up to eleven times in the blood, nine times in the liver, twelve times in the kidneys, and 13 times in the muscles. 11 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  9. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  10. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  11. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L A H; Craciun, A R; Ruytinx, J; Lambaerts, M; Verbruggen, N; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2007-10-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in different classes of expression pattern, were isolated and sequenced. Thirty-six of the represented genes showed homology to function-known genes, whereas 6 matched unknown protein coding sequences, and 102 were possibly novel. Although relatively few TDFs were found to be responsive to the different zinc treatments, their modulated expression levels may suggest a different transcriptional response to zinc treatments in both isolates. Among the identified genes that could be related to heavy-metal detoxification or the tolerance trait were genes encoding for homologues of a heat-shock protein, a putative metal transporter, a hydrophobin, and several proteins involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

  12. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  13. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  14. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  15. Potential role of sodium-proton exchangers in the low concentration arsenic trioxide-increased intracellular pH and cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aravena

    Full Text Available Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi, cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0-48 hours in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5-100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor, PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor, Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKCα, βI and μ inhibitor, or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H(+/K(+ATPase inhibitor plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor. Incorporation of [(3H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na(+-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44(mapk were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ~0.01 ppm used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44(mapk and PKCα, βI and/or μ activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and

  16. Passage kinetics of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre through the gastro-intestinal tract of growing beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet measured with internal ð13C and external markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, J.B.; Laar, van H.; Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) are fundamental in feed evaluation systems for ruminants to predict the extent of nutrient degradation. Data on passage kinetics of growing beef cattle fed high-concentrate diets are scarce and mainly rely on external passage markers which do not provide

  17. Effect of dietary sodium selenite, Se-enriched yeast and Se-enriched Chlorella on egg Se concentration, physical parameters of eggs and laying hen production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Šimáně, J.; Dlouhá, G.; Doucha, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 163-167 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sodium selenite * se-yeast * se-chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.421, year: 2006

  18. Experimental investigation of the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine concentration using long time echo point resolved spectroscopy sequence with an external standard and linear combination of model spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Shen Zhiwei; Xiao Yeyu; Zheng Wenbin; Wu Renhua; Li Hui; Xiao Zhuanwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine (Cr) concentration using long time echo (TE) point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence performed with an extemal standard and postprocessed with the linear combination of model spectra ( LCModel). Methods: Ten swine (3.1 ± 0.6 kg) and an external standard phantom containing detectable compounds of known concentration were investigated in this study by using 1.5 T GE Signa scanner and a standard head coil. The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) data were acquired from the two ROIs (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) placed in swine brain and external standard solution using PRESS sequence with TE 135 ms, TR 1500 ms, and 128 scan averages. The in vivo quantification of Cr was accomplished by LCModel. After 1 H-MRS examination, each animal was sacrificed immediately. In vitro Cr concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: In the 1 H-MRS group, the Cr concentration was (9.37±0.14)mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the Cr concentration was (8.91± 0.13)mmol/kg. Good agreement was obtained between these two methods (t=9.038, P=0.491). Conclusion: The long echo time PRESS sequence performed with an external standard and processed with LCModel is proven to be an accurate technique to detect the in vivo brain Cr concentration. (authors)

  19. Joint dissolution and oxidation behaviour of 316LN steel at 550 C. in liquid sodium containing low concentration of oxygen - 15417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Rivollier, M.; Lorentz, V.; Tabarant, M.

    2015-01-01

    The sodium cooled fast reactor is selected in France as the 4. generation of nuclear power plant. 4. generation's reactor vessel, primary loop structures and heat exchangers will be made of austenitic stainless steels (316LN). To assess reactor service life time, corrosion of austenitic stainless steel by liquid sodium is studied in normal operating conditions as well as in transient conditions either expected or not. Oxygen, one of the main impurities, but present in trace amounts (1 to 10 μg/g or ppm weight), plays a major role on corrosion phenomena of the steel, although not totally understood yet. Literature reports an increased dissolution rate of steel or even of pure iron with increasing oxygen content although no thermodynamically stable iron oxide exists at low oxygen content. Oxygen is only known to form sodium chromite scale (NaCrO 2 ), those behaviour is, however, little documented. Based on corrosion tests performed in the static sodium test device (CorroNa) at 550 C. degrees for an oxygen content initially of about 1 ppm in weight or lower, and about 5-10 ppm after 4600 h of test, either a really small dissolution rate or small sodium chromite scale formation (NaCrO 2 ) are observed. Dissolution and carburation are observed for specimen immersed since the beginning of the test, while oxidation is the main feature observed for the specimen immersed during the last periods of the test. Some aspects of the morphologies of this oxide scale obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) are presented. Discussions and explanations of these apparently opposing results are given based on thermodynamic analysis, as well as their possible consequences for reactor operation. (authors)

  20. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  1. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  2. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  3. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento

  4. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  5. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  6. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  7. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  8. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  9. Increased cortical and deep grey matter sodium concentration is associated with physical and cognitive disability in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, WJ; Alves Da Mota, Patricia; Prados, Ferran

    digit modalities test (SDMT) and tests of verbal and visual memory. Linear regression was used to compare differences in tissue TSC between groups. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify independent associations between TSC and disability with adjustment for age, sex, disease duration......=0.40) and visual memory (β=-0.06, 95%CI -0.11, -.0.02, R2=0.19). Conclusion: Sodium accumulation in cortical and deep grey matter may reflect underlying neurodegeneration that is relevant to the development of long-term disability and cognitive impairment in relapse-onset MS. 23Na-MRI may become a secondary...

  10. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  12. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  13. Effect of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, sodium concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Pan, Luqing; Fu, Lü

    2008-02-01

    The effects of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, Na+ concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis were studied. The results showed that hemolymph osmotic pressure and Na+ concentration increased significantly ( P0.05); However, the protein concentration decreased gradually with the increase of salinity from 0.25 d to 1 d, and then tended to be stable from day 1 to day 15.

  14. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the ultrastructure and ATP concentration of boar spermatozoa, and the efficacy of added sodium selenite in extended semen on sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Guzman, J; Mahan, D C; Whitmoyer, R

    2000-06-01

    Three experiments evaluated the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, ATP concentration of spermatozoa, and the effects of adding sodium selenite to semen extenders on subsequent sperm motility. The experiment was a 2 x 2 arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. A total of 10 mature boars were fed from weaning to 18 mo of age diets fortified with two levels of supplemental Se (0 or .5 ppm) or vitamin E (0 or 220 IU/kg diet). The nonfortified diets contained .06 ppm Se and 4.4 IU vitamin E/kg. In Exp. 1, the spermatozoa from all boars were examined by electron microscopy. Vitamin E had no effect on structural abnormalities in the spermatozoa. When the low-Se diet was fed the acrosome or nuclei of the spermatozoa was unaffected, but the mitochondria in the tail midpiece were more oval with wider gaps between organelles. The plasma membrane connection to the tail midpiece was not tightly bound as when boars were fed Se. Immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets were more numerous when boars were fed the low-Se diet, but the occurrence of midpiece abnormalities occurred in boars fed diets with or without Se or vitamin E. Our results suggest that Se may enhance spermatozoa maturation in the epididymis and may reduce the number of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets. In Exp. 2, the concentration of ATP in the spermatozoa was evaluated in the semen of all treatment boars. When the low-Se diet was fed, ATP concentration was lower (P boar semen with a semen extender with sodium selenite added at 0, .3, .6, or .9 ppm Se. Three ejaculates from each boar were used to evaluate these effects on sperm motility to 48 h after dilution. Sperm motility declined (P extender, and this decline was exacerbated as the concentration of added Se increased (P boars resulted in abnormal spermatozoal mitochondria, a lower ATP concentration in the spermatozoa, and a loose apposition of the plasma membrane to the helical coil of the

  15. Increased cortical and deep grey matter sodium concentration is associated with physical and cognitive disability in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, WJ; Alves Da Mota, Patricia; Prados, Ferran

    digit modalities test (SDMT) and tests of verbal and visual memory. Linear regression was used to compare differences in tissue TSC between groups. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify independent associations between TSC and disability with adjustment for age, sex, disease duration......=0.40) and visual memory (β=-0.06, 95%CI -0.11, -.0.02, R2=0.19). Conclusion: Sodium accumulation in cortical and deep grey matter may reflect underlying neurodegeneration that is relevant to the development of long-term disability and cognitive impairment in relapse-onset MS. 23Na-MRI may become a secondary......-appearing white matter (NAWM), T1-isointense and T1-hypointense lesions was calculated. Physical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), timed 25-foot walk test (TWT) and 9-hole peg test (9HPT). Cognition was assessed using the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), symbol...

  16. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  17. The influence of concentration of Nd-Fe-B powder in composite coating of optical fiber to the sensibility to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojević Vesna J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating was investigated as an optical fiber sensor element (OFMSE for magnetic field sensing The composite coating was formed with dispersions of permanent magnet powder of Nd-Fe-B in poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-EVA solutions in toluene. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagate trough developed optical fibers sensor element was investigated. In this paper the influence of the content of magnetic powder in the composite coating on the optical propagation characteristics of optical fiber were particularly investigated.

  18. Assessment of sodium status in large ruminants by measuring the sodium-to-potassium ratio in muzzle secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Rani, D

    1999-09-01

    To develop a simple diagnostic test to assess sodium status in large ruminants on the basis of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and to determine its relevance. 7 buffalo heifers and 21 lactating, pregnant, and nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers. Buffalo heifers were subjected in 2 experiments to variable dietary sodium intake or sodium depletion and changes in sodium and potassium concentrations; Na:K was simultaneously monitored in various body fluids to study its value for indicating sodium status. Validity of the muzzle secretion test was assessed. Muzzle secretion and urinary Na:K and sodium concentration, but not serum electrolyte concentrations, reflected the sodium status of buffalo heifers in response to the widely variable intake of sodium (0.03 to 0.16% of dry matter [DM]). Progressive sodium depletion during an 11-day period, using saliva deprivation caused reciprocal changes in sodium and potassium concentrations in saliva and muzzle secretion, but not in urine. Decreasing urine sodium concentration was associated with decreasing urine potassium concentration. Saliva, urine, and muzzle secretion Na:K closely reflected the degree of sodium deficit. Buffaloes or dairy cows maintained on optimal sodium intake had muzzle secretion and urine Na:K > 0.30. Muzzle secretion or urine Na:K muzzle secretion Na:K, and to a large extent urine Na:K, may be used as a convenient diagnostic tool to assess sodium status in large ruminants. It has accuracy similar to that of saliva Na:K.

  19. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  20. The effect of glucose concentration and sodium phenylbutyrate treatment on mitochondrial bioenergetics and ER stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Ross M; Piroli, Gerardo G; Day, Stani D; Frizzell, Norma

    2015-01-01

    While the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model is routinely used for the study of obesity and diabetes, the mitochondrial respiratory profile in normal versus high glucose has not been examined in detail. We matured adipocytes in normal (5mM) or high (30 mM) glucose and insulin and examined the mitochondrial bioenergetics. We also assessed the requirement for the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and ER stress under these conditions. Basal respiration was ~1.7-fold greater in adipocytes that had matured in 30 mM glucose; however, their ability to increase oxygen consumption in response to stress was impaired. Adipogenesis proceeded in both normal and high glucose with concomitant activation of the UPR, but only high glucose was associated with increased levels of ER stress and mitochondrial stress as observed by parallel increases in CHOP and protein succination. Treatment of adipocytes with sodium phenylbutyrate relieved mitochondrial stress through a reduction in mitochondrial respiration. Our data suggests that mitochondrial stress, protein succination and ER stress are uniquely linked in adipocytes matured in high glucose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of pelleted or powdered diets containing soy protein or sodium caseinate on lipid concentrations and bile acid excretion in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S

    2015-08-01

    Custom diets are a convenient vector for oral administration of test articles, but the processing and physical form of a diet can affect its nutritional properties and how it is consumed. Here, the authors evaluated the feeding behavior and physiology of golden Syrian hamsters fed diets of either soy or caseinate protein in pelleted or powdered forms for 28 d to determine whether dietary processing and form mediates the physiological effects of dietary proteins. The authors compared body weight, food consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride concentration, fecal weight and fecal excretion of bile acids between treatment groups. Hamsters fed powdered diets showed higher food consumption than hamsters fed pelleted diets, regardless of protein source. Hamsters fed soy pelleted diets showed lower serum cholesterol concentration and higher fecal excretion of bile acid than hamsters fed caseinate pelleted diets, and serum cholesterol concentration correlated strongly with fecal excretion of bile acid. This correlation suggests that the physiological effects of soy protein on cholesterol and excretion of bile acid might be related or similarly mediated through diet. The differences observed between hamsters on different diets indicate that dietary form can influence both feeding behavior and the physiological effects of a diet in hamsters.

  2. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT

  3. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  4. Modelling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Perturbations by Externally Induced Cholesterol Pulses of Finite Duration and with Asymmetrically Distributed Concentration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, A.; Marković, V. M.; Čupić, Ž.; Vukojević, V.; Kolar-Anić, L.

    2017-12-01

    A model was developed that can be used to study the effect of gradual cholesterol intake by food on the HPA axis dynamics. Namely, well defined oscillatory dynamics of vital neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has proven to be necessary for maintaining regular basal physiology and formulating appropriate stress response to various types of perturbations. Cholesterol, as a precursor of all steroid HPA axis hormones, can alter the dynamics of HPA axis. To analyse its particular influence on the HPA axis dynamics we used stoichiometric model of HPA axis activity, and simulate cholesterol perturbations in the form of finite duration pulses, with asymmetrically distributed concentration profile. Our numerical simulations showed that there is a complex, nonlinear dependence between the HPA axis responsiveness and different forms of applied cholesterol concentration pulses, indicating the significance of kinetic modelling, and dynamical systems theory for the understanding of large-scale self-regulatory, and homeostatic processes within this neuroendocrine system.

  5. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  6. Changes in EC , pH and in the concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in the drainage solution of a crop of roses on substrates with drainage recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rose cultivation system has been changing from soil to substrate on the Plateau of Bogota. The objective of this study was the monitoring of the EC, pH, and the levels of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in a drainage solution in a crop of roses with substrates based on burnt rice husk and coconut fiber. The Charlotte rose variety grafted onto ‘Natal Briar’ was planted in a greenhouse located in one of the SENA facilities in Mosquera (Colombia; with a density of 6.5 plants/ m². For this experiment, a split plot design was used arranged in randomized blocks with a three-level recirculating system (0, 50 and 100% on the substrates 100% burnt rice husk; 65% burnt rice husk plus 35% coconut fiber; and 35% burnt rice husk plus 65% coconut fiber, repeated three times. The EC decreased from 2.7 to 1.3 mS cm-1 within weeks 2 and 5 which demonstrated an increase of mineral consumption by the plants. The pH levels dropped from 7.46 to 6.27 within weeks 3 to 8 and then increased to 7.39 within weeks 8 to 12. Nitrate concentrations showed a decreasing trend in recirculation treatments within weeks 2 to 12. A lower ammonium concentration was observed at week 4 in treatments with and without recirculation during the vegetative stage. The levels of sodium and chloride increased in treatments with a recirculation system, without signs of toxicity

  7. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  8. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  9. A note on the manipulation of sodium and potassium concentrations in the rumen of reindeer and the possible effect on digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Rumen Na+ and K+ concentrations in reindeer were manipulated by introducing 4 M KC1 or 4 M NaCl into the reindeer rumen. A positive correlation was found between salivary and ruminal concentrations of Na+ and K+. Decreased ruminal Na+ concentrations seemed to decrease dry matter digestibility in nylon bags incubated in the rumen.Om manipulering av natrium og kalium konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein og om de mulige effekter på fordøyeligheten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Na+ og K+ konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein ble regulert ved å gi reinen 4 M KC1 eller 4 M NaCl direkte i vomma. Det ble funnet en positiv korrelasjon mellom spytt og vomkonsentrasjoner av Na+ og K+. Redusert Na+ konsentrasjon i vomma synes å redusere tørrstoff-fordøyelighet i nylonposer plassert i vomma.Poron pötsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraation kokeellisesta mu-uttamisesta ja tämän mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta sulavuuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poron potsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraatioita muutettiin antamalla 4 M KC1 tai 4 M NaCl suo-raan potsiin. Syljen ja potsin Na ja K -konsentraatioiden vålillå todettiin positiivinen korrelaatio. Alentunut Na -konsentraatio potsisså nåyttåå våhentåvån kuiva-aineen sulavuutta potsiin sijoitetuissa nailonpusseissa.

  10. [Relationship between the ionic composition of blood and urine and the salinity of the external environment of the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busev, V M; Semen'kov, P G; Mishchenko, T Ia

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been made on the dependence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations of the blood and urine on the salinity of the external milieu in the crab H. sanguineus. Effective regulation of sodium and potasssium balance at low salinities was found. Within the salinity range investigated, magnesium level in the blood is maintained at lower level as compared to that in the environment. At low salinities, regulation of potassium and sodium concentrations in the blood is monitored by extrarenal mechanisms. Uber high salinity conditions, regulation of magnesium and potassium concentrations in the blood is accomplished at the expense of the activity of antennal glands. Calcium concentration in the blood is regulated by extra-renal mechanisms. The antennal glands affect regulation of calcium balance.

  11. Atmospheric diffusion and fallout and alkaline materials produced by sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfenati, I.

    1982-01-01

    The present works deals with a theoretic approach of the diffusion in air of colloidal Na 2 O coming out of sodium fires, consequent to sodium losses from the cooling circuit of a fast breeder reactor, in case of accident. The theoretical pattern has subsequently been applied to a numerical assessment of the Na 2 O concentration in air and on the ground (due to fallout), either inside or outside the sodium hall of the Cpv-1 facility at the Brasimone site. The assessment refers to the maximum credible accident 'pool burning', in the most unfavourable meteorological conditions. Protectionistic recomendations are given, and emergency procedures are described, in that concerns boot people professionally employed within the reactor site and the external population

  12. The effect of different temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite on the elimination of E.Faecalis using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMadi, Ebtissam M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intracanal bacterial reduction using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation (IPUI) with different concentrations and temperatures of NaOCl in different canal tapers. The root canals of seventy-two extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented up to size 20k file and inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were divided into 5 experimental groups and one control. The root canals in the control group were shaped to a 0.04 taper using ProFile rotary files, with 1.5 minute of IPUI by NaOCl at a concentration of 2.5% and room temperature of 25degreeC for 30 seconds at a time at three intervals. In Group 1, the canals were shaped to a 0.06 taper, and in Groups 2 and 3 - the temperature of NaOCl used was 37degreeC and 45degreeC respectively, and in Groups 4 and 5 - the concentrations of NaOCl were 1% and 5% respectively. The canals were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours and bacterial samples were obtained using paper points and plated on agar plates. The zones of bacterial growth were measured and statistical analysis was performed. There was significantly more bacterial growth in the control group than in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in bacterial growth in Group V compared to Group 4. The result of this study showed that significant bacterial reduction in contaminated root canals could be obtained using intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation combined with 2.5% NaOCl at 37degreeC in canals prepared to a taper of 0.06. In addition, complete bacterial eradication could be obtained using IPUI with 2.5% NaOCl at 45degreeC or 5% NaOCl at room temperature (37degreeC). (author)

  13. Stability of aqueous-alkaline sodium borohydride formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkina, V.G.; Shabunya, S.I.; Kalinin, V.I.; Martynenko, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Stability of sodium borohydride in the form of concentrated solutions and suspensions and solids corresponding to a crystal hydrate in composition was studied. The effects of temperature, concentrations of sodium borohydride and alkali, and nature of alkali metal cation on the rate of sodium borohydride hydrolysis were studied [ru

  14. Effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in salted Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Choobkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salting of fish is a traditional method for fish preservation which reduces corruption, increase shelf life and is used in order to have an access to the new markets. In some countries, consuming semi-cooked or raw salted and smoked fish is well-liked. Due to the presence of halophilic microorganisms in salted fish, occurrence of food-borne infections is probable. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of NaCl on Staphlococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in salted silver carp. Effect of different concentrations of NaCl (4, 8, 12 % on behavior of Staphlococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in 10˚C during 3 weeks (0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 days was determined by evaluation of the bacterial growth in salted fish fillets. Statistical analysis showed that application of different concentrations of NaCl had significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus and L.monocytogenes in salted fish fillets compared to control group (p

  15. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the external radiation exposure dosimetry and calculation of maximum permissible concentration values for airborne materials containing 18F, 15O, 13N, 11C and 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piltingsrud, H.V.; Gels, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    To better understand the dose equivalent (D.E.) rates produced by airborne releases of gaseous positron-emitting radionuclides under various conditions of cloud size, a study of the external radiation exposure dosimetry of these radionuclides, as well as negatron, gamma and x-ray emitting 133Xe, was undertaken. This included a calculation of the contributions to D.E. as a function of cloud radii, at tissue depths of 0.07 mm (skin), 3 mm (lens of eye) and 10 mm (whole body) from both the particulate and photon radiations emitted by these radionuclides. Estimates of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values were also calculated based on the calculated D.E. rates and current regulations for personnel radiation protection (CFR84). Three continuous air monitors, designed for use with 133Xe, were evaluated for applications in monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters. The results indicate that for a given radionuclide and for a cloud greater than a certain radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must respond acceptably to only the photon radiations emitted by the radionuclide to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. For clouds under that radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must also respond acceptably to the positron or negatron radiations to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. It was found that two out of the three air concentration monitors may be useful for monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters

  17. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  18. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  19. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  20. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  2. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  3. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  4. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  5. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  6. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  7. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  8. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sodium alendronate on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vera de Fátima Padrão; Caldeira, Celso L; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-12-01

    External root resorption processes are usually associated with dental trauma, mainly avulsion and intrusion. In such cases endodontic therapy aims to prevent this process by using medications that can inhibit osteoclastic activity, such as bisphosphonates. However, these drugs must be biocompatible to the periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of a bisphosphonate (sodium alendronate) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells). Cells were plated in a density of 1 x 10(3) cells per dish. The experimental groups were GI (control) no sodium alendronate, and GII, GIII, and GIV with sodium alendronate at the concentrations of 10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7) M, respectively. The experimental times were 1, 6, 12, and 24 h (short-term) for viability and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days (long-term) for cell survival. Data in triplicate were statistically analyzed. Cultures treated with the highest alendronate concentration (GII) showed cell viability percentages significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other groups (GI, GIII, and GIV), at 12 and 24 h. Cell growth on GII and GIII groups was similar. GII presented smaller growth than the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that sodium alendronate, on direct contact with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, is cytotoxic in concentrations higher than of 10(-6) M.

  9. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, John P; Bocking, Adele; Wilkinson, Robert; Postma, Maarten J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Mataranyika, Mary; Marfin, Anthony A; Lowrance, David W; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2015-04-01

    External assistance can rapidly strengthen health programmes in developing countries, but such funding can also create sustainability challenges. From 2004-2011, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided more than $ 8 million to the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS) for supplies, equipment, and staff salaries. This analysis describes the impact that support had on actual production costs and the unit prices charged for red cell concentrate (RCC) units issued to public sector hospitals. A costing system developed by NAMBTS to set public sector RCC unit prices was used to describe production costs and unit prices during the period of PEPFAR scale-up (2004-2009) and the 2 years in which PEPFAR support began to decline (2010-2011). Hypothetical production costs were estimated to illustrate differences had PEPFAR support not been available. Between 2004-2006, NAMBTS sold 22,575 RCC units to public sector facilities. During this time, RCC unit prices exceeded per unit cost-recovery targets by between 40.3% (US$ 16.75 or N$ 109.86) and 168.3% (US$ 48.72 or N$ 333.28) per year. However, revenue surpluses dwindled between 2007 and 2011, the final year of the study period, when NAMBTS sold 20,382 RCC units to public facilities but lost US$23.31 (N$ 170.43) on each unit. PEPFAR support allowed NAMBTS to leverage domestic cost-recovery revenue to rapidly increase blood collections and the distribution of RCC. However, external support kept production costs lower than they would have been without PEPFAR. If PEPFAR funds had not been available, RCC prices would have needed to increase by 20% per year to have met annual cost-recovery targets and funded the same level of investments as were made with PEPFAR support. Tracking the subsidising influence of external support can help blood services make strategic investments and plan for unit price increases as external funds are withdrawn.

  10. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  12. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  13. Influence of higher sodium substitutions on magnetic entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The change in entropy also decreases with increase in substitution of sodium. A notable change ... of substituting elements for A and B ions, valence states of. Mn and the oxygen ... applied external magnetic field of 7 T.17 Sodium substitu- ..... Bohigas X, Tejada J, Del Barco E, Zhang X X and Sales M. 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett.

  14. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Investigating the size, shape and surface roughness dependence of polarization lidars with light-scattering computations on real mineral dust particles: Application to dust particles' external mixtures and dust mass concentration retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Tahar; Kemppinen, Osku; David, Grégory; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Tyynelä, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Rairoux, Patrick; Miffre, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to the Earth's radiative budget is limited by the complexity of these particles, which present a wide range of sizes, are highly-irregularly shaped, and are present in the atmosphere in the form of particle mixtures. To address the spatial distribution of mineral dust and atmospheric dust mass concentrations, polarization lidars are nowadays frequently used, with partitioning algorithms allowing to discern the contribution of mineral dust in two or three-component particle external mixtures. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the retrieved dust backscattering (βd) vertical profiles with the dust particle size and shape. For that, new light-scattering numerical simulations are performed on real atmospheric mineral dust particles, having determined mineralogy (CAL, DOL, AGG, SIL), derived from stereogrammetry (stereo-particles), with potential surface roughness, which are compared to the widely-used spheroidal mathematical shape model. For each dust shape model (smooth stereo-particles, rough stereo-particles, spheroids), the dust depolarization, backscattering Ångström exponent, lidar ratio are computed for two size distributions representative of mineral dust after long-range transport. As an output, two Saharan dust outbreaks involving mineral dust in two, then three-component particle mixtures are studied with Lyon (France) UV-VIS polarization lidar. If the dust size matters most, under certain circumstances, βd can vary by approximately 67% when real dust stereo-particles are used instead of spheroids, corresponding to variations in the dust backscattering coefficient as large as 2 Mm- 1·sr- 1. Moreover, the influence of surface roughness in polarization lidar retrievals is for the first time discussed. Finally, dust mass-extinction conversion factors (ηd) are evaluated for each assigned shape model and dust mass concentrations are retrieved from polarization lidar measurements. From

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  18. External body components and internal fat of Charolais or Nellore steers, fed with different concentrate levelComponentes externos e gordura interna de novilhos Charolês ou Nelore alimentados com diferentes proporções de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Floriano da Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the development of external body components and the distribution of internal fat of Charolais (CH and Nellore (NE steers, fed with different concentrate level in the diet. The steers were distributed in six treatments constituted by three concentrate level: 35, 50 or 65% (dry matter basis and two genetic group (Charolais or Nellore. NE steers fed with 65% concentrate in diet showed higher EBW yield, it was not different to CH and NE steers fed with 50% concentrate. Head weigth in relation to EBW was decrease with the increase of the proportions concentrate (4.67, 4.30 and 4.28 to 35; 50 and 65% concentrate, respectively. The head weigh also was lower from NE steers in relation to CH steers (4.30 versus 4.54, respectively. The absolute total weight of internal fat was higher (PAvaliaram-se os componentes externos e a distribuição da gordura interna de novilhos das raças Charolês (CH ou Nelore (NE, alimentados com diferentes proporções de concentrado na dieta. Os novilhos foram distribuídos em seis tratamentos que corresponderam a três níveis de concentrado: 35, 50 e 65% (com base na matéria seca e dois grupos genéticos (Charolês e Nelore. Os novilhos NE alimentados com 65% de concentrado na dieta apresentaram maior rendimento de corpo vazio (RCV, não diferindo dos novilhos CH e NE alimentados com 50% de concentrado. O peso da cabeça ajustado para peso de corpo vazio (PCV foi menor para os animais que consumiram dieta com proporção mais alta de concentrado (4,67, 4,30 e 4,28 para 35, 50 e 65% de concentrado, respectivamente e para os novilhos da raça NE em relação aos CH (4,30 contra 4,54, respectivamente. O peso absoluto total das gorduras internas foi superior (P<0,05 para os novilhos alimentados com proporções mais elevadas de concentrado (18,13; 22,58 e 21,74 kg para 35 50 e 65% de concentrado, e para os novilhos CH em relação aos NE (22,52 contra 19,11, respectivamente. Novilhos CH

  19. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected and...

  20. Experimental study on oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Sun Shubin; Liu Chongchong; Tang Yexin

    2015-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent. In this paper, the oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets were studied by carrying out the experiments of the oxidation and combustion under different conditions of initial temperatures (140-370℃) of the sodium droplets and oxygen concentrations (4%-21%). The oxidation and combustion behaviors were visualized by a set of combustion apparatus of sodium droplet and a high speed camera. The experiment results show that the columnar oxides grow longer as the initial temperature of sodium droplet and oxygen concentration become lower. Under the same oxygen concentration condition, the sodium droplet with the higher initial temperature is easier to ignite and burn. When the initial temperature of sodium droplet is below 200℃, it is very difficult to ignite. If there is a turbulence damaging the oxide layer on the surface, the sodium droplet will also burn gradually. When the initial temperature ranges from 140℃ to 370℃ and the oxygen fraction is equal to or higher than 12%, the sodium droplet could burn completely and the maximum combustion temperature could roughly reach 600-800℃. When the oxygen concentration is below 12%, the sodium droplet could not burn completely and the highest combustion temperature is below 600℃. The results are helpful to the research on the columnar flow and spray sodium fire. (authors)

  1. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  2. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  3. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are

  4. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Gardner, J J; Lockley, W J.S.; Preston, J R; Wilkinson, D J [Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  5. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  6. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m{sup 2} at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na{sub 2}O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} m. (author)

  7. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewith, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Otter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m 2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m 2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na 2 O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10 2 and 10 4 m. (author)

  8. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  9. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  10. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  11. Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Ohura, Masato; Yatoh, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

  12. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  13. INTRACELLULAR ION CONCENTRATIONS IN BRANCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OF BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L.) DETERMINED BY X-RAY MICROANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan; Potts; Oates

    1994-09-01

    The intracellular concentrations of sodium, chloride, phosphorus and potassium under normal conditions in pavement epithelial (PE) cells of brown trout (Salmo trutta) gill were 66, 51, 87 and 88 mmol l-1 respectively. The concentrations of these elements under identical conditions in mitochondria-rich (MR) cells were not significantly different, except for that of chlorine, which was lower in MR cells (40 mmol l-1). The concentration of sodium in the PE cells decreased slightly after exposure of the fish to low external [Na+] (25 µmol l-1) for 7 days but increased greatly within 5 min of subsequent exposure to 1 mmol l-1 external Na+. These changes in external [Na+] had no significant effect on MR cells. Exposure of fish to low [Cl-] (25 µmol l-1) had no effect on PE or MR cells, but on exposure to 1 mmol l-1 Cl- the concentrations of chlorine, phosphorus and potassium in both types of cells increased, whilst the intracellular sodium concentration decreased only in MR cells. The PE cells were little affected by exposure of the fish to the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. In contrast, 0.5 mmol l-1 external acetazolamide caused a significant decrease in intracellular phosphorus, chlorine and potassium concentrations in MR cells. This suggests that the PE cells are the sites of sodium uptake in the gills of the brown trout and that chloride uptake occurs via the MR cells. These results are discussed with respect to the sites and possible mechanisms of ionic exchange in freshwater vertebrates.

  14. Muzzle secretion electrolytes as a possible indicator of sodium status in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves: effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Singh, S P

    1981-01-01

    In two separate experiments, the effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration on sodium and potassium concentrations in muzzle secretion, saliva and urine were studied in buffalo calves. Sodium deficiency in the animals was experimentally produced by unilateral parotid saliva deprivation for 18 days. During sodium depletion, the sodium levels in saliva and muzzle secretion gradually fell while the potassium level gradually rose. The concentrations of both of these cations in urine gradually fell during the course of sodium depletion. Aldosterone administration in normal (sodium-replete) animals simulated the effects of sodium depletion as far as cationic changes in saliva were concerned. However, aldosterone did not affect sodium and potassium concentration in the urine and in muzzle secretion in a manner similar to that caused by sodium depletion. Though the hormone decreased urinary sodium without affecting urinary potassium, it did not affect the muzzle sodium or potassium. Results suggest that aldosterone affects the composition of saliva and urine in buffaloes as it does in sheep and other ruminants. Similar changes in composition of muzzle secretion and saliva during sodium depletion indicate that the concentration of sodium in muzzle secretion could possibly be used to evaluate the sodium status of animals.

  15. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  16. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  17. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  18. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  19. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  20. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  2. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  3. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  4. Analysis of carbon transport in the EBR-II and FFTF primary sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.B.; Natesan, K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the carburization-decarburization behavior of austenitic stainless steels in the primary heat-transport systems of the EBR-II and FFTF has been made that is based upon a kinetic model for the diffusion process and the surface area of steel in contact with flowing sodium at various temperatures in the two systems. The analysis was performed for operating conditions that result in sodium outlet temperatures of 474 and 566 0 C in the FFTF and 470 0 C in the EBR-II. If there was no external source of carbon to the system, i.e., other than the carbon initially present in the steel and the sodium, the dynamic-equilibrium carbon concentrations calculated for the FFTF primary sodium were approximately 0.025 and approximately 0.065 ppm for the 474 and 566 0 C outlet temperatures, respectively, and approximately 0.018 ppm for the EBR-II primary system. The analysis indicated that a carbon-source rate of approximately 250 g/y would be required to increase the carbon concentration of the EBR-II sodium to the measured range of approximately 0.16--0.19 ppm. An evaluation of possible carbon sources and the amount of carbonaceous material introduced into the reactor cover gas and sodium suggests that the magnitude of the calculated contamination rate is reasonable. For a 566 0 C outlet temperature, carbonaceous material would have to be introduced into the FFTF primary system at a rate approximately 4--6 times higher than in EBR-II to achieve the same carbon concentration in the sodium in the two systems. Since contamination rates of approximately 1500 g/y are unlikely, high-temperature fuel cladding in the FFTF should exhibit decarburization similar to that observed in laboratory loop systems, in contrast to the minimal compositional changes that result after exposure of Type 316 stainless steel to EBR-II sodium at temperatures between approximately 625 and 650 0 C

  5. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  6. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Integrated combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium under low nutrient food-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Aikaterini; Simões, Manuel; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen. This forms biofilms on surfaces and persists, depending on the strain and the environment. The integrative interaction of temperature (T; 13-39 °C), pH (5-8) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0.5-8.5%) on biofilm formation by two S. enterica strains (ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium) was here evaluated under low nutrient conditions. This was achieved using response surface methodology to model the combined effect of each factor on the response, through mathematical quadratic fitting of the outcomes of a sequence of designed experiments. These last were executed by incubating stainless steel coupons carrying sessile bacteria, for 24 h, in 1:10 diluted tryptone soya broth, under 15 different combinations of three independent factors (T, pH and NaCl). For each strain, a second order polynomial model, describing the relationship between biofilm formation (log CFU/cm 2 ) and the factors (T, pH and NaCl), was developed using least square regression analysis. Both derived models predicted the combined influences of these factors on biofilm formation, with agreement between predictions and experimental observations (R 2  ≥ 0.96, P ≤ 0.0001). For both strains, the increase of NaCl content restricted their sessile growth, while under low salinity conditions (NaCl formation was favored as pH increased, regardless of T. Interestingly, under low salt content, and depending on the strain, biofilm formation was either favored or hindered by increasing T. Thus, 34.5 and 13 °C were the T predicted to maximize biofilm formation by strains Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively, something which was also experimentally verified. To sum, these models can predict the interactive influences of crucial food-related factors on biofilm growth of a significant foodborne pathogen towards the efforts to limit its persistence in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  9. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  10. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  11. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  12. Behaviour of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the vacuum distillation method has been used for the determination of oxygen concentration in liquid sodium. During this investigation, more than 800 analyses have been made and a fluctuation of between 15 and 20$ has been noted in the results. The performance of a cold trap to remove oxygen from sodium has been studied and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient evaluated. The value of this coefficient was in good agreement with those achieved by other workers. (Authors) 69 refs

  13. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.; Mehmet Kanik, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching...

  14. An investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hydrofluoric acid intoxication in rats and pigs. Interim report concerning the results of phase 2.1: The effect of sodium fluoride infusion on the plasma concentrations of lactate and magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boink ABTJ; de Wildt DJ; de Jong Y; de Groot G; Vaessen HAMG; Meulenbelt J; van Dijk A; Vosmeer H

    1990-01-01

    From a previous study it was concluded that intravenous infusion of sodium fluoride (NaF) in rats is a suitable model to study the toxicity of hydrofluoric acid. In this supplementary study we investigated the effect of intravenous infusion of a high and low dose of NaF (120 and 25 mg.kg -1.hr

  15. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  16. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: monica.gmartin@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: Martin.KISSANE@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  17. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  18. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  19. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  20. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  1. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  2. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  3. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  4. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  5. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  6. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  7. Corrosion of steels in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Hawtin, P.

    1976-01-01

    Proposed expressions for the corrosion and deposition rates and other relevant data are examined theoretically using models which treat both particle and molecular transport and the coupling between particle and molecular concentrations. It is difficult to reconcile some properties of the observed rates, including sodium velocity dependence, with currently accepted best values for the equilibrium iron concentration in sodium. To overcome this difficulty a new model is proposed which contains two iron solubilities, one with and one without association with oxygen, which can also explain some existing anomalies in solubility measurements. The models also give a qualitative understanding of some properties of particles in circuits including the observed size distribution

  8. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  9. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  10. Long-term stability of sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Manispuritha; Ghosh, Supratim

    2017-01-01

    Oil-in-water (5 wt%) nanoemulsions were prepared with different concentration (2.5-10 wt%) of sodium caseinate as a sole emulsifier and their long-term storage stability was investigated for 6 months. Previous studies associated with sodium caseinate looked only into nanoemulsion formation; hence the challenges with long-term stability were not addressed. All nanoemulsions displayed an average droplet size sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

  11. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  12. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  13. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  14. Use of Sodium Hypochlorite for the Control of Bakanae Disease in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Bum Shin; Jaeduk Goh; Bong Choon Lee; In Jeong Kang; Hang-Won Kang

    2014-01-01

    For application of sodium hypochlorite as a seed disinfectant to the control of bakanae disease caused by Gibberella fujikuroi in rice, we investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite for antifungal activity, eliminating fungus from seeds and reducing disease occurrence in vitro and greenhouse. The viability of the pathogen was significantly reduced at 80 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlorite, and the pathogens did not grow at over 100 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlor...

  15. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  18. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  19. Development of a sodium ionization detector for sodium-to-gas leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Elumalai, G.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive sodium-to-gas leak detector has been indigenously developed for use in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. The detector relies on the relative ease with which sodium vapour or its aerosols including its oxides and hydroxides can be thermally ionized compared with other possible constituents such as nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour etc. in a carrier gas and is therefore called sodium ionization detector (SID). The ionization current is a measure of sodium concentration in the carrier gas sampled through the detector. Different sensor designs using platinum and rhodium as filament materials in varying sizes were constructed and their responses to different sodium aerosol concentrations in the carrier gas were investigated. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas. Both the background current and speed of response were found to depend on the diameter of the filament. There was also a particular collector voltage which yielded maximum sensitivity of the detector. The sensor was therefore optimised considering influence of above factors and a detector has been built which demonstrates a sensitivity better than 0.3 nanogram of sodium per cubic centimetre of carrier gas for a signal to background ratio of 1:1. Its usefulness in detecting sodium fires in experimental area was also demonstrated. Currently efforts are under way to improve the life time of the filament used in the above detector. (author)

  20. Comparison of Prescribed and Measured Dialysate Sodium: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ambreen; Miskulin, Dana C; Paine, Susan S; Narsipur, Sriram S; Arbeit, Leonard A; Harford, Antonia M; Weiner, Daniel E; Schrader, Ronald; Horowitz, Bruce L; Zager, Philip G

    2016-03-01

    There is controversy regarding the optimal dialysate sodium concentration for hemodialysis patients. Dialysate sodium concentrations of 134 to 138 mEq/L may decrease interdialytic weight gain and improve hypertension control, whereas a higher dialysate sodium concentration may offer protection to patients with low serum sodium concentrations and hypotension. We conducted a quality improvement project to explore the hypothesis that prescribed and delivered dialysate sodium concentrations may differ significantly. Cross-sectional quality improvement project. 333 hemodialysis treatments in 4 facilities operated by Dialysis Clinic, Inc. Measure dialysate sodium to assess the relationships of prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Magnitude of differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Dialysate sodium measured pre- and late dialysis. The least square mean of the difference between prescribed minus measured dialysate sodium concentration was -2.48 (95% CI, -2.87 to -2.10) mEq/L. Clinics with a greater number of different dialysate sodium prescriptions (clinic 1, n=8; clinic 2, n=7) and that mixed dialysate concentrates on site had greater differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Overall, 57% of measured dialysate sodium concentrations were within ±2 mEq/L of the prescribed dialysate sodium concentration. Differences were greater at higher prescribed dialysate sodium concentrations. We only studied 4 facilities and dialysate delivery machines from 2 manufacturers. Because clinics using premixed dialysate used the same type of machine, we were unable to independently assess the impact of these factors. Pressures in dialysate delivery loops were not measured. There were significant differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. This may have beneficial or deleterious effects on clinical outcomes, as well as confound results from studies assessing the

  1. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Gawałek; Piotr Wesołowski

    2012-01-01

    Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The materia...

  2. The corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed by AEA Technology on the corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts containing sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. This research has principally been in support of understanding the effects of sodium-water reactions on the internals of fast reactor steam generators. The results however have relevance to sodium fires. It has been determined that the rate of corrosion of steels by melts of pure NaOH can be significantly increased by the addition of Na 2 O. In the case of a sodium-water reaction jet created by a leak of steam into sodium, the composition of the jet varies from 100% sodium through to 100% steam, with a full range of concentrations of NaOH and Na 2 O, depending on axial and radial position. The temperature in the jet also varies with position, ranging from bulk sodium temperature on one boundary to expanded steam temperature on the other boundary, with internal temperatures ranging up to 1300 deg. C, depending on the local pre-reaction mole ratio of steam to sodium. In the case of sodium-water reaction jets, it has been possible to develop a model which predicts the composition of the reaction jet and then, using the data generated on the corrosivity of sodium melts, predict the rate of corrosion of a steel target in the path of the jet. In the case of a spray sodium fire, the sodium will initially contain a concentration of NaOH and the combustion process will generate Na 2 O. If there is sufficient humidity, conversion of some of the Na 2 O to NaOH will also occur. There is therefore the potential for aggressive mixtures of NaOH and Na 2 O to exist on the surface of the sodium droplets. It is therefore possible that the rate of corrosion of steels in the path of the spray may be higher than expected on the basis of assuming that only Na and Na 2 O were present. In the case of a pool sodium fire, potentially corrosive mixtures of NaOH and Na 2 O may be formed at some locations on the surface. This could lead to

  3. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  4. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  5. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  6. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  7. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  8. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

  9. Modeling the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat cooked meat products as a function of the product salt, moisture, potassium lactate, and sodium diacetate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, J D; Seman, D L; Milkowski, A L; Hirschey, J A; Vandeven, M H

    2004-10-01

    A central composite response surface design was used to determine the time to growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of four continuous variables: added sodium chloride (0.8 to 3.6%), sodium diacetate (0 to 0.2%), potassium lactate syrup (60% [wt/wt]; 0.25 to 9.25%), and finished-product moisture (45.5 to 83.5%) in ready-to-eat cured meat products. The design was repeated for ready-to-eat uncured meat products giving a fifth categorical variable for cure status. Products were stored at 4 degrees C. The results were modeled using a generalized regression approach. All five main effects, six two-factor interactions, and two quadratic terms were statistically significant. The model was used to show the boundary between growth and no-growth conditions at 4 degrees C using contour plots of time to growth. It was validated using independent challenge studies of cured and uncured products. Generally, the model predicted well, particularly for cured products, where it will be useful for establishing conditions that prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes. For uncured products, there was good agreement overall between predicted and observed times to growth, but the model is less thoroughly validated than for cured products. The model should initially only be used for screening of formulations likely to prevent growth of Listeria monocytogenes in uncured products, with recommendations subject to confirmation by challenge studies.

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  11. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campon, J.L.

    1987-07-01

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na 24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few μm width

  12. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  13. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  14. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  15. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  16. Dosage of trace carbon in sodium (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannier, J.; Vasseur, A.

    1963-01-01

    A wet method for dosing carbon in sodium has been developed. The carbon is oxidised in a vacuum using Van SLYKE'S solution. The carbonic acid formed is measured volumetrically; its purity can be controlled by chromatographic analysis. The results obtained show that this method makes it possible to measure carbon in concentrations of about 10 ppm. (authors) [fr

  17. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  18. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  19. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  20. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  1. FFTF sodium and cover gas characterization and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Bloom, G.R.; Meadows, G.E.; Mettler, G.W.

    1980-02-01

    The FFTF Primary and Secondary Heat Transport System (HTS) sodium is purified with cold traps which have packed crystallizers and external economizers. The Primary HTS cold trap is NaK cooled and the Secondary HTS cold traps are air cooled. The FFTF cold traps have maintained high purity in the sodium since sodium fill. Plant operational procedures during fill and initial sodium heatup to 800 0 F were controlled to assure low release rates of impurities to the sodium. The FFTF sodium systems are monitored by plugging temperature indicators and by several sampling methods. During reactor fill and non-fueled operations at 400 to 800 0 F, impurity changes in the sodium were followed by continuous plugging indicator coverage, by exposing wires and foils to measure carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and by bulk sample analysis of all other trace constituents. The sampling and analysis methods and data are presented, impurity excursions in the cover gas and sodium are described, and impurity trends are discussed

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  3. Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

    2005-03-23

    The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels.

  4. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  5. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  7. Sodium removal disassembly and examination of the Fermi secondary sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, H.P.; Funk, C.W.; Ballif, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Fermi secondary pump is a centrifugal single stage design. The pump had been operated more than 42,000 hours between 450 and 800 0 F. Sodium was drained from the pump in 1973 and the system was back filled with carbon dioxide. The pump was fabricated for 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Croloy steel. Prior to cleaning the pump was inerted and heated with 150 0 F nitrogen using the pump casing as the containment vessel. The water-vapor-nitrogen process was used in three increasing stages of water concentration. The hydrogen concentration in the discharge line was followed as an indicator of the sodium-water reaction rate. Upon completion of the hydrogen evolution, the pump was rinsed several times with hot water. Six pounds of sodium were removed from the pump during a process cycle of 79 hours including rinsing. The maximum pump temperature recorded was 175 0 F with no variation exceeding 10 0 F. The hydrogen concentration in the effluent provided a very satisfactory index for control of the reaction by adjustment of the water-vapor concentration feed to the system. Rinsing effectiveness was limited by a pool of water in the volute that was not drainable with the available system hook up. Sodium and its compounds were removed from all internal surfaces that could be observed by the first stage of disassembly. All such surfaces were coated with a black deposit. Areas above the sodium liquid level were coated with a vermillion colored oxide. Sodium was found on the (1) threads of the impeller nut lock screw, (2) impeller nut-tapered shaft interface, and (3) vapor deposited sodium was found in the oil seal

  8. Local transport of vertically and horizontally emitted sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.; Cooper, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid-metal-cooled breeder reactors are expected to use large quantities of sodium or sodium-potassium alloy, and evaluation of the possible consequences of a liquid-metal fire, henceforth referred to as a sodium fire, is an important consideration. Of particular interest is the sodium aerosol concentration at the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling, and which might suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. The authors have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released vertically and horizontally from building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. This methodology has been used to make calculations that indicate the time development of aerosol buildup, and the maximum aerosol concentration, at air intake ports. Building wake effects, momentum-driven plume rise, and density-driven plume rise are considered

  9. Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Stainless Steel in Tropical Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoh, S. Y.; Senin, H. B.; Nik, W. N. Wan; Amin, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of sodium benzoate for stainless steel controlling corrosion was studied in seawater at room temperature. Three sets of sample have been immersed in seawater containing sodium benzoate with the concentrations of 0.3M, 0.6M and 1.0M respectively. One set of sample has been immersed in seawater without adding any sodium benzoate. It was found that the highest corrosion rate was observed for the stainless steel with no inhibitor was added to the seawater. As the concentration of sodium benzoate being increased, the corrosion rate is decreases. Results show that by the addition of 1.0M of sodium benzoate in seawater samples, it giving ≥ 90% efficiencies

  10. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  11. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  12. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H; Frees, G; Peric, Z [Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Institute of Materials and Solid State Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1980-05-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  13. austenitic steel corrosion by oxygen-containing liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivollier, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    France is planning to construct the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. They will use liquid sodium as heat transfer fluid and will be made of 316L(N) austenitic steel as structural materials. To guarantee optimal operation on the long term, the behavior of this steel must be verified. This is why corrosion phenomena of 316L(N) steel by liquid sodium have to be well-understood. Literature points out that several corrosion phenomena are possible. Dissolved oxygen in sodium definitely influences each of the corrosion phenomenon. Therefore, the austenitic steel corrosion in oxygen-containing sodium is proposed in this study. Thermodynamics data point out that sodium chromite formation on 316L(N) steel is possible in sodium containing roughly 10 μg.g -1 of oxygen for temperature lower than 650 C (reactor operating conditions).The experimental study shows that sodium chromite is formed at 650 C in the sodium containing 200 μg.g -1 of oxygen. At the same concentration and at 550 C, sodium chromite is clearly observed only for long immersion time (≥ 5000 h). Results at 450 C are more difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the steel is depleted in chromium in all cases.The results suggest the sodium chromite is dissolved in the sodium at the same time it is formed. Modelling of sodium chromite formation - approached by chromium diffusion in steel (in grain and grain boundaries -, and dissolution - assessed by transport in liquid metal - show that simultaneous formation and dissolution of sodium chromite is a possible mechanism able to explain our results. (author) [fr

  14. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.; Frees, G.; Peric, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  15. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  16. Effects of sodium fires on structures and materials. Practical experience with sodium leakage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenstein, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    A few sodium leakage, incidents happened in SNR 300 nuclear power plant during pre-nuclear operation which were of minor importance with respect to sodium fires. The most important sodium fire accident in the past happened in the Almeria Solar platform in Spain during the attempt to repair a valve while leaving accidentally the circuit under 4 bar overpressure. Considerable damage to pipes, valves, its insulation and its support structures was observed in the influence zone of the fire. Post accident analysis gave a leaked mass of about 14 m 3 , at a sodium temperature of 225 deg. C, the leakage lasting approximately half an hour, and burning under convective heat exchange with the external air in a section of 40 m 2 up to a height of 6 m down to the catch pans. Some local temperatures were determined by metallurgical means, integral support temperatures estimated from mechanical deformation observed. From these temperatures it was concluded that a massive spray type fire must have happened. The results fall in the interpretation range of sodium-spray fire test results. (author)

  17. Interaction between chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkvoll, P.; Roella, G.; Bellagamba, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the compatibility of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate since these agents are potential ingredients in future products in preventive dentistry. Varying combinations of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in water, covering the possible ranges of clinically relevant concentrations of both compounds, were made, incubated for 24 h and observed for precipitation of insoluble salts. The mixtures were analyzed for presence of free chlorhexidine and monofluorophosphate after incubation. The results showed that chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate are not compatible in clinically relevant concentrations. A chlorhexidinemonofluorophosphate salt of low solubility in water is presumably formed. (author)

  18. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  19. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  20. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  1. Photo-acoustic sensor based on an inexpensive piezoelectric film transducer and an amplitude-stabilized single-mode external cavity diode laser for in vitro measurements of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Erdogan, Yasar Kemal

    2018-06-01

    The present paper focuses on development of a compact photo-acoustic sensor using inexpensive components for glucose analysis. An amplitude-stabilized wavelength-tunable single-mode external cavity diode laser operating around 1050 nm was realized and characterized for the use of laser beam as an excitation light source. In the established setup, a fine tuning range of 9 GHz was achieved. The glucose solution was obtained by diluting D-glucose in sterile water. The acoustic signal generated by the optical excitation was detected via a chip piezoelectric film transducer. A detection limit of 50 mM (900 mg/dl) was achieved. The device may be of great interest for its applications in medicine and health monitoring. The sensor is promising for non-invasive in vivo glucose measurements from interstitial fluid.

  2. Development of Sodium Technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO{sub 2} bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility.

  3. Endocrine control of active sodium transport across frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.

    1959-01-01

    I. Action of the neurohypophyseal peptides on sodium transport. 1) On Rana Esculenta, oxytocin alone is active on the sodium transport (not vaso pressin). 2) The post hypophysis of R.e. contains an hormonal factor even more specific on Na transport (12 times more active than oxytocin). 3) This new factor must be closely related to oxytocin. II. Action of the adrenal corticoids. 1) The skin of frogs adapted to a salt-rich external medium, shows a considerable diminution in sodium uptake. 2) This decreased sodium uptake is brought back to normal by the injections of aldosterone. 3) This suggests that salt loading of amphibians (as well as mammals) inhibits the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenals. (author) [fr

  4. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, J M; Simmons, W R

    1975-07-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10{sup 6} to 1.5 x 10{sup 6} 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10{sup -5} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder

  5. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.M.; Simmons, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -4 1b H 2 O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10 6 to 1.5 x 10 6 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10 -5 1b H 2 O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. A preliminary

  6. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16

    Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable

  7. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of ∼550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at ∼1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and

  8. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  9. Sodium monitoring in commercially processed and restaurant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Nickle, Melissa; Showell, Bethany; Thomas, Robin; Roseland, Janet; Williams, Juhi; Khan, Mona; Nguyen, Quynhanh; Hoy, Kathy; Martin, Carrie; Rhodes, Donna; Moshfegh, Alanna; Gillespie, Cathleen; Gunn, Janelle; Merritt, Robert; Cogswell, Mary

    2015-03-01

    Most sodium in the US diet comes from commercially processed and restaurant foods. Sodium reduction in these foods is key to several recent public health efforts. The objective was to provide an overview of a program led by the USDA, in partnership with other government agencies, to monitor sodium contents in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We also present comparisons of nutrients generated under the program to older data. We track ∼125 commercially processed and restaurant food items ("sentinel foods") annually using information from food manufacturers and periodically by nationwide sampling and laboratory analyses. In addition, we monitor >1100 other commercially processed and restaurant food items, termed "priority-2 foods" (P2Fs) biennially by using information from food manufacturers. These foods serve as indicators for assessing changes in the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We sampled all sentinel foods nationwide and reviewed all P2Fs in 2010-2013 to determine baseline sodium concentrations. We updated sodium values for 73 sentinel foods and 551 P2Fs in the USDA's National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (releases 23-26). Sodium values changed by at least 10% for 43 of the sentinel foods, which, for 31 foods, including commonly consumed foods such as bread, tomato catsup, and potato chips, the newer sodium values were lower. Changes in the concentrations of related nutrients (total and saturated fat, total sugar, potassium, or dietary fiber) that were recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for reduced or increased consumption accompanied sodium reduction. The results of sodium reduction efforts, based on resampling of the sentinel foods or re-review of P2Fs, will become available beginning in 2015. This monitoring program tracks sodium reduction efforts, improves food composition databases, and strengthens national nutrition monitoring. © 2015

  10. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K C; Jeong, J Y; Kim, T J; Choi, J H; Choi, Y D; Hwang, S T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  11. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m 3 (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure

  12. Sodium coolant of fast reactors: Experience and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Volchkov, L.G.; Drobyshev, A.V.; Nikulin, M.P.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Alexeev, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    In present report the following subjects are considered: state of the coolant and sodium systems under normal operating condition as well as under decommissioning, disclosing of sodium circuits and liquidation of its consequences, cleaning from sodium and decontamination under repairing works of equipment and circuits. Cleaning of coolant and sodium systems under normal operating conditions and under accident contamination. Cleaning of the equipment under repairing works and during decommissioning from sodium and products of its interaction with water and air. Treatment of sodium waste, taking into account a possibility of sodium fires. It is shown that the state of coolant, cover gas, surfaces of constructive materials which are in contact with them, cleaning systems, formed during installation operation require development of specific technologies. Developed technologies ensured safety operation of sodium cooled installations as in normal operating conditions so in abnormal situations. R and D activities in this field and experience gained provided a solid base for coping with problems arising during decommissioning. Prospective research problems are emphasized where the future efforts should be concentrated in order to improve characteristics of sodium cooled reactors and to make their decommissioning optimal and safe. (author)

  13. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  14. Studies on generation and transport of sodium aerosols in some test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, T.; Shimomura, T.; Hattori, N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical experiences that have been obtained during the course of the experiments to determine the sodium aerosol concentration, to study the deposition of sodium aerosol, and to predict mechanical properties of sodium vapor deposits are presented. In the first study, the sodium aerosol concentrations in an inert cover gas space over a sodium pool and those following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere were determined. The results from the two different experiments were compared with each other and were discussed in comparison with those from the literature. In the second study, deposition of sodium aerosol following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere was examined. The deposition rates on the walls and the floor of a closed concrete cell were measured, and the results obtained were discussed. The third study relates to the sodium vapor deposition within a narrow annulus. In the experiments, a downward argon gas flow that passes the annulus was fed to prevent sodium vapor deposition. Average sodium vapor deposition rates on the walls of the annulus were determined, then the effect of the downward feed gas was discussed. The last study relates to one of the mechanical properties and the deformation rate of solid sodium being compressed. The purpose of the experiments were to obtain data to predict deformation rate of the sodium deposits. (author)

  15. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  17. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  18. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  19. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  20. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  1. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  2. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  3. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  4. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  5. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  6. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  7. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  8. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  9. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  10. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  11. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  12. Sodium transport through the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter exacerbates neuron damage during cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is involved in postischaemic hyperglycaemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischaemia. However, the associated SGLT-mediated mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT-induced excessive sodium ion influx in the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. [Na+]i was estimated according to sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were prepared from fetuses of ddY mice. Primary cortical neurons were cultured for 5 days before each treatment with reagents, and these survival rates were assessed using biochemical assays. In in vivo study, a mouse model of focal ischaemia was generated using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In these experiments, treatment with high concentrations of glucose induced increment in [Na+]i, and this phenomenon was suppressed by the SGLT-specific inhibitor phlorizin. SGLT-specific sodium ion influx was induced using a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MG) treatments, which led to significant concentration-dependent declines in neuronal survival rates and exacerbated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, phlorizin ameliorated these effects. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of a-MG exacerbated the development of neuronal damage induced by MCAO, and these effects were ameliorated by the administration of phlorizin. Hence, excessive influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells through cerebral SGLT may exacerbate the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  14. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  15. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  16. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  17. Enhanced gelation of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate thermosensitive hydrogel with sodium bicarbonate and biocompatibility evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aipeng; Kang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yang; Yang, Shulin

    2017-09-01

    The application of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP) thermosensitive hydrogel has been limited by the relatively slow gelation, weak mechanical resistance and poor cytocompatibility. In this study, sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 ) was applied with β-GP as gel agents to produce high-strength hydrogel. The hydrogels prepared with high NaHCO 3 concentration or more gel agents showed shorter gelation time, better thermostability, drastically enhanced resistance in compression. Meanwhile, the hydrogels presented obvious porous structures and excellent biocompatibility to HUVEC and NIH 3T3 cultured in vitro with higher NaHCO 3 concentration and moderate concentration of β-GP. Overall, appropriate concentration of β-GP combined with NaHCO 3 can be a good gel regent to improve properties of chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The kinetics of hydrogen removal from liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyther, J.R.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of hydrogen removal from liquid sodium-sodium hydride mixtures have been measured as a function of sodium stirring rate at temperatures up to 420 0 C. Two techniques have been employed - removal under continuous evacuation in which hydrogen flow rates were measured using a capillary flow technique and by argon purging in which hydrogen concentrations in the argon carrier gas were measured by gas chromatography. The results have been used to assess the feasibility of thermal decomposition of sodium hydride for the regeneration of hydride-laden LMFBR cold traps. Studies on the kinetics of desorption of hydrogen from solution in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 400 0 C are also presented and possible kinetic mechanisms discussed. (orig.)

  19. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na 2 O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions

  20. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  1. A new inexpensive electrochemical meter for oxygen in sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periaswami, G.; Rajan Babu, S.S.; Mathews, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the development of an inexpensive oxygen meter for sodium coolant and gives the results of the test experiments. Calcia stabilized zirconia has been found to have necessary domain boundary characteristics at low temperatures for use as oxygen sensor in liquid sodium system. It is possible to obtain acceptable sensor cell resistance at temperatures as low as 230 C if K, K 2 O or Na, Na 2 O is used as reference electrode. The performance of these cells has been tested in bench top sodium loops over long periods. Their performance in terms of cell-out put variation with change in oxygen concentration in sodium has been found to be satisfactory. They also have sufficiently long life times since the kinetics of sodium attack on the electrolyte is slow at low temperatures. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs

  2. Measurement of the Residual Sodium and Reaction Compounds on a Cleaned Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun Nam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either a intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, a chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. It is important to determine the levels of residual sodium that can be accepted so that those deleterious effects will not negate the reuse of the component. The purpose of this paper is to measure the amount of the sodium and the reaction compounds remaining on a component after a cleaning and prepare acceptable criteria for the reuse of components which have been subjected to a sodium cleaning

  3. Crescimento, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira-'Prata', submetida a diferentes doses de sódio e cálcio em solução nutritiva Growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana 'Prata' plants, exposed to different concentrations of sodium and calcium in nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA LAFETÁ DE MELO NEVES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio vem sendo utilizado com o intuito de incrementar tolerância a sais nas plantas, pois sabe-se que a salinidade restringe o crescimento e a produtividade de muitas culturas. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de sódio e cálcio sobre o crescimento inicial, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira (Musa spp. 'Prata' (AAB. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 [ 4 doses de sódio ( 0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 e 4 de cálcio ( 2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1] e 3 repetições. A emissão total de folhas e o potencial osmótico das plantas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O aumento dos níveis de sódio na solução promoveu redução significativa na massa fresca da parte aérea, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca das plantas. A presença de 5 mmol L-1 de Na na solução favoreceu as trocas gasosas. O aumento dos níveis de cálcio na solução promoveu a redução da massa fresca da parte aérea, altura e área foliar da bananeira-'Prata'.The Calcium has been used to increase salt tolerance in plants since salinity restricts growth and productivity in many crops. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effects of sodium and calcium application on the initial growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata' plants (AAB. The experimental layout was a 4 x 4 factorial with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. The factors tested were concentrations of sodium (0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 and calcium (2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1. The total emition of leaves and the osmotic potential of the plants were not influenced by the treatments. However, the increase in concentrations of sodium in the nutritive solution resulted in significant reduction of the fresh weight of aerial plant parts, height and leaf area of the plants, diameter of the pseudostem, and dry weight of the plants. The

  4. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  5. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  6. Ultrasonic sensor for sodium perspective device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Fujio; Onuki, Koji.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an ultrasonic wave sensor for a sodium perspective device disposed in an FBR type reactor, which can change the directing angle of the ultrasonic sensor irrespective of the external conditions in liquid sodium. Namely, the sensor comprises (1) a sensor main body, (2) a diaphragm disposed on an oscillating surface of ultrasonic waves generated from the sensor main body, (3) a pressurizing and depressurizing nozzle connected to the sensor main body, and (4) a pressure detector disposed to these nozzles. A gas is charged/discharged to and from the sensor main body to control a gas pressure in the main body. If the gas pressure is made higher, the diaphragm is deformed convexly. If the gas pressure is lowered, the diaphragm is deformed concavely. The directing angle is greater when it is deformed a convexly, and it is smaller when it is deformed concavely. Accordingly, ultrasonic wave receiving/sending range in the sodium can be varied optionally by controlling the gas pressure in the main body. (I.S.)

  7. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  8. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  9. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  10. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  11. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms. A preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-08-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging.

  12. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  14. NACOM - a code for sodium spray fire analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.M.; Kannan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), leakage of sodium can result in a spray fire. Because of higher burning rates in droplet form combustion of sodium in spray fire, thermal consequences are more severe than that in a sodium pool fire. The code NACOM was developed for the analysis of sodium spray fires in LMFBRs facilities. The code uses the validated model for estimating the falling droplet burning rates in pre-ignition and vapour phase combustion stages. It uses a distribution system to generate the droplet groups of different diameters that represent the spray. The code requires about 20 input parameters like sodium leak rates, sodium temperature, initial cell conditions like oxygen concentration, temperature and dimensions. NACOM is a validated code based on experiments with sodium inventory up to 650 kg in 0 to 21 % O 2 atmospheres. The paper brings out the salient features of the code along with the sensitivity analysis of the main input parameters like spray volume mean diameter, oxygen concentration etc. based on the results obtained. The limitations of the code and the confidence margins applicable to results obtained are also brought out

  15. Sodium transport and distribution in sweet pepper during and after salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.

    2000-01-01

    In hydroponic systems often saline water is used in nutrient solutions. Transpiration leads to a steady increase of the salt concentration. To avoid unfavourable salt conditions, solutions are renewed, regularly. So, plants are exposed to varying sodium concentrations. In this paper, the sodium

  16. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish ( Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult male molly fishes were reared up to ten days in control water or in water containing sodium perchlorate at concentrations of 1, 5, 25 and 125 ppm. Remarkable steatosis, fibrosis, hyperemia and necrosis were distinguished in parallel with increasing sodium perchlorate concentrations. The striking cellular damages ...

  17. Towards High-Performance Aqueous Sodium-Ion Batteries: Stabilizing the Solid/Liquid Interface for NASICON-Type Na2 VTi(PO4 )3 using Concentrated Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huang; Jeong, Sangsik; Qin, Bingsheng; Vieira Carvalho, Diogo; Buchholz, Daniel; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-02-22

    Aqueous Na-ion batteries may offer a solution to the cost and safety issues of high-energy batteries. However, substantial challenges remain in the development of electrode materials and electrolytes enabling high performance and long cycle life. Herein, we report the characterization of a symmetric Na-ion battery with a NASICON-type Na 2 VTi(PO 4 ) 3 electrode material in conventional aqueous and "water-in-salt" electrolytes. Extremely stable cycling performance for 1000 cycles at a high rate (20 C) is found with the highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes owing to the formation of a resistive but protective interphase between the electrode and electrolyte. These results provide important insight for the development of aqueous Na-ion batteries with stable long-term cycling performance for large-scale energy storage. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  19. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  20. Release of fission products from contaminated sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.

    1976-01-01

    Leaks in the primary coolant system of a LMFBR and also serious incidents with tank rupture may entail the escape of fission products into the containment of the reactor. For incident analysis it is important to know the retention capability of sodium for the different fission products. The release of cesium and strontium from pools contaminated with 100 to 1000 ppM was investigated by experiments. The cesium content of airborne aerosols depends on oxygen concentration: at 21 percent oxygen concentration the Cs content of sodium-oxide aerosols is 3 times and at 0.5 percent 15 times as high as the initial Cs concentration in the pool. Strontium content of aerosols over burning contaminated sodium pools is 10 3 times smaller than the strontium pool concentration

  1. Molecular studies on di-sodium tartrate molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S.; George, Preethamary; Shubashree, N. S.; Ahmed. M, Anees

    2015-06-01

    Structural characterization is important for the development of new material. The acoustical parameters such as Free Length, Internal Pressure have been measured from ultrasonic velocity, density for di sodium tartrate an optically active molecule at different temperatures using ultrasonic interferometer of frequency (2MHZ). The ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in concentration there is an increase in solute-solvent interaction. The stability constant had been calculated. SEM with EDAX studies has been done for Di-sodium tartrate an optically active molecule.

  2. Evaluation of analytical techniques to determine matals in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancifiori, M.A.; Zappa, G.; Amico, A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of some instrumental parameters on the analysis of CA, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Ni in Sodium solutions, by means of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), is evaluated. The best operating parameters are established and the possibility of application of this analytical technique to the detection of the metallic impurities in Sodium is evaluated, considering the concentration values of nuclear interest

  3. Behaviour of carbon-bearing impurity suspensions in sodium loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Alexseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The experimental estimation results of the carbon-bearing impurity particle sizes in sodium by the sedimentometric analysis methods are presented. The techniques and results of the mass transfer calculations between the sodium flows contained the carbon-bearing impurity disperse phase, and the channel walls, the carbon particles solution kinetics and the soluble carbon near-wall concentration in channel with allowance for the flow-wall mass transfer processes, are given. (author)

  4. Behaviour of carbon-bearing impurity suspensions in sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Alexseev, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental estimation results of the carbon-bearing impurity particle sizes in sodium by the sedimentometric analysis methods are presented. The techniques and results of the mass transfer calculations between the sodium flows contained the carbon-bearing impurity disperse phase, and the channel walls, the carbon particles solution kinetics and the soluble carbon near-wall concentration in channel with allowance for the flow-wall mass transfer processes, are given. (author)

  5. Sodium leak at Monju (II): Sodium leak, burning and aerosol behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Yamagishi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The amount of leaked sodium was estimated as approximately 640 kg during the 220 minute leak. The ventilation duct and the walkway grating under the leak site were severely damaged by Na-Fe-O reaction, but the floor liner and the concrete wall were not. A total 100 kg of sodium aerosol was deposited in the reactor auxiliary building and 230 kg was released to the atmosphere. The sodium concentration at the site boundary was calculated as 0.05 mg/m 3 , NaOH equivalent, which was low in comparison with the permitted level of 2 mg/m 3 . The tritium quantity released was estimated as 4.4 x 10 7 Bq, which was about 0.03% of the average released value per month for a LWR. (author)

  6. Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah

    2007-04-01

    Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

  7. Radiochemical measurement of mass transport in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Chiang, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mass transport processes in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are significant in determining rates of corrosion and deposition of radioactive nuclides from the fuel cladding, deposition and cold trapping of fission products from defect or failed fuel, carbon and nitrogen redistribution in the containment materials, and removal of impurities by cold trapping or hot trapping. Mass transport between rotating, concentric cylinders in molten sodium has been investigated using a unique radiochemical method. Long-lived (33 year) cesium-137, dissolved in the sodium, decays radioactively emitting a beta to barium-137m, which decays with a short half-life (2.6 minutes) emitting a gamma. Cesium is weakly adsorbed and remains in solution, while the barium is strongly adsorbed on the stainless steel surfaces. Hence, by measuring the barium-137m activity on movable stainless steel surfaces, one can calculate the mass transport to that surface. Mass transfer coefficients in sodium measured by this method are in agreement with published heat transfer correlations when the effect of the volumetric mass source is taken into account. Hence, heat transfer correlations can be confidently utilized by analogy in estimating mass transfer in liquid-metal systems

  8. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  9. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  10. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  11. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  12. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  14. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  15. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the result of determination the strontium ions concentration has been registered at low levels of strontium. The influence of nitric acid on the results is also discussed. In the case of using atomic absorption spectroscopy method no influence of sodium ions and nitric acid on the results of determination the strontium ions concentration was revealed. The metrological characteristics of both methods are evaluated.

  16. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  17. Concentrating on caustic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full text: First there was the Beer Battery, which aimed to generate electricity from brewery wastewater using a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Trials at Foster's Yatala brewery in Queensland in 2007 ran into challenges around the cost of electricity and duration of treatment, but they also revealed a new possibility. Komeel Rabaey, a University of Queensland specialist in microbial dynamics with a particular passion for bioelectrochemical systems, recognised the potential to extract sodium hydroxide - caustic soda - out of wastewater in a form suitable for reuse. In 2008 he converted such a system into a lab-scale caustic recovery plant, then upsized it to a one litre test reactor, which is again running at the Yatala brewery. The concept flips wastewater treatment on its head, seeing the discharge as a resource to be harvested rather than a cost and a contaminant load to be managed. “We typically aim to make a concentration of about four per cent caustic. That is what is easily achievable with the system and you will also note a lot of industries use caustic at four per cent,” said Dr Rabaey. “So you can use the wastewater from the plant to drive caustic production, with the extra advantage of removing enormous amounts of sodium.” Sodium hydroxide is a ubiquitous industrial compound used in pH regulation, as a cleaning agent in clean-in-place systems and variously in pulp and paper, textiles and food processing. Dr Rabaey wants to close the loop on caustic. Industries along the Murray-Darling basin, for example, truck in a lot of it from outside the area and then discharge it with their wastewater into the salt-sensitive river system. “If you use a bioelectrochemical system to recover the sodium hydroxide, you are not even importing the sodium into the area but recycling the sodium the whole time on-site,” he told WME. Get the technology right and he reckons a three-year payback on investment is readily achievable. A microbial fuel cell oxidises organics

  18. Search engine competition with network externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question of whether “competition is only a free click away.” We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  19. Search Engine Competition with Network Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question whether "competition is only a free click away". We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  20. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  1. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  2. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  3. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  4. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  5. Sodium content in major brands of US packaged foods, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cathleen; Maalouf, Joyce; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P; Levings, Jessica; Moshfegh, Alanna; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Merritt, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Most Americans consume more sodium than is recommended, the vast majority of which comes from commercially packaged and restaurant foods. In 2010 the Institute of Medicine recommended that manufacturers reduce the amount of sodium in their products. The aim was to assess the sodium content in commercially packaged food products sold in US grocery stores in 2009. With the use of sales and nutrition data from commercial sources, we created a database with nearly 8000 packaged food products sold in major US grocery stores in 2009. We estimated the sales-weighted mean and distribution of sodium content (mg/serving, mg/100 g, and mg/kcal) of foods within food groups that contribute the most dietary sodium to the US diet. We estimated the proportion of products within each category that exceed 1) the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) limits for sodium in foods that use a "healthy" label claim and 2) 1150 mg/serving or 50% of the maximum daily intake recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Products in the meat mixed dishes category had the highest mean and median sodium contents per serving (966 and 970 mg, respectively). Products in the salad dressing and vegetable oils category had the highest mean and median concentrations per 100 g (1072 and 1067 mg, respectively). Sodium density was highest in the soup category (18.4 mg/kcal). More than half of the products sold in 11 of the 20 food categories analyzed exceeded the FDA limits for products with a "healthy" label claim. In 4 categories, >10% of the products sold exceeded 1150 mg/serving. The sodium content in packaged foods sold in major US grocery stores varied widely, and a large proportion of top-selling products exceeded limits, indicating the potential for reduction. Ongoing monitoring is necessary to evaluate the progress in sodium reduction. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  7. Sodium-calcium ion exchange on clay minerals at moderate to high ionic strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    Sodium-calcium ion exchange on several clay minerals was studied at ionic strengths ranging from 0.01 to above 1.0. The minerals studied included attapulgite, illite, kaolin, and several montmorillonites. Distribution coefficients of calcium and sodium were obtained for the minerals over a wide range of solution conditions at pH five and equilibrium constants were calculated. The distribution coefficient of calcium, D/sub Ca/, was studied as a function of time, solution pH, loading, sodium concentration, and ionic strength fraction of sodium in constant ionic strength solutions. The distribution coefficient of sodium, D/sub Na/, was also studied as a function of time, loading, and sodium ionic strength fraction in constant total ionic strength solutions. Values of equilibrium constants calculated from distribution coefficients for solutions of constant ionic strength scattered bwteen 2 and 10 kg/kg for the montmorillonites and attapulgite while equilibrium constants for illite ranged from 5 to 10 kg/kg. No equilibrium constants for kaolin were calculated since distribution coefficients of sodium on this clay were too small to be measured. It was found that equilibrium constants at trace sodium loading were generally lower than those for higher sodium loadings by an order of magnitude or more due to the sensitivity of sodium distribution coefficients to the concentration of sodium in the clay at low loadings. Theoretical and experimental treatments of ion exclusion were included

  8. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  9. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH 4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH 4 ), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH 3 OH - ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH 4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH 3 OH - direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  10. Hydration status regulates sodium flux and inflammatory pathways through epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zeitchek, Michael; Cooper, Garry; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Qureshi, Hannan A; Zhong, Aimei; Porterfield, Marshall D; Galiano, Robert D; Surmeier, D James; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-03-01

    Although it is known that the inflammatory response that results from disruption of epithelial barrier function after injury results in excessive scarring, the upstream signals remain unknown. It has also been observed that epithelial disruption results in reduced hydration status and that the use of occlusive dressings that prevent water loss from wounds decreases scar formation. We hypothesized that hydration status changes sodium homeostasis and induces sodium flux in keratinocytes, which result in activation of pathways responsible for keratinocyte-fibroblast signaling and ultimately lead to activation of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations in epithelial barrier function lead to increased sodium flux in keratinocytes. We identified that sodium flux in keratinocytes is mediated by epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and causes increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate fibroblast via the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Similar changes in signal transduction and sodium flux occur by increased sodium concentration, which simulates reduced hydration, in the media in epithelial cultures or human ex vivo skin cultures. Blockade of ENaC, prostaglandin synthesis, or PGE2 receptors all reduce markers of fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. In addition, employing a validated in vivo excessive scar model in the rabbit ear, we demonstrate that utilization of either an ENaC blocker or a COX-2 inhibitor results in a marked reduction in scarring. Other experiments demonstrate that the activation of COX-2 in response to increased sodium flux is mediated through the PIK3/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that ENaC responds to small changes in sodium concentration with inflammatory mediators and suggest that the ENaC pathway is a potential target for a strategy to prevent fibrosis.

  11. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    rate, urine flow, plasma potassium, and plasma renin activity did not change. The results indicate that sodium excretion is controlled by neurohumoral mechanisms that are quite resistant to acute changes in plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure and are not down-regulated within 2 h. With previous......Cl administration increased PV (+6.3-8.9%) and plasma sodium concentration (~2%) and decreased plasma protein concentration (-6.4-8.1%). Plasma ANG II and aldosterone concentrations decreased transiently. Potassium excretion increased substantially. Sodium excretion, arterial blood pressure, glomerular filtration...

  12. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  13. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  14. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  15. Dual energy CT monitoring of the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahi; Wang, Zhen J.; Forsythe, Carlos; Fu Yanjun; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for monitoring dynamic changes in the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine. Material and methods: This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Four water-restricted pigs were CT-scanned at 80 and 140 kVp at baseline and at 5 min intervals for 30 min during saline or furosemide diuresis. The renal cortical and medullary CT numbers were recorded. A DECT basis material decomposition method was used to quantify renal cortical and medullary sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios at each time point based on the measured CT numbers. The sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were compared between baseline and at 30 min diuresis using paired Student t-tests. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were considered to reflect the corticomedullary sodium gradient. Results: At baseline prior to saline diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 103.8 ± 8.7 and 65.3 ± 1.7 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.59. At 30 min of saline diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 72.3 ± 1.0 and 56.0 ± 1.4 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.29 (P < 0.05). At baseline prior to furosemide diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 110.5 ± 3.6 and 66.7 ± 4.1 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.66. At 30 min of furosemide diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 68.5 ± 0.3 and 58.9 ± 4.0 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.16 (P < 0.05). One of the 4 pigs developed acute tubular necrosis likely related to prolonged hypoxia during intubation prior to the furosemide diuresis experiment. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio for this

  16. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  17. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  18. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  19. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10 17  cm −3 . Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na Zn level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature

  20. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, N. S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G. [Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2711 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  1. Filtration experiments of the KNK II primary sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The separated particles of the KNK primary sodium are a result of a normal corrosion rate by using ferritic and austenitic steels in sodium. Similar particle distributions and concentrations were found in primary circuits of other breeder plants (EBR-II et al). The experimental results of the particle concentration in the KNK primary sodium were lower than the theoretical calculation. Based on a corrosion rate of 0.5 micron/y for austenitic steels and a corrosion rate of 1.5 mg/square-cm y for a ferritic steel used in KNK as structure material an equilibrium particle concentration of 1.066 mg/kg Na was calculated. The experimental results of particle size are not in agreement with theoretical calculation of the BACCHUS code. (orig.)

  2. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  3. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  4. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  5. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  6. Mesospheric sodium over Gadanki during Geminid meteor shower 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanadham, B.; Rakesh Chandra, N.; Bhaskara Rao, S. Vijaya; Raghunath, K.; Yellaiah, G.

    Resonance LIDAR system at Gadanki has been used for observing the mesospheric sodium during the night of 12-13 Dec 2007 when the peak activity of Geminid meteor shower occurred. Geminid meteor shower is observed along with the co-located MST radar in the altitude range 80-110 km. Sodium density profiles have been obtained with a vertical resolution of 300 m and a temporal resolution of 120 s with sodium resonance scattering LIDAR system. The sodium layers were found to exist in the altitude range 90-100 km. The enhanced Geminid meteor rates were recorded with the co-located MST radar in the same altitude range. The sodium concentration in the atmospheric altitude of ~93 km is estimated to be 2000 per cc where the meteoric concentration of Geminid is maximum and reduced to around 800 on the non activity of Geminid. These observations showed that the sodium levels in the E-region are found to be increasing during meteor shower nights at least by a factor of two.

  7. Sodium serum levels in hypoalbuminemic adults at general medical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Daniel Ferreira da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoalbuminemia may cause interstitial edema and hemodilution, which we hypothesized may influence serum sodium levels. Our purpose was to compare serum sodium levels of hospitalized adults with or without hypoalbuminemia. All sodium and albumin serum levels of 142 adults hospitalized at general medical wards over a six-month period were searched at a University Hospital mainframe computer. Relevant laboratory data and clinical details were also registered. Hypoalbuminemia was defined by serum albumin concentration < 3.3 g/dl Fisher, Mann-Whitney, and Student's t tests were applied to compare groups with or without hypoalbuminemia. Ninety-nine patients, classified as hypoalbuminemic, had lower blood hemoglobin (10.68 ± 2.62 vs. 13.54 ± 2.41, and sodium (135.1 ± 6.44 vs. 139.9 ± 4.76mEq/l and albumin (2.74 ± 0.35 vs. 3.58 ± 0.28g/dl serum levels than non-hypoalbuminemic (n=43. Pearson's coefficient showed a significant direct correlation between albumin and sodium serum levels (r=0.40 and between serum albumin and blood hemoglobin concentration (r=0.46. Our results suggest that hypoalbuminemic adults have lower serum sodium levels than those without hypoalbuminemia, a phenomenon that may be at least partially attributed to body water retention associated with acute phase response syndrome.

  8. Calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) using sodium combustion analysis code ASSCOPS version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Ohno, Shuji; Miyake, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-11-01

    The calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) was performed using the ASSCOPS (Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustions in Pool and Spray) code version 2.0 in order to determine the parameters used in the code for the calculations of sodium combustion behavior of small or medium scale sodium leak, and to validate the applicability of the code. The parameters used in the code were determined and the validation of the code was confirmed because calculated temperatures, calculated oxygen concentration and other calculated values almost agreed with the test results. (author)

  9. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  10. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  11. In vivo NMR imaging of sodium-23 in the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, S K; Maudsley, A A; Ra, J B; Simon, H E; Roschmann, P; Wittekoek, S; Cho, Z H; Mun, S K

    1985-01-01

    We report the first clinical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of cerebral sodium distribution in normal volunteers and in patients with a variety of pathological lesions. We have used a 1.5 T NMR magnet system. When compared with proton distribution, sodium shows a greater variation in its concentration from tissue to tissue and from normal to pathological conditions. Image contrast calculated on the basis of sodium concentration is 7 to 18 times greater than that of proton spin density. Normal images emphasize the extracellular compartments. In the clinical studies, areas of recent or old cerebral infarction and tumors show a pronounced increase of sodium content (300-400%). Actual measurements of image density values indicate that there is probably a further accentuation of the contrast by the increased "NMR visibility" of sodium in infarcted tissue. Sodium imaging may prove to be a more sensitive means for early detection of some brain disorders than other imaging methods.

  12. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  13. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as accelerator of the rate of copper cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. El-Saharty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cu2+ ion concentration and temperature on the cementation rate of copper from copper sulphate on zinc and the effect of additives of the organic compound “sodium diethyldithiocarbamate” (NaDDC were studied. It was noticed that the cementation increases significantly by increasing the concentrations of NaDDC. The rate of cementation increased by 58.58−100.31%. Our data showed that sodium diethyldithiocarbamate reacts with the Cu2+ solution giving a complex of copper diethyldithiocarbamate, which enhances the rate of cementation.

  14. Sodium mists behavior in cover gas space of an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Y.; Takahashi, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper present the sodium mist behavior in Argon cover gas space of an LMFBR experimentally using a test vessel of 1,400 mm in axial length, 305.5 mm in inner diameter and about 100 l in volume. Experiments are consisted with measurements of the mist concentration and the mist gravitational settling flux between the sodium pool temperature range of 290 0 to 520 0 C. The results are discussed under the monosize assumption of the particles, and the particle sizes and evaporation rate are derived. Transient and steady state mist concentration behavior were also investigated. (author)

  15. 3D-Printed external light traps for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, L.; Paetzold, U.W.; Blab, Gerhard; Marcus, E.A.P.; Oostra, A.J.; van de Groep, J.; Polman, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Di Vece, M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a universally applicable 3D-printed external light trap for solar cells. We placed a macroscopic external light trap made of smoothened, silver coated plastic at the sun-facing surface of different types of solar cells. The trap consists of a reflective parabolic concentrator on top

  16. [Preparation of diclofenac sodium liposomes and its ocular pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kao-xiang; Wang, Ai-ping; Huang, Li-jun; Liang, Rong-cai; Liu, Ke

    2006-11-01

    To prepare diclofenac sodium liposomes and observe its ocular pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The diclofenac sodium cationic liposomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation methods and the formula of liposome was optimized with uniform design. HPLC method was established and validated for the determination of diclofenac sodium in precornea, cornea and aqueous humor of rabbit eye. Liposome and eyedrop solution 50 microL with total 50 microg diclofenac sodium were instilled to eyes of rabbits, separately. Samples of tear, cornea and aqueous humor were collected at different time intervals after rabbits were sacrificed. The ocular pharmacokinetics was investigated by the concentration-time data of tear, cornea and aqueous humor. The mean particle size of the diclofenac sodium liposomes was 226.5 nm with zeta potential of + 18. 1 mV. The entrapment efficiency reached 63%. Compared with solution, liposome was characterized by slower clearance in precornea. The concentration of diclotenac in cornea and aqueous humor instilled with liposome were higher than that with eye-drop solution. Cmax of diclofenac sodium in aqueous humor instilled with liposome and eye-drop solution were (0.69 +/- 0.25) and (0.48 +/- 0.19) microg x mL(-1) and (36.68 +/- 11.7) and (21.82 +/- 8.6) microg x g(-1) in cornea, respectively. But no significant difference were found to Tmax in aqueous humor and cornea between liposome and eyedrop, T(1/2) of diclofenac in aqueous humor and cornea with liposoine were longer than that with eye-drop solution. The ocular bioavailability of liposome in aqueous humor was 211% compared with that of eyedrop. Diclofenac sodium cationic liposomes can increase the corneal contact time, enhance the corneal permeability of diclofenac sodium and improve its ocular bioavailability.

  17. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  18. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  20. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)