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Sample records for external region mper

  1. Multimeric scaffolds displaying the HIV-1 envelope MPER induce MPER-specific antibodies and cross-neutralizing antibodies when co-immunized with gp160 DNA.

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    Shelly J Krebs

    Full Text Available Developing a vaccine that overcomes the diversity of HIV-1 is likely to require a strategy that directs antibody (Ab responses toward conserved regions of the viral Envelope (Env. However, the generation of neutralizing Abs (NAbs targeting these regions through vaccination has proven to be difficult. One conserved region of particular interest is the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env located within the gp41 ectodomain. In order to direct the immune response to this region, the MPER and gp41 ectodomain were expressed separately as N-terminal fusions to the E2 protein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 protein acts as a scaffold by self-assembling into 60-mer particles, displaying up to 60 copies of the fused target on the surface. Rabbits were immunized with E2 particles displaying MPER and/or the gp41 ectodomain in conjunction with DNA encoding full-length gp160. Only vaccines including E2 particles displaying MPER elicited MPER-specific Ab responses. NAbs were elicited after two immunizations that largely targeted the V3 loop. To overcome V3 immunodominance in the DNA component, E2 particles displaying MPER were used in conjunction with gp160 DNA lacking hypervariable regions V2, V3, or combined V1V2V3. All rabbits had HIV binding Ab responses and NAbs following the second vaccination. Using HIV-2/HIV-1 MPER chimeric viruses as targets, NAbs were detected in 12/16 rabbits after three immunizations. Low levels of NAbs specific for Tier 1 and 2 viruses were observed in all groups. This study provides evidence that co-immunizing E2 particles displaying MPER and gp160 DNA can focus Ab responses toward conserved regions of Env.

  2. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  3. Functional, non-clonal IgMa-restricted B cell receptor interactions with the HIV-1 envelope gp41 membrane proximal external region.

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    Laurent Verkoczy

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41 has several features that make it an attractive antibody-based vaccine target, but eliciting an effective gp41 MPER-specific protective antibody response remains elusive. One fundamental issue is whether the failure to make gp41 MPER-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies like 2F5 and 4E10 is due to structural constraints with the gp41 MPER, or alternatively, if gp41 MPER epitope-specific B cells are lost to immunological tolerance. An equally important question is how B cells interact with, and respond to, the gp41 MPER epitope, including whether they engage this epitope in a non-canonical manner i.e., by non-paratopic recognition via B cell receptors (BCR. To begin understanding how B cells engage the gp41 MPER, we characterized B cell-gp41 MPER interactions in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that a significant (approximately 7% fraction of splenic B cells from BALB/c, but not C57BL/6 mice, bound the gp41 MPER via their BCRs. This strain-specific binding was concentrated in IgM(hi subsets, including marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells, and correlated with enriched fractions (approximately 15% of gp41 MPER-specific IgM secreted by in vitro-activated splenic B cells. Analysis of Igh(a (BALB/c and Igh(b (C57BL/6 congenic mice demonstrated that gp41 MPER binding was controlled by determinants of the Igh(a locus. Mapping of MPER gp41 interactions with IgM(a identified MPER residues distinct from those to which mAb 2F5 binds and demonstrated the requirement of Fc C(H regions. Importantly, gp41 MPER ligation produced detectable BCR-proximal signaling events, suggesting that interactions between gp41 MPER and IgM(a determinants may elicit partial B cell activation. These data suggest that low avidity, non-paratopic interactions between the gp41 MPER and membrane Ig on naïve B cells may interfere with or divert bnAb responses.

  4. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

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    Arthur S Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of envelope glycoprotein (Env subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  5. Chimeric rhinoviruses displaying MPER epitopes elicit anti-HIV neutralizing responses.

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    Guohua Yi

    Full Text Available The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been a formidable task, but remains a critical necessity. The well conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein is one of the crucial targets for AIDS vaccine development, as it has the necessary attribute of being able to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse isolates of HIV.Guided by X-ray crystallography, molecular modeling, combinatorial chemistry, and powerful selection techniques, we designed and produced six combinatorial libraries of chimeric human rhinoviruses (HRV displaying the MPER epitopes corresponding to mAbs 2F5, 4E10, and/or Z13e1, connected to an immunogenic surface loop of HRV via linkers of varying lengths and sequences. Not all libraries led to viable chimeric viruses with the desired sequences, but the combinatorial approach allowed us to examine large numbers of MPER-displaying chimeras. Among the chimeras were five that elicited antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing HIV-1 pseudoviruses from at least three subtypes, in one case leading to neutralization of 10 pseudoviruses from all six subtypes tested.Optimization of these chimeras or closely related chimeras could conceivably lead to useful components of an effective AIDS vaccine. While the MPER of HIV may not be immunodominant in natural infection by HIV-1, its presence in a vaccine cocktail could provide critical breadth of protection.

  6. Modulating immunogenic properties of HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region by destabilizing six-helix bundle structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Shi, Heliang; Habte, Habtom H.; Qin, Yali; Cho, Michael W., E-mail: mcho@iastate.edu

    2016-03-15

    The C-terminal alpha-helix of gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER; {sup 671}NWFDITNWLWYIK{sup 683}) encompassing 4E10/10E8 epitopes is an attractive target for HIV-1 vaccine development. We previously reported that gp41-HR1-54Q, a trimeric protein comprised of the MPER in the context of a stable six-helix bundle (6HB), induced strong immune responses against the helix, but antibodies were directed primarily against the non-neutralizing face of the helix. To better target 4E10/10E8 epitopes, we generated four putative fusion intermediates by introducing double point mutations or deletions in the heptad repeat region 1 (HR1) that destabilize 6HB in varying degrees. One variant, HR1-∆10-54K, elicited antibodies in rabbits that targeted W672, I675 and L679, which are critical for 4E10/10E8 recognition. Overall, the results demonstrated that altering structural parameters of 6HB can influence immunogenic properties of the MPER and antibody targeting. Further exploration of this strategy could allow development of immunogens that could lead to induction of 4E10/10E8-like antibodies. - Highlights: • Four gp41 MPER-based immunogens that resemble fusion intermediates were generated. • C-terminal region of MPER that contains 4E10/10E8 epitopes was highly immunogenic. • Altering 6HB structure can influence immunogenic properties of the MPER. • Induced antibodies targeted multiple residues critical for 4E10/10E8 binding. • Development of immunogens based on fusion intermediates is a promising strategy.

  7. Membrane proximal external region of gp41 from HIV-1 strains HXB2 and JRFL has different sensitivity to alanine mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hyun Ah; Diaz-Rohrer, Barbara; Saminathan, Priyanka; Jacobs, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV envelope protein complex (Env) mediates the viral fusion step of HIV entry. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER), one of the functional domains of gp41, has been the focus of a great deal of research because it is a target for neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we examined 23 amino acid residues in MPER (660-683) in both a CXCR4 co-receptor utilizing strain (HXB2) and a CCR5 utilizing strain (JRFL) by alanine scanning mutagenesis. Despite the high degree of gp41 sequence conservation, the effects of alanine mutation in the MPER were different between the two strains. Most mutations in HXB2 had fusogenicity and protein expression levels not less than 50% of wild type in the case of cell-cell fusion. However, about thirty percent of the mutants in HXB2 showed a severe defect in fusogenicity in viral entry. Mutations in the MPER of strain JRFL had more dramatic effects than HXB2 in cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The fact that there are large differences in the effects of mutation between two strains suggests the potential for MPER interaction with non-conserved sequences such as the fusion peptide and/or other NHR domains as well as potential long-range structural effects on the conformational changes that occur with the Env complex during membrane fusion. PMID:25649507

  8. Habermas, modernitetens utrættelige forkæmper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Præsentation af Habermas som sociolog, filosof og modernitetsforkæmper i lyset af den politiske situation i efterkrigstidens Tyskland.......Præsentation af Habermas som sociolog, filosof og modernitetsforkæmper i lyset af den politiske situation i efterkrigstidens Tyskland....

  9. Nef decreases HIV-1 sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies that target the membrane-proximal external region of TMgp41.

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    Rachel P J Lai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Primate lentivirus nef is required for sustained virus replication in vivo and accelerated progression to AIDS. While exploring the mechanism by which Nef increases the infectivity of cell-free virions, we investigated a functional link between Nef and Env. Since we failed to detect an effect of Nef on the quantity of virion-associated Env, we searched for qualitative changes by examining whether Nef alters HIV-1 sensitivity to agents that target distinct features of Env. Nef conferred as much as 50-fold resistance to 2F5 and 4E10, two potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs that target the membrane proximal external region (MPER of TMgp41. In contrast, Nef had no effect on HIV-1 neutralization by MPER-specific nAb Z13e1, by the peptide inhibitor T20, nor by a panel of nAbs and other reagents targeting gp120. Resistance to neutralization by 2F5 and 4E10 was observed with Nef from a diverse range of HIV-1 and SIV isolates, as well as with HIV-1 virions bearing Env from CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses, clade B and C viruses, or primary isolates. Functional analysis of a panel of Nef mutants revealed that this activity requires Nef myristoylation but that it is genetically separable from other Nef functions such as the ability to enhance virus infectivity and to downregulate CD4. Glycosylated-Gag from MoMLV substituted for Nef in conferring resistance to 2F5 and 4E10, indicating that this activity is conserved in a retrovirus that does not encode Nef. Given the reported membrane-dependence of MPER-recognition by 2F5 and 4E10, in contrast to the membrane-independence of Z13e1, the data here is consistent with a model in which Nef alters MPER recognition in the context of the virion membrane. Indeed, Nef and Glycosylated-Gag decreased the efficiency of virion capture by 2F5 and 4E10, but not by other nAbs. These studies demonstrate that Nef protects lentiviruses from one of the most broadly-acting classes of neutralizing antibodies. This newly

  10. Energy and externality environmental regional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, L.; Bianchi, A.; Peri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental externalities in both territorial management and the direction of energy and environment, faces the difficulties arising from their calculation. The so-called MACBET regional model, which has been constructed for Lombardy, is a first brand new attempt to overcome them. MACBET is a calculation model to assess environmental and employment externalities connected to energy use [it

  11. High expression of the circadian gene mPer2 diminishes the radiosensitivity of NIH 3T3 cells

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    Chang, L.; Liu, Y.Y.; Zhu, B.; Li, Y.; Hua, H.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, Z.; Wang, Z.R. [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China). West China Medical Center. Health Ministry Key Lab. of Chronobiology], e-mail: wangzhengrong@126.com

    2009-10-15

    Period2 is a core circadian gene, which not only maintains the circadian rhythm of cells but also regulates some organic functions. We investigated the effects of mPeriod2 (mPer2) expression on radiosensitivity in normal mouse cells exposed to {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays. NIH 3T3 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to induce endogenous mPer2 expression or transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-mPer2 and irradiated with {sup 6}0Co-{gamma}-rays, and then analyzed by several methods such as flow cytometry, colony formation assay, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry and colony formation assay revealed that irradiated NIH 3T3 cells expressing high levels of mPer2 showed a lower death rate (TPA: 24 h 4.3% vs 12 h 6.8% and control 9.4%; transfection: pcDNA3.1-mPer2 3.7% vs pcDNA3.1 11.3% and control 8.2%), more proliferation and clonogenic survival (TPA: 121.7 {+-} 6.51 vs 66.0 {+-} 3.51 and 67.7 {+-} 7.37; transfection: 121.7 {+-} 6.50 vs 65.3 {+-} 3.51 and 69.0 {+-} 4.58) both when treated with TPA and transfected with mPer2. RT-PCR analysis showed an increased expression of bax, bcl-2, p53, cmyc, mre11, and nbs1, and an increased proportionality of bcl-2/bax in the irradiated cells at peak mPer2 expression compared with cells at trough mPer2 expression and control cells. However, no significant difference in rad50 expression was observed among the three groups of cells. Immunohistochemistry also showed increased protein levels of P53, BAX and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in irradiated cells with peak mPer2 levels. Thus, high expression of the circadian gene mPer2 may reduce the radiosensitivity of NIH 3T3 cells. For this effect, mPer2 may directly or indirectly regulate the expressions of cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related genes and DNA repair-related genes. (author)

  12. High expression of the circadian gene mPer2 diminishes the radiosensitivity of NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.; Liu, Y.Y.; Zhu, B.; Li, Y.; Hua, H.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, Z.; Wang, Z.R.

    2009-01-01

    Period2 is a core circadian gene, which not only maintains the circadian rhythm of cells but also regulates some organic functions. We investigated the effects of mPeriod2 (mPer2) expression on radiosensitivity in normal mouse cells exposed to 60 Co-γ-rays. NIH 3T3 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to induce endogenous mPer2 expression or transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-mPer2 and irradiated with 6 0Co-γ-rays, and then analyzed by several methods such as flow cytometry, colony formation assay, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry and colony formation assay revealed that irradiated NIH 3T3 cells expressing high levels of mPer2 showed a lower death rate (TPA: 24 h 4.3% vs 12 h 6.8% and control 9.4%; transfection: pcDNA3.1-mPer2 3.7% vs pcDNA3.1 11.3% and control 8.2%), more proliferation and clonogenic survival (TPA: 121.7 ± 6.51 vs 66.0 ± 3.51 and 67.7 ± 7.37; transfection: 121.7 ± 6.50 vs 65.3 ± 3.51 and 69.0 ± 4.58) both when treated with TPA and transfected with mPer2. RT-PCR analysis showed an increased expression of bax, bcl-2, p53, cmyc, mre11, and nbs1, and an increased proportionality of bcl-2/bax in the irradiated cells at peak mPer2 expression compared with cells at trough mPer2 expression and control cells. However, no significant difference in rad50 expression was observed among the three groups of cells. Immunohistochemistry also showed increased protein levels of P53, BAX and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in irradiated cells with peak mPer2 levels. Thus, high expression of the circadian gene mPer2 may reduce the radiosensitivity of NIH 3T3 cells. For this effect, mPer2 may directly or indirectly regulate the expressions of cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related genes and DNA repair-related genes. (author)

  13. External calibration of GOCE data using regional terrestrial gravity data

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    Wu Yunlong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the methodology of external calibration of GOCE data, using regional terrestrial-gravity data. Three regions around the world are selected in the numerical experiments. The result indicates that this calibration method is feasible. The effect is best with an accuracy of scale factor at 10−2 level, in Australia, where the area is smooth and the gravity data points are dense. The accuracy is one order of magnitude lower in both Canada where the area is smooth but the data points are sparse, and Norway, where the area is rather tough and the data points are sparse.

  14. Green electricity externalities: Forest biomass in an Atlantic European Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, M.; Prada, A.; Vazquez, M.X.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are expected to represent a growing proportion of the primary energy sources for the production of electricity. Environmental and social reasons support this tendency. European and Spanish energy plans assign a role of primary importance to biomass in general and, especially, to forest biomass for the period up to 2010. This paper reviews, organises and quantifies the potentials and values of this renewable resource in the foremost Spanish Region in terms of silviculture. The non-market externalities (environmental, economic and social) are classified, and some of them are quantified to present a synthesis of the benefits of a partial substitution of fossil fuels by forest biomass for electricity generation. (author)

  15. REGIONAL MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS. External Audit Reporting Could Be Expanded

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Worldwide, countries and institutions are recognizing the importance of providing independent, external assessments on not only financial reporting, but also on Internal control over an entity's...

  16. The role of external partners in regional cooperation projects in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bar-El; Miki Malul

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the extent to which external partners contribute to the internalization of externalities arising from regional cooperation in the Middle East, that is, the degree to which they help increase welfare gains generated by the projects. This is classified by extent, intensity, and sectors of cooperation. Externalities are defined macroeconomically and sociopolitically. The results show that the international community does play a role in the internalization of externalities. ...

  17. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

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    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  18. Induction of HIV neutralizing antibodies against the MPER of the HIV envelope protein by HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based DNA and VLP vaccines.

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    Ling Ye

    Full Text Available Several conserved neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the HIV Env protein and among these, the MPER of gp41 has received great attention and is widely recognized as a promising target. However, little success has been achieved in eliciting MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by a number of different vaccine strategies. We investigated the ability of HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based vaccines, which were designed to enhance the exposure of the MPER in its native conformation, to induce MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies. In characterization of the HA/gp41 chimeric protein, we found that by mutating an unpaired Cys residue (Cys-14 in its HA1 subunit to a Ser residue, the modified chimeric protein HA-C14S/gp41 showed increased reactivity to a conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody against HA and formed more stable trimers in VLPs. On the other hand, HA-C14S/gp41 and HA/gp41 chimeric proteins expressed on the cell surfaces exhibited similar reactivity to monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of guinea pigs using the HA-C14S/gp41 DNA or VLP vaccines induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 as well as to a peptide corresponding to a segment of MPER at higher levels than immunization by standard HIV VLPs. Further, sera from vaccinated guinea pigs were found to exhibit HIV neutralizing activities. Moreover, sera from guinea pigs vaccinated by HA-C14S/gp41 DNA and VLP vaccines but not the standard HIV VLPs, were found to neutralize HIV pseudovirions containing a SIV-4E10 chimeric Env protein. The virus neutralization could be blocked by a MPER-specific peptide, thus demonstrating induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by this novel vaccine strategy. These results show that induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies can be achieved through a rationally designed vaccine strategy.

  19. Julia Diekämper: Reproduziertes Leben. Biomacht in Zeiten der Präimplantationsdiagnostik. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2011.

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    Sebastian Nestler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Julia Diekämper zeigt mit ihrer Studie, wie die Präimplantationsdiagnostik (PID zum umkämpften Gegenstand medialer Aushandlungen geworden ist. Anhand eines Vergleichs der Diskussion in deutschen und französischen Printmedien wird dargelegt, wie im Sinne Foucaults eine diskursive Auseinandersetzung um die PID stattfindet. Die Arbeit besticht durch ihren klar strukturierten empirischen Teil, der eine geologische Karte des PID-Diskurses zeichnet. Damit wird auch die aktuelle Relevanz des Begriffs der Bio-Macht unterstrichen. Ein Schritt in Richtung einer Genealogie bleibt aber aus. So verbleibt die Studie eher auf der deskriptiven Ebene, das von Foucault stets geforderte Infragestellen von Machtbeziehungen wird nicht eingelöst, aber fundiertes Material für ein solches geliefert.With her study, Julia Diekämper shows how preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD has become a fiercely disputed topic of medial negotiations. Based on a comparison of the discussion in German and French print media, she illustrates (in Foucauldian terms how a discoursive controversy on PGD happens. The study impresses with its clearly structured empirical section, which draws a geological map of the PGD-discourse. This also underlines the current pertinence of the term biopower. However, the study fails to offer a step towards a genealogy. Thus, the study remains on the descriptive level; it does not implement the questioning of power relations, always postulated by Foucault, but it offers profound material for such questioning.

  20. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  1. An assessment of the Pacific Regional Cancer Coalition: outcomes and implications of a regional coalition internal and external assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Angela U; Heckert, Karen A; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee; Hedson, Johnny; Tamang, Suresh; Palafox, Neal

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific Regional Cancer Coalition (PRCC) provides regional leadership in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to implement the Regional Comprehensive Control Plan: 2007-2012, and to evaluate its coalition and partnerships. The Pacific Center of Excellence in the Elimination of Disparities (CEED), aims to reduce cancer disparities and conducts evaluation activities relevant to cancer prevention and control in the USAPI. The PRCC Self (internal) and Partner (external) Assessments were conducted to assess coalition functioning, regional and national partnerships, sustainability, and the role of regionalism for integrating all chronic disease prevention and control in the Pacific. Self-administered questionnaires and key informant telephone interviews with PRCC members (N=20), and representatives from regional and national partner organizations were administered (N=26). Validated multi item measures using 5-point scales on coalition and partnership characteristics were used. Chronbach's alphas and averages for the measures were computed. Internal coalition measures: satisfaction (4.2, SD=0.48) communication (4.0, SD=0.56), respect (4.0, SD=0.60) were rated more highly than external partnership measures: resource sharing (3.5, SD=0.74), regionalism (3.9, SD=0.47), use of findings (3.9, SD=0.50). The PRCC specifically identified its level of "collaboration" with external partners including Pacific CEED. External partners identified its partnership with the PRCC in the "coalition" stage. PRCC members and external partners are satisfied with their partnerships. All groups should continue to focus on building collaboration with partners to reflect a truly regional approach to sustain the commitment, the coalitions and the programming to reduce cancer in the USAPI. PRCC and partners should also work together to integrate all chronic disease prevention and control efforts in the Pacific.

  2. Radon variations in active volcanoes and in regions with high seismicity: internal and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Cruz-Reyna, S. De la; Mena, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of 4 years of observations of radon concentrations in soils of active volcanoes of Costa Rica and a highly seismic region in Mexico are discussed. A distinction is made between the influences of external (mostly meteorological) and internal (magmatic or tectonic) factors on the variation in radon levels. The geological meaning of the radon data can be thus enhanced if the external factors are excluded. (author)

  3. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

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    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  4. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  5. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  6. Reduction of external dose in a wet-contaminated housing area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of reducing the external dose rate in a recreational housing area located between the settlements of Guta and Muravinka, Bryansk Region, Russia, which had been contaminated by the Chernobyl accident more than a decade earlier was made. Removal of contaminated...

  7. Internal and external variability in regional simulations of the Iberian Peninsula climate over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gómez-Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyse the role of internal variability in regional climate simulations through a comparison of two regional paleoclimate simulations for the last millennium. They share the same external forcings and model configuration, differing only in the initial condition used to run the driving global model simulation. A comparison of these simulations allows us to study the role of internal variability in climate models at regional scales, and how it affects the long-term evolution of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. The results indicate that, although temperature is homogeneously sensitive to the effect of external forcings, the evolution of precipitation is more strongly governed by random unpredictable internal dynamics. There are, however, some areas where the role of internal variability is lower than expected, allowing precipitation to respond to the external forcings. In this respect, we explore the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for it. This study identifies areas, depending on the season, in which a direct comparison between model simulations of precipitation and climate reconstructions would be meaningful, but also other areas where good agreement between them should not be expected even if both are perfect.

  8. The Impact of Organizational Structure on Internal and External Integration: An empirical, cross-regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenophon Koufteros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of organizational structure on cross-functional integration, supplier integration, and customer integration and assess whether such effects vary by geographical region. Specifically, we investigate the impact of centralization, formalization, and complexity on both internal (cross-functional and external (supplier, customer integration. Relationships are examined across Western and East Asian environments using data collected from 238 manufacturing plants in eight countries. We find that structural features have differing impacts on cross-functional, supplier, and customer integration, and these effects vary across geographical regions.

  9. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Internal and external potential-field estimation from regional vector data at varying satellite altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2017-10-01

    When modelling satellite data to recover a global planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e.g. by regularization). Here, we develop the theory behind a procedure to invert for planetary potential fields from vector observations collected within a spatially bounded region at varying satellite altitude. Our method relies on the construction of spatiospectrally localized bases of functions that mitigate the noise amplification caused by downward continuation (from the satellite altitude to the source) while balancing the conflicting demands for spatial concentration and spectral limitation. The `altitude-cognizant' gradient vector Slepian functions (AC-GVSF) enjoy a noise tolerance under downward continuation that is much improved relative to the `classical' gradient vector Slepian functions (CL-GVSF), which do not factor satellite altitude into their construction. Furthermore, venturing beyond the realm of their first application, published in a preceding paper, in the present article we extend the theory to being able to handle both internal and external potential-field estimation. Solving simultaneously for internal and external fields under the limitation of regional data availability reduces internal-field artefacts introduced by downward-continuing unmodelled external fields, as we show with numerical examples. We explain our solution strategies on the basis of analytic expressions for the behaviour of the estimation bias and variance of models for which signal and noise are uncorrelated, (essentially) space- and band-limited, and spectrally (almost) white. The AC-GVSF are optimal linear combinations of vector spherical harmonics

  11. Effect of regional anesthesia on the success rate of external cephalic version: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzinger, Katherine R; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A

    2011-11-01

    To estimate whether the use of regional anesthesia is associated with increased success of external cephalic version. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 through April 2011 for published, randomized controlled trials in the English language comparing regional anesthesia with no regional anesthesia for external cephalic version. The primary outcome was external cephalic version success. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery, maternal discomfort, and adverse events. Pooled risk ratios (relative risk) were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified using the I Z method. Six randomized controlled trials met criteria for study inclusion. Regional anesthesia was associated with a higher external cephalic version success rate compared with intravenous or no analgesia (59.7% compared with 37.6%; pooled relative risk 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.93). This significant association persisted when the data were stratified by type of regional anesthesia (spinal compared with epidural). The number needed to treat with regional anesthesia to achieve one additional successful external cephalic version was five. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (P=.32, I Z=14.9%) or publication bias (Harbord test P=.78). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of cesarean delivery comparing regional anesthesia with intravenous or no analgesia (48.4% compared with 59.3%; pooled relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.55-1.17). Adverse events were rare and not significantly different between the two groups. Regional anesthesia is associated with a higher success rate of external cephalic version.

  12. Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Smyke, Anna T; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-02-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly created high-quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype and intervention group, where the slope for short-short (S/S) individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the long allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, S/S children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the S/S genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the long allele. These findings, within a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility.

  13. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  14. EXTERNALLY HEATED PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN THE OPHIUCHUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Laboratory, Mail Code 691, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bjerkeli, Per, E-mail: johan.lindberg@nasa.gov [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-01-20

    We present APEX 218 GHz observations of molecular emission in a complete sample of embedded protostars in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. To study the physical properties of the cores, we calculate H{sub 2}CO and c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} rotational temperatures, both of which are good tracers of the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas. We find that the H{sub 2}CO temperatures range between 16 K and 124 K, with the highest H{sub 2}CO temperatures toward the hot corino source IRAS 16293-2422 (69–124 K) and the sources in the ρ Oph A cloud (23–49 K) located close to the luminous Herbig Be star S1, which externally irradiates the ρ Oph A cores. On the other hand, the c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} rotational temperature is consistently low (7–17 K) in all sources. Our results indicate that the c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} emission is primarily tracing more shielded parts of the envelope whereas the H{sub 2}CO emission (at the angular scale of the APEX beam; 3600 au in Ophiuchus) mainly traces the outer irradiated envelopes, apart from in IRAS 16293-2422, where the hot corino emission dominates. In some sources, a secondary velocity component is also seen, possibly tracing the molecular outflow.

  15. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  16. EXTERNAL COMPTON SCATTERING IN BLAZAR JETS AND THE LOCATION OF THE GAMMA-RAY EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, Justin D., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC, 20375-5352 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    I study the location of the γ -ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation that is valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein–Nishina regimes, is highly accurate, and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor of ∼10. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, external Compton scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of γ -ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern that could help locate the γ -ray emission region. I show that the bright flare from 3C 454.3 in 2010 November detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is unlikely to originate from a single blob inside the BLR. This is because it moves outside the BLR in a time shorter than the flare duration, although emission by multiple blobs inside the BLR is possible. Also, γ -rays are unlikely to originate from outside of the BLR, due to the scattering of photons from an extended dust torus, since the cooling timescale would be too long to explain the observed short variability.

  17. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  18. Analysis of stress concentration in the Dutton groove regions of the Super Lightweight External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.

    1995-05-01

    Because the 2195 aluminum-lithium material of the super lightweight external tank (SLWT ET) has a lower toughness than the 2219 aluminum used in previous ET's, careful attention must be paid to stress concentrations. This report details the analysis performed on some of the stress concentrations in the orthogrid panels of the liquid hydrogen tank.

  19. Notes on the regional workshop on modelling of external hazards. Working material. V. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book is a collection of reports presented by the participants of the TC project dealing with probabilistic safety assessment of external events mostly earthquakes and floods. Some of the papers deal with air crush events as well. Experiences and developments of the PSA in participating countries are at different stages of implementation and need upgrading and improvements. The majority of the NPPs mentioned are WWER type NPPs

  20. [Prehospital emergency care injuries from external causes in a region of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Rafael; Bastidas, Daniel; Arteaga, Everilda; Bastidas, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 3 500 000 people die every year as a result of injuries from external causes, in Venezuela these arte the third leading cause of overall morbidity. Nevertheless, in the country there are no records of the defining aspects of prehospital emergency care as a tool to address this socio-health problem, the aim of this investigation. A descriptive, transversal, field study based on the information recorded daily for a year paramedics was performed. A total 1493 injured by external causes were reported, with a mean age of 29.5 ± 12 years, 84.5% male. Injuries mostly less-moderate (69.4%) were due to severe land transport accidents (70.9%) occurred during the day (75.9%), between monday and friday (72.9%), attended in 20 minutes or less, and transferred in 97.3% of cases. The economically productive young men in areas with higher population density and urbanism are mostly affected by injuries from external causes. In both genres land transport accidents are the most common causes of injury with lower-moderate severity. The care that paramedics provide can be considered adequate.

  1. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  2. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaj, Peter; Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO x removal, and CO 2 scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO 2 over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO 2 mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control

  3. A Multi-Region Model of Economic Growth with Human Capital and Negative Externalities in Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batabyal, A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    We use a multi-region model and provide the first theoretical analysis of the effects of human capital use and a particular kind of innovative activity on economic growth. In each of the N heterogeneous regions in our model, consumers have constant relative risk aversion preferences, there are

  4. Effects of external radiation fields on line emission—application to star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Williams, R. J. R. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Porter, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M., E-mail: mchatzikos@gmail.com [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Uccle (Belgium)

    2013-12-20

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  5. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in East Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshizawa, M.; Murakami, H.; Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Kanai, K.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or inter-regional basis. In East Asia region, a third phase of the intercomparison finished in mid 2004. It was organised within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during 1990-1992 and 1995-1996. The results of this intercomparison for the determination of operational quantities were satisfactory for all Member States. The laboratories demonstrated a good performance in quantities tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the RCA/IAEA intercomparison and the future of RCA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organising intercomparison runs. (authors)

  6. Regional programme on quality control of radioimmunoassay: Development of human resources and external quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, S.; Torres, M.; Mendizabal, A.F.; Farinati, Z.; Galanternik, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1978 the authors have been concerned with helping to standardize radioimmunoassay (RIA) methodology in Argentina and other Latin American countries by: (1) developing human resources through courses on quality control of RIA and training of fellows, and (2) developing four external quality assessment (EQA) schemes to evaluate the performance of laboratories in determining several analytes by RIA. The number of collaborating laboratories increased between the first and fourth schemes. The average analytical performance achieved by the participants in each scheme was estimated by the average between-laboratory variation. Thyroxine, cortisol and tri-iodothyronine were measured the most accurately. Different problems were evident in the RIAs of thyrotrophin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E and human growth hormone. RIA of oestradiol showed the worst accuracy. Analysis of the results showed an increasing interest in RIA quality control as it was found to improve the reliability of RIA. (author)

  7. Transcarpathia - Ukrainian border region at the edge of the EU. Internal and external representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.

    2013-11-01

    Starting from 1918, multiethnic Transcarpathia changed after centuries of being an integrated part of Hungary frequently its political affiliation and is since 2004 a Ukrainian border region to the European Union. Three of the four European Union neighbour countries belong since 21.12.2007 to the Schengen zone (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), only the southern neighbour Romania is for the time being not yet a Schengen country. After a phase of relatively open borders and relatively intensive neighbourhood relations in the first transformation years, by the Schengen regime the situation for Transcarpathia changed again. The current situation, possibly still to be intensified by the Schengen entry of Romania, is likely to persist for some time. What does this mean for Transcarpathia as well as for the wider region in the northeast of the Pannonian basin? Which factors are determining the development in Transcarpathia? Which position maintains Transcarpathia within the Ukraine, how does it look at Kiev and how is it looked at by Kiev and the cis-Carpathian areas of the Ukraine? The paper deals under these aspects with economic development in Transcarpathia, the interest of foreign investors in the region, its role in the continental transportation network, the identity of the Slavonic population majority and regionalism, also with the position of the large Hungarian minority in the region and its relation to the motherland. The paper is based on a larger research project completed and published already in 2004 (Peter Jordan, Mladen Klemenčić: Transcarpathia - Bridgehead or Periphery?), but adopts also the results of a later diploma work of a student of the author (Berenike Ecker) as well as results of more recent research by the author himself. It is found that shaping by Hungarian history, borderland location and multiethnic structure can be defined as the essential components of Transcarpathian identity. Its economic potentials and perspectives rest mainly in richness

  8. Attributing regional effects of the 2014 Jordanian extreme drought to external climate drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, Karim; Mitchell, Dann; Zaaboul, Rashyd; Otto, Friederike; McDonnell, Rachael; Dadson, Simon; Allen, Myles

    2015-04-01

    Throughout 2014, the regions of Jordan, Israel, Lebanon and Syria have experienced a persistent draught with clear impacts on the local populations. In this study we perform an extreme event attribution analysis of how such a draught has changed under climate change, with a specific focus on the flow rate of the Upper Jordan river and the water level of Lake Tiberious (AKA the Sea of Galilee). Both of which hold major societal, political and religious importance. To perform the analysis we make use of distributed computing power to run thousands of modelled years of 2014 with slightly different initial conditions. We use an atmosphere only model (HadAM3p) with a nested 50 km regional model covering Africa and the Middle East. The 50 km model atmospheric variables will be used directly to force offline our 1 km LIS surface model. Two separate experiments and simulations are performed, 1. for all known climate forcings that are present in 2014, and 2. for a naturalised 2014 scenario where we assume humans never impacted the climate. We perform sensitivity analyses on the observed precipitation over the regions of interest, and determine that the TRMM data is in good agreement with station data obtained from the Jordanian Ministry of Water. Using a combination of the TRMM and model data we are able to make clear statements on the attribution of a 2014-like extreme draught event to human causal factors.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF MECHANICAL DECONTAMINATION FOR REDUCTION OF EXTERNAL EXPOSURE AT THE TERRITORY OF THE BRYANSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of the data relevant to the technologies and some results of the mechanical decontamination of the ground and buildings located at the territory of two recreational areas in the Bryansk Region. Both areas were significantly contaminated by the Chernobyl debris in 1986. The obtained values of the gamma-dose rate reduction factor were about 0.2 and 0.3 for the outdoor and indoor locations, respectively. The follow-up monitoring of the treated and control areas demonstrated long-term stability of the effect of the decontamination carried out.

  10. Effect of fractionated regional external beam radiotherapy on peripheral blood cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, B.; Jacob, S.S.; Gwede, C.; Cantor, A.; Patil, J.; Casey, L.; Zachariah, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for obtaining weekly complete blood count (CBC) values and to identify the pattern of changes in CBC during regional conventional fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of CBC data on 299 adult cancer patients who received definitive conventional radiotherapy to head and neck (n=95), chest (n=96), and pelvis (n=108) was performed. Temporal patterns and magnitude of change in white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets during radiotherapy were examined. Results: There were statistically significant declines in all counts, albeit not clinically significant. Notable differences between disease sites were found. The greatest weekly interval change in counts occurred during the first week of radiotherapy for all groups of patients. The mean WBC nadir values during treatment were 5.8 for head and neck, 6.8 for chest, and 5.4 for pelvis. The nadirs for all counts occurred toward the middle-to-end of radiotherapy. Lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive to radiotherapy than other leukocyte subcomponents. Conclusion: Our study suggests that weekly CBC monitoring is not necessary for all patients undergoing standard fractionated radiotherapy. Baseline blood counts may be used to determine an optimal schedule for monitoring CBCs in patients receiving conventional radiation alone. Reduced monitoring of CBC may result in significant financial savings

  11. Limited external irradiation and interstitial 192iridium implant in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthawala, A.A.; Syed, A.M.; Eads, D.L.; Neblett, D.; Gillin, L.; Gates, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Between January 1976 and March 1982, 80 patients with histologically proven diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Sixty-five (81%) of these patients had locally advanced tumors (Stage III and IV); 49% of patients had clinically palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. All patients received a combined external megavoltage and interstitial irradiation. The dose of external irradiation was limited to 4500-5000 cGy over 41/2 to 51/2 weeks. This was followed by interstitial 192 iridium implants to doses of 2000-2500 cGy in 50-60 hours for T1, T2 lesions and 3000-4000 cGy in 60-100 hours for T3, T4 lesions. The neck masses were also separately implanted to deliver additional doses of 2000-4000 cGy in 50-80 hours. Overall local tumor control was observed in 84% of patients with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. An absolute 3-year disease free survival of the entire group was 72%. Treatment related complications such as soft tissue necrosis or osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6% (5/80) of patients. The salvage of neck failures and local failures was possible in 78 and 38% of patients, respectively, either by surgery or by re-irradiation employing interstitial 192 iridium implants. Functional and esthetic integrity was well preserved in most cases

  12. Analysis of the influence of external factors on efficiency of use of resource potential and economic growth of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are described and analyzed the influence of factors of external and internal environments on maintaining the planned economic growth, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Are provided methods of analysis and comprehensive measures to maintain the planned pace of economic growth of the region, expansion of competitive advantages. Enlargement and generalization determine the impact of economic environmental factors, in accordance with the duration of optimization and changes in the business cycle, provide a high level of confidence in the estimates of the impact of the macro environment on the process of achieving economic success, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Analysis of the internal conditions of region is carried out by management on the basis of establishing the optimal values of the distribution of the resource potential for high-priority, economically viable, and socially important areas of efficient use of logistical, labor, information, and natural resources, analysis of the current or having a tendency to the formation of informal communities in the sectoral components of economic activities, industrial complexes and social services. The possibilities of the availability and abilities of the region to influence the structural components in achieving the economic and financial goals of the activity are considered, including ensuring sustainable dynamics in increasing the efficiency of regional production, providing competitive advantages in the use of consumed resources. The factors proposed for consideration, different management of the regional economy, contribute to the creation of both formal and informal organizational and economic communities, taking into account the interests of all its participants. In addition, mechanisms and tools are proposed that facilitate the creation of favorable conditions for participants in informal clusters

  13. Measurements of individual doses from external radiation in the Brjansk region of the Russian republic of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallstroem, E.; Woehni, T.

    1991-01-01

    Individual doses from external photon radiation to various occupational groups in three different villages in the Brjansk region of the Russian republic of the USSR have been measured by individual TL-dosemeters. A total of 86 persons were monitored for a period of 10 days in September 1990, from which 83 dosemeters were returned. The villages had different levels of deposition, but they all belonged to the ''strictly controlled zone'', i.e. deposition levels 555 to 1480 kBq/m 2 (15 to 40 Ci/km 2 ). The results show individual effective dose equivalents during one month in the range 80 to 1000 μSv. Schoolchildren received the lowest doses, and different groups of fields workers the highest. Estimated mean annual effective dose equivalents ranged from 2.0 mSv to 4.6 mSv for the different occupational groups and types of dwellings. Monthly mean effective dose equivalents relative to the reported mean deposition of Cs-137 ranged from 110 (in-door workers in stone houses) to 290 μSv per MBq/m 2 (out-door workers in wooden houses). The reported results are lower than theorectical estimates based on the reported level on contamination. The ratio of the mean effective dose equivalent for persons living in wooden and stone houses ranged from 1.4 to 2.6 for the various villages and occupational groups. 21 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Structure and Recognition of a Novel HIV-1 gp120-gp41 Interface Antibody that Caused MPER Exposure through Viral Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gorman, Jason; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Sheward, Daniel J.; Elliott, Debra H.; Rouelle, Julie; Smira, Ashley; Joyce, M. Gordon; Ndabambi, Nonkululeko; Druz, Aliaksandr; Asokan, Mangai; Burton, Dennis R.; Connors, Mark; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Mascola, John R.; Robinson, James E.; Ward, Andrew B.; Williamson, Carolyn; Kwong, Peter D.; Morris, Lynn; Moore, Penny L.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2017-01-11

    antibodies and identifies a set of mutations in the gp120 C terminus that exposes the membrane-proximal external region of gp41, with potential utility in HIV vaccine design.

  15. External quality assessment in gynaecological cytology: The Trent Region experience. The Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D N; Hewer, E M; Melling, S E; Rice, S

    2002-08-01

    A Department of Health Executive Letter stated in 1998 that the principal function of external quality assessment (EQA) is educational. Subsequently, in England, it has no longer been acceptable to assess performance in gynaecological cytology by proficiency testing. This paper describes the EQA scheme in gynaecological cytology that has been run by the Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) since 1998. It conforms as closely as possible to the recommendations published by the Department of Health Working Group on Histopathology EQA Accreditation, and replaced the national proficiency testing protocol. The educational value of the scheme is derived predominantly from a numerical score which provides confidential and quantitative feedback to all participants. Personal performance monitoring occurs as a secondary function. For primary screeners and checkers, this is based purely on the distinction between negative, inadequate and abnormal smears. For pathologists, personal performance monitoring also includes grading of abnormalities. The EQA has been designed so that all professional groups participate in a manner that closely mimics normal practice. Only slides that have achieved an 80% consensus amongst participants are used in the EQA. Substandard performance has been defined as those participants with scores falling below the 2.5%ile. The paper describes the EQA in detail and illustrates its use by means of the second round results. The EQA protocol developed within Trent and described in this paper has contributed to proposals contained in the current national EQA in gynaecological cytology for the NHSCSP. In particular this paper highlights the effectiveness of the scoring system contained within the Trent and National EQA protocols.

  16. Stab injury to the preauricular region with laceration of the external carotid artery without involvement of the facial nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Diogo; Pelliccia, Giovanni; Pais, Diogo; Carrola-Gomes, Diogo; Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Videira-Castro, José; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-07-29

    Open injuries to the face involving the external carotid artery are uncommon. These injuries are normally associated with laceration of the facial nerve because this nerve is more superficial than the external carotid artery. Hence, external carotid artery lesions are usually associated with facial nerve dysfunction. We present an unusual case report in which the patient had an injury to this artery with no facial nerve compromise. A 25-year-old Portuguese man sustained a stab wound injury to his right preauricular region with a broken glass. Immediate profuse bleeding ensued. Provisory tamponade of the wound was achieved at the place of aggression by two off-duty doctors. He was initially transferred to a district hospital, where a large arterial bleeding was observed and a temporary compressive dressing was applied. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to a tertiary hospital. At admission in the emergency room, he presented a pulsating lesion in the right preauricular region and slight weakness in the territory of the inferior buccal branch of the facial nerve. The physical examination suggested an arterial lesion superficial to the facial nerve. However, in the operating theater, a section of the posterior and lateral flanks of the external carotid artery inside the parotid gland was identified. No lesion of the facial nerve was observed, and the external carotid artery was repaired. To better understand the anatomical rationale of this uncommon clinical case, we dissected the preauricular region of six cadavers previously injected with colored latex solutions in the vascular system. A small triangular space between the two main branches of division of the facial nerve in which the external carotid artery was not covered by the facial nerve was observed bilaterally in all cases. This clinical case illustrates that, in a preauricular wound, the external carotid artery can be injured without facial nerve damage. However, no similar description was found in

  17. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Internal, external and location factors influencing cofiring of biomass with coal in the U.S. northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been identified as a viable option to diminish reliance on fossil fuels. We parameterized the effect of selected internal (e.g. coal-fire presence), external (e.g. price and renewable energy mandates) and location (e.g. biomass availability, infrastructure) variables on the likelihood of using biomass in cofiring with coal...

  19. Copper Heat Exchanger for the External Auxiliary Bus-Bars Routing Line in the LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Seyvet, F; Sitko, M; Skoczen, B; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The corrector magnets and the main quadrupoles of the LHC dispersion suppressors are powered by a special superconducting line (called auxiliary bus-bars line N), external to the cold mass and housed in a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass. As the line is periodically connected to the cold mass, the same gaseous and liquid helium cools both the magnets and the line. The final sub-cooling process (from around 4.5 K down to 1.9 K) consists in the phase transformation from liquid to superfluid helium. Heat is extracted from the line through the magnets via their point of junction. In dispersion suppressor zones, approximately 40 m long, the sub-cooling of the line is slightly delayed with respect to the magnets. This might have an impact on the readiness of the accelerator for operation. In order to accelerate the process, a special heat exchanger has been designed. It is located in the middle of the dispersion suppressor portion of the line. Its main function consists in providing a loca...

  20. Higher incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in some regions in the world confers for interplay between genetic factors and external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Das, Piyanki; Chatterjee, Koustav; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare variety of head and neck cancers. The risk factors include three major causes: genetic factors, viral infection, and environmental and dietary factors. The types of NPC show strong ethnic and geographic variations. The keratinizing and non-keratinizing types are prevalent in the lower incidence regions like North America and Europe; whereas the undifferentiated type is mostly found in the regions with higher incidences like China, North Africa, Arctic, and Nagaland of North-East India. These suggest a possible major role of the internal genetic factors for generation and promotion of this disease. Viral infections might accelerate the process of carcinogenesis by helping in cellular proliferation and loss of apoptosis. Diet and other environmental factors promote these neoplastic processes and further progression of the disease occurs.

  1. Effective Equivalent Doses of External Irradiation of Population by Man-made Radionuclides from the Soil in the Sarajevo Region Over the Period of 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saracevic, L.; Samek, D.; Hasanbasic, D.; Gradascevic, N.

    1998-01-01

    Assessment of exposition of human body to radioactive materials is seen as radiation-hygienic measure of utmost importance, since the doses absorbed due to radionuclides present in soil, air, food and water are significant integral parts of the total dose that the human being receives in all kinds and conditions of exposition. External irradiation by radionuclides deposed in soil is a major contributor to the whole dose of irradiation of population. Assuming that fission radionuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137 had a specially significant contribution to the total dose of irradiation of the population over the investigation period (1986-1989), we established their levels of activity in the soil in different localities of the Sarajevo region, and then calculated the effective equivalent dose for the population for each year of investigation. The mean values for the yearly effective equivalent doses of external irradiation of the population by fission radionuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137 from the soil in the Sarajevo region were 0.77 mSv/year in 1989. Contribution by Cs-134 to the total effective equivalent dose was 63.64 % in 1986 year, to be reeducated in 1987 to 45.67 %, in 1988 to 35.89 % and in the year 1989 to 33.33 %. The effective equivalent dose was different to a great extent by the investigated localities (town sections) during the started period. It can be inferred from the above that the average population of the Sarajevo region did not receive a larger dose of radiation than the one established by the International Commission for Radiological Protection as the limit for subsequent exposition to radiation. (author)

  2. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  3. Collisionless Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and vortex-induced reconnection in the external region of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegoraro, F; Faganello, M; Califano, F

    2008-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma streaming with a non uniform velocity, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability plays a major role in mixing different plasma regions and in stretching the magnetic field lines leading to the formation of layers with a sheared magnetic field where magnetic field line reconnection can take place. A relevant example is provided by the formation of a mixing layer between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind at low latitudes during northward periods. In the considered configuration, in the presence of a magnetic field nearly perpendicular to the plane defined by the velocity field and its inhomogeneity direction, velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which advects and distorts the magnetic field configuration. If the Alfven velocity associated to the in-plane magnetic field is sufficiently weak with respect to the variation of the fluid velocity in the plasma, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generates fully rolled-up vortices which advect the magnetic field lines into a complex configuration, causing the formation of current layers along the inversion curves of the in-plane magnetic field component. Pairing of the vortices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is a well know phenomenon in two-dimensional hydrodynamics. Here we investigate the development of magnetic reconnection during the vortex pairing process and show that completely different magnetic structures are produced depending on how fast the reconnection process develops on the time scale set by the pairing process.

  4. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  5. External quality assessment for KRAS testing is needed: setup of a European program and report of the first joined regional quality assessment rounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Tejpar, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    . In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer...... expand this program to more laboratories to provide a robust estimate of the quality of KRAS testing in Europe, and provide the basis for remedial measures and harmonization....... prepared and distributed the samples for the participants of their own country. The samples included unstained sections of 10 invasive colorectal carcinomas with known KRAS mutation status. The samples were centrally validated by one of two reference laboratories. The laboratories were allowed to use...

  6. External Quality Assessment for KRAS Testing Is Needed: Setup of a European Program and Report of the First Joined Regional Quality Assessment Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.L.; Tejpar, Sabine; Cox, Karen; de Hertogh, Gert; de Stricker, Karin; Edsjö, Anders; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Höfler, Gerald; Jung, Andreas; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; López-Ríos, Fernando; Hansen, Tine Plato; Rouleau, Etienne; Vandenberghe, Peter; van Krieken, Johan J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of epidermal growth factor receptor–targeting antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer has been restricted to patients with wild-type KRAS tumors by the European Medicines Agency since 2008, based on data showing a lack of efficacy and potential harm in patients with mutant KRAS tumors. In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer prepared and distributed the samples for the participants of their own country. The samples included unstained sections of 10 invasive colorectal carcinomas with known KRAS mutation status. The samples were centrally validated by one of two reference laboratories. The laboratories were allowed to use their own preferred method for histological evaluation, DNA isolation, and mutation analysis. In this study, we analyze the setup of the KRAS scheme. We analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional scheme organization by analyzing the outcome of genotyping results, analysis of tumor percentage, and written reports. We conclude that only 70% of laboratories correctly identified the KRAS mutational status in all samples. Both the false-positive and false-negative results observed negatively affect patient care. Reports of the KRAS test results often lacked essential information. We aim to further expand this program to more laboratories to provide a robust estimate of the quality of KRAS testing in Europe, and provide the basis for remedial measures and harmonization. PMID:21441573

  7. Novel Cavities in Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers for Emission in Broad Spectral Region by Means of Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Michal L.

    Optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) were first demonstrated in the mid 1990's. Due to the unique design properties of extended cavity lasers VECSELs have been able to provide tunable, high-output powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. These features offer a wide range of possible applications in areas such as medicine, spectroscopy, defense, imaging, communications and entertainment. Nowadays, newly developed VECSELs, cover the spectral regions from red (600 nm) to around 5 microm. By taking the advantage of the open cavity design, the emission can be further expanded to UV or THz regions by the means of intracavity nonlinear frequency generation. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and extend the capabilities of high-power VECSELs by utilizing novel nonlinear conversion techniques. Optically pumped VECSELs based on GaAs semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to provide exceptionally high output powers covering the 900 to 1200 nm spectral region with diffraction limited beam quality. The free space cavity design allows for access to the high intracavity circulating powers where high efficiency nonlinear frequency conversions and wavelength tuning can be obtained. As an introduction, this dissertation consists of a brief history of the development of VECSELs as well as wafer design, chip fabrication and resonator cavity design for optimal frequency conversion. Specifically, the different types of laser cavities such as: linear cavity, V-shaped cavity and patented T-shaped cavity are described, since their optimization is crucial for transverse mode quality, stability, tunability and efficient frequency conversion. All types of nonlinear conversions such as second harmonic, sum frequency and difference frequency generation are discussed in extensive detail. The theoretical simulation and the development of the high-power, tunable blue and green VECSEL by the means of type I

  8. Parameters influencing SPET regional brain uptake of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime measured by calibrated point sources as an external standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Dobbeleir, A.; Maes, M.; Pickut, B.A.; Vervaet, A.; Deyn, P.P. de

    1994-01-01

    Using calibrated point sources as an external standard to convert SPET brain counts into absolute values of regional brain uptake (rBU) of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), the relative contribution of different parameters to interindividual variability of cerebellar rBU was examined in 33 healthy volunteers. Stepwise regression analysis identified body surface as the most important factor underlying interindividual variability, when compared with brain volume. In the normal volunteer population presented, age decrement of rBU corrected for body surface and brain volume equalled 60.5-0.20xage. Based on the data of eight normal volunteers, including four test-retest studies with heart rate (HR) differences greater than 5 units and four test-stress studies with doubling of heart rate after bicycle exercise, influence of heart rate may be expressed by the equation ΔrBU = 0.35 ΔHR. Clinically, estimation of the relative influence of different factors allows normalization and extension of the applicability of the rBU quantification method used from longitudinal studies to group comparisons. Interestingly, results of the Daily Stress Inventory Scale and a subjective rating scale suggest the absence of a significant influence of minor stress on rBU. When using one vial per patient, chromatography may be omitted in clinical routine practice and lipophilicity may be estimated as 90% of the injected dose, if administered within 10 min after preparation. Finally, sensitivity of the quantification method was tested in eight volunteers using acetazolamide brain activation and showed a mean increase in cerebellar rBU of 30.2%, varying between 14.1% and 75.9%. (orig./MG)

  9. Regional variation in breast cancer treatment in the Netherlands and the role of external peer review : a cohort study comprising 63,516 women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Otter, Renee; van Harten, Wim H.; Siesling, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment variation is an important issue in health care provision. An external peer review programme for multidisciplinary cancer care was introduced in 1994 in the Netherlands to improve the multidisciplinary organisation of cancer care in hospitals. So far the clinical impact of

  10. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Gemina; Titiek Tjahya Andari; Indra Cahya Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1) formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2) formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3) formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on...

  11. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  12. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  13. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  14. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  15. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  18. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  19. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  20. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  1. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  3. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  4. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  5. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  6. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  7. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  8. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  9. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  10. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  11. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  12. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  13. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  14. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  15. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  16. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  17. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  18. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  19. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  20. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  1. Landscape externalities from onshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, Juergen; Ohl, Cornelia; Hartje, Volkmar

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of renewable energy is a central element of the German Federal Government's climate and energy policy. The target for 2020 is to produce 30% of the electricity from renewable energies. Wind power has been selected to be a major contributor to this change. Replacing old wind turbines by modern ones and building new turbines on land will be crucial in meeting this target. However, the expansion of onshore wind power is not universally accepted. In several regions of Germany residents are protesting against setting up new wind turbines. To determine the negative effects two choice experiments were applied in Westsachsen and Nordhessen, Germany. In both regions the externalities of wind power generation until 2020 based on today's state of technology were measured. The results show that negative landscape externalities would result from expanding wind power generation. Using latent class models three different groups of respondents experiencing different degrees of externalities were identified.

  2. Internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation is important for rhythmic PERIOD1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ha Lee

    Full Text Available The mouse PERIOD1 (mPER1 plays an important role in the maintenance of circadian rhythm. Translation of mPer1 is directed by both a cap-dependent process and cap-independent translation mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES in the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Here, we compared mPer1 IRES activity with other cellular IRESs. We also found critical region in mPer1 5'UTR for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (HNRNPQ binding. Deletion of HNRNPQ binding region markedly decreased IRES activity and disrupted rhythmicity. A mathematical model also suggests that rhythmic IRES-dependent translation is a key process in mPER1 oscillation. The IRES-mediated translation of mPer1 will help define the post-transcriptional regulation of the core clock genes.

  3. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  4. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  5. Optical gain tuning within IR region in type-II In0.5Ga0.5As0.8P0.2/GaAs0.5Sb0.5 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Rathi, Amit; Riyaj, Md.; Bhardwaj, Garima; Alvi, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quaternary and ternary alloy semiconductors offer an extra degree of flexibility in terms of bandgap tuning. Modifications in the wave functions and alterations in optical transitions in quaternary and ternary QW (quantum well) heterostructures due to external uniaxial strain provide valuable insights on the characteristics of the heterostructure. This paper reports the optical gain in strained InGaAsP/GaAsSb type-II QW heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under external uniaxial strain at room temperature (300 K). The entire heterostructure is supposed to be grown on InP substrate pseudomorphically. Band structure, wave functions, energy dispersion and momentum matrix elements of the heterostructure have been computed. 6 × 6 diagonalised k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix of the system is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model has been applied for the band structure and wavefunction calculations. TE mode optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] is calculated. Optical gain of the heterostructure as a function of 2D carrier density and temperature variation is investigated. The variation of the peak optical gain as a function of As and Sb fractions in InGaAsP as a barrier and GaAsSb as a well respectively is exhibited. For a charge carrier injection of 5 ×1012 /cm2 , the TE optical gain is 3952 cm-1 at room temperature under no external uniaxial strain. Significant increase in TE mode optical gain is observed under high external uniaxial strain (1, 5 and 10 GPa) along [110] within IR (Infrared region) region.

  6. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  7. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  8. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  9. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Kajikawa

    Full Text Available Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides.

  10. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  11. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  13. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  14. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Morris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3 loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches.

  15. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  16. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  17. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  18. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  19. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  20. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-01-01

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF 2 with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  1. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T

    1996-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  5. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  6. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  7. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  8. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  9. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  10. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  11. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  12. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  13. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  14. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  15. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  16. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  17. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  18. Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaffel, N.; Mnif, M.; Abid, M.; Daoud, J.

    2001-01-01

    Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases. Hypothyroidism frequency is estimated to be between 10 and 45% after radiotherapy alone, and 40 to 67% after radiotherapy associated with thyroidectomy. This hypothyroidism is infra-clinical in 60% of the cases. Our study concerned 15 cases of hypothyroidism after external radiotherapy delivered between and 1991 and 1999. An irradiation of the cervical, cerebral and thorax regions was indicated for different types of cancers. Larynx carcinoma epidermoid was the most frequent cancer (seven cases); the radiation treatment used cobalt 60 with conventional fractionation, i.e., 2 Gy per treatment, five treatments a week. In nine cases, the hypothyroidism was discovered during a systematic examination; it was clinically evident in the six remaining cases. Hypothyroidism appeared after an irradiation dose average of 50 Gy (extremes 30-65 Gy). The average duration of the irradiation was about 7 weeks and the hypothyroidism appeared in a mean 22 months. In all cases, the substituting treatment was initiated with a favorable progression. Faced with the risk of hypothyroidism, it is necessary to check patients who have undergone external irradiation of the neck. (authors)

  19. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Mimitopes for Characterization of CRF01_AE HIV-1 Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse V. Schoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping humoral immune responses to HIV-1 over the course of natural infection is important in understanding epitope exposure in relation to elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, which is considered imperative for effective vaccine design. When analyzing HIV-specific immune responses, the antibody binding profiles may be a correlate for functional antibody activity. In this study, we utilized phage display technology to identify novel mimitopes that may represent Env epitope structures bound by bNAbs directed at V1V2 and V3 domains, CD4 binding site (CD4bs and the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env. Mimitope sequence motifs were determined for each bNAb epitope. Given the ongoing vaccine development efforts in Thailand, these mimitopes that represent CD4bs and MPER epitopes were used to map immune responses of HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected individuals with known neutralizing responses from two distinct time periods, 1996-98 and 2012-15. The more contemporary cohort showed an increase in binding breadth with binding observed for all MPER and CD4bs mimitopes, while the older cohort showed only 75% recognition of the CD4bs mimitopes and no MPER mimotope binding. Furthermore, mimitope binding profiles correlated significantly with magnitude (p=0.0036 and breadth (p=0.0358 of neutralization of a multi-subtype Tier 1 panel of pseudoviruses. These results highlight the utility of this mimitope mapping approach for detecting human plasma IgG-specificities that target known neutralizing antibody epitopes, and may also provide an indication of the plasticity of antibody binding within HIV-1 Env neutralization determinants.

  20. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  1. Weighing environmental externalities: Let's do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Should we as a society adopt policies to internalize external environmental costs? Of course we should. But we should do it correctly. State public utility commissions (PUCs) that are using numerical 'externality adders' reflecting global and regional environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental quality. Alternative approaches for dealing with environmental damages or externalities exist that can lead utilities to take account of the environmental costs associated with the generation of electricity more effectively and at lower cost. This article discusses what an externality is and why the use of environmental adders by PUCs in the resource selection process, while well intentioned, is a bad idea. The author discusses how the most egregious errors associated with the use of adders can be corrected if PUCs insist on using them. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that state PUCs can pursue which will better serve the electricity customers they are supposed to protect and promote a cleaner environment at the lowest reasonable cost. The author emphasizes that this is not a debate about whether or not environmental costs should be factored into the investment and operating decisions of firms that produce pollution. Rather, it is about how it should be done and whether state PUCs are in a particularly good position to do it well, given their expertise, legal authorities, other responsibilities and scarce resources

  2. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  3. Security regionalism and flaws of externally forged peace in Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the IGAD peace process in Sudan, highlighting the dynamics ..... that according to erroneous US intelligence produced chemical weapons ..... However, Garang's death in a helicopter accident in July 2005 exposed the.

  4. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  5. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  6. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  7. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  8. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  9. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  10. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  11. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  12. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  13. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  14. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  15. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  16. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles D; Azadnia, Parisa; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Honda, Andrew; Giang, Erick; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cheng, Yushao; Lin, Xiaohe; Mann, Colin J; Tang, Jeffrey; Sok, Devin; Burton, Dennis R; Law, Mansun; Ward, Andrew B; He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-02-28

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches. IMPORTANCE Both epitope-focused and trimer-based strategies are currently being explored in HIV-1 vaccine development, which aims to elicit broadly neutralizing

  17. Growth of new firms and spatially bounded knowledge externalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raspe, O.; Oort, F.G. van

    2011-01-01

    If localized knowledge spillovers are important, new firms will tend to locate in proximity of one another, as well as other knowledge sources, in order to capitalize on external knowledge stocks. Although theories that emphasize knowledge spillovers thus present the urban and regional character

  18. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program direction and professional review of the performance of public affairs functions in the Regional... result in contracts in the area of public information and community relations. It develops proposals and... Administrator for External Affairs and supervises all the functions of the Office. The Director acts as national...

  19. External branch spinal nerve paralysis on keloid scar | Frioui | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paralysis of the external branch of spinal nerve is very rare. It manifests clinically by a weakness and abnormal morphology of the shoulder. We must think about it in front of any simple surgery of the cervical region. We report the case of a 20 year old patient, who consulted several doctors for pain and progressive ...

  20. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  1. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  2. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  3. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  4. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinglan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  5. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  6. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  7. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    , it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  8. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  9. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  10. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  11. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  12. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  13. Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases; Hypothyroidie apres radiotherapie externe. A propos de 15 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaffel, N.; Mnif, M.; Abid, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Sfax (Tunisia); Daoud, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Habib Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2001-06-01

    Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases. Hypothyroidism frequency is estimated to be between 10 and 45% after radiotherapy alone, and 40 to 67% after radiotherapy associated with thyroidectomy. This hypothyroidism is infra-clinical in 60% of the cases. Our study concerned 15 cases of hypothyroidism after external radiotherapy delivered between and 1991 and 1999. An irradiation of the cervical, cerebral and thorax regions was indicated for different types of cancers. Larynx carcinoma epidermoid was the most frequent cancer (seven cases); the radiation treatment used cobalt 60 with conventional fractionation, i.e., 2 Gy per treatment, five treatments a week. In nine cases, the hypothyroidism was discovered during a systematic examination; it was clinically evident in the six remaining cases. Hypothyroidism appeared after an irradiation dose average of 50 Gy (extremes 30-65 Gy). The average duration of the irradiation was about 7 weeks and the hypothyroidism appeared in a mean 22 months. In all cases, the substituting treatment was initiated with a favorable progression. Faced with the risk of hypothyroidism, it is necessary to check patients who have undergone external irradiation of the neck. (authors)

  14. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...... of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses....

  15. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  16. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  17. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  18. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  19. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72... WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design basis external man-induced events. (a) The region must be examined for both past and present man-made facilities and activities that might endanger the proposed...

  20. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  1. Human Capital Externalities : Effects for Low-Educated Workers and Low-Skilled Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Edzes, Arjen J. E.; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2016-01-01

    Investments in human capital are essential themes in many policy programmes. Besides the direct private returns of education, there is evidence of positive human capital externalities at the level of regions and firms. The results in this paper show that both production and consumption externalities

  2. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  3. Meningitis and Pneumocephalus. A rare complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usul, Haydar; Kuzeyli, Kayhan; Cakir, Ertugrul; Caylan, Refik; Imamoglu, H Ibrahim; Yazar, Ugur; Arslan, Erhan; Sayin, O Caglar; Arslan, Selcuk

    2004-11-01

    Meningitis due to fracture of the fovea ethmoidalis during external dacryocystorhinostomy is a rare complication. We report a case of pneumocephalus and meningitis in a 51-year-old female who underwent an external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Although extracranial complications during or after external DCR have been well-described, only one case of meningitis has been reported in the literature. Physical examination, computerised tomography, lumbar puncture, and bacteriologic cultures were used to make the diagnosis. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy. Her symptoms resolved immediately and she was discharged on the 21st post-operative day. This complication emphasises the importance of careful surgical technique and a thorough knowledge of regional anatomy, during DCR and similar procedures.

  4. Externalized ileocolic anastomosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, James; Kuntz, Charles A; Newman, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female Labrador retriever was presented 48 hours after an intestinal resection and anastomosis for management of a small intestinal foreign body. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of peritoneal effusion. Cytology of fluid collected by abdominocentesis revealed a large number of degenerate neutrophils with intracellular cocci. A diagnosis of septic peritonitis was made, presumably because of dehiscence of the anastomosis. Upon repeat exploratory celiotomy, the intestinal anastomosis (located 4 cm orad to the cecum) was found to be leaking intestinal contents into the abdomen. The distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon were resected. An end-to-end, ileocolic anastomosis was performed and subsequently exteriorized into the subcutaneous space via a paramedian incision through the abdominal wall. The anastomosis was inspected daily for 4 days before it was returned to the abdomen and the subcutaneous defect was closed. Serial cytology of the peritoneal fluid, which was performed during this 4-day postoperative period, confirmed progressive resolution of peritonitis. The dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days following return of the anastomosis into the abdomen. Externalized intestinal anastomosis is used with good success in human medicine for repair of colonic injuries. In this case, externalization of the anastomosis permitted healing of the intestinal anastomosis in an environment isolated from the detrimental effects created by septic peritonitis. In addition, direct visualization of the anastomosis allowed assessment of healing. To our knowledge, this procedure has not been previously reported in companion animals.

  5. Internal and external attention and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, Hannah J; Bogler, Carsten; Gleich, Tobias; Haynes, John-Dylan; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing. Here, we employed a thought-probe paradigm to study the neural correlates of these different phases. Twenty healthy, meditation naïve participants were introduced to external (mindfulness of sound) and internal (mindfulness of breathing) attention meditation and then practiced the meditation at home for four consecutive days. They then performed the same focused attention meditations during fMRI scanning, in four runs alternating between internal and external attention. At pseudorandom intervals, participants were asked whether they had just been focused on the task (mindful attention) or had been distracted (mind-wandering). During mindful attention, brain regions typically associated with the DMN, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal junction showed significantly less neural activation compared to mind-wandering phases. Reduced activity of the DMN was found during both external and internal attention, with stronger deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex during internal attention compared to external attention. Moreover, refocusing after mind-wandering was associated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Our results support the theory that mindful attention is associated with reduced DMN activity compared to mind

  6. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  7. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  8. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  9. Effect of Cervical Siphon of External and Internal Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-10-01

    Variant courses, configuration, and branching pattern of the external and internal carotid arteries, especially when curved in S-shape, are important for hemodynamic changes and clinical implications. Therefore, the aim of the study is to report abnormal cervical siphons observed in external and internal carotid arteries to explore clinical significance by review of literature and hemodynamic changes theoretically.The right common carotid artery bifurcated into external and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage in a 70-year-old female cadaver. After bifurcation, the external carotid artery underwent severe tortuosity coursing through 5 bends at points A, B, C, D, and E from its origin to termination and 2 bends at A' and B' in internal carotid artery in the cervical region. The angles between inflow and out flow of the blood at the bends were measured and the change in velocity at each bend was computed for both arteries. Hemodynamic changes were calculated, compared and relevant clinical complications were theoretically correlated.The angles of 20°, 30°, 51°, 52°, 60°, and 28°, 48° were formed by 5 bends of external and 2 bends of internal carotid arteries, respectively. The curved courses of these arteries caused reduction in velocity/stasis, turbulence, and low shear stress. Such kinks might cause stroke, ischemia and mistaken for tumors and abscess in imagery leading to or otherwise producing iatrogenic repercussions. This study will be useful for anatomists, clinicians, and radiologists.

  10. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L.; Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs

  11. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs.

  12. Internal and External Reconnection Series Homologous Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) on SOHO and the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh, we examine a series of morphologically homologous solar flares occurring in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) active region 8210 over May 1-2, 1998. An emerging flux region (EFR) impacted against a sunspot to the west and next to a coronal hole to the east is the source of the repeated flaring. An SXT sigmoid parallels the EFR's neutral line at the site of the initial flaring in soft X rays. In EIT each flaring episode begins with the formation of a crinkle pattern external to the EFR. These EIT crinkles move out from, and then in toward, the EFR with velocities approx. 20 km/ s. A shrinking and expansion of the width of the coronal hole coincides with the crinkle activity, and generation and evolution of a postflare loop system begins near the time of crinkle formation. Using a schematic based on magnetograms of the region, we suggest that these observations are consistent with the standard reconnection-based model for solar eruptions but are modified by the presence of the additional magnetic fields of the sunspot and coronal hole. In the schematic, internal reconnection begins inside of the EFR-associated fields, unleashing a flare, postflare loops, and a coronal mass ejection (CME). External reconnection, first occurring between the escaping CME and the coronal hole field and second occurring between fields formed as a result of the first external reconnection, results in the EIT crinkles and changes in the coronal hole boundary. By the end of the second external reconnection, the initial setup is reinstated; thus the sequence can repeat, resulting in morphologically homologous eruptions. Our inferred magnetic topology is similar to that suggested in the "breakout model" of eruptions although we cannot determine if our eruptions are released primarily by the breakout mechanism (external reconnection) or, alternatively

  13. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  14. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  15. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  16. Analysis of External Treatment Methods and Technical Characteristics of External Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Miao, Mingsan; Bai, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Chinese medicine external therapy is a treatment method of Chinese medicine with Chinese characteristics. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment, convenient operation, external treatment and technology has great prospects for development. The traditional Chinese medicine external treatment method and technical characteristics were analyzed.

  17. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  18. External cephalic version facilitation for breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2001-01-01

    Tocolytic drugs to relax the uterus as well as other methods have been also used in an attempt to facilitate external cephalic version at term. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of routine tocolysis, fetal acoustic stimulation, epidural or spinal analgesia and transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term on successful version and measures of pregnancy outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Date of last search: April 2001. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing routine versus selective tocolysis; fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions versus dummy or no stimulation; epidural or spinal analgesia versus no regional analgesia; or transabdominal amnioinfusion versus no amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by the reviewer. In seven trials, routine tocolysis was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version (relative risk 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.87). There were no significant differences between non-cephalic presentations at birth. Caesarean sections were reduced (relative risk 0.85, confidence interval 0.72-0.99). Fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version at term (relative risk 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.60). With epidural or spinal analgesia, external cephalic version failure, non-cephalic births and caesarean sections were reduced in one trial but not the other. The overall differences were not statistically significant. No randomised trials of transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term were located. Routine tocolysis appears to reduce the failure rate of external cephalic version at term. Although promising, there is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal

  19. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  20. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  1. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  2. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  3. The external costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the ExtrenE project (external costs of electricity) of the European Commission (EC). The damage caused by pollution has been calculated through analyses of the impact pathways which involve an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - monetary estimation chain. The results are introduced for various cycles of combustible fuels (with several technological variants), indicating the confidence intervals. The cost of the damage is particularly high for coal. For example, for the coal-fired power stations in France (with the emission levels of 1995) it is approximately equal to the sales price of electricity. For natural gas, the cost of damage is approximately one-third that of coal. On the other hand, the damage costs for nuclear fuel and most forms of renewable energy are low, at a maximum just a few percent of the electricity price. The greatest part of these costs arises from health impact, particularly premature death. In order to avoid the controversy inherent in making a monetary assessment of mortality, especially if this is imposed upon future generations, the reduction in life expectancy due to the various combustible cycles is also indicated and the risks of nuclear energy are put into perspective via several comparisons. (authors)

  4. EXTERNAL ELEMENTS OF INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra GEORGESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because nowadays we attach a great importance to our look, this article wants to highlight certain aspects of intercultural management that are external to us, the personal label with which we "come into contact with the whole world” and also this article gives some suggestions that I want to consider for business success. As speakers of a language, we are both "producers" and "consumers" of it. In a sense, this is also the case for the dress code, the "language" of clothing: we dress in a certain way and this send messages to others; We perceive how others are dressed and so we receive messages from them. But there is no difference: we are not the ones who produce the signs. Beyond fashion, myths and motes, clothing, accessories, gesture, face expression, posture and body lines are the first elements that give visual identity to any person. In the business environment, as in the world of fashion, immediate visual identity is the one that generates the first impression.

  5. External plans for radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico shares in the task of Food and Water Control corresponding to the FT-86 task force of External Plans for Radiological Emergency (PERE), in charge of the Veracruz Health Services. In the PERE preparation stage previous actions are necessary developed for the preparation and updating of this plan and the task organization with the purpose to maintaining standing and operable in any time and circumstance, the capability to response in the face of an emergency. This stage englobes activities which must be realized before to carry out the Plan as they are the specialized training of personnel which participates and the execution of exercises and simulacrums. Until 1998, training and exercises for this task had been realized under diverse possible sceneries but in conditions that simulated the presence of radioactive material. For this reason, it should be emphasized the training realized during the days 6th, 7th, 8th July, 1999, in the emergency planning zone of the Plan, which to carry out using radioactive material. The National Institute of Nuclear Research had in charge of the training. This work describes all the activities for the realization of this training. (Author)

  6. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. III; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis

  7. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  8. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  9. Externality-correcting taxes and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, V.; Smith, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much of the literature on externalities has considered taxes and direct regulation as alternative policy instruments. Both instruments may in practice be imperfect, reflecting informational deficiencies and other limitations. We analyse the use of taxes and regulation in combination, to control externalities arising from individual consumption behaviour. We consider cases where taxes are either imperfectly differentiated to reflect individual differences in externalities, or where some consum...

  10. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  11. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  12. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  13. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  14. Effects of internal and external vividness on hippocampal connectivity during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Successful memory for an image can be supported by retrieval of one's personal reaction to the image (i.e., internal vividness), as well as retrieval of the specific details of the image itself (i.e., external vividness). Prior research suggests that memory vividness relies on regions within the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus, but it is unclear whether internal and external vividness are supported by the hippocampus in a similar way. To address this open question, the current study examined hippocampal connectivity associated with enhanced internal and external vividness ratings during retrieval. Participants encoded complex visual images paired with verbal titles. During a scanned retrieval session, they were presented with the titles and asked whether each had been seen with an image during encoding. Following retrieval of each image, participants were asked to rate internal and external vividness. Increased hippocampal activity was associated with higher vividness ratings for both scales, supporting prior evidence implicating the hippocampus in retrieval of memory detail. However, different patterns of hippocampal connectivity related to enhanced external and internal vividness. Further, hippocampal connectivity with medial prefrontal regions was associated with increased ratings of internal vividness, but with decreased ratings of external vividness. These findings suggest that the hippocampus may contribute to increased internal and external vividness via distinct mechanisms and that external and internal vividness of memories should be considered as separable measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  16. Energy policy and externalities: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in estimating the monetary value of the environmental impacts of different energy systems. Perhaps the best known study in Europe is that sponsored by the European Commission and known as the ExternE programme. In the USA a comparable project is that jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the European Commission. There are many others. In each case what is sought is a monetary value of an environmental impact arising from a unit of energy, usually standardised as a kilowatt hour. These environmental impacts are usually termed 'externalities'. An externality exists if two conditions are met. First, some negative (or positive) impact is generated by an economic activity and imposed on third parties. Second, that impact must not be priced in the market place, i.e. if the effect is negative, no compensation is paid by the generator of the externality to the sufferer. If the effect is positive, the generator of the externality must not appropriate the gains to the third party, e.g. via some price that is charged. In the energy externality literature, the procedure of expressing the externalities in, say, cents or milli-euros (1000 th of an Euro = m-euro) per kWh results in an 'adder'. An adder is simply the unit externality cost added to the standard resource cost of energy. Thus, if an electricity source costs X m/euros to produce or deliver, the final social cost of it is (X+y) m-euros where y is the externality adder. While externality adders have been researched most in the context of energy, they are increasingly being estimated for other economic sectors, notably transport and agriculture. This paper presents the uses of such figures. (author)

  17. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economic growth is directly influenced by the external trade activity, which is considered by the majority of economists as one of the main engines of a country. How international trade can contributes to a sustainable development of a country depends broadly on the economic policies as well as on global and regional strategies to support the actions for this objective. The high level political meeting of United Nations Organization’s Member States in September 2015 has as aim the adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes global economic, social and environmental goals. Any strategy or global policy influences, of course, in a direct way the international trade activities, by how these measures affect or determine relations between states to achieve the sustainable development objectives. Being involved in all sectors of economic and social life to achieve these noble goals, foreign trade is of course on the list of key areas as well as on the list of the domains being influenced by the global strategy adopted in the framework of the largest summit of its kind in the history of the United Nations. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of external trade activity of Romania, taking into account the characteristics of companies involved in exports and imports of goods in Romania as well as to identify the key areas to be further developed for a sustainable development of national economy based on export activity. Romania's sustainable development can be achieved in the medium and long term by complementary and converging actions such as increased expenditure on research and development field, attracting as a priority the Greenfield investments, increasing productivity of national capital (human, natural, technological or ensure the efficiency at microeconomic and macroeconomic level. Increasing the share of products and activities using a small amount of energy and material resources but which

  18. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  19. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  20. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  1. External Evaluation Measures for Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günnemann, Stephan; Färber, Ines; Müller, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    research area of subspace clustering. We formalize general quality criteria for subspace clustering measures not yet addressed in the literature. We compare the existing external evaluation methods based on these criteria and pinpoint limitations. We propose a novel external evaluation measure which meets...

  2. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  3. Wind power externalities: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well

  4. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem.We use simulations from a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...

  5. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  6. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  7. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat many types of cancer. it is a local treatment, where a machine aims radiation at your cancer. Learn more about different types of external beam radiation therapy, and what to expect if you're receiving treatment.

  8. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Internal and External Readings of Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Same is an anaphoric element that performs a comparison, which can either be external or internal to a sentence. Hardt and Mikkelsen (2015) show that same, unlike other anaphoric expressions, imposes a parallelism constraint, and they present three types of examples showing that same...... is infelicitous in the absence of parallelism. Hardt and Mikkelsen propose an account that applies uniformly to internal and external readings; however, the evidence they present largely targets external readings – they don’t offer empirical evidence that clearly supports the uniform approach. Furthermore, Barker...... (2007) argues that internal readings must be treated differently than external readings. In this paper, I show that the parallelism effects observed by Hardt and Mikkelsen in fact apply to internal readings as well. This provides support for a uniform treatment of internal and external readings of same...

  10. Technical review of externalities issues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, V.

    1994-12-01

    Externalities has become the catchword for a major experiment in electric utility regulation. Together with increased competition as a means for economic regulation, this experiment represents a potential revolution in how electric utilities are regulated. It is very important for utilities and policy makers to understand the technical issues and arguments driving the externality experiment. This Technical Review presents four papers covering topics in economics that may play important roles in this revolution. The four papers are: Economic Issues in the Application of Externalities to Electricity Resource Selection; Climate Change, the Marginal Cost of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Implications for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Adders; Positive Externalities and Benefits from Electricity; and Socioeconomic Effects of Externality Adders for Electric Utility Emissions

  11. Breakup of free liquid jets influenced by external mechanical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, V N; Murthy, Z V P, E-mail: vnl@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm2000@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology—Surat, Surat—395007, Gujarat (India)

    2017-02-15

    The breakup of liquid jets has been studied with various test liquids using externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Images of the jets were captured by a high speed camera up to the speed of 1000 frames per second, and analyzed to obtain the profile of the jet and breakup length. The dynamics of the jets have also been studied to understand the effects of additives—a surfactant and polymer—incorporating externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Different types of breakup modes have been explored with respect to the Weber number and Ohnesorge number. The introduction of mechanical vibrations have caused jet breakup with separated droplets at a comparatively lower Weber number. The region of jet breakup by neck formation at constant jet velocities also contracted due to mechanical vibrations. (paper)

  12. Preliminary results on scintigraphic evaluation of malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamitsi, J.; Maragoudakis, P.; Papafragou, K.; Koukouliou, V.; Kalatzis, Y.; Adamopoulos, G.; Proukakis, C.

    1993-01-01

    Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a potentially fatal otitis occurring in diabetic and immunosuppressed patients, which may cause cranial nerve palsies and massive thrombophlebitis of the brain. We studied five diabetic patients with the clinical diagnosis of external otitis who were suspected of having MEO and one diabetic patient presumed cured from MEO. All of them underwent methylene diphosphonate, nanocolloid and gallium single-photon emission tomography studies with quantitative analysis on the basis of regions of interest and count profile curves. This combined assessment helped us to diagnose and follow-up soft tissue and temporal bone infection, especially in the case of transsphenoidal extension of the disease, since conventional radiology and computed tomography were of no particular help. On the basis of these results, we consider scintigraphic demonstration of skull base infection as a fourth criterion of MEO given that the classical Chandler's triad (diabetes, granuloma, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) is not always present. (orig.)

  13. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    Energy consumption and production can cause air pollution with global impact, such as CO2, and local/regional air pollutants, such as SO2, NOx and PM2.5, as a result of fuel combustion. Use of fossil fuels leads to global CO2 emissions and causes global warming effects, regardless place or height......-related external costs can be internalised, for instance, in energy system modelling. External costs of global warming and human health damage can be of comparable magnitude.However, in contrast to global CO2 impacts, air pollution damage to human health depends on a number of factors, related to location...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...

  14. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  15. Patterning of alloy precipitation through external pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jack A.

    Due to the nature of their microstructure, alloyed components have the benefit of meeting specific design goals across a wide range of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In general by selecting the correct alloy system and applying a proper heat treatment it is possible to create a metallic sample whose properties achieve a unique set of design requirements. This dissertation presents an innovative processing technique intended to control both the location of formation and the growth rates of precipitates within metallic alloys in order to create multiple patterned areas of unique microstructure within a single sample. Specific experimental results for the Al-Cu alloy system will be shown. The control over precipitation is achieved by altering the conventional heat treatment process with an external surface load applied to selected locations during the quench and anneal. It is shown that the applied pressures affect both the rate and directionality of the atomic diffusion in regions close to the loaded surfaces. The control over growth rates is achieved by altering the enthalpic energy required for successful diffusion between lattice sites. Changes in the local chemical free energy required to direct the diffusion of atoms are established by introducing a non-uniform elastic strain energy field within the samples created by the patterned surface pressures. Either diffusion rates or atomic mobility can be selected as the dominating control process by varying the quench rate; with slower quenches having greater control over the mobility of the alloying elements. Results have shown control of Al2Cu precipitation over 100 microns on mechanically polished surfaces. Further experimental considerations presented will address consistency across sample ensembles. This includes repeatable pressure loading conditions and the chemical interaction between any furnace environments and both the alloy sample and metallic pressure loading devices.

  16. Technical note: Correlation of respiratory motion between external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Clément, Jean-François; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Current respiratory motion monitoring devices used for motion synchronization in medical imaging and radiotherapy provide either 1D respiratory signals over a specific region or 3D information based on few external or internal markers. On the other hand, newer technology may offer the potential to monitor the entire patient external surface in real time. The main objective of this study was to assess the motion correlation between such an external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks motion. Methods Four dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) volumes for ten patients were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks were manually selected in the thoracic region across the 4D CT datasets by two experts. The landmarks included normal structures as well as the tumour location. In addition, a distance map representing the entire external patient surface, which corresponds to surfaces acquired by a Time of Flight (ToF) camera or similar devices, was created by segmenting the skin of all 4D CT volumes using a thresholding algorithm. Finally, the correlation between the internal landmarks and external surface motion was evaluated for different regions (placement and size) throughout a patient’s surface. Results Significant variability was observed in the motion of the different parts of the external patient surface. The larger motion magnitude was consistently measured in the central regions of the abdominal and the thoracic areas for the different patient datasets considered. The highest correlation coefficients were observed between the motion of these external surface areas and internal landmarks such as the diaphragm and mediastinum structures as well as the tumour location landmarks (0.8 ± 0.18 and 0.72 ± 0.12 for the abdominal and the thoracic regions respectively). Worse correlation was observed when one considered landmarks not significantly influenced by respiratory motion such as the apex and the sternum. Discussion and conclusions There

  17. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  18. Parasitic infections of the external eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Shivani; Puranik, Charuta; Jelliti, Bechir; Khairallah, Moncef; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-08-01

    To review the published literature on parasitic infections of external eye. Published articles and case reports on parasitic infections of external eye were reviewed and relevant information was collected. Parasitic infections of the eye are rare. However, being more commonly seen in developing nations, they require active measures for screening, diagnosis, and therapy. Parasites of importance causing external ocular disease are protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania; metazoans, such as nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flatworms); or ectoparasites, such as Phthirus pubis and Demodex.

  19. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... of these factors are explained and discussed in the paper. The paper ends by offering a number of theoretical and managerial implications....

  20. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  1. Relations between focusing power of space-charge lenses and external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Qiu Hong; Huang Jiachang

    1991-01-01

    Under different external electromagnetic fields, the electron densities of the electron cloud in a self-sustaning spece-charge lens are measured with the radio-frequency method and the energy distributions of the ions produced in ionization are measured with the stopping field method. From them the relations between the focusing power of space-charge lenses and the external electromagnetic fields are determined. The available region of the Lebedev-Morozov formula is discussed

  2. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), and their interaction were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least 1 copy of the l allele. These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship.

  3. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Methods Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), as well as their interaction, were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Results 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least one copy of the l allele. Discussion These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship. PMID:25933228

  4. Remarks - Global energy outlook and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents a global energy outlook, for the period 1990-2010. Then, he presents some views on the subject of externalities, some regulations and proscriptions about internalization of costs are detailed. (TEC)

  5. Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination Scores for Certification: Comparative Study of Four Statistical Models. ... University entrance examination scores in mathematics were obtained for a subsample of 115 ...

  6. Which Agglomeration Externalities Matter Most and Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Poot, J.; Smit, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the ongoing discussion on the importance of agglomeration externalities – specifically specialization, diversity and competition effects – that may contribute to innovation, productivity and urban employment growth. Previous meta-analyses suggested that the evidence on

  7. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  8. N reactor external events probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An external events probabilistic risk assessment of the N Reactor has been completed. The methods used are those currently being proposed for external events analysis in NUREG-1150. Results are presented for the external hazards that survived preliminary screening. They are earthquake, fire, and external flood. Core damage frequencies for these hazards are shown to be comparable to those for commercial pressurized water reactors. Dominant fire sequences are described and related to 10 CFR 50, Appendix R design requirements. Potential remedial measures that reduce fire core damage risk are described including modifications to fire protection systems, procedure changes, and addition of new administrative controls. Dominant seismic sequences are described. The effect of non-safety support system dependencies on seismic risk is presented

  9. Genetics Home Reference: progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can affect both males and females, but fathers do not pass traits associated with changes in ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1 ...

  10. External and internal geometry of European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Samuel; Skalli, Wafa; Delacherie, Laurent; Bonneau, Dominique; Kalifa, Gabriel; Mitton, David

    2006-12-15

    The primary objective of the study was to bring a deeper knowledge of the human anthropometry, investigating the external and internal body geometry of small women, mid-sized men and tall men. Sixty-four healthy European adults were recruited. External measurements were performed using classical anthropometric instruments. Internal measurements of the trunk bones were performed using a stereo-radiographic 3D reconstruction technique. Besides the original procedure presented in this paper for performing in vivo geometrical data acquisition on numerous volunteers, this study provides an extensive description of both external and internal (trunk skeleton) human body geometry for three morphotypes. Moreover, this study proposes a global external and internal geometrical description of 5th female 50th male and 95th male percentile subjects. This study resulted in a unique geometrical database enabling improvement for numerical models of the human body for crash test simulation and offering numerous possibilities in the anthropometry field.

  11. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis. Rinki Saha, Anuradha Sinha, Jyoti Prakash Phukan. Abstract. Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed ...

  12. External stent for repair of secondary tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M R; Loeber, N; Hillyer, P; Stephenson, L W; Edmunds, L H

    1980-09-01

    Tracheomalacia was created in anesthetized piglets by submucosal resection of 3 to 5 tracheal cartilages. Measurements of airway pressure and flow showed that expiratory airway resistance is maximal at low lung volumes and is significantly increased by creation of the malacic segment. Cervical flexion increases expiratory airway resistance, whereas hyperextension of the neck reduces resistance toward normal. External stenting of the malacic segment reduces expiratory airway resistance, and the combination of external stenting and hyperextension restores airway resistance to normal except at low lung volume. Two patients with secondary tracheomalacia required tracheostomy and could not be decannulated after the indication for the tracheostomy was corrected. Both were successfully decannulated after external stenting of the malacic segment with rib grafts. Postoperative measurements of expiratory pulmonary resistance show a marked decrease from preoperative measurements. External stenting of symptomatic tracheomalacia reduces expiratory airway resistance by supporting and stretching the malacic segment and is preferable to prolonged internal stenting or tracheal resection.

  13. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  14. Quantization in presence of external soliton fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Karner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Quantization of a fermi field interacting with an external soliton protential is considered. Classes of interactions leading to unitarily equivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations are determined. Soliton-like potentials compared to trivial ones yield inequivalent representations. (Author)

  15. Manager, External Funds Management | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Manager, External Funds Management is responsible for ... in consultation with project staff, the annual project-based operational budgets and is ... and liaises with the Treasury Accountant on treasury management issues.

  16. Which Agglomeration Externalities Matter Most and Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Henri L.F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the ongoing discussion on the importance of agglomeration externalities – specifically specialization, diversity and competition effects – that may contribute to innovation, productivity and urban employment growth. Previous meta‐analyses suggested that the evidence on

  17. Variety and regional economic growth in the Netherlands : final report to the Ministery of Economic Affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Oort, van F.G.; Verburg, T.; Boschma, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In economic theory, one can distinguish between variety as a source of regional knowledge spillovers, called Jacobs externalities, and variety as a portfolio protecting a region from external shocks. We argue that Jacobs externalities are best measured by related variety (within sectors), while the

  18. The external benefits of higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; Lecca, Patrizio; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2017-01-01

    The private market benefits of education are widely studied at the micro level, although the magnitude of their macroeconomic impact is disputed. However, there are additional benefits of education, which are less well understood. In this paper the macroeconomic effects of external benefits of higher education are estimated using the “micro-to-macro” simulation approach. Two types of externalities are explored: technology spillovers and productivity spillovers in the labour market. These link...

  19. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  20. Epidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Rodriguez, Javier; Llerena Suarez, Jose Angel; Campis Cruz, Hipolito Amable

    2009-01-01

    A 43 years-old, urban, male patient assists the consultation of Otolaryngology with a long evolving otorrhea (around two years), receiving several treatments against the external otitis he suffered. With those antecedents and what we found when examining him, we decided to take a sample (biopsy) of the area, diagnosing an epidermoid carcinoma of the left external canal, an infrequent pathology in our settings

  1. Estimating the probability of polyreactive antibodies 4E10 and 2F5 disabling a gp41 trimer after T cell-HIV adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few broadly neutralizing antibodies, isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, recognize epitopes in the membrane proximal external region (MPER of gp41 that are transiently exposed during viral entry. The best characterized, 4E10 and 2F5, are polyreactive, binding to the viral membrane and their epitopes in the MPER. We present a model to calculate, for any antibody concentration, the probability that during the pre-hairpin intermediate, the transient period when the epitopes are first exposed, a bound antibody will disable a trivalent gp41 before fusion is complete. When 4E10 or 2F5 bind to the MPER, a conformational change is induced that results in a stably bound complex. The model predicts that for these antibodies to be effective at neutralization, the time to disable an epitope must be shorter than the time the antibody remains bound in this conformation, about five minutes or less for 4E10 and 2F5. We investigate the role of avidity in neutralization and show that 2F5 IgG, but not 4E10, is much more effective at neutralization than its Fab fragment. We attribute this to 2F5 interacting more stably than 4E10 with the viral membrane. We use the model to elucidate the parameters that determine the ability of these antibodies to disable epitopes and propose an extension of the model to analyze neutralization data. The extended model predicts the dependencies of IC50 for neutralization on the rate constants that characterize antibody binding, the rate of fusion of gp41, and the number of gp41 bridging the virus and target cell at the start of the pre-hairpin intermediate. Analysis of neutralization experiments indicate that only a small number of gp41 bridges must be disabled to prevent fusion. However, the model cannot determine the exact number from neutralization experiments alone.

  2. Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.

  3. Malignant external otitis: The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostfeld, E.; Aviel, A.; Pelet, D.

    1981-01-01

    Technetium99m Methylene Diphosphate bone scintigraphy (BS) of the skull was performed in three patients with malignant external otitis (MEO). Pathological uptake of the radioisotope in the mastoid region was found during the early stages of MEO updating radiologic findings. The extent of the radioisotope accumulation during the early stages of MEO indicates that the actual tissue damage exceeds the clinical estimation. The follow-up BS findings correlate well with the clinical course of MEO indicating either healing or extension to the base of skull

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  5. Davidson's Externalism and Swampman's Troublesome Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available After the seminal works of Putnam (1975, Burge (1979, and Kripke (1982, the next important contribution to externalism is certainly Davidson’s (mainly 1987, 1988, 1989, 2001. By criticizing the posi-tions of these philosophers, Davidson elaborated his own brand of exter-nalism. We shall first present some features of Davidson’s externalism (the importance of historical-causal connections for the foundation of language and thought, for the explanation of how language can be learned, and how attitudes can be identified by the interpreter, and fi-nally how mental content is determined by appealing to the idea of trian-gulation, to prepare the discussion of a few problems. We then discuss two questions in Davidson’s externalism. First, how to reconcile the fact that external factors determine mental content, as Putnam, Burge and Davidson himself argued convincingly, with token-physicalism, the thesis that mental events are identical with physical events occurring “in the head” (or the thesis that mental events supervenes locally on brain ac-tivities? The second main problem is how to reconcile the first person authority with some prima facie consequences of externalism, mainly that we should know the relevant parts of our (natural and social envi-ronment in order to know the content of our own thoughts? We argue that Davidson’s answer to the first question is not successful, while his answer to the second was a breakthrough.

  6. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Optimizing a Drone Network to Deliver Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Justin J; Brooks, Steven C; Janmohamed, Alyf; Byers, Adam; Buick, Jason E; Zhan, Cathy; Schoellig, Angela P; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-06-20

    Public access defibrillation programs can improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are rarely available for bystander use at the scene. Drones are an emerging technology that can deliver an AED to the scene of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for bystander use. We hypothesize that a drone network designed with the aid of a mathematical model combining both optimization and queuing can reduce the time to AED arrival. We applied our model to 53 702 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred in the 8 regions of the Toronto Regional RescuNET between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014. Our primary analysis quantified the drone network size required to deliver an AED 1, 2, or 3 minutes faster than historical median 911 response times for each region independently. A secondary analysis quantified the reduction in drone resources required if RescuNET was treated as a large coordinated region. The region-specific analysis determined that 81 bases and 100 drones would be required to deliver an AED ahead of median 911 response times by 3 minutes. In the most urban region, the 90th percentile of the AED arrival time was reduced by 6 minutes and 43 seconds relative to historical 911 response times in the region. In the most rural region, the 90th percentile was reduced by 10 minutes and 34 seconds. A single coordinated drone network across all regions required 39.5% fewer bases and 30.0% fewer drones to achieve similar AED delivery times. An optimized drone network designed with the aid of a novel mathematical model can substantially reduce the AED delivery time to an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  9. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  10. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  11. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  12. External Events PSA for the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, Attila; Karsa, Zoltan; Siklossy, Tamas; Vida, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Initially, probabilistic safety assessment of external events was limited to the analysis of earthquakes for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The level 1 seismic PSA was completed in 2002 showing a significant contribution of seismic failures to core damage risk. Although other external events of natural origin had previously been screened out from detailed plant PSA mostly on the basis of event frequencies, a review of recent experience on extreme weather phenomena made during the periodic safety review of the plant led to the initiation of PSA for external events other than earthquakes in 2009. In the meantime, the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant confirmed further the importance of such an analysis. The external event PSA for the Paks plant followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk quantification and interpretation of results. As a result of event selection and screening the following weather related external hazards were subject to detailed analysis: extreme wind, extreme rainfall (precipitation), extreme snow, extremely high and extremely low temperatures, lightning, frost and ice formation. The analysis proved to be a significant challenge due to scarcity of data, lack of knowledge, as well as limitations of existing PSA methodologies. This paper presents an overview of the external events PSA performed for the Paks NPP. Important methodological aspects are summarised. Key analysis findings and unresolved issues that need further elaboration are highlighted. Development of external events PSA for the Paks NPP was completed by the end of 2012. The analysis followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk

  13. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  14. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-01-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  15. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  16. Parametric x-ray FEL operating with external Bragg reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevsky, V.G.; Batrakov, K.G.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    In the crystal X-ray FELs using channeling and parametric quasi-Cherenkov mechanisms of spontaneous radiation were considered as versions of FEL allowing, in principle, to obtain coherent X-ray source. In this case a crystal is both radiator and resonator for X-rays emitted by a particle beam passing through crystal. However, it is well-known that a beam current density required for lasing is extremely high in X-ray spectral range for any radiation mechanisms and it is very important to find a way to lower its magnitude. The application of three-dimensional distributed feedback formed by dynamical diffraction of emitted photons permitted to reduce starting beam current density 10 2 -10 4 times up to 10 9 . One of ways to lower the starting current is the formation of multi-wave distributed feedback the another one is the application of external reflectors. The thing is that lasing regime was shown to be produced at frequencies in the vicinity of degeneration point for roots of dispersion equation describing radiation modes excited in an active medium (crystal plus particle beam). Unfortunately, in case of parametric quasi-Cherenkov FEL this region coincides with the region of strong self-absorption of radiation inside a crystal. That fact, obviously, increases the starting beam current. In this report we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors gives the possibility to lower radiation self-absorption inside a crystal by modifying radiation modes excited in the active medium under consideration. The corresponding dispersion equation and the expression for excited modes are derived. The generation equation determining starting conditions for lasing is obtained. Using these expressions we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors permits to reduce starting beam current density more than 10 times

  17. Complex dynamics in Josephson system with two external forcing terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianping; Feng Wei; Jing Zhujun

    2006-01-01

    Josephson system with two external forcing terms is investigated. By applying Melnikov method, we prove that criterion of existence of chaos under periodic perturbation. By second-order averaging method and Melnikov method, we obtain the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =ω 1 +εν, and cannot prove the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =nω 1 +εν (n>=2 and n-bar N), where ν is not rational to ω 1 . We also study the effects of the parameters of system on dynamical behaviors by using numerical simulation. The numerical simulations, including bifurcation diagram of fixed points, bifurcation diagram of system in three- and two-dimensional space, homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcation surface, Maximum Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits, Poincare map, are also plotted to illustrate theoretical analysis, and to expose the complex dynamical behaviors, including the period-n (n=1,2,5,7) orbits in different chaotic regions, cascades of period-doubling bifurcation from period-1, 2 and 5 orbits, reverse period-doubling bifurcation, onset of chaos which occurs more than once for two given external frequencies and chaos suddenly converting to periodic orbits, transient chaos with complex periodic windows and crisis, reverse period-5 bubble, non-attracting chaotic set and nice attracting chaotic set. In particular, we observe that the system can leave chaotic region to periodic motion by adjusting damping α, amplitude f 1 and frequency ω 2 of external forcing which can be considered as a control strategy

  18. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-08

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  19. External ophthalmomyiasis presenting to an emergency department: corneal findings as a sign of Oestrus ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhossein, Yaghoubi; Behrouz, Heydari

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency department of Valiaser hospital in 2011. Most cases had the common signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, except for three males who were referred with respective complaints of red eye, foreign body sensation, and swelling around the eyelids after contact injury the previous day; corneal infiltration was present in three cases. The visual acuity among the three cases that had peripheral corneal involvement was 20 / 30 in both eyes. The bulbar conjunctiva showed chemosis in all cases and a ropy pattern discharge that was clinically compatible with external ophthalmomyiasis. However, in one case, microscopic slit lamp examination did not show Oestrus ovis larvae. The frequency of external ophthalmomyiasis was high in this region. Although external ophthalmomyiasis usually manifests as allergic conjunctivitis, coronary-like corneal infiltration may be considered in the differential diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis or toxic insult.

  20. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  1. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2012-01-01

    the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature.......In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...

  2. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  3. External-Memory Algorithms and Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The data sets involved in many modern applications are often too massive to fit in main memory of even the most powerful computers and must therefore reside on disk. Thus communication between internal and external memory, and not actual computation time, becomes the bottleneck in the computation....... This is due to the huge difference in access time of fast internal memory and slower external memory such as disks. The goal of theoretical work in the area of external memory algorithms (also called I/O algorithms or out-of-core algorithms) has been to develop algorithms that minimize the Input...... in parallel and the use of parallel disks has received a lot of theoretical attention. See below for recent surveys of theoretical results in the area of I/O-efficient algorithms. TPIE is designed to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of parallel I/O systems. It is intended to demonstrate all...

  4. External parallel sorting with multiprocessor computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comanceau, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes methods of external sorting in which the entire main computer memory is used for the internal sorting of entries, forming out of them sorted segments of the greatest possible size, and outputting them to external memories. The obtained segments are merged into larger segments until all entries form one ordered segment. The described methods are suitable for sequential files stored on magnetic tape. The needs of the sorting algorithm can be met by using the relatively slow peripheral storage devices (e.g., tapes, disks, drums). The efficiency of the external sorting methods is determined by calculating the total sorting time as a function of the number of entries to be sorted and the number of parallel processors participating in the sorting process

  5. Plasmon instability under four external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.B.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The plasmon instability in a laboratory produced plasma in the presence of four external fields, namely two laser fields, one strong magnetic field and one static electric field, is discussed. The method of unitary transformations is used to transform the problem of electron motion under the four external fields to that of an electron in the presence only of crossed electric and magnetic fields. A kinetic equation for the plasmon population is derived from which the damping (amplification) rate is calculated. We found that the joint action of the four fields results in a relatively larger amplification rate for some values of the static electric field in contrast to the case where no electric field is present. It was also found that the plasmon growth rate favors plasmon wave vectors in an extremely narrow band i.e., the plasmon instability in four external fields is a very selective mechanism for plasmon excitation. (author)

  6. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  7. External radiotherapy in a pleural mesothelioma tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.C.; Garcia, J.L.; Gomez, A.; Simon, J.L.; Maillo, M.; Jimenez Torres, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor compared with other thoracic malignancies and a 80% of the cases have asbestos exposure. From 1983 to 1992 we have examined patients suffering from malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with external radiotherapy. We treated 11 patients of which 9 were males and 2 were females. The most frequent symptom was the chest pain and all these patients underwent a torascoscopy followed by a pleasured. Of the 11 cases: 10 were malignant epithelial mesothelioma and 1 was a mixed pleural case. Afterwards, they were treated with external radiotherapy between 30 and 55 Gy, with few complications. At the moment, 5 patients are still alive and there is a survival rate of 50% at 24 and 60 months and of 25% at 120 months. We think that external radiotherapy is a good palliative treatment with few complications. (Author) 28 refs

  8. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem. We use simulations with a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a "forage fish" fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a "large fish" fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  9. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

  10. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  11. External exposure measurements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Lessard, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    External exposure rate surveys from 1975 to 1977 on the islands Nam, Eneu and Bikini of Bikini Atoll gave average external exposure rates of 24, 5.7, and 32 μR/hr respectively. The exposure rate on Eneu Island is uniform, whereas those on Bikini and Nam range from 7.0 to 80. μR/hr. Based on an assumed living pattern at Bikini Island, the adult male Bikinian is estimated to be in the presence of an external radiation field corresponding to 16 μR/hr due to debris and fallout from the 1954 BRAVO incident. This corresponds to a 30 year dose equivalent of 2.8 rem

  12. Comparison of implant component fractures in external and internal type: A 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yuseung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Shin-Jae; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture of implant component behavior of external and internal type of implants to suggest directions for successful implant treatment. Data were collected from the clinical records of all patients who received WARANTEC implants at Seoul National University Dental Hospital from February 2002 to January 2014 for 12 years. Total number of implants was 1,289 and an average of 3.2 implants was installed per patient. Information about abutment connection type, implant locations, platform sizes was collected with presence of implant component fractures and their managements. SPSS statistics software (version 24.0, IBM) was used for the statistical analysis. Overall fracture was significantly more frequent in internal type. The most frequently fractured component was abutment in internal type implants, and screw fracture occurred most frequently in external type. Analyzing by fractured components, screw fracture was the most frequent in the maxillary anterior region and the most abutment fracture occurred in the maxillary posterior region and screw fractures occurred more frequently in NP (narrow platform) and abutment fractures occurred more frequently in RP (regular platform). In external type, screw fracture occurred most frequently, especially in the maxillary anterior region, and in internal type, abutment fracture occurred frequently in the posterior region. placement of an external type implant rather than an internal type is recommended for the posterior region where abutment fractures frequently occur.

  13. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  14. RAM-efficient external memory sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory time...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  15. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal

  16. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  17. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  18. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...... building, the paper introduces the typology of captivity, and the four types that have emerged: captive industry supplier, captive dyadic partner, captive market leader, and free market leader. The effects of captivity types on the acquisition of external legitimacy and its survival, on reaching legitimacy...

  19. Demand Externalities from Co-Location

    OpenAIRE

    Boudhayan Sen; Jiwoong Shin; K. Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate an approach to measure demand externalities from co-location by estimating household level changes in grocery spending at a supermarket among households that also buy gas at a co-located gas station, relative to those who do not. Controlling for observable and unobserved selection in the use of gas station, we find significant demand externalities; on average a household that buys gas has 7.7% to 9.3% increase in spending on groceries. Accounting for differences in gross margins...

  20. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...

  1. Externalities of the energy. The nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Perl, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    When referring to private energy cost, which reflects the market value of energy, important elements are left aside in the evaluation process. These elements or externalities have an impact on third parties. The impact can be positive or negative and nowadays it is increasingly relevant to take them into account and include them in the project evaluation, specially when we are looking for sustainable development. The environmental impact and health effects are the most visible items but not the unique which generate externalities. The supply security, prices stability, employment impact and trade balance, are also important factors, although not much improvement has been achieved in their quantitative evaluation. (author) [es

  2. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  3. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then......We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  4. Combined effect of external and internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy

  5. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN'S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-07-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles were related to teacher-reported externalizing symptoms for boys but not for girls.

  6. Quantized fields in external field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The case of a charged scalar field is considered first. The existence of the corresponding Green's functions is proved. For weak fields, as well as pure electric or scalar external fields, the Bogoliubov S-operator is shown to be unitary, covariant, causal up-to-a-phase. These results are generalised to a class of higher spin quantized fields, 'nicely' coupled to external fields, which includes the Dirac theory, and in the case of minimal and magnetic dipole coupling, the spin one Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory. (orig.) [de

  7. External Validation of a Prediction Model for Successful External Cephalic Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Kok, Marjolein; van der Steeg, Jan W.; Bais, Joke M.; Mol, Ben W.; van der Post, Joris A.

    2012-01-01

    We sought external validation of a prediction model for the probability of a successful external cephalic version (ECV). We evaluated the performance of the prediction model with calibration and discrimination. For clinical practice, we developed a score chart to calculate the probability of a

  8. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  9. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  11. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in

  12. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. → Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. → Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. → Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. → Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  13. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  14. Predictors of successful outcomes after external cephalic version in singleton term breech pregnancies: a nine-year historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, L Y; Lau, W L; Lo, T K; Tang, Helen H T; Leung, W C

    2012-02-01

    To study the success rate, predictors for success, and pregnancy outcomes after external cephalic version. Historical cohort study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. All women who had singleton term breech pregnancies at term and opted for external cephalic version during 2001 and 2009. Their demographic data, clinical and ultrasound findings, procedure details, complications, and delivery outcomes were analysed. Predictive factors for successful external cephalic version. A total of 209 external cephalic versions were performed during the 9-year period. The success rate was 63% (75% for multiparous and 53% for nulliparous women). There was no significant complication. On univariate analysis, predictors of successful external cephalic version were: multiparity, unengaged presenting part, higher amniotic fluid index (≥ 10 cm), thin abdominal wall, low uterine tone, and easily palpable fetal head (subjective assessment by practitioners before external cephalic version). On multivariate analysis, only multiparity, non-engagement of the fetal buttock and thin maternal abdomen were associated with successful external cephalic version. In all, 69% of those who had successful external cephalic version succeeded in the first roll (Pexternal cephalic versions had vaginal deliveries (93% in multiparous and 69% in nulliparous women). Uptake rate of external cephalic version was studied in the latter part of the study period (2006-2009). Whilst 735 women were eligible for external cephalic version, 131 women chose to have the procedure resulting in an uptake rate of 18%. External cephalic version was effective in reducing breech presentations at term and corresponding caesarean section rates, but the uptake rate was low. Further work should address the barriers to the low acceptance of external cephalic version. The results of this study could encourage women to opt for external cephalic version.

  15. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...

  16. External query expansion in the blogosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the participation of the University of Amsterdam’s ILPS group in the blog track at TREC 2008. We mainly explored different ways of using external corpora to expand the original query. In the blog post retrieval task we did not succeed in improving over a simple baseline (equal weights

  17. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  18. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Callery, P.S.; Cooper, M.

    1977-01-01

    A chelate of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The invention also includes preparative methods therefor

  19. Intersection of neighbourhood structure, parenting and externalizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about parenting practices and how it intersects with neighbourhood structure and externalizing behaviour, in South Africa. This chapter presents the findings of parental reflections on neighbourhood structure and problem behaviours, which is one component of a study, that is situated within a child safety, ...

  20. Search engine competition with network externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question of whether “competition is only a free click away.” We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  1. Search Engine Competition with Network Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question whether "competition is only a free click away". We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  2. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  3. External hazards considered for Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Tibor

    2000-01-01

    PAKS NPP was built according to Soviet construction standards which took into account meteorological aspects but no documents for other external hazards were available. Main activities concerning earthquakes cover reevaluation of the plant site, seismic safety technological concept, improving the seismic resistance, installation of seismic monitoring and protection system, and seismic PSA

  4. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  5. Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

  6. The External Dimension of EU Migration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gjipali

    2017-01-01

    Defining the conditions of consistency and flexibility to which the Union’s external action can bring the management of migration - a management which will pursue all objectives of the EU’s migration policy in accordance with the its principles, such as solidarity and the protection of fundamental rights - is the focus of this paper.

  7. External wave-launcher study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for liquid dielectrically-loaded external wave-guide launchers is discussed. The arguments are strongly indicative that a liquid dielectric-filled waveguide system could be a practical technique for launching ICRH power into a fusion reactor. A detailed summary of the work performed in the study is presented

  8. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  9. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  10. KEUNTUNGAN PENGGUNAAN EXTERNAL FUNCTION PADA DATABASE POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrun Hartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Database id a central data for an information system, there were many database system applications that revolve both paid and free. PostgreSQL is one of the free database system and it has the powerful feature, one of the feature that make it different with others sysem is a function features, where the users can make their function by them selves by using spesific programming language, then it can be called return for executed. In this research the writer tries for conducting additional data testing by using INSERT Query and External Function Query on the terminal/command prompt and web browser. From the result of the trial, the research found that the average of time in additional data processing on the terminal/command prompt by using INSERT Query was 185.293 ms and the average of time External Function Query proccess was 129.52 ms, while the average of time in additional data processing on web browser by using INSERT Query was 168.363 ms and External Function Query was 145.64 ms. There was a difference both of the query, but the important thing and should be noted that external function is a command was defined by stand alone by the user, this matter lets the user to determine a specify command that they need.

  11. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  12. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  13. External Science Courses: The Practicals Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes three methods for offering practical work for external science courses: residential sessions on campus, local centers, and use of home laboratory kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and examples of each in operation are given. A 21-item bibliography is provided. (EAO)

  14. Electroweak processes in external active media

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Expanding on the concept of the authors’ previous book “Electroweak Processes in External Electromagnetic Fields,” this new book systematically describes the investigation methods for the effects of external active media, both strong electromagnetic fields and hot dense plasma, in quantum processes. Solving the solar neutrino puzzle in a unique experiment conducted with the help of the heavy-water detector at the Sudbery Neutrino Observatory, along with another neutrino experiments, brings to the fore electroweak physics in an active external medium. It is effectively demonstrated that processes of neutrino interactions with active media of astrophysical objects may lead, under some physical conditions, to such interesting effects as neutrino-driven shockwave revival in a supernova explosion, a “cherry stone shooting” mechanism for pulsar natal kick, and a neutrino pulsar. It is also shown how poor estimates of particle dispersion in external active media sometimes lead to confusion. The book...

  15. External financing of projects on cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Olmedo, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE), provides technical advisement and economical support to those industries requiring an improvement in the energy efficiency of their production chain. This paper focusses on administrative procedures to get external financing as one way to undertake the construction of cogeneration plants. Relationships among user, promoter and financier should be developed according to the outlined procedures. (Author)

  16. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...

  17. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 200 volts per meter. (iii) Be protected against any failure that could be induced by a failure mode of... operational envelope without hazard to the rotorcraft during normal flight conditions. In addition, these...-load combinations to be used for nonhuman external cargo except for the failure of critical structural...

  18. Polaron scattering by an external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of polaron scattering by an external field is studied. The problem is solved using the stationary scattering theory formalism based on two operators: the G Green function operator and the T scattering operator. The dependence of the scattering amplitude on the quasi particle structure is studied. The variation approach is used for estimation of the ground energy level

  19. External Program Reviews (2012) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... These final evaluations are our primary accountability mechanism in terms of the results, effectiveness, and relevance of program spending. External program reviews aim to: account to IDRC's Board of Governors for the implementation of the program prospectus; provide input into programming for learning ...

  20. External vibrations measurement of reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S A [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom); Sugden, J [Magnox Electric, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper outlines the use of External Vibration Monitoring for remote vibration assessment of internal reactor components. The main features of the technique are illustrated by a detailed examination of the specific application to the problem of Heysham 2 Fuel Plug Unit monitoring. (author). 6 figs.

  1. A Comparison of Emission Taxes and Permit Markets for Controlling Correlated Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, A.J. [Department of Economics, Utah State University, 3530 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-3530 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This paper provides an answer to the question: Are emission taxes an efficient and self-enforcing mechanism to control correlated externality problems? By 'correlated externalities' we mean multiple pollutants that are jointly produced by a single source but cause differentiated regional and global externalities. By 'self-enforcing' we mean a mechanism that accounts for the endogeneity that exists between competing jurisdictions in the setting of environmental policy within a federation of regions. This mechanism incorporates sequential decision making among the jurisdictions and therefore determines an equilibrium based on the concept of subgame perfection. We find that, unlike joint domestic and international tradable permit markets, joint emission taxes and a hybrid scheme of permits and taxes are neither efficient nor self-enforcing.

  2. A Comparison of Emission Taxes and Permit Markets for Controlling Correlated Externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an answer to the question: Are emission taxes an efficient and self-enforcing mechanism to control correlated externality problems? By 'correlated externalities' we mean multiple pollutants that are jointly produced by a single source but cause differentiated regional and global externalities. By 'self-enforcing' we mean a mechanism that accounts for the endogeneity that exists between competing jurisdictions in the setting of environmental policy within a federation of regions. This mechanism incorporates sequential decision making among the jurisdictions and therefore determines an equilibrium based on the concept of subgame perfection. We find that, unlike joint domestic and international tradable permit markets, joint emission taxes and a hybrid scheme of permits and taxes are neither efficient nor self-enforcing

  3. [Concept of external reality in Freud's works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman Lerner, B

    1981-07-01

    Three main functions of external reality (E.R.) relative to the subjecto may be mentioned. a) it is a source of stimulae that promote the structuring of te psychic apparatus. In this sense, E.F. is the place where this apparatus is charged and where it is discharged (specific action). b) it is a vehicle of gratification or frustration of necessity (Anaké). The satisfaction of necessity is gratifying, the lackof it is frustrating. c) it is the instance that heals or makes a person ill acording to its possibility of gratifying or frustrating the subject respectively. If we first take point a), we can examine the relationship between E.R. and internal (psychic) reality along the process of internalization of normal and pathologic experience. The author thinks Freud considers frustration as structuring of the psychic apparatus as long as it does not satisfy the person's needs or opposes the accomplishment of his desire. This complels the subject to recognize the existence of the external object. Also, whenfacing the external object the subject discovers his own self. Coinciding with this reognitions he tries to defend himself against it. In normal circustances the image of the external world is built by means of successive projections and introjections. The more sane the subject, the more faithfully and without distortions will he incorporate the external images. To be structuring, the frustrations must be encountered in adequate dose. If it is excessive there will be a distortion of the image due not only to projection but also to the defusion of instincts (defusion that takes place in the process of introjection of external figures). These distorted images of the external world coexist with various fantsies. But these fantasies are also marked by E.R. Even when the individual history of a subject does not give accont of this reality, there is a "filogenetic endowment" of fantasies that always recognize an external origin: they are the prehistoric fantasies. This

  4. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Colloidal dispersions have long been proven as pivotal model systems for equilibrium phase transition such as crystallization, melting and liquid-gas phase transition. The last decades have revealed that this is also true for nonequilibrium phenomena. In fact, the fascinating possibility to track the individual trajectories of colloidal particles has greatly advanced our understanding of collective behaviour in classical many-body systems and has helped to reveal the underlying physical principles of glass transition, crystal nucleation, and interfacial dynamics (to name just a few typical nonequilibrium effects). External fields can be used to bring colloids out of equilibrium in a controlled way. Different kinds of external fields can be applied to colloidal dispersions, namely shear flow, electric, magnetic and laser-optical fields, and confinement. Typical research areas can be sketched with the by now traditional complexity diagram (figure 1). The complexity of the colloidal system itself as embodied in statistical degrees of freedom is shown on the x-axis while the complexity of the problem posed, namely bulk, an inhomogeneity in equilibrium, steady state nonequilibrium and full time-dependent nonequilibrium are shown on the y-axis. The different external fields which can be imposed are indicated by the different hatched areas. figure1 Figure 1. Diagram of complexity for colloidal dispersions in external fields: while the x-axis shows the complexity of the system, the y-axis shows the complexity of the problem. Regions which can be accessed by different kinds of external fields are indicated. The arrows indicate recent research directions. Active particles are also indicated with a special complexity of internal degrees of freedom [1]. This collection of papers reflects the scientific programme of the International Conference on Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields III (CODEF III) which took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 20-23 March 2012. This was the

  5. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion control...

  6. External effects and social costs of road transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The article contains a welfare economic analysis of road transport's external effects. First, we discuss the definition of external effects. Applying this definition, it is concluded that road transport activities give rise to a wide range of external costs. However, there are no external benefits

  7. Relation of external surface to internal tumor motion studied with cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Balter, Peter; Luo Dershan; Mohan, Radhe; Pan Tinsu

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of delivering gated-radiation therapy to lung tumors using an external respiratory surrogate relies on not only interfractional and intrafractional reproducibility, but also a strong correlation between external motion and internal tumor motion. The purpose of this work was to use the cine images acquired by four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition protocol to study the relation between external surface motion and internal tumor motion. The respiratory phase information of tumor motion and chest wall motion was measured on the cine images using a proposed region-of-interest (ROI) method and compared to measurement of an external respiratory monitoring device. On eight lung patient data sets, the phase shifts were measured between (1) the signal of a real-time positioning-management (RPM) respiratory monitoring device placed in the abdominal region and four surface locations on the chest wall (2) the RPM signal in the abdominal region and tumor motions, and (3) chest wall surface motions and tumor motions. Respiratory waveforms measured at different surface locations during the same respiratory cycle often varied and had significant phase shifts. Seven of the 8 patients showed the abdominal motion leading chest wall motion. The best correlation (smallest phase shift) was found between the abdominal motion and the superior-inferior (S-I) tumor motion. A wide range of phase shifts was observed between external surface motion and tumor anterior-posterior (A-P)/lateral motion. The result supported the placement of the RPM block in the abdominal region and suggested that during a gated therapy utilizing the RPM system, it is necessary to place the RPM block at the same location as it is during treatment simulation in order to reduce potential errors introduced by the position of the RPM block. Correlations between external motions and lateral/A-P tumor motions were inconclusive due to a combination of patient selection and the limitation of the ROI

  8. Oscillations and Stability of Plasma in an External High-Frequency Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ju.M.; Gorbunov, L.M.; Silin, V.P.; Uotson, H.

    1966-01-01

    -frequency oscillation branches (which are in fact characteristic of plasma in an HF field) and on the other hand the increments are increased and the region of instability is broadened for some waves which could also exist in plasma without an external field. However, an external HF field stabilizes a plasma in which there is relative motion of elections and ions by narrowing the region of instability and reducing the increments in wave build-up. (author) [fr

  9. External causes of euro zone inflation differentials : A re-examniation of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Verhoef, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on external causes of Euro Zone inflation differential. Persistent inflation differences may influence inflationary expectations and can amplify regional business cycles. With a uniform nominal interest rate, the domestic real interest rates will be lower in high inflation

  10. Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Travis, Larry D.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    The superposition T-matrix method is used to compute the scattering of unpolarized light by semi-external aerosol mixtures in the form of polydisperse, randomly oriented two-particle clusters with touching components. The results are compared with those for composition-equivalent external aerosol mixtures, in which the components are widely separated and scatter light in isolation from each other. It is concluded that aggregation is likely to have a relatively weak effect on scattering and radiative properties of two-component tropospheric aerosols and can be replaced by the much simpler external-mixture model in remote sensing studies and atmospheric radiation balance computations

  11. Limiting Factors for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.

    2005-01-01

    The method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) that involves flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident has been considered a viable means for in-vessel retention (IVR). For high-power reactors, however, there are some limiting factors that might adversely affect the feasibility of using ERVC as a means for IVR. In this paper, the key limiting factors for ERVC have been identified and critically discussed. These factors include the choking limit for steam venting (CLSV) through the bottleneck of the vessel/insulation structure, the critical heat flux (CHF) for downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface, and the two-phase flow instabilities in the natural circulation loop within the flooded cavity. To enhance ERVC, it is necessary to eliminate or relax these limiting factors. Accordingly, methods to enhance ERVC and thus improve margins for IVR have been proposed and demonstrated, using the APR1400 as an example. The strategy is based on using two distinctly different methods to enhance ERVC. One involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate steam venting through the bottleneck of the annular channel. The other involves the use of an appropriate vessel coating to promote downward-facing boiling. It is found that the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design with bottleneck enlargement could greatly facilitate the process of steam venting through the bottleneck region as well as streamline the resulting two-phase motions in the annular channel. By selecting a suitable enhanced vessel/insulation design, not only the CLSV but also the CHF limits could be significantly increased. In addition, the problem associated with two-phase flow instabilities and flow-induced mechanical vibration could be minimized. It is also found that the use of vessel coatings made of microporous metallic layers could greatly facilitate downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface. With vessel coatings, the local CHF limits at

  12. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit, E-mail: amit.sawant@utsouthwestern.edu [UT Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    .25 mm RMS error. The motion trajectories of internal and external radio-opaque markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R > 0.95). Using the phantom, it was demonstrated that the motion trajectories of regions-of-interest on the surface as measured by VisionRT are highly consistent with corresponding fluoroscopically acquired surface marker trajectories, with RMS errors within 0.26 mm. Furthermore, it was shown that the trajectories of external and internal marker trajectories derived from NiftyReg deformation vector fields were within 1 mm root mean square errors comparing to trajectories obtained by segmenting markers from individual fluoro frames. Finally, it was shown that while 4DCT can be used to localize internal markers for sinusoidal motion with reasonable accuracy, the localization error increases significantly (by a factor of ∼2) in the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations that are observed in patient-derived respiratory motion. Conclusions: The authors have developed a realistic externally and internally deformable, programmable lung phantom that will serve as a valuable tool for clinical and investigational motion management studies in thoracic and abdominal radiation therapies.

  13. Congenital External Carotid-External Jugular Arteriovenous Fistula: Diagnosis With Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi Langroudi, Taraneh; Arjmand Shabestari, Abbas; Pourghorban, Ramin; Khalili Pouya, Ensi

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the external carotid artery and external jugular vein is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in the literature so far. Most of these AVFs have been either iatrogenic or secondary to previous trauma. Herein, we report a 42-year-old woman with congenital AVF between the external carotid artery and external jugular vein, presenting with palpitation and dyspnea. The patient was suffering from mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. On physical examination, a thrill on the left side of the neck and an audible bruit over the left mandibular angle were detected. The possibility of abnormal AVF was considered and it was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), inferring that this modality is not only fast and non-invasive, but also accurate in detecting vascular abnormalities

  14. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs

  15. Variant of multimodal vibration damping of electroviscoelastic structures by appropriate choice of external electric circuit parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii A. Oshmarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In technical applications it takes place the problem of vibration damping in certain regions of the structure, at the location of optical sensors for instance, at any external dynamic excitations with no mass increase and no changes in spectral portrait. In order to solve these problems it is widespread the use of special damping devices: piezoelectric elements connected to external electric circuits and attached to the structure. It became possible due to piezoelectric effect, which provides transformation of part of energy of vibrations into electric one, which is dissipated in external electric circuit. So that by using appropriate electric circuits one may dissipate internal energy and therefore reduce structural vibrations in definite frequency range. As a rule, external circuit of single branch, which shunts single piezoelectric element, allows vibration damping on one certain frequency. Due to the fact, that practical applications usually include requirements of damping of several modes by one and the same technical devices, the problem of multimodal vibration damping in smart-structures is rather acute. The objective of this paper is the study of possibility of vibration damping on several modes by using single external series RL-circuit, connected to electrodes of single piezoelectric element on the basis of solution of problems on natural and forced steady-state vibrations of electroelastic systems with external electric circuits.

  16. Small--radiation-amplitude dynamical voltage model of an irradiated, externally unbiased Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdory, R.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is presented for the nonequilibrium voltage states of an irradiated Josephson junction shunted by an external resistor but with no external current or voltage biasing. This device, referred to as a free-running Josephson junction, is modeled in a small--radiation-amplitude, deterministic regime extending the previous work of Shenoy and Agarwal. The time-averaged induced voltage is treated as a dynamical variable, the external radiation is modeled as a current source, and the induced junction-radiation vector potential, with and without a mode structure, is treated to first order in the driving currents. A dynamical equation for the time-averaged induced voltage yields a (nonequilibrium) steady-state relation between the time-averaged induced voltage and the incident radiation amplitude valid for a wide range of voltages, including zero. Regions of bistability occur in the voltage--versus--incident-amplitude curves, some of which are dependent on the external resistor. The zero-voltage state breaks down, as the external radiation amplitude is increased, at a critical value of the incident-radiation amplitude inversely proportional to the external resistance

  17. ENHANCEMENT OF A SUNSPOT LIGHT WALL WITH EXTERNAL DISTURBANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robert, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-20

    Based on the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations, we study the response of a solar sunspot light wall to external disturbances. A flare occurrence near the light wall caused material to erupt from the lower solar atmosphere into the corona. Some material falls back to the solar surface and hits the light bridge (i.e., the base of the light wall), then sudden brightenings appear at the wall base followed by the rise of wall top, leading to an increase of the wall height. Once the brightness of the wall base fades, the height of the light wall begins to decrease. Five hours later, another nearby flare takes place, and a bright channel is formed that extends from the flare toward the light bridge. Although no obvious material flow along the bright channel is found, some ejected material is conjectured to reach the light bridge. Subsequently, the wall base brightens and the wall height begins to increase again. Once more, when the brightness of the wall base decays, the wall top fluctuates to lower heights. We suggest, based on the observed cases, that the interaction of falling material and ejected flare material with the light wall results in the brightenings of wall base and causes the height of the light wall to increase. Our results reveal that the light wall can be not only powered by the linkage of p -mode from below the photosphere, but may also be enhanced by external disturbances, such as falling material.

  18. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN CYCLONE DEVICE WITH EXTERNAL GAS RECIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the convective heat transfer on the surface of a hollow cylinder or several billets in a cyclone device with the new principle of external gas recirculation. According to this principle, transport of coolant from the lateral surface of the chamber, where the temperature is the highest, in the axial region is being fulfilled due to the pressure drop between the wall and axial areas of cyclonic flow. Dependency analysis of average and local heat transfer coefficients from operational and geometrical parameters has been performed; the generalized similarity equations for the calculation of the latter have been suggested. It is demonstrated that in case of download of a cyclone chamber with several billets, the use of the considered scheme of the external recirculation due to the specific characteristics of aerodynamics practically does not lead to noticeable changes in the intensity of convective heat transfer. Both experimental data and the numerical simulation results obtained with the use of OpenFOAM platform were used in the work. The investigations fulfilled will expand the area of the use of cyclone heating devices.

  20. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  1. Idiopathic multiple aneurysm of external carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of external carotid artery are rare. Treatments for these are undertaken for the prevention of complications like hemorrhage or rupture, and embolism. We present a 71-year-old male with idiopathic multiple aneurysm for the past 34 years on conservative management and regular follow up for the past 4 years. This case was discussed for the rarity of idiopathic multiple aneurysm of the external carotid artery and the need for individualized treatment protocol to be followed as in this case, only watchful observation considering the age and patient compliance. In this world of evolving surgical techniques and newer treatment modalities, conservative treatment still has a role to play. Primary care physicians at the community level have a major role in following these patients and referring them as and when the need arises.

  2. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts, having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has raised considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CERN fo...

  3. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has attracted considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. The CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CE...

  4. Radionuclide evaluation in malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolosker, Sara; Penha Costa Marques, Marise da; Fonseca, Lea Miriam Barbosa da; Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1996-01-01

    Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a severe infection of the external auditory canal that can result in osteomyelitis of the skull base. Twenty-eight patients with MEO (19 diabetics, 8 with AIDS and 1 with acute mielogenous leukemia) were evaluated using 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. 67 Ga citrate and computed tomography (CT) at the time of diagnosis for establishing the MEO extent. 67 Ga scans were obtained periodically in order to assess the evolution of the treatment. 99m Tc scans had shown high sensitivity and specificity in assessing the bone disease. Serial 67 Ga scans had shown to be valuable indicators of infection remission. CT scans provided poor diagnosis of early bone involvement. (author). 26 refs., 4 figs

  5. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Video exams and the external examiners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    to the Master’s programme. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. Oral exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and later with Adobe Connect Professional. It has for all participants - students, examiners and external examiners – been both a challenge...... and an opportunity which has brought about new knowledge and experience. All students in the MPBL Master’s programme responded to a questionnaire [1] that they did not cheat or receive any help from outside. It was also shown that the more experience the respondents had with video exams, the more satisfied they were...... with the exams. Almost all respondents thought that video exams gave the external examiner the possibility to ensure that the demands were in accordance with the defined outcomes and see to that the exams were completed in accordance with the rules. This paper presents results from a questionnaire focusing...

  7. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, E [Mevaterapia Medical Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author).

  8. Assessment of external dose indoors in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkyte, L.; Butkus, D.; Morkunas, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was an assessment of external exposure indoors and its dependence on construction materials and indoor radon concentrations in Lithuanian living houses. Relationship of absorbed dose rate in air indoors and activity indexes of the most commonly used construction materials (wood, concrete and bricks) have been studied using results received in measurements done in >4700 rooms in 1995-2005. Possible connections of dose rate indoors with indoor radon concentrations are also discussed. Findings of this study helped to make an assessment of the mean value of effective dose of Lithuanian population due to external exposure indoors which is equal to 0.58 mSv y -1 . The received data might also be used in improvement of quality of personal dosimetric measurements done in premises constructed of different construction materials. (authors)

  9. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author)

  10. Governments’ Social Media Use for External Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: As social media technologies permeate public life, the current forms of collaboration between government and non-government stakeholders are changing. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how social media use reconfigures the organizing practices around such collaboration. A case...... study of a collaborative e-government project showcases how emergent organizing practices through external social media differ from existing ones along the dimensions of time, task, team, and transition. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a case study of a collaborative e......-government project on open data, organized by Shanghai Municipality, local businesses, universities, and NGOs, using an external social media platform, WeChat. Adopting the theoretical lens of temporary organization, the paper identifies the key aspects of change emerged in the organizing practices...

  11. External beam radiotherapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nishio, Masamichi; Narimatsu, Naoto; Ogawa, Hajime; Betsuyaku, Takashi; Hirata, Kouji; Ikeda, Shigeyuki (Sapporo National Hospital (Japan). Hokkaido Cancer Center)

    1992-04-01

    Between 1980 to 1989, 24 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer (10 with localized tumor alone and 14 with distant metastases) have been treated with external beam radiation at Sapporo National Hospital, Hokkaido Cancer Center. Response rate of pancreatic tumor treated with external beam radiation was 33.3% (7/21) with no complete response. Median survival time of the patients with localized tumor was 10 months and that of the patients with distant metastases was 3 months. Relief of pain occurred in 92.9% (12/13) of patients having pain due to pancreatic tumor and in 75% (3/4) of patients having pain due to bone metastases. Major complication was gastric ulcer which developed in 5 patients of 21 patients given stomach irradiation. We concluded that unresectable pancreatic cancer would be frequently indicated for radiotherapy. (author).

  12. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  13. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...

  14. The external otitis necrotizing about 45 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chnitri, Sana

    2005-01-01

    Necrotizing external otitis is a serious infection of the ear canal, it can develop life-threatening. It occurs primarily in elderly diabetic or immunocompromised. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common germ involved. This is a retrospective study of 45 cases of necrotizing otitis externa collected in ENT and CMF from the military hospital in Tunis and ENT and CMF of Rabta over a period of 10 years from 1994 to 2003 .

  15. Anesthetic management of external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, Laurie A; Sullivan, John T

    2013-09-01

    Breech presentation is common at term and its reduction through external cephalic version represents a noninvasive opportunity to avoid cesarean delivery and the associated maternal morbidity. In addition to uterine relaxants, neuraxial anesthesia is associated with increased success of version procedures when surgical anesthetic dosing is used. The intervention is likely cost effective given the effect size and the avoided high costs of cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Machine replacement, Network Externalities and Investment Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ruiz

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model where agents decide on the timing of replacement of ageing machines. The optimal replacement policy for an agent is influenced by other agents' decisions because the productivity of a particular vintage displays network externalities that set in with a lag. In equilibrium, agents follow innovation cycles with a frequency that is lower than optimal, so there is too much delay. One extreme case is the possibility of inefficient collapse: for some parameters there is ...

  17. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The preparation of the following chemicals is described: chelates of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The compounds described are suitable for intravenous injection, have an excellent in vivo stability and are good organ seekers. Tin(II) choride or other tin(II) compounds are used as chelating agents

  18. Charged particles in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.P.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present study contains a general theoretical group analysis of the problem of a charged massive particle moving in an (arbitrary) classical external electromagnetic field. This analysis is essentially based on the space-time symmetry properties of e.m. fields and e.m. field equations, as well as the fact that the considered equations of motion depend on the field via a potential

  19. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  20. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  1. Sustainability, Materiality and Independent External Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Bown, Robin; Hillier, David; Comfort, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    This chapter offers a preliminary examination of how the UK's leading food retailers are reporting on sustainability and of the role of materiality and external assurance in their reporting processes. Food retailing is by far the largest, and arguably the most fiercely competitive, sector within the UK retail economy. The chapter examines the current sustainability issues being addressed by the UK's leading food retailers, if and how they embraced materiality and commissioned independent exte...

  2. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadhel, Ehab

    2015-08-20

    Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy.

  3. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  4. Spherical tokamak without external toroidal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.; Avinash, K.; Srinivasan, R.

    2001-01-01

    A spherical tokamak design without external toroidal field coils is proposed. The tokamak is surrounded by a spheromak shell carrying requisite force free currents to produce the toroidal field in the core. Such equilibria are constructed and it is indicated that these equilibria are likely to have robust ideal and resistive stability. The advantage of this scheme in terms of a reduced ohmic dissipation is pointed out. (author)

  5. Advertising in Markets with Consumption Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Adele

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the entry deterrence literature by examining coordinating advertising in markets with consumption externalities using a stochastic success function. Optimal advertising and pricing strategies are analysed when an incumbent firm faces a challenger with a product of equal quality. I show that strategic entry deterrence using advertising is possible and optimal entry deterrence involves strategic pre-commitment to over-investment relative to the non-strategic simultaneous adve...

  6. DENSE MOLECULAR CORES BEING EXTERNALLY HEATED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang [Radio Astronomy division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Gopinathan, Maheswar [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital 263129 (India); Jeong, Woong-Seob, E-mail: archer81@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-20

    We present results of our study of eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3–160 μ m) imaging observations with the AKARI telescope and molecular line (HCN and N{sub 2}H{sup +}) mapping observations with the KVN telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to millimeter continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosities of ∼0.3–4.4 L {sub ⊙}. The other six cores are found to remain starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3–6 K toward the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an overdominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory motion, probably due to the external heating. Most of the starless cores show a coreshine effect due to the scattering of light by the micron-sized dust grains. This may imply that the age of the cores is of the order of ∼10{sup 5} years, which is consistent with the timescale required for the cores to evolve into an oscillatory stage due to external perturbation. Our observational results support the idea that the external feedback from nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of the cores.

  7. Tocolysis in term breech external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Azlin, M I; Haliza, H; Mahdy, Z A; Anson, I; Fahya, M N; Jamil, M A

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of ritodrine tocolysis on the success of external cephalic version (ECV) and to assess the role of ECV in breech presentation at our centre. A prospective randomized double-blind-controlled trial comparing ritodrine and placebo in ECV of singleton term breech pregnancy at a tertiary hospital. Among the 60 patients who were recruited, there was a success rate of 36.7%. Ritodrine tocolysis significantly improved the success rate of ECV (50% vs. 23%; P=0.032). There was a marked effect of ritodrine tocolysis on the ECV success in nulliparae (36.4% vs. 13.0%) and multiparae (87.5% vs. 57.1%). External cephalic version has shown to reduce the rate of cesarean section for breech presentation by 33.5% in our unit. External cephalic version significantly reduced the rate of cesarean section in breech presentation, and ritodrine tocolysis improved the success of ECV and should be offered to both nulliparous and parous women in the case of term breech presentation.

  8. Nodular Fasciitis of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a pseudosarcomatous reactive process composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and it is most common in the upper extremities. Nodular fasciitis of the external auditory canal is rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 cases have been reported to date. We present a case of nodular fasciitis arising in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal. A 19-year-old man complained of an auricular mass with pruritus. Computed tomography showed a 1.7 cm sized soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal, and total excision was performed. Histologic examination revealed spindle or stellate cells proliferation in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Lymphoid cells and erythrocytes were intermixed with tumor cells. The stroma was myxoid to hyalinized with a few microcysts. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, but not for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and cytokeratin. The patient has been doing well during the 1 year follow-up period.

  9. Externally guided target for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M.

    1996-01-01

    A totally new concept is proposed to reach fusion conditions by externally guided inertial confinement. The acceleration and compression of the fuel is guided by a cannon-like external duct with a conical section ending in a small-size cavity around the central point of the tube. The fuel pellets coming from each cannon mouth collide in the central cavity where the implosion and final compression of the fuel take place. Both the tube material density and its areal density must be much higher than the initial density and areal density of the fuel. The external tube will explode into pieces as a consequence of the inner pressures achieved after the fuel central collision. If the collision is suitably driven, a fusion burst can take place before the tube disassembly. because of the features of the central collision needed to trigger ignition, this concept could be considered as tamped impact fusion. Both the fusion products and the debris from the guide tube are caught by a liquid-lithium curtain surrounding the target. Only two driving beams are necessary. The system can be applied to any type of driver and could use a solid pellet at room temperature as the initial target. 54 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  10. External CSR Communication in a Strategic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina GLIGOR-CIMPOIERU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a strategic approach, aimed at assuring mutual benefits for the social cause and the business organization, a good CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility communication is vital for the success of a CSR program. We argue that there is not a problem with the legitimacy of the CSR concept, but rather to its implementation. If a business organization implementing socially responsible initiatives is focusing only on reaping the image benefits from a simple public relations perspective, then it loses all the potential business benefits it could gain from a strategic approach focused on long term real results in a win-win perspective. The fact that the image benefit is one of the most important incentives that a business organization could obtain for engaging in CSR activities cannot be ignored, and that is the reason why we have chosen to analyse the topic of CSR communication, mainly external communication, as an important link in the process of implementing a CSR program, that plays an important part for the success of a CSR program. The approach on CSR communication should definitely be a strategic one, and long already common forms of external CSR communication like web pages or CSR annual reports new means of social media networks have an increasing importance. For the practical part of the paper, we were interested in analyzing how much of the external CSR communication in the Romanian business environment is oriented toward a traditional or a strategic approach.

  11. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Borel

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal and far (extrapersonal spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation, and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  12. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis

  13. Environmental externalities and alternative energy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will introduce and explain the economic concept of an open-quotes externalityclose quotes and how it applies to environmental issues. The theory was developed by economists more than a half century ago. Much of the current interest in the idea is aimed at its application to environmental issues in the regulated electric and gas utility industries. A good deal of this current interest began with the publication of the Pace University report on the Environmental Costs of Electricity. The report is widely cited but, unfortunately, seriously flawed. Two important examples of this will be shown later in this paper. The widespread interest in the application of the environmental externality concept apparently arose out of the desire of regulators and others to open-quotes level the playing fieldclose quotes for Demand Side Management (DSM) activities and renewables. The rapid growth of DSM over the past 10 to 15 years has occurred without any boost from externalities. By including the complete private and social costs of traditional electric generating technologies, it is thought that DSM and renewables will get an additional boost. Although current activity aims at the application of the environmental externality concept to the regulated utilities sector, it clearly has potential for much wider application. This issue will also be examined. The current status of various regulatory actions at the state level will be reviewed

  14. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country. PMID:21808680

  15. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem ul Gani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertro-chanteric” fractures remain unsuitable for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertro-chanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet’s point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  16. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  17. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  18. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  19. Rare events in networks with internal and external noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, J.; Schwartz, I. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study rare events in networks with both internal and external noise, and develop a general formalism for analyzing rare events that combines pair-quenched techniques and large-deviation theory. The probability distribution, shape, and time scale of rare events are considered in detail for extinction in the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model as an illustration. We find that when both types of noise are present, there is a crossover region as the network size is increased, where the probability exponent for large deviations no longer increases linearly with the network size. We demonstrate that the form of the crossover depends on whether the endemic state is localized near the epidemic threshold or not.

  20. Malignant transformation from benign papillomatosis of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammed S; Crawford, Mairi; White, Sharon J; Hussain, Syed Shah Musheer

    2012-06-01

    Report a case of malignant transformation of benign ear canal papillomatosis to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the temporal bone. A 73-year-old with papillomata involving the posterior and inferior walls of the right external auditory canal (EAC), which subsequently transformed into SCC. Radical mastoidectomy and excision of the tumor and then radical radiotherapy. Loco-regional disease control. Recovery of facial nerve function. Approximately 20 months post-treatment, the patient remains disease free. No recovery of facial nerve function. Malignant transformation of a benign EAC papilloma to SCC of the temporal bone has not been reported previously. The association of human papillomavirus with temporal bone SCC has been reported in small number of studies with human papillomavirus subtypes 16 and 18 isolated in a high proportion of cases. With the increased availability in genotyping, the question over whether there should be further genetic analysis of benign lesions to assess their susceptibility to malignant transformation has merit.

  1. Collective states of externally driven, damped nonlinear Schroedinger solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, I.V.; Smirnov, Yu.S.

    1997-01-01

    We study bifurcations of localized stationary solitons of the externally driven, damped nonlinear Schroedinger equation iΨ t + Ψ xx + 2|Ψ| 2 Ψ=-iγΨ-h e iΩt , in the region of large γ (γ>1/2). For each pair of h and γ, there are two coexisting solitons, Ψ + and Ψ - . As the driver's strength h increases for the fixed γ, the Ψ + soliton merges with the flat background while the Ψ - forms a stationary collective state with two 'psi-pluses': Ψ - → Ψ (+ - +) . We obtain other stationary solutions and identify them as multisoliton complexes Ψ (++) , Ψ (--) , Ψ (-+) , Ψ (---) , Ψ (-+- ) etc. The corresponding intersoliton separations are compared to predictions of a variational approximation

  2. Elemental analysis of artefacts - establishing external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.; Johnston, P.; Short, R.; Bubb, I.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an external PIXE facility on the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator at RMIT has led to a wide range of research possibilities. A proton beam, generated inside a vacuum is brought into air via an Au coated Kapton foil exit window (thickness 8μm, diameter 0.35mm). Monitoring of the beam intensity is achieved by detecting backscattered protons from the inside Au coating on the window. Artefacts, which may be too large to be placed inside the vacuum, are positioned in the beamline opposite the exit window. An optical system consisting of a CCD camera, alignment laser and two mirrors allows viewing of a region of the target 10mm x 10mm. This technique provides quantitative analysis of elements in the pigments used in paintings and on ceramics, which is a valuable tool in art conservation and authentication. Application of the technique to a ceramic sample from the historic house 'Viewbank' is described

  3. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalities of Liquid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalities associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalities from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalities are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalities is also presented. The report reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExternE and ExternE-transport projects related the externalities of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  4. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  5. Segregação social como externalização de conflitos ambientais: a elitização do meio ambiente na APA-Sul, Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte Social segregation like externalizing environmental problems: the elitization of the environment in the APA-Sul, Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Laschefski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata das relações de poder no conselho consultivo da APA-Sul, uma unidade de conservação localizada na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Observa-se uma sub-representação dos setores populares, e os representantes de renda média-alta temem a favelização da região. Conseqüentemente, o conflito ambiental surge em torno da perda da qualidade ambiental nas referidas áreas, em parte associada às alternativas de habitação popular, abrindo oportunidade para discursos que justifiquem a segregação social no espaço e a elitização da paisagem em questão.This paper talks about the power relations within the consultative council of the APA-Sul, a conservation area situated in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. There the lower-class sectors are apparently underrepresented and higher middle class representatives are concerned about the slumisation of the region. Consequently an environmental conflict arises about the loss of "environmental quality" of the area, partly associated with lower class housing, providing opportunities of discourses to justify social segregation in space and the elitization of the landscape at stake.

  6. The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internally and Externally Guided Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M.; Banich, Marie T.

    2013-01-01

    While some prior work suggests that medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) regions mediate freely chosen actions, other work suggests that the lateral frontal pole (LFP) is responsible for control of abstract, internal goals. The present study uses fMRI to determine whether the voluntary selection of a task in pursuit of an overall goal relies on MFC regions or the LFP. To do so, we used a modified voluntary task switching (VTS) paradigm, in which participants choose an individual task to perform on each trial (i.e., a subgoal), under instructions to perform the tasks equally often and in a random order (i.e. the overall goal). In conjunction, we examined patterns of activation in the face of irrelevant, but task-related external stimuli that might nonetheless influence task selection. While there was some evidence that the MFC was involved in voluntary task selection, we found that the LFP and anterior insula (AI) were crucial to task selection in the pursuit of an overall goal. In addition, activation of the LFP and AI increased in the face of environmental stimuli that might serve as an interfering or conflicting external bias on voluntary task choice. These findings suggest that the LFP supports task selection according to abstract, internal goals, and leaves open the possibility that MFC may guide action selection in situations lacking in such top-down biases. As such, the current study represents a critical step towards understanding the neural underpinnings of how tasks are selected voluntarily to enable an overarching goal. PMID:23994316

  7. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  8. Using global magnetospheric models for simulation and interpretation of Swarm external field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    simulated external contributions relevant for internal field modeling. These have proven very valuable for the design and planning of the up-coming multi-satellite Swarm mission. In addition, a real event simulation was carried out for a moderately active time interval when observations from the Orsted...... it consistently underestimates the dayside region 2 currents and overestimates the horizontal ionospheric closure currents in the dayside polar cap. Furthermore, with this example we illustrate the great benefit of utilizing the global model for the interpretation of Swarm external field observations and......, likewise, the potential of using Swarm measurements to test and improve the global model....

  9. Control of generation spectrum of gyrotron with external reflection in mode of several longitudinal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental', R.M.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Zajtsev, N.I.; Ilyakov, E.V.; Kulagin, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    One studies possibility to control the spectrum of multiparticle generation in a gyrotron due to application of external reflections. It is shown that in self-modulation regimes of generation the radiation spectrum lines may be close to the resonance frequencies throughout electrodynamic system covering a part of output waveguide restricted by a reflector. Under the mentioned conditions variation of distance between mode frequencies and, respectively, period of self-modulation may be reached due to varying of position of the reflector. The theory deductions are supported by the results of experimental investigation into 30 GHz region relativistic gyrotron with external reflections [ru

  10. Assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy departments after inspections performed by the ASN 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Vincent; Marchal, Carole

    2009-10-01

    This report proposes an assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy. It is based on inter-regional syntheses of inspections performed by the ASN in external radiotherapy departments during 2008. It addresses 6 main themes related to patient radiation protection: human and material resources, organisation of medical physics, training in patient radiation protection, mastering of equipment (maintenance, internal quality controls of medical devices), safety and care quality management (formalization of the patient care process and definition of responsibilities, patient identity control, treatment preparation, and treatment execution), and risk management (a priori risk analysis, declaration, recording and internal processing of dysfunctions, improvements of care quality and safety management system)

  11. External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels

  12. Agglomeration externalities, market structure and employment growth in high-tech industries: Revisiting the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the existing empirical evidence on the effects of various agglomeration externalities and the market structure on employment growth in the high-tech industries of the European Economic Area (EEA. Our study is based on the dynamic panel dataset of two-digit NACE rev 1.1. industries in 285 regions of the European Economic Area for the period 1995-2007. We find that employment growth is negatively related to competition, while localization and urbanization externalities do not seem to affect growth.

  13. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  14. Knowledge-sourcing of R&D workers in different job positions: contextualising external personal knowledge networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically examines the role of external personal knowledge networks vis-à-vis alternative sources of work-related knowledge. Specific hypotheses on whether the importance of external personal networks vary for job positions, knowledge functions and sources of competitiveness are examined. The study is based on a survey and interviews with 105 R&D workers in 46 Information Technology (IT) firms in the Greater Cambridge Region (UK).The results show that alternative sources o...

  15. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  17. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  18. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  19. Practice Bulletin No. 161: External Cephalic Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In the United States, there is a widespread belief that the overall cesarean delivery rate is higher than necessary. Efforts are being directed toward decreasing the number of these procedures, in part by encouraging physicians to make changes in their management practices. Because breech presentations are associated with a high rate of cesarean delivery, there is renewed interest in techniques such as external cephalic version (ECV) and vaginal breech delivery. The purpose of this document is to provide information about ECV by summarizing the relevant evidence presented in published studies and to make recommendations regarding its use in obstetric practice.

  20. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior.

  1. External Memory Pipelining Made Easy With TPIE

    OpenAIRE

    Arge, Lars; Rav, Mathias; Svendsen, Svend C.; Truelsen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    When handling large datasets that exceed the capacity of the main memory, movement of data between main memory and external memory (disk), rather than actual (CPU) computation time, is often the bottleneck in the computation. Since data is moved between disk and main memory in large contiguous blocks, this has led to the development of a large number of I/O-efficient algorithms that minimize the number of such block movements. TPIE is one of two major libraries that have been developed to sup...

  2. Structural adhesives for missile external protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, F. L.; Garzolini, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Two basic rubber materials are examined as possible external substrate protection materials (EPM) for missiles. The analysis provided a data base for selection of the optimum adhesives which are compatible with the substrate, loads applied and predicted bondline temperatures. Under the test conditions, EA934/NA was found to be the optimum adhesive to bond VAMAC 2273 and/or NBR/EPDM 9969A to aluminum substrate. The optimum adhesive for composite structures was EA956. Both of these adhesives are two-part epoxy systems with a pot life of approximately two hours. Further research is suggested on field repair criteria, nuclear hardness and survivability effects on bondline, and ageing effects.

  3. External events analysis for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    External events are those off-normal events that threaten facilities either from outside or inside the building. These events, such as floods, fires, and earthquakes, are among the leading risk contributors for fission power plants, and the nature of fusion facilities indicates that they may also lead fusion risk. This paper gives overviews of analysis methods, references good analysis guidance documents, and gives design tips for mitigating the effects of floods and fires, seismic events, and aircraft impacts. Implications for future fusion facility siting are also discussed. Sites similar to fission plant sites are recommended. 46 refs

  4. The Laughlin liquid in an external potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougerie, Nicolas; Yngvason, Jakob

    2018-04-01

    We study natural perturbations of the Laughlin state arising from the effects of trapping and disorder. These are N-particle wave functions that have the form of a product of Laughlin states and analytic functions of the N variables. We derive an upper bound to the ground state energy in a confining external potential, matching exactly a recently derived lower bound in the large N limit. Irrespective of the shape of the confining potential, this sharp upper bound can be achieved through a modification of the Laughlin function by suitably arranged quasi-holes.

  5. Entrepreneurship and the Discipline of External Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanda, Ramana

    I confirm the finding that the propensity to start a new firm rises sharply among those in the top five per­centiles of personal wealth. This pattern is more pronounced for entrants in less capital intensive sectors. Prior to entry, founders in this group earn about 6% less compared to those who ......, these findings suggest that the spike in entry at the top end of the wealth distribution is driven by low-ability individuals who can afford to start (and sometimes continue running) weaker firms because they do not face the discipline of external finance....

  6. External costs of electricity production: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, D.

    1995-01-01

    The external costs of energy use, or the environmental effects not included in the market pricing system, must at some point be borne by society. This paper argues that the true cost of energy, including the remedying or prevention of its environmetnal consequences, should be included in the price paid by the consumer as this is the only effective method of minimizing the burden of environmental damage. The difficulties of quantifying the value of such damage and internalising it within power prices is described with reference to work in a number of countries. (UK)

  7. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems....... This paper gives a comparison of systems with mineral wool and cellular plastic, based on experience from practice and literature. It is important to look at the details in the system and at long time stability of the properties such as thermal insulation, moisture and fire. Investigation of fire properties...

  8. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  9. Guide for External Beam Radiotherapy. Procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bourhis, Jean; Eschwege, Francois; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Barillot, Isabelle; Bey, Pierre; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Olivier; Bolla, Michel; Bourguignon, Michel; Godet, Jean-Luc; Krembel, David; Valero, Marc; Bara, Christine; Beauvais-March, Helene; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Vidal, Jean-Pierre; Drouard, Jean; Sarrazin, Thierry; Lindecker-Cournil, Valerie; Robin, Sun Hee Lee; Thevenet, Nicolas; Depenweiller, Christian; Le Tallec, Philippe; Ortholan, Cecile; Aimone, Nicole; Baldeschi, Carine; Cantelli, Andree; Estivalet, Stephane; Le Prince, Cyrille; QUERO, Laurent; Costa, Andre; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Bourhis, Jean; Calais, Gilles; Lartigau, Eric; Ginot, Aurelie; Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Francoise; Bolla, Michel; Chauvet, Bruno; Maingon, Philippe; Martin, Etienne; Azria, David; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Grehange, Gilles; Hennequin, Christophe; Peiffert, Didier; Toledano, Alain; Belkacemi, Yazid; Courdi, Adel; Belliere, Aurelie; Peignaux, Karine; Mahe, Marc; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Kantor, Guy; Lepechoux, Cecile; Carrie, Christian; Claude, Line

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize quality and security in the delivery of radiation treatment, the French SFRO (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) is publishing a Guide for Radiotherapy. This guide is realized according to the HAS (Haute Autorite de sante) methodology of 'structured experts consensus'. This document is made of two parts: a general description of external beam radiation therapy and chapters describing the technical procedures of the main tumors to be irradiated (24). For each procedure, a special attention is given to dose constraints in the organs at risk. This guide will be regularly updated

  10. The next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs

  11. External momentum expansion in NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei; Zhao Weiqin; Zhuang Pengfei

    1999-01-01

    In the large N c expansion beyond mean-field approximation, the authors develop a general scheme of SU(2) NJL model including current quark mass explicitly. In the scheme, the constituent quark's propagator is expanded in pions external momentum k, and all the Feynman diagrams are naturally expanded to k 2 term in a unified way. The numerical results show that in the mean field approximation, the effect of current quark mass is invisible, however, the effect of current quark mass can be seen explicitly beyond mean-field approximation for reasonable choices of the parameters in NJL model

  12. 20 CFR 658.603 - ETA regional office responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... program budget plan; (3) The effect which economic conditions and other external factors considered by the... ESA and OSHA farmworker specialists in the region and, to the extent necessary, shall establish...

  13. Intrapreneurship in the Spanish context : a regional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turro Sol, A.; Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the influence of internal and external (environmental) factors on intrapreneurship in the Spanish context, considering differences among regions. Methodologically, the study applies logistic regression and uses data from the Spanish Global Entrepreneurship

  14. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  15. IPEEE Review of other external events of the NPP Asco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, F.; Aleman, A.; Beltran, F.; Pifarre, D.; Hernandez, H.; Gasca, C.

    2011-01-01

    Within the process of maintaining and updating the risk analysis of the NPP Asco, results from the review of the vulnerability study of the plant against severe accidents caused by external success (Individual Plant Examination of External Events, IPEEE).

  16. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  17. External events analysis of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaukonis, Mindaugas; Augutis, Juozas

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of external events impact on the safe operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) safety systems. Analysis was based on the probabilistic estimation and modelling of the external hazards. The screening criteria were applied to the number of external hazards. The following external events such as aircraft failure on the INPP, external flooding, fire, extreme winds requiring further bounding study were analysed. Mathematical models were developed and event probabilities were calculated. External events analysis showed rather limited external events danger to Ignalina NPP. Results of the analysis were compared to analogous analysis in western NPPs and no great differences were specified. Calculations performed show that external events can not significantly influence the safety level of the Ignalina NPP operation. (author)

  18. Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela and the southern and ... during the model fitting: internal forcing by means of the trophic flow controls ... and two kinds of external forcing, namely fishing and the environment.

  19. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  20. SWR 1000 severe accident control through in-vessel melt retention by external RPV cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.I. [Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power, NDSI, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power is being designing a new generation NPP with boiling water reactor SWR1000. Besides of various of modern passive and active safety features the system is also designed for controlling of a postulated severe accident with extreme low probability of occurrence. This work presents the rationales behind the decision to select the external cooling as a safety management strategy during severe accident. Bounding scenery are analyzed regarding the core melting, melt-water interaction during relocation of the melt from the core region into the lower head and the external coolability of the lower head. The conclusion is reached that the external cooling for the SWR1000 is a valuable strategy for accident management during postulated severe accidents. (authors)

  1. SWR 1000 severe accident control through in-vessel melt retention by external RPV cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power is being designing a new generation NPP with boiling water reactor SWR1000. Besides of various of modern passive and active safety features the system is also designed for controlling of a postulated severe accident with extreme low probability of occurrence. This work presents the rationales behind the decision to select the external cooling as a safety management strategy during severe accident. Bounding scenery are analyzed regarding the core melting, melt-water interaction during relocation of the melt from the core region into the lower head and the external coolability of the lower head. The conclusion is reached that the external cooling for the SWR1000 is a valuable strategy for accident management during postulated severe accidents. (authors)

  2. ERRORS AND FRAUD IN ACCOUNTING. THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL AUDIT IN FIGHTING CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Ionescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounting errors and fraud are common in most businesses, but there is a difference between fraud and misinterpretation of communication or accounting regulations. The role of management in preventing fraud becomes important in the last decades and the importance of auditing in curbing corruption is increasingly revealed. There is a strong connection between fraud and corruption, accelerated by electronic systems and modern platforms. The most recent developments tend to confirm that external auditing is curbing corruption, due to international accounting and auditing standards at national and regional levels. Thus, a better implementation of accounting standards and high quality of external control could prevent errors and fraud in accounting, and reduce corruption, as well. The aim of this paper is to present some particular aspects of errors and fraud in accounting, and how external audit could ensure accuracy and accountability in financial reporting.

  3. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  4. Comparison of infection between internal-external and external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in treating patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a form of palliative care for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. We here compared the infection incidence between internal-external and external drainage for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice without infection before surgery receiving internal-external or external drainage from January 2008 to July 2014 were recruited. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), if the guide wire could pass through the occlusion and enter the duodenum, we recommended internal-external drainage, and external drainage biliary drainage was set up if the occlusion was not crossed. All patients with infection after procedure received a cultivation of blood and a bile bacteriological test. Among 110 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice, 22 (52.4%) were diagnosed with infection after the procedure in the internal-external drainage group, whereas 19 (27.9%) patients were so affected in the external drainage group, the difference being significant (pinternal-external group infection was controlled, as compared to 12 (63.1%) in the external group (pinternal-external group in one month was 42.8%, while this rate in external group was 28.6% (pExternal drainage is a good choice, which could significantly reduce the chance of biliary infection caused by bacteria, and decrease the mortality rate at one month and improve the long-term prognosis.

  5. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  6. Analgesia/anesthesia for external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2013-06-01

    Professional society guidelines recommend that women with breech presentation be delivered surgically due to a higher incidence of fetal risks compared with vaginal delivery. An alternative is attempted external cephalic version, which if successful, enables attempted vaginal delivery. Attitudes towards external cephalic version (ECV) will be considered in this review, along with pain relief methods and their impact on ECV success rates. Articles suggest that ECV is infrequently offered, due to both physician and patient factors. Success of ECV is higher in multiparous women, complete breech, posterior placenta, or smaller fetus. Preterm ECV performance does not increase vaginal delivery rates. Neuraxial techniques (spinal or epidural) significantly increase ECV success rates, as do moxibustion and hypnosis. Four reviews summarized studies considering ECV and neuraxial techniques. These reviews suggest that neuraxial techniques using high (surgical) doses of local anesthetic are efficacious compared with control groups not using anesthesia, whereas techniques using low-doses are not. Low-dose versus high-dose neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia has not been directly compared in a single study. Based on currently available data, the rate of cephalic presentation is not increased using neuraxial techniques, but vaginal delivery rates are higher. ECV appears to be a low-risk procedure. The logistics of routine ECV and provision of optimal neuraxial techniques for successful ECV require additional research. Safety aspects of neuraxial anesthesia for ECV require further investigation.

  7. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M.

    1998-01-01

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm 2 approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  8. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  9. Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)

  10. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    .g. spatial and temporal databases, and is dual to the important and well-studied orthogonal range searching problem. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the problem can be solved optimally in internal memory with linear space and O(log N+K) query time, we show that one cannot construct a linear sized......In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... external memory point enclosure data structure that can be used to answer a query in O(log  B N+K/B) I/Os, where B is the disk block size. To obtain this bound, Ω(N/B 1−ε ) disk blocks are needed for some constant ε>0. With linear space, the best obtainable query bound is O(log 2 N+K/B) if a linear output...

  11. Guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at participating in the permanent optimization of the returned medical service and the ratio profit-risk. This first version of the guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007 processes only techniques of external radiotherapy, by opposition to the techniques of brachytherapy which use radioactive sources (iridium 192 , iodine 125 , cesium 137 ) placed in the contact of the tumor to be irradiated. Only, also, will be considered the irradiations of the most frequent cunning(malignant) tumors with the exception of the radiotherapy of the mild pathologies and the re-irradiations after a first radiotherapy. The first part is shared in eight chapters as follow: introduction, the steps of a treatment by radiotherapy, infrastructure, equipment and human resources, radiobiology mechanism of action of ionising radiations in radiotherapy, dose in radiotherapy, quality of treatment and radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy, prevention and risk management in radiotherapy, quality assurance and radiation protection for the pediatrics cancers and the case of pregnant women. The second part gives the tumoral localizations and the procedures; the third part is a glossary and different annexes such regulations and legislative texts. (N.C.)

  12. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  13. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, P.A.; Sopchyshyn, F.C.; Selkirk, E.B.; Green, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  14. External osteotomy in rhinoplasty: Piezosurgery vs osteotome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Tofanelli, Margherita; Bullo, Federica; Bianchi, Max; Robiony, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the desired outcome in rhinoplasty depends on many factors. Osteotomy and surgical reshaping of nasal bones are important steps that require careful planning and execution. The availability of different tools raises the question of which one provides significant advantages for both technique and surgical outcome. Our prospective randomized pilot study compared the outcome of post-traumatic rhinoplasty performed with two different external techniques: ultrasound osteotomic cut using the Piezosurgery Medical Device (Mectron, Carasco, Italy) and traditional external osteotomy. Forty-four lateral osteotomies of the nasal wall were performed in twenty-two patients. In twelve patients the osteotomies were conducted with a 2-mm traditional osteotome (control group), while in the remaining ten patients these were done with the Piezosurgery Medical Device (experimental group). At the postoperative evaluation, significantly lower pain, edema and ecchymosis were noticed in the experimental group (pPiezosurgery Medical Device allowed for safe lateral osteotomies in rhinoplasty preliminarily demonstrating the potential to reduce some of the most frequent complications of rhinoplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  16. Economical evaluation of electricity generation considering externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kordy, M.N.; Badr, M.A.; Abed, K.A.; Ibrahim, Said M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of renewable energy are the largest barrier to renewable penetration. Nevertheless, the strong desire to reduce environmental emissions is considered a great support for renewable energy sources. In this paper, a full analysis for the cost of the kWh of electricity generated from different systems actually used in Egypt is presented. Also renewable energy systems are proposed and their costs are analyzed. The analysis considers the external cost of emissions from different generating systems. A proposed large scale PV plant of 3.3 MW, and a wind farm 11.25 MW grid connected at different sites are investigated. A life cycle cost analysis for each system was performed using the present value criterion. The comparison results showed that wind energy generation has the lowest cost, followed by a combined cycle-natural gas fired system. A photovoltaic system still uses comparatively expensive technology for electricity generation; even when external costs are considered the capital cost of photovoltaic needs to be reduced by about 60% in order to be economically competitive. (Author)

  17. Bibliography - Existing Guidance for External Hazard Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The bibliography of deliverable D21.1 includes existing international and national guidance documents and standards on external hazard assessment together with a selection of recent scientific papers, which are regarded to provide useful information on the state of the art of external event modelling. The literature database is subdivided into International Standards, National Standards, and Science Papers. The deliverable is treated as a 'living document' which is regularly updated as necessary during the lifetime of ASAMPSA-E. The current content of the database is about 140 papers. Most of the articles are available as full-text versions in PDF format. The deliverable is available as an EndNote X4 database and as text files. The database includes the following information: Reference, Key words, Abstract (if available), PDF file of the original paper (if available), Notes (comments by the ASAMPSA-E consortium if available) The database is stored at the ASAMPSA-E FTP server hosted by IRSN. PDF files of original papers are accessible through the EndNote software

  18. External Audit Green Deal Approach. Final report; Externe Audit Green Deal Aanpak. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, B.P.A.; Gooskens, B.J.F.; Van Schelven, R.M.; Stutje, A.

    2013-10-15

    External audit of the effectiveness of the Green Deals, based on the question how the Green Deal contributes to green growth. The central idea of this new tool is that the Dutch government facilitates initiatives of businesses, societal organisations, local governments and citizens by removing bottlenecks as much as possible [Dutch] Externe audit over (de effectiviteit van) de Green Deal aanpak, op basis van de volgende onderzoeksvraag: 'Hoe draagt de Green Deal aanpak bij aan het bevorderen van groene groei?' De centrale gedachte van dit nieuwe instrument is dat de overheid initiatieven van bedrijven, maatschappelijke organisaties, decentrale overheden en burgers faciliteert door het wegnemen van knelpunten.

  19. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2009, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 128 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting ...

  20. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S... External Review. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35... the Multi-State Plan Program (MSPP) on March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review...

  1. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. 870.1750 Section 870.1750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration prosthesis... (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part...

  4. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  5. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.815 External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power...

  6. An association of external and internal enamel pearls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan S; Charan C

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of an association of external enamel pearl with internal enamel pearl on the root of a molar. To the best of our knowledge, association of external and internal enamel pearls has not been previously reported. We discussed the histogenesis of enamel pearls and proposed that internal enamel pearl formation may be a continuation of formation of external enamel pearl.

  7. Effect of external noise on the current response in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suqing Duan; Wu Binyi; Wang Zhigang; Zhao Xiangeng

    2004-01-01

    Within the single-band model and the nearest-neighbor approximation we investigate the effect of external noise on the current response driven by dc-ac field which has a fluctuating component. We find the external noise can destroy the current resonant peaks. When the strength of the external noise becomes enough large, all the current resonant peaks will completely disappear

  8. Estimation of the externalities associated with atmospheric emissions of the electric power production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Pereira, Maria Cristina; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the activities connected to energy generation and distribution are those that most contribute to local, regional and global degradation of the environment. One of the most important contribution for externalities estimation is the ExternE Project, which has established a methodological framework called damage function approach to quantify both health and environmental impacts from electricity generation as well as to quantify in monetary terms the damage resulting from these physical impacts. In order to incorporate economic, social and environmental aspects in the decision process of energy planning in Brazil, a joint research project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency is being carried out. The primary objective of this Project is to perform a comparative assessment of external costs of alternative fuel cycles for electricity production. It includes not only the quantification of the physical impacts and damage costs associated with airborne emissions from the traditional fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) and nuclear energy, but also those from renewable resources, most specifically from hydroelectric. The main objective of this paper is to present preliminary results of the external costs associated to atmospheric emissions of an oil fired plant. Applying the Damage Function Approach methodology the quantification of healthy impacts and damage cost was performed. These results will later be compared with those from nuclear energy option. Atmospheric dispersion studies were carried out using the Industrial Complex Source Model. The healthy impacts were estimated using the exposure-response curves recommended by the ExternE Project. The monetary unit cost for different public health endpoints considered in this study were obtained indirectly by using unit cost values taken from Contingent Valuation studies sponsored by the World Bank, which are specific for developing countries. (author)

  9. Excitation of density waves at the Lindblad and corotation resonances by an external potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.

    1979-01-01

    We calculate the linear response of a differentially rotating two-dimensional gas disk to a rigidly rotating external potential. The main assumptions are that the sound speed is much smaller than the orbital velocity and that the external potential varies on the scale of the disk radius. We investigate disks both with and without self-gravity.The external potential exerts torques on the disk only at the Lindblad and corotation resonances. The torque is positive at the outer Lindblad resonance and negative at the inner Lindblad resonance; at corotation the torque has the sign of the radial gradient of vorticity per unit surface density. The torques are of the same order of magnitude at both types of resonance and are independent of the sound speed in the disk.The external potential also excites density waves in the vicinity of the Lindblad and corotation resonances. The long trailing wave is excited at a Lindblad resonance. It transports away from the resonance all of the angular momentum which is deposited there by the external torque. Short trailing waves are excited at the corotation resonance. The amplitudes of the excited waves are the same on both sides of the resonance and are small unless the disk is almost gravitationally unstable. No net angular momentum is transported away from the corotation region by the waves. Thus the angular momentum deposited there by the external torque accumulates in the gas.We briefly discuss the behavior of particle disks and prove that the external torques on particle disks are identical to those on gas disks

  10. Postoperative complications associated with external skeletal fixators in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Lee; Giles, Kirsty; Meeson, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify complications associated with external skeletal fixators (ESFs) in cats and to identify potential risk factors. A retrospective review of medical records and radiographs following ESF placement was performed. Case records of 140 cats were reviewed; fixator-associated complications (FACs) occurred in 19% of cats. The region of ESF placement was significantly associated with complication development. Complications developed most frequently in the femur (50%), tarsus (35%) and radius/ulna (33%). Superficial pin tract infection (SPTI) and implant failure accounted for 45% and 41% of all FACs, respectively. SPTI occurred more frequently in the femur, humerus and tibia, with implant failure more frequent in the tarsus. No association between breed, age, sex, weight, fracture type (open vs closed), ESF classification, number of pins per bone segment, degree of fracture load sharing, and the incidence or type of FAC was identified. No association between region of placement, breed, age, sex, weight, fracture type (open vs closed), ESF classification, number of pins per bone segment, fracture load sharing and the time to complication development was identified. Complication development is not uncommon in cats following ESF placement. The higher complication rate in the femur, tarsus and radius/ulna should be considered when reviewing options for fracture management. However, cats appear to have a lower rate of pin tract infections than dogs.

  11. Prefrontal Cortex Networks Shift from External to Internal Modes during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    As we learn about items in our environment, their neural representations become increasingly enriched with our acquired knowledge. But there is little understanding of how network dynamics and neural processing related to external information changes as it becomes laden with “internal” memories. We sampled spiking and local field potential activity simultaneously from multiple sites in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HPC)—regions critical for sensory associations—of monkeys performing an object paired-associate learning task. We found that in the PFC, evoked potentials to, and neural information about, external sensory stimulation decreased while induced beta-band (∼11–27 Hz) oscillatory power and synchrony associated with “top-down” or internal processing increased. By contrast, the HPC showed little evidence of learning-related changes in either spiking activity or network dynamics. The results suggest that during associative learning, PFC networks shift their resources from external to internal processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT As we learn about items in our environment, their representations in our brain become increasingly enriched with our acquired “top-down” knowledge. We found that in the prefrontal cortex, but not the hippocampus, processing of external sensory inputs decreased while internal network dynamics related to top-down processing increased. The results suggest that during learning, prefrontal cortex networks shift their resources from external (sensory) to internal (memory) processing. PMID:27629722

  12. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  13. External Benefit Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power in China for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s renewable energy power has developed rapidly in recent years. Evaluating the external benefits of renewable energy power can provide a reference for the Chinese government to set diverse development goals and to implement differentiated supporting policies for different renewable energy power types, which can promote their sustainable development. In this paper, a hybrid MCDM method was applied to evaluate the external benefits of China’s renewable energy power. Firstly, the impacts of renewable energy power accessing the power grid for multiple stakeholders in the electric power system were analyzed. Secondly, the external benefit evaluation index system for renewable energy power was built from the economic, social and environmental factors, based on the concept of sustainability. Then, the basic theory of the hybrid MCDM method employed in this paper was introduced in two parts: the superiority linguistic ratings and entropy weighting method for index weight determination and the fuzzy grey relation analysis for ranking alternatives. Finally, the external benefits of wind power, solar PV power and biomass power were evaluated. Taking a regional electric power system as an example, the results show that PV power has the greatest external benefit, followed by wind power and biomass power. Therefore, more policies supporting PV power should be put in place to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of the whole renewable energy power industry.

  14. Assessment and exploitation of energy-related externalities in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.; Tourkolias, C.

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of alternative policy measures in reducing impacts from atmospheric pollution generated from industrial energy use. The evaluation procedure relies on the assessment of energy-related externalities by exploiting the methodology developed in the framework of the ExternE project. The analysis focuses on 2 industrial units located in the Greater Athens area and examines three types of abatement measures that can be used independently of the extent energy saving or end-of-pipe emission reduction measures are used: substitution of fuel oil with natural gas, relocation of the units several hundreds of kilometers far from Athens and increase of stack height in the same site. It results that the use of natural gas is by far the most effective among these measures, leading to a reduction of more than 90% of both local and regional damages. The relative effectiveness of the examined measures does not change if the significant uncertainties associated with the accounting procedure are taken into account, while inclusion of the external cost due to greenhouse gases emissions is further accentuating the advantages of natural gas. Moreover, it is shown that the quantifiable energy-related external costs of a single industrial product, may be very low compared to the corresponding private costs, but they sum up to significantly high damages to society if we take into account the total energy consumption in the industrial sector

  15. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  16. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Int Panis, L.; De Nocker, L.; Cornelis, E.; Torfs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO 2 . To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic

  17. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  19. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  20. The neural correlates of internal and external comparisons: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Xiang, Yanhui; Cant, Jonathan S; Wang, Tingting; Cupchik, Gerald; Huang, Ruiwang; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested that various comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the commonalities and differences between the internal comparison based on concepts or rules and the external comparison based on perception. In the present experiment, moral beauty comparison and facial beauty comparison were selected as the representatives of internal comparison and external comparison, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record brain activity while participants compared the level of moral beauty of two scene drawings containing moral acts or the level of facial beauty of two face photos. In addition, a physical size comparison task with the same stimuli as the beauty comparison was included. We observed that both the internal moral beauty comparison and external facial beauty comparison obeyed a typical distance effect and this behavioral effect recruited a common frontoparietal network involved in comparisons of simple physical magnitudes such as size. In addition, compared to external facial beauty comparison, internal moral beauty comparison induced greater activity in more advanced and complex cortical regions, such as the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, but weaker activity in the putamen, a subcortical region. Our results provide novel neural evidence for the comparative process and suggest that different comparisons may rely on both common cognitive processes as well as distinct and specific cognitive components.

  1. Internal phase transition induced by external forces in Finsler geometric model for membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Hiroshi; Shobukhov, Andrey

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we numerically study an anisotropic shape transformation of membranes under external forces for two-dimensional triangulated surfaces on the basis of Finsler geometry. The Finsler metric is defined by using a vector field, which is the tangential component of a three-dimensional unit vector σ corresponding to the tilt or some external macromolecules on the surface of disk topology. The sigma model Hamiltonian is assumed for the tangential component of σ with the interaction coefficient λ. For large (small) λ, the surface becomes oblong (collapsed) at relatively small bending rigidity. For the intermediate λ, the surface becomes planar. Conversely, fixing the surface with the boundary of area A or with the two-point boundaries of distance L, we find that the variable σ changes from random to aligned state with increasing of A or L for the intermediate region of λ. This implies that an internal phase transition for σ is triggered not only by the thermal fluctuations, but also by external mechanical forces. We also find that the frame (string) tension shows the expected scaling behavior with respect to A/N (L/N) at the intermediate region of A (L) where the σ configuration changes between the disordered and ordered phases. Moreover, we find that the string tension γ at sufficiently large λ is considerably smaller than that at small λ. This phenomenon resembles the so-called soft-elasticity in the liquid crystal elastomer, which is deformed by small external tensile forces.

  2. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  3. Externalities in solid waste managements: Values, instruments and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis was stimulated by and completed against the backdrop of the unfolding 'waste crisis'. It critically examines whether the crisis is real or whether it merely reflects mis-perceptions. Three principal problems associated with the disposal of solid waste are identified. First, there is increasing concern over the environmental pollution of waste disposal, reflecting not just the increase in actual waste arisings, but also the increased public awareness of environmental pollution. Secondly, there is concern over the financial costs of waste collection and disposal, which can constitute a considerable drain on available public revenues. Lastly, there is the perceived scarcity of suitable land for siting disposal facilities. Although some low-lying, densely populated regions are inappropriate for the sitting of landfills, the scarcity more often reflects political constraints rather than a genuine shortage. This thesis asserts that a non-optimal quantity of waste, together with the concomitant environmental pollution and financial costs of disposal, partly result from government failure. Current practice fails to ensure that the parties generating the waste face a price at the point of disposal and that such a price reflects the full social costs of disposal. A model is presented which argues that the socially optimal configuration of waste management is that where the marginal social costs of each waste treatment method equals those of the others. In an empirical section, the external costs of landfill, incineration, recycling and composting are estimated for the European Union, based on existing studies of damage costs for different pollutants. This is followed by estimations of the financial costs of municipal solid waste management. Combining financial and external cost estimates, a cost-benefit analysis of municipal solid waste management in the European Union is undertaken. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. External exposure from radionuclides in soil: analytical vs. simulation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Hugo; Rizzotto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    scattering, and pair-production processes. In this work both methodologies were applied to assess external irradiation due to 137 Cs and 40 K in sampling sites located along the Calabria and Basilicata regions coastal beaches (south of Italy). Mean values for the gamma dose rate were: 76 ± 30 n Gy h -1 . 137 Cs and 40 K deposition density in sand samples were determined for each sampling site (mean values 0.24 ± 0.22 kBq m 2 and 178 ± 88 kBq m 2 respectively). The dose rate associated with the 137 Cs content in sand was 0.16 ± 0.14 n Gy h -1 . (author)

  5. External costs of electricity; Les couts externes de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 75 (France); Spadaro, J.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  6. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  7. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  8. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  9. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  10. Spinning relativistic particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B

    2000-01-01

    The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)

  11. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  12. The MNC as an Externally Embedded Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2011-01-01

    MNCs have been conceptualized as differentiated networks that, in turn, are embedded in external networks. Previous research has predominantly focused on the embeddedness of established subsidiaries into their local environment, omitting to shed light on the phenomenon of headquarters linkages...... to the local context which creates embeddedness overlap. We develop a model of why MNCs develop overlapping linkages to local subsidiary networks even if the subsidiaries have grown out of the initial start-up phase. Using detailed information on 168 European subsidiaries, we find that MNCs build and maintain...... more overlapping network ties when subsidiaries are high performers, hold important resources, operate in turbulent environments, and are closely connected to multinational actors as opposed to purely domestic firms....

  13. External costs of electricity production under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Melchert, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short introduction into the problems and questions surrounding the issue of external costs Chapter 2 presents the most important results of the studies under review and analysis in this work. Occasionally, minor discrepancies were found between the results given in the summary of a study and the data reported in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3 identifies and discusses differences in perspective between the studies under consideration. Chapter 4 analyses the most important premises and parameters adopted in the studies for the calculation of overall costs and net benefits of the different modes of electricity production. This serves to probe the reliability of the data, plausibility of the premises, and nature of the presupposed relationships. Chapter 5 examines the relationships of time assumed in the studies and gives a first comment on the more advanced Prognos study. Chapter 6, finally, offers a summarizing evaluation. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  15. Charge collection in an external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wookey, C.W.; Somswasdi, B.; Rouse, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target

  16. Restenosis Prevention Using Photon External Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    During transluminal coronary angioplasty, the balloon procedure is designed to crush the plaque and to support the weakened arterial wall by using the stent (an expandable metallic mesh). This procedure often tears the arterial wall as well. Some of the cells in the blood vessel respond to this injury by initiating repair which often leads to restenosis (reclosing) of the artery. In many cases restenosis occur despite the stent which become incorporated into the poliferative tissue that form around the lesion. But if the lesion is treated with radiation (8-30 Gy) the restenosis effect is inhibited. In this paper, the Adjoint Monte Carlo (AMC) method is used for external radiation treatment planning of the stent volume (the volume covered by the stent during a full cardiac cycle), while minimizing the damage to the organs at risk (OAR) and surrounding healthy tissue

  17. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-11-11

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  18. Myxedema megacolon after external neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrie, M.J.; Cape, R.D.; Troster, M.M.; Fung, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Myxedema megacolon is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism. It may respond to appropriate treatment but is sometimes irreversible, resulting in fatal complications. Two possible mechanisms to explain the colonic atony include (1) myxomatous infiltration of the submucosa with separation of the muscular fibers from the ganglia of Auerbach's plexus, and (2) severe autonomic neuropathy affecting the extrinsic nerves to the colon and the myenteric plexus. Histology from our case supports the first proposed mechanism. Urecholine challenge and manometric measure response may help predict reversibility of colonic atony. Treatment should be individualized and should include factors such as age, duration of symptoms, and other medical illness. Low-dose oral or intravenous triiodothyronine is effective. Hypothyroidism following external radiation of the neck for lymphoma is not uncommon, and the risk increases following one or more lymphangiograms. Such patients should be followed up with regular TSH estimations for at least three years

  19. Treatment of acromegaly by external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, A.F.; Clarke, D.G.; Pambakian, H.; Lowy, C.; Sonksen, P.H.; Collins, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Despite hypophysectomy as the primary treatment in acromegaly, external radiotherapy maintains a role as a relatively slow but effective therapy for inadequately treated patients or those unsuitable for operation. Over the last 25 years the authors' regimen has differed from published series in that they give a larger dose per fraction, with fewer treatments. They have analysed the efficacy and side-effects of this regimen in 27 subjects with acromegaly. Growth hormone levels have fallen by, on average, 27% per year in the first five years, 83% of subjects achieving a basal growth hormone of <10mU/1. The acute and chronic side-effects of irradiation are discussed, including the relevance of estimates of biological potency, for example Time Dose Fraction (TDF). One patient suffered visual loss that was most likely to be secondary to the radiotherapy. Histological appearances of the pituitary fossa in five subjects previously treated with radiotherapy are reported. (author)

  20. Treatment of acromegaly by external irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, A.F.; Clarke, D.G.; Pambakian, H.; Lowy, C.; Sonksen, P.H.; Collins, C.D. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-03-01

    Despite hypophysectomy as the primary treatment in acromegaly, external radiotherapy maintains a role as a relatively slow but effective therapy for inadequately treated patients or those unsuitable for operation. Over the last 25 years the authors' regimen has differed from published series in that they give a larger dose per fraction, with fewer treatments. They have analysed the efficacy and side-effects of this regimen in 27 subjects with acromegaly. Growth hormone levels have fallen by, on average, 27% per year in the first five years, 83% of subjects achieving a basal growth hormone of <10mU/1. The acute and chronic side-effects of irradiation are discussed, including the relevance of estimates of biological potency, for example Time Dose Fraction (TDF). One patient suffered visual loss that was most likely to be secondary to the radiotherapy. Histological appearances of the pituitary fossa in five subjects previously treated with radiotherapy are reported. (author).